Science.gov

Sample records for formal outdoor learning

  1. Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

  2. Potential for Excellence: Interdisciplinary Learning Outdoors as a Moral Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Pete; Carr, David; Meldrum, George

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the place and status of outdoor learning within formal schooling. In light of recent British outdoor educational trends, it considers the general educational significance of outdoor learning in the context of the recent Scottish "Curriculum for Excellence". The article begins with an overview of some key educational…

  3. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  4. Cooperative Learning and Outdoor/Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This newsletter contains 14 items on cooperative learning and outdoor education, with a particular focus on environmental education and ecology. "Cooperative Teaching/Learning Strategies and Objectives in Outdoor/Environmental Education" by Clifford E. Knapp is about cooperative teaching and learning strategies in outdoor education and emphasizes…

  5. Learning "In" and "For" the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses outdoor education to improve student participation and learning in skill and subject areas. Relates outdoor education to constructivism, flexible scheduling, hands-on experiences, performance-based standards, multiple intelligences, cooperative learning, and interdisciplinary curriculum. Lists Web sites related to outdoor education. (DLH)

  6. Outdoor Play and Learning: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burriss, Kathleen; Burriss, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes national school district policy and practice regarding elementary school children's outdoor learning and play. District representatives from 173 randomly selected school districts completed questionnaires describing policy and practice related to recess, outdoor play, outdoor curricular studies, playground materials, ADA…

  7. Outdoor Education and Experiential Learning in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter, Ed.; Humberstone, Barbara, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers that describe a spectrum of experiential and outdoor education opportunities in the United Kingdom. The first section focuses on provision of outdoor education in schools, colleges, and outdoor education centers, drawing on formal curricula, including the British national curriculum. The second section examines outdoor

  8. Learning from Examples in Unstructured, Outdoor Environments

    E-print Network

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    ) as well as focus on two different operational aspects of the navigation tasks (learning at the perception. In particular, we present a framework for integrating learning into a standard, hybrid navigation strategy a situation in which a human operator is driving a robot through an unknown outdoor environment. One can

  9. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  10. Outdoor Education and Environmental (Make that Nature) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor education cannot "not" be about nature learning. Just as David Orr (1992) says that all education is environmental education, so too all outdoor education teaches something about the natural world--either that it matters or that it doesn't. According to the Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario (COEO), "outdoor education directly exposes…

  11. Student Learning in Outdoor Education: A Case Study from the National Outdoor Leadership School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Karen; Furman, Nathan; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

    2008-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to what students learn in outdoor education settings, little has been paid to the process through which that learning occurs. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which students report learning one of six targeted objectives on courses offered by the National Outdoor Leadership School.…

  12. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and posttests, progressive self-assessments, and ethnographic observations. Since I argue that the idea of learning from experience is underspecified, I present empirical findings to show that experience per se is not enough. I discuss tools and other artifacts that help learners notice key dimensions of their experiences, and demonstrate how they link these to other aspects of their culture and lives. Findings indicate that a mediated approach does in fact help students outperform participants who only received the experience. A time for telling was also advantageous for students to improve learning and using technology to reduce cognitive load was instrumental in further improving their learning. Future plans are discussed to follow up on these findings and to implement new tests as the dams are removed and the natural habitat is restored.

  13. Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

    2013-01-01

    This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

  14. Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2011-01-01

    Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced learning in…

  15. Enhancing Children's Outdoor Learning Experiences with a Mobile Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikala, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how a mobile learning application can enhance children's outdoor learning experiences. The study draws upon empirical evidence gathered in one case study conducted in a Finnish primary school setting in the fall of 2012. The data were collected with student and teacher surveys. The case study indicated that the mobile…

  16. Planning an Outdoor Learning Environment for a Small School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Developed to provide an outdoor learning environment for a small school which had relatively undeveloped grounds, these plans are aimed toward providing: physical activity (climbing, running, jumping, and games); imaginative activity; social learning; environmental study; mathematics and science; exploring materials, e.g., water and soil; and the…

  17. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  18. Inclusion through Access to Outdoor Education: Learning in Motion (LIM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Learning in Motion (LIM) was a European project involving seven partners in five countries: Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Germany and Greece. The project focused on inclusion and access to outdoor education and was financed by the European Commission within the framework of the Socrates-Grundtvig Programme. The aim of the project was to explore if and…

  19. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    2010-01-01

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

  20. Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

  1. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  2. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  3. MOOC & B-Learning: Students' Barriers and Satisfaction in Formal and Non-Formal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gámiz-Sánchez, Vanesa-M.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The study presents a comparative analysis of two virtual learning formats: one non-formal through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and the other formal through b-learning. We compare the communication barriers and the satisfaction perceived by the students (N = 249) by developing a qualitative analysis using semi-structured questionnaires and…

  4. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  5. Learning Compact 3d Models of Indoor and Outdoor Environments with a Mobile Robot

    E-print Network

    Teschner, Matthias

    Learning Compact 3d Models of Indoor and Outdoor Environments with a Mobile Robot Dirk H¨ahnel 1 reconstruction of indoor and outdoor environments with mobile robots. Data is acquired with laser range finders experiments, our method is shown to produce accurate models of indoor and outdoor environments that compare

  6. An Introduction to the Constraints-Led Approach to Learning in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brymer, Eric; Renshaw, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Participation in outdoor education is underpinned by a learner's ability to acquire skills in activities such as canoeing, bushwalking and skiing and consequently the outdoor leader is often required to facilitate skill acquisition and motor learning. As such, outdoor leaders might benefit from an appropriate and tested model on how the learner…

  7. Learning Conditions for Non-Formal and Informal Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…

  8. Cultivating Lived-Body Consciousness: Enhancing Cognition and Emotion through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm; Marshall, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Through using school-based outdoor learning as the research context, the paper analyses the connections between bodily experiences and the embodied mind. Recent theorizing in outdoor learning, in reflecting phenomenology and Deweyian influences, has teased out how the relationships between the self, others and nature (environment) can be extended…

  9. Students' Imaginings of Spaces of Learning in Outdoor and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lou

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I interrogate students' stories about the spaces and places in a tertiary Outdoor and Environmental Education course that support and shape their environmental ethics. Drawing on a longitudinal qualitative study, I explore the ways in which particular sites of learning (outdoor, practical learning) are privileged and how…

  10. The Place and Approach of Outdoor Learning within a Holistic Curricular Agenda: Development of Singaporean Outdoor Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atencio, Matthew; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Ho, Susanna; Ching, Chew Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the potential contribution of outdoor education (OE) in Singaporean education given the recent raft of national curricular reforms aimed at fostering holistic and exploratory learning opportunities. In this context, we contend that increasing recognition of the value of OE, both internationally and locally, heralds specific…

  11. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning

  12. Improving Learner Outcomes in Lifelong Education: Formal Pedagogies in Non-Formal Learning Contexts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how far research findings about successful pedagogies in formal post-school education might be used in non-formal learning contexts--settings where learning may not lead to formal qualifications. It does this by examining a learner outcomes model adapted from a synthesis of research into retention. The article first…

  13. Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

  14. Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning

    E-print Network

    Gibson, J. Paul

    throughout the whole curriculum. We propose a problem-based learning approach[1] (PBL)as the best way formal methods, summarise the learning theory that lies behind problem-based learning (PBL), review PBL

  15. Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors

  16. The Hidden Turmoil: Females Achieving Longevity in the Outdoor Learning Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    Being a woman in the outdoor learning profession can bring distinctive challenges and roadblocks. Even more difficult is sustaining a life-long career, flourishing into a woman's 50s or 60s. Based on this premise, career longevity seems elusive for some women who aspire to work in the outdoors. This paper analyses the autobiographies of three…

  17. The Place of Experience and the Experience of Place: Intersections between Sustainability Education and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Allen

    2013-01-01

    As social, economic and environmental issues have become more prominent in the 21st century, there has been increased critical scrutiny into the ways that outdoor learning interacts with sustainability issues and concepts. As a result, a number of discourses have emerged which interrogate human/nature relationships in traditional outdoor education…

  18. How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…

  19. Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors. Workshop of the University of New Hampshire Outdoor Education Program (Durham, New Hampshire, March 5, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Michael A.

    A collection of information from the "Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors" workshop provides brief summaries of each workshop session along with lists of human, community, and bibliographical resources available to outdoor education practitioners, the workshop itinerary, and promotional brochures. The 18 workshop topics included: expedition…

  20. A systemic examination of the introduction of an outdoor learning-based science curriculum to students, their teacher, and the school principal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunker, Molly Louis

    The outdoor environment has been under-utilized as a legitimate setting for learning within the formal school context, resulting in few examples of curriculum materials that integrate the indoors and outdoors. This systemic problem is explored holistically through investigation of key sets of players in the school system. The overarching research question is "What is the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences within the school system?" I developed an eight-week Earth systems science unit grounded in research-based design principles. One teacher enacted the unit with 111 sixth graders, whose learning gains and perspectives of the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences were explored using a mixed-methods approach in a pre-post study design, including individual interviews, and instruments regarding students' perspectives of the outdoor component of the curricular enactment. I conducted six interviews with the participating teacher and one interview with the school principal, to explore their perspectives of the role of outdoor learning experiences, and their personal roles in the unit. The main finding from this study was that the outdoor component of the curriculum enhanced coherence---connectedness across science concepts, activities, and learning environments. Higher ability students were more aware of connections than lower ability students. Field experiences were seen as a tool for learning, and all students achieved substantial learning gains. The teacher viewed the role of the outdoor experiences as a way to engage students, and promote connections across the unit through firsthand and relevant experiences. The school principal viewed his role as supporting teachers in their practice and encouraging risk-taking and creativity in instructional approaches. This study is a valuable contribution to the field as it (1) identifies outdoor learning experiences as one way to enhance intraunit coherence, and (2) highlights variations in students' awareness of coherence while examining the teacher's experience. I discuss potential revisions to improve the curriculum based on the findings from the students, teacher, principal, and external curriculum evaluation. These data indicate a need for greater support for teachers to help all students make coherent connections across the unit, and to take account of students' developing ideas.

  1. Lessons Learned in Game Development for Crowdsourced Software Formal Verification

    E-print Network

    Ernst, Michael

    Lessons Learned in Game Development for Crowdsourced Software Formal Verification Drew Dean, SRI International Sean Guarino, Charles River Analytics Leonard Eusebi, Charles River Analytics Andrew Keplinger

  2. Rural Camp School Eco Learn--Outdoor Education in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeds, Pia; Jeronen, Eila; Kurppa, Sirpa; Vieraankivi, Marja-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor education in rural and agricultural surroundings offers many possibilities for learning and studying different school subjects as well as teaching. This study aims to explore the development of an educational rural camp school, Eco Learn, and to investigate pupils' expectations and experiences and teachers' experiences of carrying out the…

  3. Location Based Services for Outdoor Ecological Learning System: Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Feng, Ruei-Ting; Li, Kun Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate how location-based services were implemented in ubiquitous outdoor ecological learning system. In an elementary school in northern Taiwan, two fifth grade classes on an ecology project were randomly selected: The experimental group could access the ecological learning system on hand-held devices while the control…

  4. Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.

  5. Formal and Non-Formal Digital Practices: Institutionalizing Transactional Learning Spaces in a Media Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how a classroom procedure known as PGE (Plan/Go-through/Evaluate) group work aims at integrating formal and non-formal media experiences and practices into classroom-based media learning. The study displays, on the one hand, how PGE group work emerged and was institutionally embedded in a media course. On the other hand, the…

  6. Beyond the Physical--Spriritual Values and Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Ongoing discussions about spiritual awareness and values in British outdoor education address their role in helping adolescents develop a strong positive identity; definition of values and spirituality; and assessment of client needs, especially with respect to cultural differences. Collaboration with the fields of transpersonal psychology and…

  7. Learning from Leisure: Developing Nature Connectedness in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgriff, Marg

    2011-01-01

    The "greening" of outdoor education has received increasing attention from educators in Aotearoa-New Zealand and internationally. Given contemporary global concerns about the scale of environmental issues and the associated recognition that educating for sustainability is a matter of urgency, the continuing exploration of pedagogies promoting…

  8. Formalizing Triggers: A Learning Model for Finite Spaces

    E-print Network

    Niyogi, Partha

    1993-11-01

    In a recent seminal paper, Gibson and Wexler (1993) take important steps to formalizing the notion of language learning in a (finite) space whose grammars are characterized by a finite number of parameters. They introduce ...

  9. "Did You Enjoy Your Holiday?" Can Residential Outdoor Learning Benefit Mainstream Schooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Beth; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there is a long tradition of residential outdoor learning provision, but to date there is limited research evidence for the direct educational benefits of such experiences, and to both critics and supporters the distinction between such visits and "holidays in school time" is not always apparent. This paper…

  10. Young Children and Educators Engagement and Learning Outdoors: A Basis for Rights-Based Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Elliot, Enid

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article reports on a study undertaken with 4 early childhood programs in a medium-size city in Canada investigating young children's and educators' perspectives on engagement and learning possibilities outdoors. A rights-based methodology including participant observations and interactive activities with children as well as…

  11. The Interplay of Space, Place and Identity: Transforming Our Learning Experiences in an Outdoor Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Alice L. E. V.; Wright, W. Alan; Strean, William B.; Watson, Gavan P. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we use a day-long professional development workshop for higher education faculty conducted in an outdoor setting as the starting point for an examination of the value of such activities. We explore the potential benefits, in terms of learning and holistic well-being, of educational activities designed to provide participants with…

  12. A Comparison between Children's Physical Activity Levels at School and Learning in an Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mygind, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity levels were measured with an accelerometer in a case study including 19 children, from nine to ten years of age, in a Danish primary school. The teachers conducted their teaching in a forest every Thursday from 2000 to 2003. The purpose of this study was to measure the students' activity levels during outdoor learning days in the…

  13. High School Teachers' Experience of the Educational Potential of Outdoor Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    This is a longitudinal case study where teachers from different disciplines were interviewed before and after an outdoor teaching project in a Swedish junior high school. The school grounds were used regularly as an area for teaching and learning in different subjects. The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers from different…

  14. Greening the Net Generation: Outdoor Adult Learning in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning today takes place primarily within walled classrooms or in other indoor settings, and often in front of various types of digital screens. As adults have adopted the digital technologies and indoor lifestyle attributed to the so-called "Net Generation," we have become detached from contact with the natural world outdoors.…

  15. Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…

  16. School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

  17. The Slow Death of Formal Learning: A Polemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, David; Gubbins, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, approaches to education and training have become more informal, situated, outcome focused and experiential. Within this context, formal learning now plays a greatly diminished role, being supplanted by activity-based and technologically-based learning. This article, structured in the form of a polemic challenges readers to…

  18. Space Matters: The Impact of Formal Learning Environments on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to identify the relationship between formal learning spaces and student learning outcomes. Using a quasi-experimental design, researchers partnered with an instructor who taught identical sections of the same course in two radically different formal learning environments to isolate the impact of the physical…

  19. Formal, nonformal and informal learning: Some North-South contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Kenneth

    1982-06-01

    It is argued that in the countries both of the South and of the North, inadequate attention has been given to the interactive dimensions of informal and formal learning. The differences between informal and formal learning have often been stressed in the past, but it is equally important to acknowledge the critical similarities as far as individual motivation and interest in learning are concerned. Before erecting new models for the integration of all three modes of learning, formal, nonformal and informal, into a system, it should be noticed that they already constitute a single comprehensive system — at least for the middle-class child. The problem in both the North and the South is often that the individual's learning is unsupported by any strong infrastructure of informal or nonformal education. This can happen in the industrialised countries, where the resources for informal learning are rich and varied, as well as in the developing world, where all too often the formal school has to operate without the support of a rich environment of literacy and learning.

  20. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  1. Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal: an out-door full-scale learning tool newly equipped with augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, A. H.; Schnepel, O.; Kraft, P.; Houska, T.; Plesca, I.; Orlowski, N.; Breuer, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses education and communication in hydrology and geosciences. Many approaches can be used, such as the well-known seminars, modelling exercises and practical field work but out-door learning in our discipline is a must, and this paper focuses on the recent development of a new out-door learning tool at the landscape scale. To facilitate improved teaching and hands-on experience, we designed the Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal. Equipped with field instrumentation, education trails, and geocache, we now implemented an augmented reality App, adding virtual teaching objects on the real landscape. The App development is detailed, to serve as methodology for people wishing to implement such a tool. The resulting application, namely the Schwingbachtal App, is described as an example. We conclude that such an App is useful for communication and education purposes, making learning pleasant, and offering personalized options.

  2. Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Paul

    The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

  3. Sunship Earth: An Acclimatization Program for Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    This book describes a 5-day program of imaginative activities designed to help elementary school children learn how their world functions through seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and hearing. The book is designed to help children understand energy flow, the cycles of basic materials, the diversity of life, natural communities, change,…

  4. Landscapes for Learning: Creating Outdoor Environments for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Sharon

    The purpose of this book is to help designers and teachers think about the quality of outside school environments as learning places. The first chapter defines the players' roles as: (1) the designer, a maker of school form; (2) the teacher, the maintainer of the environment; and (3) the child, who is a major force in the use of the space. These…

  5. The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

  6. Strategies for Social Learning: Testing Predictions from Formal Theory

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Strategies for Social Learning: Testing Predictions from Formal Theory Bennett G. Galef department evaluating the strategies proposed by theoretical models.'' Animals can acquire adaptive information either directly, as a result of their own personal experience of the consequences of engaging in alter- native

  7. Other Ways of Learning: Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning in School and Youth Work. Proceedings of the European Congress for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning (4th, Rimforsa, Sweden, September 9-13, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    A European conference convened 90 participants from 14 countries to consider "other ways of learning," such as experiential methods and aesthetic-sensual perception, which have been marginalized by the overemphasis on instrumental rationality in our societies and schools. This proceedings presents 18 papers and paper abstracts on outdoor

  8. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the self-determination theory, therefore, we used a group-based, hands-on learning environment. To address this questions, we used a treatment—control design (BACI) with different treatments and a control group. Pre-, post- and retention tests were applied. All treatments led to a substantial increase of learning and retention knowledge compared to the control group. Immediately after the zoo visit, the zoo-guide tour provided the highest scores, while after a delay of 6 weeks, the learner-centered environment combined with a teacher-guided summarizing scored best. We suggest incorporating the zoo as an out-of-school environment into formal school learning, and we propose different methods to improve learning in zoo settings.

  9. Socio-Technical Dimensions of an Outdoor Mobile Learning Environment: A Three-Phase Design-Based Research Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Susan M.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey

    2015-01-01

    This design-based research project examines three iterations of Tree Investigators, a learning environment designed to support science learning outdoors at an arboretum and nature center using mobile devices (iPads). Researchers coded videorecords and artifacts created by children and parents (n = 53) to understand how both social and…

  10. Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

  11. Outdoor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

    2011-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

  12. New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

  13. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  14. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  15. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  16. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-07-19

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the 'artificial grammar-learning' paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  17. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  18. A Comparative Study of the Impacts and Students' Perceptions of Indoor and Outdoor Learning in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhanapal, Saroja; Lim, Cally Cheng Yee

    2013-01-01

    The increasing awareness among educators around the world on the specialities of indoor and outdoor learning in enhancing students' academic performance and development of skills and attitudes influenced the purposes and background of this research study (Fagerstam, 2012; Jordet, 2010; Martin, 2010; Rickinson et al., 2004). Two key purposes…

  19. Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

  20. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  1. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  2. Revealing the Interactional Features of Learning and Teaching Moments in Outdoor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Jane; Bateman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The data considered in this article was generated as part of a doctoral research study entitled: "A sociocultural consideration of child-initiated interaction with teachers in indoor and outdoor spaces" (Waters 2011) where child-initiated, teacher-child interaction in indoor and outdoor spaces were investigated. The purpose of the…

  3. Enough of Ronald and Mickey: Focusing on Learning in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon; Brown, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years ago Loynes expressed concern that market-place values were detrimentally impacting on the provision of outdoor education experiences. As tertiary educators with an interest in the impact of globalization on outdoor education, we have sought to extend Loynes' use of McDonaldization by drawing on Bryman's conceptual framework…

  4. Learning Outdoor Recreation Skills in a Safe Place: Lessons from a Single-Sex Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Deb

    Participants in a weekend outdoor recreation program for women completed surveys on the reasons women participate in single-sex outdoor workshops. The 100 responding participants were primarily White, middle-class, highly educated, and between the ages of 18 and "over 55." The top 10 reasons for participating in the workshop are given, with the…

  5. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  6. The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning

  7. Architecture for environmental learning : a National Outdoor Leadership School in Baja, Mexico

    E-print Network

    Galyean, Taylor

    1994-01-01

    An understanding of people, program, and place establishes a foundation from which to make architectural decisions. The focus of this thesis is to understand the needs of those involved in an outdoor education school in ...

  8. Science Class Moves Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Mary Anna

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Corporate Lands for Learning (CLL) program whose goal is to improve environmental education opportunities for students of all ages. Highlights the range of hands-on outdoor programs available for students. (JRH)

  9. Integrating Formal and Grounded Representations in Combinatorics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The terms "concreteness fading" and "progressive formalization" have been used to describe instructional approaches to science and mathematics that use grounded representations to introduce concepts and later transition to more formal representations of the same concepts. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to…

  10. The Lifelong Learning Iceberg of Information Systems Academics--A Study of On-Going Formal and Informal Learning by Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Bill; Tatnall, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a study that examined the lifelong learning of information systems academics in relation to their normal work. It begins by considering the concept of lifelong learning, its relationship to real-life learning and that lifelong learning should encompass the whole spectrum of formal, non-formal and informal learning. Most…

  11. Non-Formal Education, Out-of-School Learning Needs and Employment Opportunities: Evidence from Mali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyer, Frederique

    2009-01-01

    Non-formal education (NFE) is now considered as playing a critical role in the achievement of the objective of Education for All, by reaching the learning needs of youth and adults who do not have access to formal education, increasing their employment opportunities and therefore contributing to poverty alleviation. Yet there is still insufficient…

  12. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor

  13. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  14. Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Learning in Formal and Informal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groobman, David E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Traditional measures of academic performance, attitudes, expectations, self-esteem, and learning transfer were compared at formal and informal schools. Informal school students showed more positive attitudes toward school and teachers and greater transfer of training of learning to nonschool settings. No differences were found for academic…

  15. Attitudes to Formal Business Training and Learning amongst Entrepreneurs in the Cultural Industries: Situated Business Learning through "Doing with Others."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Carlo; O'Connor, Justin; Lovatt, Andy; Banks, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Presents arguments supporting a social model of learning linked to situated learning and cultural capital. Critiques training methods used in cultural industries (arts, publishing, broadcasting, design, fashion, restaurants). Uses case study evidence to demonstrates inadequacies of formal training in this sector. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  16. Recognition, Accreditation and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Prospects for Lifelong Learning in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2009-01-01

    This study was an exploration on the various issues related to recognition, accreditation and validation of non-formal and informal learning to open up avenues for lifelong learning and continuing education in Nepal. The perceptions, experiences, and opinions of Nepalese Development Activists, Educational Administrators, Policy Actors and…

  17. Schoolyard Enhanced Learning: Using the Outdoors as an Instructional Tool, K-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    This book shows how the school grounds, whether urban, suburban, or rural, can become an enriching extension of the classroom. The author blends theory and practice, providing readers with teacher-tested suggestions and activities for using the outdoors. The book offers step-by-step guidance to help ensure success when teachers take a class…

  18. A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

    Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

  19. Nature and Well-Being in Outdoor Learning: Authenticity or Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we look at the ways in which the experience of the natural environment was made available to the pupils and the types of activities provided for specific engagement with the local natural environment. It draws upon research undertaken for the Well-being and Outdoor Pedagogies project and previous PhD research. These projects explored…

  20. Facilitating Place-Based Learning in Outdoor Informal Environments with Mobile Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Land, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper advocates for place-based education to guide research and design for mobile computers used in outdoor informal environments (e.g., backyards, nature centers and parks). By bringing together research on place-based education with research on location awareness, we developed three design guidelines to support learners to develop robust…

  1. Supporting Whole-Child Learning in Nature-Filled Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Susan; Rosenow, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    "Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts." This much-repeated quote speaks eloquently to the kinds of life-enhancing skills children develop when they interact with caring adults in thoughtfully designed nature-filled outdoor classrooms. As a network of these classrooms springs…

  2. Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

  3. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

    2012-01-01

    In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

  4. The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wistoft, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

  5. Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles J.

    2012-11-01

    A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.

  6. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor

  7. Computational neural learning formalisms for manipulator inverse kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulati, Sandeep; Barhen, Jacob; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    1989-01-01

    An efficient, adaptive neural learning paradigm for addressing the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the infinite local stability of terminal attractors - a new class of mathematical constructs which provide unique information processing capabilities to artificial neural systems. For robotic applications, synaptic elements of such networks can rapidly acquire the kinematic invariances embedded within the presented samples. Subsequently, joint-space configurations, required to follow arbitrary end-effector trajectories, can readily be computed. In a significant departure from prior neuromorphic learning algorithms, this methodology provides mechanisms for incorporating an in-training skew to handle kinematics and environmental constraints.

  8. The Substance Beneath the Labels of Experiential Learning: The Importance of John Dewey for Outdoor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ord, Jon; Leather, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper recommends a reconceptualisation of "experience learning". It is premised on a belief that the simplistic learning cycle is problematic and moreover is an oversimplified interpretation of Kolb's original model of experiential learning. We argue that to understand experiential learning fully a return to the original theoretical…

  9. Neuroeconomics: a formal test of dopamine's role in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Eric E J

    2014-04-14

    Over the last two decades, dopamine and reinforcement learning have been increasingly linked. Using a novel, axiomatic approach, a recent study shows that dopamine meets the necessary and sufficient conditions required by the theory to encode a reward prediction error. PMID:24735856

  10. What Would You Like? Identifying the Required Characteristics of an Industry-Wide Incident Reporting and Learning System for the Led Outdoor Activity Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Natassia; Finch, Caroline F.; Cassell, Erin; Lenne, Michael G.; Salmon, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics that led outdoor activity providers agree are necessary for the development of a new industry-wide incident reporting and learning system (UPLOADS). The study involved: 1) a literature review to identify a set of characteristics that are considered to be hallmarks of successful reporting…

  11. Skill Instruction in Outdoor Leadership: A Comparison of a Direct Instruction Model and a Discovery-Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses of two different approaches to teaching motor skills to students in outdoor education and outdoor recreation settings. Using acronyms to describe their stages: DEDICT is a six step, direct instructional model that some outdoor leaders may already be familiar with; and FERAL is my…

  12. Learning Goal Orientation, Formal Mentoring, and Leadership Competence in HRD: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyoung

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest a conceptual model of formal mentoring as a leadership development initiative including "learning goal orientation", "mentoring functions", and "leadership competencies" as key constructs of the model. Design/methodology/approach: Some empirical studies, though there are not many, will provide…

  13. Qualitative Parameters for Evaluation Procedures of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Kaminskiene, Lina

    2009-01-01

    The article introduces evaluation principles of non-formal and informal learning that determine the quality of evaluation, describes stages of the evaluation procedure, differentiates their qualitative parameters and defines their criteria and indicators. It also brings in the discussion that consideration of qualitative parameters for the…

  14. Job Requirements and Workers' Learning: Formal Gaps, Informal Closure, Systemic Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that formal educational attainments increasingly exceed the educational job requirements of the employed labour force in many advanced market economies--a phenomenon variously termed "underemployment", "underutilisation", or "overqualification". Conversely, both experiential learning and workplace case studies suggest…

  15. Oral Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Formal Instruction and Study Abroad Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Joan C.; Valls-Ferrer, Margalida

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the differential effects of two learning contexts, formal instruction (FI) at home and a study abroad period (SA), on the oral production skills of advanced-level Catalan-Spanish undergraduate learners of English. Speech samples elicited through an interview at three data collection times over a 2-year period were…

  16. Mobile City and Language Guides--New Links between Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo-Kristensen, Mads; Ankerstjerne, Niels Ole; Neutzsky-Wulff, Chresteria; Schelde, Herluf

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in second and foreign language education, is to create links between formal and informal learning environments. Mobile City and Language Guides present examples of theoretical and practical reflections on such links. This paper presents and discusses the first considerations of Mobile City and Language Guides in…

  17. Assessing, Recognising and Certifying Informal and Non-Formal Learning (ARCNIL): Evolution and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetlik, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying non-formal and informal knowledge may be a consequence of separating education and training from other social and economic activities. Specialisation and formalisation of education and training both aim to increase learning efficiency. In the emerging knowledge society, this has attracted particular attention among researchers and…

  18. Formal Measures of Learning in a Secondary School Mobile Robotics Course

    E-print Network

    Formal Measures of Learning in a Secondary School Mobile Robotics Course Illah R. Nourbakhsh, Emily Hamner The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, USA {illah, etf Pittsburgh, USA {crowleyk+, kaw16+}@pitt.edu Abstract--During the summer of 2002, Robotic Autonomy was taught

  19. Using CALL in a Formal Learning Context to Develop Oral Language Awareness in ESL: An Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent-Durroux, Laurence; Poussard, Cecile; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Aparicio, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    French learners at university meet difficulties in the comprehension of oral English. Being in a formal context of language learning, they need to develop language awareness to compensate for insufficient exposure to the English language. To meet the students' needs, data was collected in order to pinpoint the main errors made by French learners…

  20. Leadership in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Perspectives of Academics in Non-Formal Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Klopper, Hester C.; Warland, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Developing leaders and leadership are key factors to improve learning and teaching in higher education. Despite the abundance of literature concerning developing formal leadership, fewer studies have been conducted with academics in non-formal leadership roles that focus on how they develop their leadership in learning and teaching. Publication…

  1. Learning in the Second Half of the Career: Stimulating and Prohibiting Reasons for Participation in Formal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Michielsen, Maya; Van Nooten, Leen; Nijs, Sanne; Baert, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that, as workers age, their participation in education and training declines, which is a problem in our fast changing society and economy. This study focuses on the stimulating and prohibiting reasons for participation in formal learning activities. It investigates whether employees in the second half of their career differ…

  2. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-08-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  3. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  4. Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Barbara P.

    This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests and questions raised during visits to informal settings. Consequently teachers noted their students were better able to connect to traditional elements of school as a result of their informal experiences. Personal growth of students was also a major area of change. Increases in self-esteem, fieldtrip and classroom participation, as well as improved classroom behavior were reported and observed and improved the way the classroom functioned.

  5. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  6. Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony

    Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

  7. Guidelines for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds and Grenville County Board of Education, Brockville (Ontario).

    The outdoor education program detailed in this document is envisaged as permeating the total elementary/secondary curriculum to study natural topics in natural settings and to promote respect for and appreciation of the natural environment, perception of total environment as a learning area, perception of the interrelationship of all living…

  8. Outdoor Ecology School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

  9. Outdoor Classrooms--Planning Makes Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however, the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum…

  10. Financial literacy among Turkish college students: the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental teaching.

    PubMed

    Akben-Selcuk, Elif; Altiok-Yilmaz, Ayse

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed financial literacy and its correlates among Turkish college students, with special emphasis on the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental influences. Financial literacy was measured by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey, which assesses knowledge in four areas: general financial management, saving and borrowing, insurance, and investing. 853 Turkish university students were administered the survey (416 men, 437 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 0.6). The mean percentage of correct responses was 45% (SD = 12.8%). Regression results showed that formal finance education in college, a deep approach to learning, and direct financial teaching by parents were significantly associated with higher financial literacy scores. PMID:25153844

  11. Formal to Informal Learning with IT: Research Challenges and Issues for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of clarity and consistency, the term e-learning is used throughout the paper to refer to technology-enhanced learning and information technology (IT) in teaching and learning. IT depicts computing and other IT resources. Research into e-learning has changed in focus and breadth over the last four decades as a consequence of…

  12. Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

  13. Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

    2007-01-01

    A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

  14. Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

  15. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  16. Handbook for Students, Teachers and Parents. BOCES/SCOPE Outdoor Learning Laboratory at Sunken Meadow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long Island State Park and Recreation Commission, NY.

    Since 1971 a fully equipped learning laboratory building and the open fields, woodlands, salt water marshes, and beaches of Sunken Meadow State Park have been available for year round day use by students and educators in New York's Suffolk and Nassau counties. Funded by the New York Office of Parks and Recreation and local Boards of Cooperative…

  17. Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

  18. Try This! Imitation and Copying in the Outdoor Learning World of Sea Kayaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnussen, Leif Inge

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between sea kayakers and their socio-cultural environment to explore the use of copying and imitation as learning strategies. The research involved ethnographic fieldwork conducted in sea kayak communities of south-eastern parts of Norway, between late autumn 2006 until the fall of 2008. Some of the key…

  19. Outdoor Learning Can Help Children Flourish in Science and across the Curriculum--The FSC Takes a Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Hannah; Kempton, Anneke

    2014-01-01

    The recent explosive growth of the Wild Network, which exists to champion and support connection with nature and wildness in children and young people, suggests that there is a groundswell of support for getting young people outdoors. Hannah Rose and Anneke Kempton of the Field Studies Council (FSC) explain why the outdoors is such an important…

  20. Multiple Modes in Corporate Learning: Propelling Business IQ with Formal, Informal and Social Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, John; Ogilvie, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing that the shifting corporate environment is placing ever greater stresses on learning organizations, this paper reports how companies are increasingly offering employees a wide choice of learning options beyond conventional classroom training, including online, social learning, and other modalities in "blended" programs. Identifying a…

  1. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

  2. Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Connie L.

    Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

  3. Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

    Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

  4. Semi-Formal Learning Communities for Professional Development in Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Pettit, John

    2008-01-01

    A major barrier to the uptake and integration of mobile technologies in teaching and learning is the lack of personal experience of mobile learning on the part of those involved in teaching and in the preparation of materials and methods of learner support. Our project addressed this by introducing 40 academic and support staff to the use of…

  5. Making Learning Visible: Identification, Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens

    Policies and practices in the areas of identification, assessment, and recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union (EU) were reviewed. The review focused on national and EU-level experiences regarding the following areas and issues: recognition of the contextual nature of learning; identification of methodological requirements for…

  6. Youth Clubs as Spaces of Non-Formal Learning: Professional Idealism Meets the Spatiality Experienced by Young People in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilakoski, Tomi; Kivijärvi, Antti

    2015-01-01

    For many young people, youth clubs constitute a key instrument for learning outside the school curriculum. In this article, we scrutinise Finnish youth clubs empirically as spaces of non-formal learning from the perspectives of both professional youth workers and young people themselves. We propose that youth workers tend to present an educational…

  7. Stop Making Sense: The Outdoors as Art. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Applied outdoor experiences may be seen as theater and, as such, can allow a more flexible, integrative approach to outdoor learning. Both the arts (particularly theater) and outdoor experiential learning contain nine common elements, including elements of working with groups, and personal and transpersonal components of experience. Three…

  8. Formalizing dependency directed backtracking and explanation based learning in refinement search

    SciTech Connect

    Kambhampati, S.

    1996-12-31

    The ideas of dependency directed backtracking (DDB) and explanation based learning (EBL) have developed independently in constraint satisfaction, planning and problem solving communities. In this paper, I formalize and unify these ideas under the task-independent framework of refinement search, which can model the search strategies used in both planning and constraint satisfaction. I show that both DDB and EBL depend upon the common theory of explaining search failures, and regressing them to higher levels of the search tree. The relevant issues of importance include (a) how the failures are explained and (b) how many failure explanations are remembered. This task-independent understanding of DDB and EBL helps support cross-fertilization of ideas among Constraint Satisfaction, Planning and Explanation-Based Learning communities.

  9. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  10. Outdoor Cooking. 

    E-print Network

    Douglas, Jenoyce; Reasonover, Frances

    1967-01-01

    Barbecued Meats ...................................................... 9 SKEWER COOKERY .................................................. 10 ................................ ALUMINUM FOIL COOKERY 11 ..................................... OTHER OUTDOOR... with long-handled tonpr. Fit the lid on tightly. Set the bucket aside to cool out of the reach of children. The charcoal will be dry and ready for use at the next cookout. Do not use lighter fluids on a fire. Use only approved charcoal lighter fluids...

  11. The effects of a formal notebook on learning achievement of tenth grade biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Sabine Korpus

    Despite the national agenda for achieving scientific literacy for all American students, there appears to be a paucity of research on the role of writing and, more specifically, on the organization of students' notes. The use of student notebooks as an ongoing record of both the process function and product function of notetaking has received little attention in the American research literature reviewed. The purposes of this study were to investigate if (a) the use of a formal notebook has a positive effect on learning achievement by high school biology students, (b) the gender of the biology student makes a difference with regard to the effect of keeping a formal notebook, (c) students perceive notetaking skills as an important set of study skills, and (d) students regard keeping a formal notebook as a valuable tool for improving learning outcomes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted, using a matching-only posttest control group design. A purposive cluster sample of four intact tenth grade biology classes with a total of 126 students from two Brevard County public high schools was used. The design resulted in two experimental conditions for the independent variable: (a) notebook treatment and (b) no notebook control. In each school, one class was randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. A Study Skills Questionnaire was pilot-tested, revised, and administered to all students as a pre-assessment to determine if notetaking was regarded as important. One teacher-made posttest was used to measure learning achievement in biology as a consequence of the experimental conditions. A researcher-developed six-item postquestionnaire was only administered to the students of the treatment groups to determine if students perceive the requirement of keeping a formal notebook as a valuable learning tool. A factorial independent measures analysis of variance (2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of experimental group, school, gender, and their interactions (alpha =.05). The results of ANOVA did not reveal a statistically significant difference on the posttest between the treatment group and control group for the entire sample and each subsample. However, ANOVA for school means indicated statistically significant differences on the posttest between the treatment and control group classes in the two schools. The interaction of gender and group, which approached statistical significance (alpha =.05), indicated that the gender of the biology student appears to make a difference with regard to the effect of keeping a formal notebook. This interaction was most notable between the experimental groups in school B. The data obtained from the questionnaires were reported in terms of number and percentage of positive responses for all items. The prequestionnaire results indicated that 61% of the students perceived notetaking skills as important for understanding what the teacher said in class. The results of the postquestionnaire showed that the treatment group students regarded notetaking as a valuable tool for preparing for tests and keeping up with homework. Future research on the use of notebooks should focus on the effects at different grade levels, the benefits for a wide range of science courses, and the variables of ability and gender.

  12. Learning to Lead at 5,267 Feet: An Empirical Study of Outdoor Management Training and MBA Students' Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the leadership development of MBA students enrolled in an Organizational Behavior course. Students enrolled in either an in-class section or a section that included an intensive, outdoor training component called Leadership on the Edge. Results from Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practices Inventory (2003) showed that students…

  13. Lights, Camera: Learning! Findings from studies of video in formal and informal science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the panel, media researcher, Jennifer Borland, will highlight findings from a variety of studies of videos across the spectrum of formal to informal learning, including schools, museums, and in viewers homes. In her presentation, Borland will assert that the viewing context matters a great deal, but there are some general take-aways that can be extrapolated to the use of educational video in a variety of settings. Borland has served as an evaluator on several video-related projects funded by NASA and the the National Science Foundation including: Data Visualization videos and Space Shows developed by the American Museum of Natural History, DragonflyTV, Earth the Operators Manual, The Music Instinct and Time Team America.

  14. The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettenger, Jim

    Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

  15. Outdoor Education: Opening and Closing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter, Comp.

    Opening activites (to create an atmosphere of cooperation and a desire to work, explore, and learn together) and closing activities (to summarize what has happened or been learned) for outdoor education programs are described. All activities are intended to incite enthusiasm to learn and make the learning activity a desired, joyful experience.…

  16. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  17. Models of Transformative Learning for Social Justice: Comparative Case Studies of Non-Formal Development Education in Britain and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents comparative case studies of non-formal development education by non-profit organisations in two European countries. The study aimed to explore the extent to which such activities provide opportunities for transformative learning. The research was qualitative and began with interviews with educators across 14 organisations in…

  18. Participation in Non-Formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states. The paper also seeks to extend analysis of the training gap by pursuing the distinction between the supply and the demand for skills. We use aggregate data from the Adult Education Survey (Eurostat)…

  19. Cooperate to Validate. Observal-Net Experts' Report on Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNIL) 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber Guisan, Saskia; Voit, Janine; Lengauer, Sonja; Proinger, Eva; Duvekot, Ruud; Aagaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The present publication is one of the outcomes of the OBSERVAL-NET project (followup of the OBSERVAL project). The main aim of OBSERVAL-NET was to set up a stakeholder centric network of organisations supporting the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe based on the formation of national working groups in the 8 participating…

  20. Cooperate to Validate: OBSERVAL-NET Experts' Report on Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNIL) 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber Guisan, Saskia; Voit, Janine; Lengauer, Sonja; Proinger, Eva; Duvekot, Ruud; Aagaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The present publication is one of the outcomes of the OBSERVAL-NET project (follow-up of the OBSERVAL project). The main aim of OBSERVAL-NET was to set up a stakeholder-centric network of organisations supporting the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe based on the formation of national working groups in the 8 participating…

  1. A Comparison of Formal Features of Written Language of Learning Disabled, Low-Achieving and Achieving Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Ross

    The written language characteristics of 26 learning disabled (LD), 26 low achieving (LA), and 26 achieving (ACH) students in grades 7 through 10 were measured using paragraph writing and topic sentence tasks. Tests of differences between LD and LA Ss revealed that spelling was the only formal feature which was significantly higher in the LA group.…

  2. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  3. Does Online Game-Based Learning Work in Formal Education at School? A Case Study of VISOLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Morris S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    VISOLE (Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Environment) is a teacher-facilitated pedagogical approach to integrating constructivist online game-based learning into formal curriculum teaching in school education. This paper reports a case study on the implementation of VISOLE in secondary Geography education. We compared the pedagogical…

  4. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  5. An Outdoor Workshop: Raku Firing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siver, David

    1978-01-01

    The process of building and firing a raku kiln is a memorable happening. The cost is low and students learn to appreciate the work involved in firing a kiln while the pots are a pleasant reminder of an outdoor workshop. (Author/RK)

  6. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  7. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  8. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  9. Barry Conservation 4H Camp is great for kids who love the outdoors, enjoy handson learning in environmental and conservation programs and can benefit from participating in a small camp. Our staff

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Barry Conservation 4H Camp is great for kids who love the outdoors, enjoy handson learning pride in creating a special community where kids can discover their individual strengths. Each week an open fire, sleep under the stars, climb a mountain, swim in a pond, create nature crafts, and more

  10. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills. The data indicated that there is not a significant difference between adolescents and post-adolescents (up to 16-years-old) ability to learn formal thinking skills. Both groups (adolescent and post-adolescent) showed improvement in their formal thinking skill ability after the intervention. The intervention also demonstrated evidence of improving students' intelligence scores.

  11. The Outdoor Programming Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ron

    This manual provides guidelines for developing outdoor recreation programs. The manual was prepared for adult outdoor recreation programs, but could be useful for other age groups as well. The following topics are discussed: (1) the historical perspectives of outdoor recreation programming; (2) outdoor programming models, including the club model,…

  12. Looking for Learning in All the Wrong Places: Urban Native Youths' Cultured Response to Western-Oriented Place-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    For Indigenous youth growing up in today's Canadian cities, summer, non-formal learning programs developed around outdoor and/or environmental education themes offer the chance for reconnecting with ancestral territories. While tenable, few interpretive studies focus on youths' engagement with such learning. This paper offers an analysis of the…

  13. Does Formal Complexity Reflect Cognitive Complexity? Investigating Aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an Artificial Language Learning Study

    PubMed Central

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning. According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive). In two artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiments participants were presented with a language containing either nested or cross-serial dependencies. A learning effect for both types of dependencies could be observed, but no difference between dependency types emerged. These behavioral findings do not seem to reflect complexity differences as described in the Chomsky Hierarchy. This study extends previous findings in demonstrating learning effects for nested and cross-serial dependencies with more natural stimulus materials in a classical AGL paradigm after only one hour of exposure. The current findings can be taken as a starting point for further exploring the degree to which the Chomsky Hierarchy reflects cognitive processes. PMID:25885790

  14. An examination of the impact of non-formal and informal learning on adult environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett

    The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation in non-formal and informal education venues improved environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior models, providing evidence for the value and need for non-formal and informal environmental adult education venues.

  15. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  16. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  17. A Evaluation of a Learning Cycle Intervention Method in Introductory Physical Science Laboratories in Order to Promote Formal Operational thought Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadburn, Randy Glen

    Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition, future studies should attempt to use vigorous measures of formal reasoning ability to pinpoint exactly when the transition occurs in students.

  18. Your Outdoor Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

  19. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

  20. Americans and the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    A presidential panel was established in January, 1985 to examine the status of outdoor recreation in the United States. This publication briefly summarizes the full report of the President's Commission on Americans Outdoors. It discusses the essential need for providing every citizen with opportunity for outdoor experiences and suggest how it can…

  1. Outdoor Adventures -Paper FormOutdoor Adventures -Paper FormOutdoor Adventures -Paper FormOutdoor Adventures -Paper Form Dear OLLI Outdoor Adventure Participant

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Page 1 Outdoor Adventures - Paper FormOutdoor Adventures - Paper FormOutdoor Adventures - Paper FormOutdoor Adventures - Paper Form Dear OLLI Outdoor Adventure Participant: As OLLI develops future about your response. 55 66 #12;Page 2 Outdoor Adventures - Paper FormOutdoor Adventures - Paper Form

  2. Expanding "Within Context" to "Across Contexts" Learning: A Case Study of Informal and Formal Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi Song; Hung, Wei Loong David; Jamaludin, Azilawati Bte; Lim, Seo Hong

    2014-01-01

    Learning happens not only in schools, but also in every context that affords new experiences and opportunities for metacognition. We aim to maximize the different activity-milieux in which learners are engaged in developing their life-long learning dispositions to learn within and across contexts. This paper is a follow up of an earlier published…

  3. Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science…

  4. Developing an eLearning tool formalizing in YAWL the guidelines used in a transfusion medicine service.

    PubMed

    Russo, Paola; Piazza, Miriam; Leonardi, Giorgio; Roncoroni, Layla; Russo, Carlo; Spadaro, Salvatore; Quaglini, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The blood transfusion is a complex activity subject to a high risk of eventually fatal errors. The development and application of computer-based systems could help reducing the error rate, playing a fundamental role in the improvement of the quality of care. This poster presents an under development eLearning tool formalizing the guidelines of the transfusion process. This system, implemented in YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language), will be used to train the personnel in order to improve the efficiency of care and to reduce errors. PMID:22874389

  5. AGORA V: Identification, Evaluation and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning (Thessaloniki, Greece, March 15-16, 1999). CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guggenheim, Eric Fries, Ed.

    This document contains papers from a 2-day meeting on identification, evaluation, and recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union. The following papers are included: "Identification, Assessment, and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning: European Tendencies" (Jens Bjornavold); "Why Measure Human Capital?" (Riel Miller); "Mobility and…

  6. Towards the Construction of a Personal Professional Pathway: An Experimental Project for the Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the University of Catania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, accreditation of prior learning is a sensitive issue. Despite the lack of laws or qualification frameworks regulating the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, most Italian universities proceed with caution, allowing only a restricted number of credits in the university curriculum related to practical activities or to external…

  7. The Impact of Formal and Informal Learning on Students' Improvisational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyniak, Sylvana

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on my PhD empirical study, was conducted in a qualitative and holistic approach. It had examined how students had used formal and informal strategies, styles and situations while improvising and composing for the research task. Eighteen research groups made up of a total of 40 males and nine females had participated in…

  8. Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis

    2013-01-01

    Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to…

  9. Teachers as Game Designers: Using a Game in Formal Learning in a Singapore Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have offered, in recent years, compelling reasons for considering the potential of digital games to support learning and in response policy-makers and educators around the world have demonstrated a commitment to exploring their practical use in school. There remain, however, many questions about how games can best support learning,…

  10. From Formal Training to Communities of Practice via Network-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for training and lifelong learning in light of new information and communication technologies focuses on small businesses with few employees who need rapid and continuous training. Topics include communities of practice; network-based learning; distance education; enterprise training; mutual training; knowledge creation;…

  11. A Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning: Students Learn Better When Words Are in Conversational Style Rather Than Formal Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Fennell, Sherry; Farmer, Lindsay; Campbell, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which "the" was changed to "your" in 12 places. In 3 experiments,…

  12. A Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network: The role of formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke-Nieves, Natasha Anika

    Science education research has consistently shown that elementary teachers have a low self-efficacy and background knowledge to teach science. When they teach science, there is a lack of field experiences and inquiry-based instruction at the elementary level due to limited resources, both material and pedagogical. This study focused on an analysis of a professional development (PD) model designed by the author known as the Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network (CDLN). The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school teacher participants pedagogical content knowledge related to their experiences in a CDLN model. The CDLN model taught formal and informal instruction using a science coach and an informal educational institution. Another purpose for this research included a theoretical analysis of the CDLN model to see if its design enabled teachers to expand their resource knowledge of available science education materials. The four-month-long study used qualitative data obtained during an in-service professional development program facilitated by a science coach and educators from a large natural history museum. Using case study as the research design, four elementary school teachers were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of their science coach and museum educator workshop sessions. During the duration of this study, semi-structured individual/group interviews and open-ended pre/post PD questionnaires were used. Other data sources included researcher field notes from lesson observations, museum field trips, audio-recorded workshop sessions, email correspondence, and teacher-created artifacts. The data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged included increased self-efficacy; increased pedagogical content knowledge; increased knowledge of museum education resources and access; creation of a professional learning community; and increased knowledge of science notebooking. Implications for formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform are offered. It is suggested that researchers investigate collaborative coaching through the lenses of organizational learning network theory, and develop professional learning communities with formal and informal educators; and that professional developers in city school systems and informal science institutions work in concert to produce more effective elementary teachers who not only love science but love teaching it.

  13. Copyright 2008 Psychonomic Society, Inc. 210 Bayesian formalizations of learning are a revolution-

    E-print Network

    Kruschke, John K.

    candidate hypotheses with differing degrees of belief, unlike tra- ditional models that assume the learner offers a remarkably liberating cornucopia of representational options for models of learning. The second

  14. Developing an Outdoor Education Program for Public Schools. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, James S.

    Education in, for, and about the outdoors is an effective way to develop students' knowledge and appreciation of their environment, to stimulate their curiosity, and to motivate them to learn. Steps involved in establishing an outdoor education program for public schools include: (1) gaining support of school teachers and administrators, parents,…

  15. Exploring Small Climates--An Outdoor Science Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    The study of climates in small areas as an outdoor science teaching technique is described in this paper. It is suggested that, while teachers are presenting a weather unit to their elementary school classes, they should not overlook the opportunity to make learning more meaningful through outdoor teaching techniques. Explorations of temperatures…

  16. Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

    Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

  17. The Outdoor Classroom. Experiencing Nature in the Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    Through direct experience within natural settings, outdoor education allows students to learn about environmental concerns such as migration of birds, weather systems, wildlife habitats, watersheds, soil erosion, geological formations, food chains, and community resources. All subject areas in the present curriculum can be enriched through outdoor

  18. Journal Assignments for Student Reflections on Outdoor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Recreation professionals use outdoor programs in rustic settings to promote the intellectual, physical, emotional, and professional development of their students. One important aspect of personal growth is to develop the ability to think critically about one's own learning, and journaling is one approach for achieving this goal. Outdoor programs…

  19. Lessons Learned by Combining Formal and Informal Science Education at CMMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, S.; Burt, M. A.; Jones, B.; Russell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2006, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) has pursued a vertically-integrated strategy for education and diversity from "K to gray." We've brought a traveling museum-style "informal science education" program to over 200,000 K-12 students and shown that it has a counterintuitive and substantial impact on content knowledge. The tremendous volume of this outreach program has only been possible by including over 100 undergraduate interns, which adds a layer of professional development to their formal education. We've also leveraged the "hands-on" informal education program to develop both formal professional development workshops for teachers and new undergraduate courses. So we're now using hands-on science activities developed by undergraduates for use in grades 5-8 for teaching climate science to undergrads! It's remarkable how well this integration works. We've also extended the approach beyond "hands-on" to "minds-on" experiments based on interactive modules that run inside web browsers. Building on the framework we developed for extending informal science education into formal instruction, we also entrained dozens of students at the largest graduate Atmospheric Science program in the US to provide them with professional development experiences and tracked their matriculation into the professional research and academic workforce. Finally, we've extended the informal minds-on techniques to both in-person and online courses offered to retirees and to the public. Combining these forms of outreach leverage direct experience of the nature of science with authentic communication to reach diverse audiences with climate science content.

  20. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  1. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  2. Outdoor Education and Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hause, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    For over 20 years a teacher from the Colorado Rocky Mountain School, Carbondale, Colorado, has been leading his students through outdoor trips. Here he shares his thoughts on outdoor education and what happens when a death occurs on a school trip by asking questions and giving answers from his experience. (Author/RK)

  3. Outdoor Classroom Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

  4. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  5. Biographical Learning and Non-Formal Education: Questing, Threads and Choosing How to Be Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an initial inductive analysis of eight semi-structured interviews with English adult learners conducted as part of the European Union (EU) BeLL project. It uses the theoretical lens of biographical learning (with its key concepts of agency and narrative) to explore what these interviews can tell us about the ways adults express…

  6. The Learning Lives of Digital Youth--Beyond the Formal and Informal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erstad, Ola

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to present an outline for an approach studying young people as learners across contexts, presented here as a "learning lives approach". For youth, the two most time-consuming aspects of their daily lives are schooling and media use. In research, we tend to study these as two separate worlds. The challenge is to…

  7. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  8. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  9. Ohio Sampler: Outdoor and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballbach, Joann, Ed.

    This document provides practical suggestions and meaningful activities for implementing Ohio's model curriculum in science for instruction that emphasizes hands-on experience and diverse learning opportunities. It also includes a variety of nonscience activities that emphasize and utilize the outdoors. This Sampler lists activities by indoor or…

  10. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  11. GameBuilder, an outdoor AR creation software

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Chuan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the author designed and implemented GameBuilder, a desktop application targeted towards 11-14 year olds for creating Outdoor AR games. The software attempts to reduce its learning curve by limiting the ...

  12. Learning to teach: how a formal teaching qualification improved our practice.

    PubMed

    Lipczynska, Sonya; Crowley, Clare

    2015-09-01

    In this article, guest writers Sonya Lipczynska and Clare Crowley from King's College London discuss the learning that occurred when they undertook a Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice in Higher Education (PGCAPHE). In particular, they identify how their exploration of relevant learning and teaching theory on the course helped them to evaluate their library instruction teaching practice with medical and dental students. They highlight how they made changes and improvements to the delivery of these sessions based on greater consideration of inclusivity and the characteristics of both individuals and broader student groups. They also discuss the successes of new teaching practices that they experimented with, and reflect on how they have developed as educators as a result of this. H.S. PMID:26268521

  13. Formal Reasoning Abilities of Learning Disabled Adolescents: Implications for Mathematics Instruction

    E-print Network

    Skrtic, Thomas M.

    1980-01-01

    .g., Anastasi & Foley, 1949; Stafford, 1972; Mullis, 1975) which demonstrated slight advantages for males in mathematics aptitude and achievement. The meaning of this relationship, however, is not clear and has been contested (Fennema & Sherman, 1977...: Wm. C. Brown, 1980. Bruner, J. S. Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1966. Cawley, J. An instructional design in mathematics. In L. ~1ann, L. Goodman, & J. L. Wiederholt (Eds.), Teaching the learning disabled...

  14. Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Education and the Economy of Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Interviews and a literature review found that outdoor recreation contributes significantly to Scotland's tourist income, particularly in rural areas; outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas; the provision of outdoor education by secondary schools has decreased in the last 20 years; and therapeutic outdoor

  15. Results of Formal Evaluation of a Data and Modeling Driven Hydrology Learning Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Sanchez, C. A.; Schiesser, R.; Merwade, V.

    2014-12-01

    New hydrologists should not only develop a well-defined knowledgebase of basic hydrological concepts, but also synthesize this factual learning with more authentic 'real-world' knowledge gained from the interpretation and analysis of data from hydrological models (Merwade and Ruddell, 2012, Wagener et al., 2007). However, hydrological instruction is often implemented using a traditional teacher-centered approach (e.g., lectures) (Wagener, 2007). The emergence of rich and dynamic computer simulation techniques which allow students the opportunity for more authentic application of knowledge (Merwade & Ruddell, 2012). This study evaluates the efficacy of using such data-driven simulations to increase the understanding of the field of hydrology in the lower-division undergraduate geoscience classroom. In this study, 88 students at a local community college who were enrolled in an Introductory Earth Science class were evaluated on their learning performance in a unit on applying the Rational Method to estimate hydrographs and flooding for urban areas. Students were either presented with a data and visualization rich computer module (n=52), or with paper and pencil calculation activities (n=36). All conceptual material presented in lecture was consistent across these two conditions. Students were evaluated for not only changes in their knowledge and application of the concepts within the unit (e.g., effects of urbanization and impervious cover, discharge rates), but also for their broad "T-shaped" profile of professional knowledge and skills. While results showed significant (p<.05) increases from pre to post assessments in all learning areas for both groups, there is a significantly larger benefit for the data module group when it came to (1) understanding the effects of urbanization and impervious cover on flooding, (2) applying consistent vocabulary appropriately within context, and (3) explaining the roles and responsibilities of hydrologists and flood managers.

  16. Migration and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Europe: Inclusion, Exclusion or Polarisation in the Recognition of Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Villalba-Garcia, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    This article explores (1) the degree to which immigrants can be considered dominant groups in the area of validation of non-formal and informal learning and are subject to specific validation measures in 33 European countries; (2) whether country clusters can be identified within Europe with regard to the dominance of immigrants in the area of…

  17. "I Feel like I'm Being Hit from All Directions": Enduring the Bombardment as a Mature-Age Learner Returning to Formal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willans, Julie; Seary, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The mature-age learner's re-engagement with a formal learning environment may be somewhat akin to the novice Paintball player who, unless well positioned and attuned to the rules of the combative game, is bombarded and worn down by constant "hits". For the mature-age learner, such "hits" may come in the form of tensions surrounding institutional…

  18. Introducing the Use of a Semi-Structured Video Diary Room to Investigate Students' Learning Experiences during an Outdoor Adventure Education Groupwork Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…

  19. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

  20. Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard

    SciTech Connect

    K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

    2006-05-10

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

  1. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural world around them. The game is set around a mystery in which red wolves in eastern North Carolina are being poisoned. The students are asked to portray the role of a wildlife biologist, botanist, or entomologist, whose job it is to determine who is poisoning the red wolves. MSEG are a new form of SEG that is divided into components or modules. Each module has to be completed before the player can move on to the next module. A module can take on any format, but must encompass the storyline of the game and end in an assessment. The study focused on three research questions. How would students improve the Red Wolf Caper mSEG? Do mSEG affect students' understanding in environmental education concepts, specifically, collecting, evaluating, and developing an explanation for data they collected in the game and knowledge of environmental systems and biological and social implications for the reintroduction of a species? Which role within the mSEG do the students choose and what is their reasoning behind choosing that particular role? The game was tested by 81 middle school students during six sessions in June 2010. The study participants played the game and participated in design sessions. In addition, they were given a 5-question pretest/ posttest, role selection survey, and Serious Educational Game Rubric (SEGR). They were asked to develop a hypothesis and provide evidence to support their hypothesis. Finally, they were asked to write a letter to a local in judge explaining the importance of the red wolf reintroduction project. Twenty-three students were selected to participate in interviews to determine how to improve the game and why they chose the role they did. The mean student score for the SEGR was 18.13 out of 28. Five categories in particular stood out as needing improvement: rules, increasing complexity, manipulation, identity, and tutorial/ practice level. Sixty-nine completed pretests/posttests final scores were analyzed using a paired t-test ( p = 0.000046). The letters to the judge showed that study participants understood scientific concepts and were able to apply them to real world settings that were only portrayed briefly in the game, such as the food chain. Study participants chose to play one of three roles: a wildlife biologist ( n = 64), an entomologist (n = 10), and a botanist (n = 6). Their reason behind choosing a role included interest in learning more about the topic or the profession, a previous positive experience in that field, thought the role sounded fun or exciting, the role was better than the alternatives, or misunderstood the role. The experience overall was positive for the participants. They felt they learned how to identify tracks, scat, trees, and invertebrates depending on the role they played. The AR field tests were one of their favorite parts about the game. Only one student expressed that they did not like the game, while the others not only enjoyed playing the game, but felt that is was a good educational tool. This study explores only one possibility of how mSEGs can be used in education.

  2. Outdoor Leadership "Down Under."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon

    1985-01-01

    Examines, compares, and contrasts New Zealand and Australian model programs of outdoor leadership development based upon the British Mountain Leadership Certificate System. Offers ideas on risk management and the issue of certification. (NEC)

  3. Take Your Class Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellenberger, Barbara R.

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions for designing outdoor activities to provide students with opportunities for exploring, observing, and discovering. Outlines several science activities for each of the following topics: trees, rocks, soil, insects, wild flowers, grasses, lichens, and clouds. (DS)

  4. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education, media, and free-choice learning. Though a statistically significant positive correlation was found between an individual's NES and their level of environmental knowledge as an adult, the relationship was weak (r= .112). One-on-one interviews also were conducted with 15 individuals selected from a random sample of the 382 participants. A post-survey focus group comprised of experts from the fields of environmental science and environmental education was also conducted to discuss results from the quantitative portion of the study and provide face validity to the questionnaire.

  5. Developing Competence: A Qualitative Inquiry of College Student Leadership in University Outdoor Orientation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbuck, J. David.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-nine formal research studies have been conducted on participants of college outdoor orientation programs. Although many variables have been examined for the incoming students, only one study has focused on the impact on the student leaders. The goal of this study was to understand how student leaders in outdoor orientation programs…

  6. Outdoor Education: A Guide for Planning Resident Programs. (Revision September 1977.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Irwin; Donaldson, George W.

    The culmination of educational experiences in the outdoors is the resident outdoor education program. Involving teachers and pupils living and learning in the natural environment, the program emphasizes the development of human values and provides students with learning opportunities that focus on direct, real, and relevant experiences. Intended…

  7. The Potential of Humor as a Trigger for Emotional Engagement in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoad, Colin; Deed, Craig; Lugg, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relevance of humor to student engagement in outdoor education. A sociocultural framework is applied to this examination, based on a view of learning as constructed, cognitive, embodied, and affective. A set of affordances of outdoor education as a contextually situated learning activity is identified along with related…

  8. A Rationale for Outdoor Activity as Experiential Education: The Reason for Freezin'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselheim, A. Donn

    John Dewey said, "Learning is thinking about experience". This dictum accurately reflects the rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education. The term "outdoor learning" refers to a set of activities which have the following characteristics in common: environmental contrast (a sharp environmental change for the participant); physical…

  9. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  10. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point. PMID:24742168

  11. AND OUTDOOR RECREATION: symposium proceedings

    E-print Network

    VANDALISM AND OUTDOOR RECREATION: symposium proceedings PACIFIC SOUTHWEST Forest and Range, technical coordinators. 1976. Vandalism and outdoor recreation: symposium proceedings. USDA Forest Serv. Gen. Technical Coordinators SAM S. ALFANO is recreation staff officer, Los Padres National Forest. He earned

  12. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  13. The Role of Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsen, M. Alexander; Holtzer, Charles

    Written to assist those responsible for school programs in outdoor education, this book concerns itself with curriculum, resources, leadership, and activities and projects in outdoor education. Relying on current theories and practices, this work suggests areas in which research and testing need to be done. Major divisions of the book are Outdoor

  14. The Fragmentation of Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrell, David

    Although outdoor leadership does not appear to be coalescing into a unified profession, there are potential solutions to this fragmentation. Six robust approaches to the professional provision of outdoor leadership are: (1) outfitting and guiding; (2) organized camping; (3) adventure education, such as Outward Bound; (4) the outdoor school; (5)…

  15. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  16. Journey to the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    A keen personal interest in natural history, involvement in environmental organisations, and experience, first as a secondary biology teacher and later as a field teacher, means that this author has spent many years working outdoors. Any part of the curriculum involving ecological concepts would lead her to open the door and go outside. She…

  17. [Science in the Outdoors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarage, Joe; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

  18. [Outdoor Ethics Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izaak Walton League of America, Arlington, VA.

    This document contains information about outdoor ethics issues. The information was compiled by the Izaak Walton League of America, established in 1922 as a national nonprofit organization whose members educate the public about emerging natural resource threats and promote citizen involvement in environmental protection efforts. The league…

  19. An Annotated Bibliography of Abstracts, Doctoral Dissertations and Journals Dealing with the Utilization of the Outdoors to Enrich the Curriculum and to Promote More Effective Learning in the Elementary and Secondary Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Fred L.

    A rationale for outdoor education, 36 annotated references, (dated 1972-1981), glossary, and recommendations are included in this study of the educational relevance of outdoor education. Information is organized around three questions: (1) Does outdoor education promote a more solid grasp of the concepts than a similar environmental curriculum…

  20. Life-Long Learning in Voluntary Association. A Study of Non-Formal Education in Atlantic Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    A participatory research study analyzed adult lifelong learning in voluntary association. Examined in the study were the associational environment for learning, learning leadership, learning goals and objectives, program content, and skill development. To obtain these data, researchers administered a mail questionnaire to a stratified random…

  1. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A.; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

  2. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.

    PubMed

    Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

  3. Mobile learning in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkan Güllüoü?lu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  4. Adult Learners' Learning Environment Perceptions and Satisfaction in Formal Education--Case Study of Four East-European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovan, Marko; Makovec, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes towards learning and perceptions of the learning environment. Our theoretical examination is based on the social-cognitive theory of motivation and research that emphasizes the connections between an individual's perceptions of the learning environment and his/her motivation, interest, attitudes…

  5. Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities in Government Organisations: Experiences of Public Sector Employees from Six Asian Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtar, Intan A.

    2010-01-01

    Lifelong learning and professional development have been the focus of government organisations after the 21st century was declared the "learning century", amidst the impact of globalisation and growth of knowledge-based economies. Although lifelong learning and professional development opportunities are available in most government organisations,…

  6. Reflective Practice as a Means for Preparing to Teach Outdoors in an Ecological Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Although teachers are engaged in many field-trips, they seldom have the pedagogical knowledge and experience to enact them. This article presents an effort to support reflective practice of teachers in the outdoors. The teaching experience of five pre- and in-service teachers included preparation for teaching in the outdoors, designing learning

  7. Outdoor Wilderness Program: A Campus Makes a Commitment to the Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Gary; Neal, Larry

    1980-01-01

    A resource room containing information about outdoor programs generates individual and cooperative learning activities and outdoor experiences. Although adventure participants are responsible for decisions and risks undertaken, the program should attempt to enhance experiences by reducing difficulties brought on by outsiders, institutions, and red…

  8. Improving Robot Navigation in Structured Outdoor Environments by Identifying Vegetation from Laser Data

    E-print Network

    Teschner, Matthias

    furthermore illustrate how the learned classifier can improve the autonomous navigation capabilities of mobile robots. I. INTRODUCTION Autonomous outdoor navigation is an active research field in robotics. In most of the outdoor navigation scenarios in- cluding autonomous cars, autonomous wheelchairs, surveil- lance robots

  9. The School Ground Classroom: A Curriculum to Teach K-6 Subjects Outdoors. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dan; And Others

    Suggesting that outdoor activities can be positive learning experiences, lesson plans and activities were designed to demonstrate that the outdoors is an interdisciplinary classroom, to be used on virtually any school site, and to teach subject matter taught as part of the standard curriculum. Seventeen interdisciplinary ideas with correlated…

  10. Supporting Outdoor Play for Young Children: The Zone Model of Playground Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Petra; Wakeford, Linn

    2007-01-01

    Staff at the Frank Porter Graham (FPG) Child Care Program developed the zone model of playground supervision (ZoMPS) to ensure a safe environment for outdoor play and enhance playground time for all children. In addition to the social and free-play elements of outdoor play, they wanted to provide activities that support learning and development.…

  11. View the Zoo! Evaluation of Visual Communication in an Outdoor Educational Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others

    Almost all of what people learn from outdoor educational settings such as zoos and gardens stems from the exhibits themselves or signs about the exhibits. Evaluation of the various forms of visual communication in outdoor educational settings is necessary to determine the effectiveness of exhibitions, educational activities, and/or conservation…

  12. Combination of Indoor and Outdoor PositioningOutdoor Positioning

    E-print Network

    of various building materials (L1 = 1500 MHz) Indoors: Positioning Requirements Overview of Systems GNSS1 Combination of Indoor and Outdoor PositioningOutdoor Positioning Dr. Rainer Mautz ETH Zürich Overview of Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Contents Positioning

  13. Using a Tactile Map with a 5-Year-Old Child in a Large-Scale Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Rebecca L.; Zimmerman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors constructed an 11 x 17 in. tactile map to teach routes in an outdoor play environment to a 5-year-old blind child. After learning the routes on the tactile map, the child independently navigated them in the outdoor play environment. With practice, the child reduced the time necessary to learn and navigate the routes. The authors…

  14. Teaching English through Open Non-Formal Education (ONFE) in Bangladesh with an Effective Integration of ICT to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Md. Mizanoor; Panda, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The program entitled "English in Action (EIA)", 9 year period DFID funded project in Bangladesh, was launched in 2008, for the desire to bring a change in the learning of English language. EIA works to reach a total of 25 million primary and secondary students and adult learners through communicative language learning techniques and the use of…

  15. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  16. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  17. Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin

    2007-01-01

    At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

  18. OBIS: Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.; Richmond, Robert F.

    The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project began in 1972 to enable non-school youth groups (aged 10-15) to gain firsthand experiences in outdoor environments. This descriptive paper explains the program including its purpose and historical background. Specific objectives are to: (1) stimulate curiosity about local environments;…

  19. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  20. Technology Works in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zita, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

  1. Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Matt

    Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

  2. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  3. Gender Choreography and Micro-Structures--Early Childhood Professionals' Understanding of Gender Roles and Gender Patterns in Outdoor Play and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlemalm-Hagser, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre-school professionals understand the notion of gender-equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre-school playground. The study draws on socio-cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre-schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on…

  4. A Comparison of Formal Features of Written Language of Learning Disabled, Low-Achieving and Achieving Secondary Students

    E-print Network

    Moran, Mary Ross

    1981-04-01

    The written language characteristics of 26 learning disabled (LD), 26 low-achieving (LA) and 26 achieving (ACH) students in grades 7 through 10 were measured using paragraph-writing and topic-sentence tasks. findings indicated that only spelling...

  5. Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James N.

    1993-01-01

    Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)

  6. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  7. Old Time Apple Cider Makin': An Outdoor Education Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; Oakes, David B.

    An illustrated, self-contained packet, the resource materials contained in this guide are designed for adaptation to K-8. The resources and ideas presented here are designed to encourage utilization of the outdoors as a learning resource. While intrinsically multidisciplinary, the activities are particularly adaptable to social studies, science,…

  8. Mechanisms Influencing Student Understanding on an Outdoor Guided Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the…

  9. Children's Views and Preferences Regarding Their Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to enhance awareness of what young children want to do outside and their preferences regarding their outdoor environment. Views of children as active participants, the affordance of the environment and the importance of place for children's learning constitute the theoretical background of the study. The study was part of a…

  10. Integrating outdoor activities into the FOSS curriculum: Effect on teacher practices on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraghty, E.

    2004-12-01

    A goal of the Center for Learning and Teaching West based at the University of Montana is to provide in-depth professional development through a combination of on-site and distance education activities to mathematics and science middle and high school teachers at identified high-needs schools. In accordance with the Center's goal, teachers on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation have been contacted as they meet the "high-needs" criteria: the schools are in a rural setting and educate mainly Native American students. Since the spring of 2003, contact with the directors of the Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI) on the Blackfeet Reservation has uncovered the need for integration of local outdoor earth science activities into the current Full Option Science System (FOSS) curriculum used in the middle school classrooms. This information combined with the results of a teacher interest survey sent out to the Blackfeet educators in early 2004 indicates an interest in professional development (PD) that covers training in both earth science and field experiences. This research focuses on the earth science teachers and their use of outdoor activities in their science curriculum. Much research has been conducted on the learning styles of Native American students and show that these students have some tendency toward: global/holistic style of organizing information, visual style of mental representation in thinking, reflective style for information processing, and preference of collaborative work on assigned tasks (Hilberg and Tharp, 2002). Though native students generally perform poorly in science, the belief is that their learning styles matched with hands-on, outdoor instruction may improve the students' connection with science and their performance on science assessments. Therefore, the first step in the process is to work with the teachers through professional development in order to incorporate activities that match the learning styles of their students. The workshop designed for the middle school teachers on the Blackfeet Reservation provides support for teachers with regards to FOSS training, content, and activities at local field sites (example is the outdoor classroom at Cut Bank Creek outside of Browning, MT) specific to the Earth History FOSS kit activities chosen for the workshop. The field activities will highlight National and Montana Science Content Standards identified by the teachers and specifically Montana Science Content Standard 5 which reads: "Students understand how scientific knowledge and technological developments impact society." The specific focus on this standard provides opportunity for the "traditional" and "practical" earth science experiences to be "integrated into the more formal content approach of school science (Cajete, 1988)"; a format more accessible to native students."

  11. Using NASA Data in the Classroom: Promoting STEM Learning in Formal Education using Real Space Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, B.; Hemenway, M. K.; Mendez, B.; Odenwald, S.

    2013-04-01

    Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provides formal educators the opportunity to teach their students real-world applications of the STEM subjects. Combining real space science data with lessons aimed at meeting state and national education standards provides a memorable educational experience that students can build upon throughout their academic careers. Many of our colleagues have adopted the use of real data in their education and public outreach (EPO) programs. There are challenges in creating resources using real data for classroom use that include, but are not limited to, accessibility to computers/Internet and proper instruction. Understanding and sharing these difficulties and best practices with the larger EPO community is critical to the development of future resources. In this session, we highlight three examples of how NASA data is being utilized in the classroom: the Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET) that utilizes real Hubble Space Telescope data; the computer image-analysis resources utilized by the NASA WISE infrared mission; and the space science derived math applications from SpaceMath@NASA featuring the Chandra and Kepler space telescopes. Challenges and successes are highlighted for these projects. We also facilitate small-group discussions that focus on additional benefits and challenges of using real data in the formal education environment. The report-outs from those discussions are given here.

  12. The Intercultural and Non-Formal Learning Processes of Children in Primary School Exchange Programmes in France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Valérie; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on educational anthropology, and presents the initial findings of a three-year international comparative study of primary school children's learning-processes during travel and cross-cultural encounters. A French-German research team investigated and here reports on primary school exchange programmes. Open coding of the…

  13. Hard/Soft, Formal/Informal, Work/Learning: Tenuous/Persistent Binaries in the Knowledge-Based Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela; Butterwick, Shauna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses insights from a study of women working, or seeking or preparing for work, in the information technology (IT) field. At issue is how and whether alternative career pathways and informally acquired skills and knowledge, as well as the operation of gender in learning and work, are acknowledged by employers, colleagues…

  14. Informal Learning Organizations as Part of an Educational Ecology: Lessons from Collaboration across the Formal-Informal Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Knutson, Karen; Crowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    How do informal learning organizations work with schools as part of a broader educational ecology? We examined this question through a comparative case study of two collaborative efforts whereby informal arts education organizations, a children's museum and a community-based organization, worked with an urban school district to redefine the…

  15. Relations between EFL Teachers' Formal Knowledge of Grammar and Their In-Action Mental Models of Children's Minds and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, O.; Strauss, S.; Ravid, D.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relations between English as a foreign language teachers' grammar knowledge and their in-action mental models (MMs) of children's minds and learning. The grammar knowledge we examined was English wh-constructions. A total of 74 teachers completed an assessment task and were classified to have deep, intermediate or shallow knowledge.…

  16. Participating in Non-Formal Learning: Patterns of Inequality in EU-15 and the New EU-8 Member Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2010-01-01

    We concentrate on the following research questions: (1) Do the structure of the educational system and its interaction with the labour market affect the training gap between low-skilled blue collar workers and high-skilled white collar workers? and (2) Do the ways that institutional systems shape opportunities for lifelong learning differ between…

  17. Formal Music Education Not Only Enhances Musical Skills, but Also Conceptions of Teaching and Learning: A Study with Woodwind Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Cristina; Scheuer, Nora; Pérez-Echeverría, María-Puy

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies conceptions of woodwind students regarding learning and teaching music, within the framework of implicit theories. It analyzes whether there are differences related to participants' instruction level, and whether it is possible to identify profiles according to their conceptions. Sixty-eight students from three different…

  18. Exploring University Students' Use of Technologies beyond the Formal Learning Context: A Tale of Two Online Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Liping; Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    Situated within an informal learning context, this study examines how a group of pre-service teachers in Hong Kong use Facebook and Google Sites on their own initiative to fulfil their academic and socio-emotional needs during their teaching practice. Also included in the study are the motivating and inhibiting factors that influence student…

  19. Outdoor Experiences for Young Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…

  20. Resident Program Guide: Hillside Outdoor Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Bonnie

    Founded in 1972 as part of the private, non-profit Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Centers, the Hillside Outdoor Education Center offers services to various educational groups by providing residential experiences for students and faculty, day-visit programs, school-site outdoor education programs, teacher workshops, college courses in outdoor

  1. Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fresh water (e.g., lake, river, stream) or soil, the disease can live there for weeks to ... into close contact with fresh water or damp soil when they participate in outdoor activities. For example, ...

  2. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  3. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  4. Beyond formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  5. OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

  6. Outdoor Education and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alistair

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the importance of increasing effective communication in outdoor education programs. Examines sensory preferences and how they affect vocabulary, voice tone, and body language. Describes ways that outdoor educators can use this information to improve their communication skills. (LP)

  7. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...conserving our great outdoors. Moreover, as Americans, we are responsible for protecting our heritage, including the raw beauty of our lands and waters. Together, let us rise to meet that responsibility and safeguard our cherished outdoor spaces...

  8. Outdoor Recreation Participation Trends in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Schuett, Michael A.; Shafer, Carl Scott; Lu, Jiaying

    2009-01-06

    Outdoor recreation is a popular pastime in Texas. This publication reports on the participation and trends in outdoor recreation in the U.S. and Texas revealed in the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment ...

  9. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall...

  10. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall...

  11. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall...

  12. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall...

  13. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall...

  14. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-01

    This fact sheet reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high quality lighting for outdoor areas.

  15. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...it is acclimated to the air and water temperature ranges which it will...all outdoor pools. (1) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of...

  16. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...it is acclimated to the air and water temperature ranges which it will...all outdoor pools. (1) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of...

  17. Reducing Indoor Residential Exposures to Outdoor Pollutants

    E-print Network

    Reducing Indoor Residential Exposures to Outdoor Pollutants M.H. Sherman (MHSherman@lbl.gov) N air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different

  18. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

    Directed to the Multnomah County (Oregon) sixth grade students participating in the Outdoor School program, the handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Information is provided on the Outdoor School site and staff;…

  19. Teaching and Evaluating Outdoor Ethics Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; Riley, Cheryl K.

    Outdoor activities are hurt by participants who have no respect for nature and the environment. The poor behavior of these individuals hurts resources while lowered public perceptions are placed on all participants. The aim of this guide is to empower outdoor users to develop ethics in acting to sustain and nurture the natural world. Outdoors

  20. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  1. Instructional Program Planning for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others

    A guide on instructional program planning for outdoor education, prepared for Oakland County (Michigan) teachers, contains suggestions for program planning and lists information sources on suitable outdoor activities. The purpose of outdoor education is defined as being: "to enrich, vitalize and complement content areas of the school curriculum by…

  2. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperatures. Marine mammals shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless the air and water temperature... acclimated to the air and water temperature ranges which it will encounter therein. The following requirements shall be applicable to all outdoor pools. (1) The water surface of pools in outdoor...

  3. Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

  4. THE TEACHERS' HANDBOOK FOR THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURGESS, ROBERT A.; GILFILLAN, WARREN C.

    THIS HANDBOOK FOR OREGON PUBLIC AND PAROCHIAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IS FOR USE IN PLANNING AND UTILIZING THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL OF THE REGIONAL OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAM HEADQUARTERED AT PORTLAND, OREGON. THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL WHICH UTILIZES CAMPS OWNED BY YOUTH-SERVING ORGANIZATIONS PROVIDES ELEMENTARY CLASSES (PRIMARY GRADE 6) AND THEIR TEACHERS…

  5. Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The interconnections of these three concepts---the outdoor setting, the students' interest, the social interaction---worked to provide the mechanisms by which the students increased their understanding of the rock cycle.

  6. Pathways to the Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

    This bibliography is designed to assist educators in establishing an outdoor classroom for environmental education. A process is detailed by which school districts can effectively and efficiently develop a site on or near the school. The first step involves organizing a planning committee, enlisting administrative support, and developing a budget.…

  7. Outdoor Education as Wilderness Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Presents outline for introductory course designed to allow student exploration of outdoor opportunities and instill interest and basic knowledge. Includes nature trail development, edible wild plants, Adirondack/St. Lawrence geology, mountain climbing, fall camping, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, winter camping, ice fishing, knots,…

  8. Social Justice in Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Russek, Angel

    Equitable outdoor leadership responsive to social justice issues has historically been absent in the field of adventure education. The call for social justice in the field has been hampered by lack of information, negligible programmatic support, personal conditioning and bias, resistance to reform from those in power, and firmly established…

  9. Setting Up an Outdoor Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mike

    1984-01-01

    Describes the creation and operation of an outdoor laboratory in a city environment for use in teaching environmental education. A map of the laboratory is included. Also describes various stations in the laboratory, presenting a list of materials used as well as several activities based in the laboratory. (JM)

  10. Outdoor Recreation at Brock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Hutson, Garrett

    2007-01-01

    Brock University offers both undergraduate and graduate programs and is host to approximately 17,000 students. It is the only Canadian university located in a World Biosphere Reserve--the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail passes through campus, and offers ample opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, nature interpretation and outdoor

  11. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  12. Wellness: How Outdoor Education Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham, Michael; Marion, James

    1982-01-01

    The traditional emphases of outdoor education--cognitive understanding of ecological balances, sensory awareness, aesthetic appreciation of the natural environment are important to a wellness approach to life. Frost Valley YMCA (New York) is promoting the application of wellness concepts to its resident environmental education programs. (LC)

  13. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  14. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  15. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  16. Learning Outdoors: The Forest School Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the role that Forest School can play in children's development. With over 100 Forest Schools in England, 20 in Scotland and 20 in Wales, this concept is growing across Britain. Forest School involves children having regular contact with woodland over an extended period of time; it allows them to become familiar, and have…

  17. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  18. The Bradford Papers. Volume II, Proceedings from the 1981 Institute on Innovations in Camping and Outdoor Education With Persons Who Are Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Gary M., Ed.

    "Learning by doing" was the theme at the 1981 Institute on Innovations in Camping and Outdoor Education with Persons Who Are Disabled and was represented in the eleven papers presented. The papers describe the use of various outdoor-oriented media for involving persons with disabilities in participatory activities. Topics consisted of improvement…

  19. Outdoor Education Units. Pull Out Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Briefly presents 15 outdoor education units covering orienteering, map reading, safety, rescue, rope skills, first aid, camping, kayaking, rock and wall climbing, caving, survival skills, sailing, hiking, and outdoor equipment. Each unit has a brief description, including the knowledge and skills that students should be able to demonstrate. (TD)

  20. Does Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Keith C.

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), using wilderness therapy and related outdoor programming, is an emerging treatment for adolescents with behavioral, psychological, and substance abuse disorders. A literature review examining OBH outcomes related to self-concept, interpersonal skills, substance abuse, criminal recidivism, and behavioral and…

  1. Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Camille J.

    Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

  2. Teaching Conservation Through Outdoor Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is for teachers (K-12) interested in developing and using outdoor education areas. Student participation is presented as the key to a successful program. A discussion of what can be done by outdoor education programs is presented. The guide suggests sites to be chosen in terms of accessability, size, attractiveness, safety, drinking…

  3. A Guide for Conducting Outdoor Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; And Others

    Since research indicates teachers generally lack confidence in their ability to conduct lessons in the outdoors and feel inadequate regarding knowledge of the natural world, this guide has been developed to build teacher confidence in utilizing the outdoors. Designed to be used in conjunction with a practicum workshop, this guide presents…

  4. Outdoor Education for Sustainability: Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor education should broaden its scope beyond outdoor activities to include education for sustainability. Provides practical ideas for incorporating holistic environmental awareness into programs by exploring the concepts of connection and consequence with such basic elements as water, air, food, shelter, darkness, solitude, time, and nature.…

  5. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  6. The Teacher's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

    Active preparation, participation, and follow-up by the classroom teacher are essential to the success of the Outdoor School, a week-long, resident, co-educational program of outdoor education for Multnomah County (Oregon) sixth grade classes and their teachers. This handbook briefly describes the classroom teacher's role; the resource study…

  7. Outdoor Education and Camping in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebashi, Shinshiro

    Professor Shinshiro Ebashi of the University of Tokyo discusses outdoor education in Japan, especially in relation to legislation (e.g., the Sport Promotion Law of 1961) and programs endorsed by the Ministry of Education. A typical outdoor education program for junior-high students is given. Also discussed are the programs of the All Japan Senior…

  8. 78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13540 Filed 6-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8988 of May 31, 2013 Great Outdoors Month... Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate the land entrusted to us by our forebears and resolve to pass it...

  9. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13947 Filed 6-6-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8833 of June 1, 2012 Great Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the..., trials, and triumphs. During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate our long legacy of...

  10. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-14185 Filed 6-6-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8687 of May 31, 2011 Great Outdoors Month, 2011 By the President of the United... stretching over rolling hills and rivers raging through stone-faced cliffs. During Great Outdoors Month,...

  11. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-13666 Filed 6-4-10; 8:45 am] Billing code...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8528 of May 28, 2010 Great Outdoors Month, 2010 By the President of the United... friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew our enduring commitment to protect our natural...

  12. Changing Roles for Outdoor Education Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Geoff

    There have been two traditions of outdoor education in Great Britain. Field studies focus on science, while outdoor pursuits focus on physical skills and technical knowledge or personal and social development through challenging situations. These two approaches have much in common and much to offer each other. Although both approaches use the…

  13. How Outdoor Education Contributes to Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the role of outdoor education in educating for a sustainable society. Discusses elements in promoting social action (environmental awareness, empowerment, commitment) and 10 essential competencies in educating for sustainability. Describes related benefits of outdoor education such as increasing student motivation, utilizing multiple…

  14. Outdoor Adventure Leadership Program at Laurentian University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Roger T.

    2001-01-01

    Laurentian University (Ontario) offers a 4-year holistic outdoor adventure leadership program that promotes personal growth, develops leadership skills, and trains individuals to be safety-minded in various outdoor settings. A strong environmental ethic is promoted through courses in biology and Canadian Native culture. Practicums, internships,…

  15. Ethical Frameworks, Moral Practices and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Karen M.; Lautt, Mick

    Insights from quantum physics and chaos theory help create new metaphors about ethical frameworks and moral practices in outdoor education. The seemingly straightforward concept of values is analogous to the initial simple nonlinear equation of a fractal. The value claims of outdoor education--trust, cooperation, environmental awareness,…

  16. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  17. Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.

    A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

  18. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C., Comp.; Burgess, Robert A., Comp.

    Directed to the Multnomah County, Oregon, sixth grade students who participate in the Outdoor School program, the reusable handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Each week, four sixth grade classes from different…

  19. Montana Statewide Outdoor Recreation Plan: Action Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Fish and Game Commission, Helena.

    The current revision of Montana's Statewide Outdoor Recreation Plan allows for utilizing the state's outdoor recreational resources to the best advantage of present and future generations. In developing the action program, consideration has been given to preservation, protection, and enhancement of the natural environment. The plan has also been…

  20. Outdoor air pollution and children's health.

    PubMed

    Suwanwaiphatthana, Wiparat; Ruangdej, Kannika; Turner-Henson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Children spend almost 90% of their time indoors, though outside air can be a significant source of potential and actual exposure to outdoor air pollutants. Children are vulnerable to pollutants and toxins because of their size and developing organ systems. Young children have increased respiratory rates and inhale more toxins, and young children often ignore respiratory symptoms and continue play. Outdoor play and recreational activities expose children to outdoor air pollution from sources such as automobiles, power plants, industry, and other combustion sources, which can impact children. Outdoor air pollution has been linked to respiratory illness exacerbations, infant mortality, the development of asthma, and atopy and reduction in lung development in children. This article will examine outdoor air pollution and its impact on children's health, as well as implications for pediatric nursing clinical practice. PMID:20361442

  1. The Role of Outdoor Adventure Education in Facilitating Groupwork in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam J.; Burns, Victoria E.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Groupwork is an increasingly popular method of learning in higher education and the ability to work effectively with others is important for academic success and employability. This systematic review investigated the use of outdoor adventure education (OAE) in facilitating the development of transferable groupwork skills in higher education. The…

  2. Music Therapy Engages Children with Autism in Outdoor Play. FPG Snapshot. Number 39, February 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The unstructured space, running, climbing, sliding, and loud nature of playground time can be overwhelming for children with autism who thrive on predictable and structured routines. As a result, these preschoolers often do not experience the learning and social development benefits from outdoor play seen in their typically developing classmates.…

  3. Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio

    2007-01-01

    A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

  4. Indoor-Outdoor Classification with Human Accuracies: Image or Edge Gist? Christina Pavlopoulou Stella X. Yu

    E-print Network

    Yu, Stella X.

    Indoor-Outdoor Classification with Human Accuracies: Image or Edge Gist? Christina Pavlopoulou is necessary for machine classification, but how humans err on the labeling is instrumental for learning better classification, the human performance on a visual task with controlled stimulus presentation gives out clues

  5. The Conscious Use (or Avoidance) of Metaphor in Outdoor Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Facilitated discussion before, during and after experiences is widely accepted practice in the field of outdoor adventure education. Much of the literature appears to house the assumption that individual learning may be considerably restricted if participants' experiences are not processed with the help of an external facilitator, as they may not…

  6. Adventures in Creating an Outdoor Leadership Challenge Course for an Emba Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, William

    2005-01-01

    This article documents the evolution of an outdoor-based experiential leadership training event within an Executive MBA (EMBA) program. The purpose of this article is to encourage other EMBA faculty and directors to consider adding a similar event to their leadership development initiatives and to learn from our experiences. After 3 years of…

  7. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUPPLEMENTAL TO AND RELATED TO THE ART PROGRAM AT DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE DEALING WITH VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS WAS PREPARED FOR POSSIBLE STUDY ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD USE THE LEARNING RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER IN GARY, INDIANA. ACTIVITIES GUIDES ARE PRESENTED FOR (1) ART ACTITIVIES RELATED TO DESIGN, COLOR, LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION, PAPER CONSTRUCTION, DRAWING, PRINT…

  8. Freedom, Flow and Fairness: Exploring How Children Develop Socially at School through Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue; Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a study that sought to discover micro-level social interactions in fluid outdoor learning spaces. Our methodology was centred around the children; our methods moved with them and captured their social interactions through mobile audio-recording. We argue that our methodological approach supported access to…

  9. Canoe Pedagogy and Colonial History: Exploring Contested Spaces of Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbery, Liz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore how histories of colonialism are integral to the Euro-Western idea of wilderness at the heart of much outdoor environmental education. In the context of canoe tripping, I speculate about why the politics of land rarely enters into teaching on the land. Finally, because learning from difficult knowledge often troubles the…

  10. Wilderness U.: Opportunities for Outdoor Education in the U.S. & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillon, Bill

    The 1980s saw a dramatic change in the use of leisure as millions of Americans turned to vacations that emphasized exploration, learning, and renewed awareness of the natural world. The first part of this three-part sourcebook lists approximately 270 institutions, organizations, and businesses offering programs in outdoor education, environmental…

  11. Strategies to Affect Student Awareness of Natural and Social Environments in Outdoor Education: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Several instructional strategies have been developed and employed to affect student awareness of natural and social environmental settings. Three instructional strategy orientations have been structured for affecting student conceptual learning and values acquisition-clarification: affective, cognitive, and affective-cognitive. Outdoor education…

  12. Exploring Bi-Cultural Awareness through Outdoor Education in Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawdy, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of outdoor-based experiential learning in an undergraduate physical education teacher preparation program to develop a culturally-sensitive pedagogy for work with children from different cultures. Applying the six-stage process for becoming a bi-cultural teacher (Klug & Whitfield, 2003), teacher preparation students…

  13. Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…

  14. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  15. Tacit Knowledge and General Qualification: Concepts of Learning in Everyday Life and Formal Education When Work Changes with Examples from Office Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    An analysis of office work (OW) highlights the relationship between formal vocational qualifications and tacit knowledge gained through experience. In OW, "abstracted" skills (typewriting, correspondence) and theory are taught in schools out of their practical context and can become obsolete because of technological change. Some types of "abstract…

  16. Formal descriptions for formulation.

    PubMed

    This, Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Two formalisms used to describe the physical microstructure and the organization of formulated products are given. The first, called "complex disperse systems formalism" (CDS formalism) is useful for the description of the physical nature of disperse matter. The second, called "non periodical organizational space formalism" (NPOS formalism) has the same operators as the CDS formalism, but different elements; it is useful to describe the arrangement of any objects in space. Both formalisms can be viewed as the same, applied to different orders of magnitude for spatial size. PMID:17875375

  17. Informal Conversations about Teaching and Their Relationship to a Formal Development Program: Learning Opportunities for Novice and Mid-Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in informal activities, like conversations with colleagues, is one way that professionals can learn within workplace contexts. Informal conversations present opportunities for academics to learn about teaching. The current study investigated academics' experience of informal conversations, and their experience of the relations between…

  18. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  19. Injury causation in the great outdoors: A systems analysis of led outdoor activity injury incidents.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G; Finch, Caroline F; Cassell, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Despite calls for a systems approach to assessing and preventing injurious incidents within the led outdoor activity domain, applications of systems analysis frameworks to the analysis of incident data have been sparse. This article presents an analysis of 1014 led outdoor activity injury and near miss incidents whereby a systems-based risk management framework was used to classify the contributing factors involved across six levels of the led outdoor activity 'system'. The analysis identified causal factors across all levels of the led outdoor activity system, demonstrating the framework's utility for accident analysis efforts in the led outdoor activity injury domain. In addition, issues associated with the current data collection framework that potentially limited the identification of contributing factors outside of the individuals, equipment, and environment involved were identified. In closing, the requirement for new and improved data systems to be underpinned by the systems philosophy and new models of led outdoor activity accident causation is discussed. PMID:24284079

  20. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  1. A Teachers' Guide for the Outdoor School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

    The general aim of this guide is to aid the teachers of the fifth and sixth grade boys and girls who participate in the Outdoor School program at the Battle Creek Outdoor Center. Another major aim of this guide is to aid the outdoor school teachers who bear the major responsibility in implementing the outdoor school program. An historical overview…

  2. Environmental Respect: A New Approach to Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huck, Albert R.; Decker, Eugene

    Most outdoor education programs do not include the teaching of correct outdoor behavior. The purpose of this manual is to assist educators and concerned lay persons in establishing an outdoor education program with an instructional strategy that will manipulate students into becoming responsible, ethical, respectful outdoor citizens. Both lay…

  3. Creating and Enriching Quality and Safe Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Can teachers of young children create stimulating and enriching outdoor environments that are also safe? This article highlights early childhood outdoor safety standards and presents a framework for creating quality and SAFE™ outdoor environments in early childhood programs that support children's interest and best practice. The outdoor

  4. Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Michael G.

    In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

  5. Spatial reference frame of attention in a large outdoor environment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Won, Bo-Yeong; Swallow, Khena M.; Mussack, Dominic M.

    2014-01-01

    A central question about spatial attention is whether it is referenced relative to the external environment or to the viewer. This question has received great interest in recent psychological and neuroscience research, with many but not all, finding evidence for a viewer-centered representation. However, these previous findings were confined to computer-based tasks that involved stationary viewers. Because natural search behaviors differ from computer-based tasks in viewer mobility and spatial scale, it is important to understand how spatial attention is coded in the natural environment. To this end, we created an outdoor visual search task in which participants searched a large (690 square feet), concrete, outdoor space to report which side of a coin on the ground faced up. They began search in the middle of the space and were free to move around. Attentional cuing by statistical learning was examined by placing the coin in one quadrant of the search space on 50% of the trials. As in computer-based tasks participants learned and used these regularities to guide search. However, cuing could be referenced to either the environment or the viewer. The spatial reference frame of attention shows greater flexibility in the natural environment than previously found in the lab. PMID:24842066

  6. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory

    PubMed Central

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in “normal” science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p < 10?4), and that the outdoor-teaching has generally been perceived as more practical than teaching at the normal school context (p < 10?4), irrespective of gender or school culture. We are going to provide in-depth analyses of all quantitative findings with our qualitative data and thus explain the findings logically, with respect to the direction of the statistical interpretation, and substantially, with respect to the meaning of the discoveries. We conclude that outdoor programming appears to be a suitable tool to trigger interest in science in youngsters, especially for less motivated pupils. PMID:25741301

  7. The effect of an outdoor setting on the transfer of earth science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jerry Marvin

    The ability of students to transfer concepts learned in school to future learning and employment settings is critical to their academic and career success. Concept transfer can best be studied by defining it as a process rather than an isolated event. Preparation for future learning (PFL) is a process definition of transfer which recognizes the student's ability to draw from past experiences, make assumptions, and generate potential questions and strategies for problem resolution. The purpose of this study was to use the PFL definition of concept transfer to examine whether a knowledge-rich outdoor setting better prepares students for future learning of science concepts than the classroom setting alone does. The research hypothesis was that sixth-grade students experiencing a geology-rich outdoor setting would be better prepared to learn advanced earth science concepts than students experiencing classroom learning only. A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study on two non-equivalent, self-contained sixth-grade rural public school classes. After a pretest was given on prior geology knowledge, the outdoor treatment group was taken on a geology-rich field excursion which introduced them to the concepts of mineral formation and mining. The indoor treatment group received exposure to the same concepts in the classroom setting via color slides and identification of mineral specimens. Subsequently, both groups received direct instruction on advanced concepts about mineral formation and mining. They were then given a posttest, which presented the students with a problem-solving scenario and questions related to concepts covered in the direct instruction. A t-test done on pretest data revealed that the indoor treatment group had previously learned classroom geology material significantly better than the outdoor treatment group had. Therefore an analysis of covariance was performed on posttest data which showed that the outdoor treatment group was better prepared for future learning of advanced geology concepts than the indoor treatment group. Because the environment chosen for this study was by nature one that contained variables outside the control of the researcher, it can only be speculated that the outdoor environment was the agent of transfer. Subsequent studies need to be done to substantiate this hypothesis.

  8. How does non-formal marine education affect student attitude and knowledge? A case study using SCDNR's Discovery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Mary Francis

    Non-formal environmental education provides students the opportunity to learn in ways that would not be possible in a traditional classroom setting. Outdoor learning allows students to make connections to their environment and helps to foster an appreciation for nature. This type of education can be interdisciplinary---students not only develop skills in science, but also in mathematics, social studies, technology, and critical thinking. This case study focuses on a non-formal marine education program, the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources' (SCDNR) Discovery vessel based program. The Discovery curriculum was evaluated to determine impact on student knowledge about and attitude toward the estuary. Students from two South Carolina coastal counties who attended the boat program during fall 2014 were asked to complete a brief survey before, immediately after, and two weeks following the program. The results of this study indicate that both student knowledge about and attitude significantly improved after completion of the Discovery vessel based program. Knowledge and attitude scores demonstrated a positive correlation.

  9. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...provided by a sprinkler system or other means. (b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter...

  10. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...sprinkler system or other means. (b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be...

  11. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...sprinkler system or other means. (b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be...

  12. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...sprinkler system or other means. (b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be...

  13. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits kept outdoors to protect themselves from the direct rays of the sun. When the atmospheric temperature exceeds 90 °F. artificial cooling shall be provided by a sprinkler system or other...

  14. Outdoor Education Can Help the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Students with disabilities were able to develop academically and socially through participation in an outdoor education program. These students are helped by being allowed to take risks and responsibilities like everyone else. (CMJ)

  15. Usability of Outdoor Spaces in Children's Hospitals 

    E-print Network

    Pasha, Samira

    2012-07-16

    Researchers have studied the positive effect of healing outdoor environments on hospitalized children, their family members and staff's health and mood. Consequently many modern hospitals dedicate portions of their space ...

  16. "An Outdoor Renaissance". Proceedings of the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation (4th, Boone, North Carolina, November 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jim, Ed.; And Others

    This conference proceedings record contains 17 papers concerning outdoor education, outdoor recreation programs, adventure education, and environmental education. Papers include: "Nature's University" (keynote speech on environmental ethics and outdoor education); "Mission '90" (a workshop on developing a mission statement for outdoor programs);…

  17. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs have been…

  18. Combination of Indoor and Outdoor Positioning

    E-print Network

    Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook 1m10m100m1km10km IndoorOutdoorRange 10 m 100 m 1 mm 1 cm 1 dm 1 m 10 Overview of Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook 1m10m100m1km10km Indoor Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook 1m10m100m1km10km IndoorOutdoorRange 10 m 100 m 1 mm 1 cm

  19. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  20. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  1. Reasoning and Formal Modelling

    E-print Network

    Löwe, Benedikt

    Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 7 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 7 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 7 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reminder: logica

  2. The influence of outdoor school yard experiences on elementary students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sarah Carrier

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of outdoor school yard activities on elementary students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. In addition, the interaction of students' gender with each of these variables was examined. Data were collected on 105 students in 4th- and 5th-grade public school classes in Gainesville, Florida. Two intact classes were used, one treatment and one control group at each grade level. The treatment group students participated in 14 weeks of weekly outdoor school yard activities exploring environmental science knowledge and attitude topics in a systems context. Pearson correlation coefficients and Cronbach coefficient alpha were used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANCOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < 05) revealed that 5th-grade students' who participated in the outdoor school yard activities showed significant differences in environmental knowledge when compared with the 5th-grade control group students who had no outdoor school yard experiences. Although the results of the study indicated that outdoor school yard experiences do not impact students' environmental attitudes, behaviors, or comfort levels in the outdoors, significant gender differences were found in 5th-grade females' environmental attitudes and behaviors when compared with 5th-grade males. The results of this study indicate the potential for effective use of the school yard for helping students learn firsthand about environmental knowledge and issues. Because the school yard offers teachers and students a readily available and convenient outdoor learning setting, its use in environmental education merits further research.

  3. A Week in the Wilderness of the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont: An Outdoor Science Education Course for Graduate and Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; Walker, R. M.; Anthony, K. V.

    2014-12-01

    Graduate and undergraduate students with an interest in science education complete an intensive three-week "Maymester" course at Mississippi State University that includes one week of field experience teaching science in outdoor environments. The focus of the course includes the history and rationales for interdisciplinary outdoor education and informal learning environments while promoting successful pedagogical practices to enhance science instruction. Students gain valuable outdoor education field experience through a week of full emersion at a residential environmental learning center at the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont, TN (www.gsmit.org) that challenges perceptions of what many believe are "good teaching" practices. Tremont offers multiple overnight educational options for K-12 schools, teacher professional development programs, master naturalists trainings, and citizen science opportunities to the public. Being fully immersed in the outdoors teaching and learning about Earth Science interdisciplinary topics creates a paradigm shift in what is considered to be effective teaching by the graduate and undergraduate participants. Prior to the week at Tremont, students select a Tremont created outdoor educational activity to teach their fellow the graduate and undergraduate students while at Tremont. All activities promote inquiry and hands-on exploration utilizing authentic science process skills in outdoor field research settings that can also be adapted for local school environments. At Tremont the students reside in platform tents located at the center to allow complete immersion in the culture of informal learning unique to outdoor education. In addition to gaining personal experiences leading outdoor science activities, the college students get to actively observe experts in the field of outdoor ecological education model exemplary pedagogical practices of guided inquiry and effective questioning strategies. The impact of the full emersion field experience gained by class participants will be one that they can implement into a variety of science education settings to enrich understanding of the Geosciences to diverse audiences.

  4. Non-Formal Education for a Culturally Isolated Student in a Remote Area: The Case of a Thai Student Who Received Learning Assistance via the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how a language minority student developed through flexible online learning assistance for the entrance examination of a Japanese public high school. The simple camera function of a digital tablet helped the isolated Thai student attain success in developing academic skills and self-esteem. The case also shows the insight…

  5. Programs for Children with Specific Learning Disabilities. P.L. 91-230, Title VI-G Formal Final Evaluation. (Statistical Analysis of Data).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Philip J.

    The paper reports the final evaluation of a program for approximately 143 learning disabled (LD) students (grades 6-to-12) from six school districts. A number of test instruments were used to evaluate student progress during the program, including the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, and the…

  6. Personal exposure to PM 2.5 and element composition—A comparison between outdoor and indoor workers from two Mexican cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovalin-Ahumada, Horacio; Whitehead, Lawrence; Blanco, Salvador

    Many individuals work outdoors in the formal and informal economy of the large urban areas in developing countries, where they are potentially exposed for long periods to high concentrations of ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). This study describes the personal exposures to PM of 2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter and smaller (PM 2.5) for a sample of outdoor and indoor workers in two cities, Mexico City and Puebla, in central Mexico. Thirty-six workers in Mexico City and 17 in Puebla were studied. Thirty were outdoor workers (i.e., taxi and bus drivers, street vendors, and vehicle inspectors) and 23 were indoor (office) workers. Their personal exposures to PM 2.5 were monitored for a mean 19-h period. In Mexico City, the street vendors and taxi drivers overall exposures were significantly higher than indoor workers were. In Puebla, bus drivers had a higher overall exposure than vehicle inspectors or indoor workers. Most of the exposures were above the 65 ?g m -3 24-h Mexican standard. In Mexico City, exposures to Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and Cd were higher for outdoor than for indoor workers. In Puebla, exposures to Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, and Zn also were higher for outdoor workers. In Mexico City outdoor workers exposures to Cu, Pb, Cr, Se and Mo were 4 or more times higher than for Puebla outdoor workers, while Puebla outdoor workers' exposures to V, Si, Fe and Ca were 3 or more times higher than Mexico City outdoor workers. These results suggest that for these outdoor workers the elevated local ambient air PM concentrations and an extended period spent outside are more important contributors to total exposures than indoor concentrations. These workers could be at particular risk of increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient PM.

  7. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  8. Nature, Nurture, Knowledge: The Promise of Experiential Learning for Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kara Marie

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that many students learn best when teaching practices are outdoors, nature-based, and experiential. Meaningful outdoor experiences increase students' social and academic achievement and contribute to the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills Experiential and nature-based instruction in the outdoors has been…

  9. Learning the Ropes: A SpeyGrian Sailing Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen educators went Scottish island-hopping on a 100-year-old sailing boat to learn journal writing and new techniques in outdoor learning, gain confidence for teaching about controversial issues, and experience creative education in general. This narrative of their journey eloquently captures the essence and power of experiential, outdoor

  10. Learning at Not-School: A Review of Study, Theory, and Advocacy for Education in Non-Formal Settings. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Schools do not define education, and they are not the only institutions in which learning takes place. After-school programs, music lessons, Scouts, summer camps, on-the-job training, and home activities all offer out-of-school educational experiences. In "Learning at Not-School," Julian Sefton-Green explores studies and scholarly research on…

  11. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed.

  12. Contributions to reproducible CPV outdoor power ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Pierre; Domínguez, César; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2014-09-01

    Methodologies that aim to obtain a reproducible power rating are still under discussion at the WG7 of the IEC and there is a need for feedback from real field application in order to validate or improve these methods. These procedures are evaluated through the outdoor rating of seven modules from four different CPV technologies, which have been measured at the CEA outdoor monitoring bench at the Institut National de l'Energie Solaire (INES) site. The benefit of introducing other procedural considerations is analyzed, namely the inclusion of spectrally-corrected irradiance, the utilization of lens temperature as a new parameter for regressions and the optimization of dataset filtering.

  13. A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusch, Peggy L.

    2009-12-01

    Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education centers such as museums, zoos and aquariums has stimulated studies of the relationship between learning in and outside of schools. Although many studies focus on the teachers, the contexts, and/or the students during the field trip, only a few look at the entire process of learning by including the classroom setting before and after the field trip. This study was designed to develop understandings of the student process of learning during and surrounding an environmental science field trip to an outdoor setting. John Dewey's extensive writings on the relationship between experience and learning informed the analysis, creating a focus on active and passive elements of the experience, continuity within and across contexts, the interactive nature of the experience and the importance of subject matter. An exploration of environmental education (EE), environmental science (ES), and nature study as content revealed the complexities of the subject matter of the field trip that make its presentation problematic. An urban school was chosen to contribute to the research literature about urban student learning in outdoor environments. During the field trip, the students' active engagement with each other and the environment supported meaningful remembrances of the field trip experiences during interviews after the field trip. The students accurately described plants and animals they had observed in different habitats during the field trip. They also made connections with their home life and prior experiences in the outdoors as they discussed the field trip and drew pictures that represented their experiences. One student integrated his outdoor experience with a language arts assignment as he reflected deeply on the field trip. One implication of this study is that educational experiences in outdoor natural environments are complex in ways that contribute to lack of continuity between science lessons in an elementary classroom and environmental science field trip. Long term relationships between schools and informal settings that recognize the strengths of both contexts in terms of student learning processes surrounding field trip experiences are needed to strengthen the educative process for field trip participants.

  14. Child Care Centers Offering Too Little Outdoor Time

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155841.html Child Care Centers Offering Too Little Outdoor Time Some kids ... Nov. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Preschool children at child care centers spend too little time outdoors, a new ...

  15. Terrain sensing and estimation for dynamic outdoor mobile robots

    E-print Network

    Ward, Christopher Charles

    2007-01-01

    In many applications, mobile robots are required to travel on outdoor terrain at high speed. Compared to traditional low-speed, laboratory-based robots, outdoor scenarios pose increased perception and mobility challenges ...

  16. Outdoor Equipment Checkout Pricelist First Addit First Addit First Addit

    E-print Network

    .95 Community Rate Item Type Student Rate Employee Rate Replace Fee #12;Outdoor Equipment Checkout Pricelist.00 $599.95 #12;Outdoor Equipment Checkout Pricelist Bouldering Package Shoes, Crash Pad $11.00 $7.00 $15

  17. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  18. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

  19. Training Outdoor Educators: Integrating Academic and Professional Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter; Morgan, Alastair

    In the United Kingdom, outdoor educators have varied backgrounds in terms of academic versus professional outdoor training, and the profession has not agreed upon required qualifications. Multiple influences in the historical development of outdoor education have contributed to this situation. Since the 1970s, several U.K. colleges and…

  20. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    Prepared specifically for use in one-week outdoor summer camp programs for migrant children aged 10-15, the twenty bilingual (Spanish and English) educational and recreational activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps package have been revised to develop language skills as well as an awareness of the outdoor

  1. Leadership and Administration of Outdoor Pursuits. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis; Blanchard, Jim

    Outdoor leadership aims to assist outdoor participants in making logical and safe transitions from the routine of everyday life to a positive interaction with the natural world. Designed for outdoor leaders and administrators of recreational, educational, and adventure programs, this book provides an overview of current professional practices in…

  2. Outdoor Education. The Classroom Teacher Series in Health Education, Physical Education, and Recreation, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    Outdoor Education is presented as a means of curriculum enrichment through experiences in and for the outdoors. Discussion includes the definition and need for outdoor education, enrichment activities in the out-of-doors, outdoor education laboratories, day camp and resident camp programs, and resources for outdoor education. Outdoor school…

  3. OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

  4. Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

    An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

  5. A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Ruth W.

    More than 700 areas in Ohio, useful as sites for environmental and outdoor studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include national forests; state parks; forest and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; metropolitan, country, and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties; conservancy district lands and…

  6. The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Kent

    Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of…

  7. Beyond Networking: Connecting University Outdoor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Ivan; Morgan, Brett

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the authors started a discussion about St. Cloud State University Outdoor Endeavors working together to run a trip in the Everglades National Park. The following summer they began the planning process through phone conversations, email and division of tasks. Despite the physical distance and separate university systems, each with their…

  8. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions. PMID:10931793

  9. Outdoor Education Expands Small School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, James; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes how the Violet Hill, Arkansas K-12 school district developed a new curriculum through outdoor education. Describes how the district's alternative energy agricultural complex (including a windmill, solar greenhouse, and farm plots, and gardens) will be incorporated into the curriculum via math, business, science, agriculture, economics,…

  10. Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peta

    2007-01-01

    Officially founded in 1972 (but existing in another form before that), the Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association (SOEEA) is steadily approaching its 40th birthday and still going strong. A year ago (2006), however, this was not the case. At that time both the past-president and administrative assistant (a married couple)…

  11. APT: Accurate Outdoor Pedestrian Tracking with Smartphones

    E-print Network

    Li, Qun

    APT: Accurate Outdoor Pedestrian Tracking with Smartphones Xiaojun Zhu, Qun Li, Guihai Chen§ State pedestrians with smartphones. APT performs better than the built-in GPS module of the smartphone in terms for map matching. When the user is walking with the smartphone, the dead reckoning algorithm monitors

  12. Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Di

    A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

  13. Building Social Capital through Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…

  14. The Crystal Lake Outdoor Education Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, George W.

    A 3-year school-community outdoor education program in the elementary school district in Crystal Lake, Illinois, was funded in 1967 under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Success of the project was such that the board of education agreed to fund the program locally and enlarge its scope. As reported, the keynotes were…

  15. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  16. Exploring the Outdoors with Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a variety of tips for parents and teachers for exploring the outdoors with children. Activities are grouped according to appropriateness to the four seasons. Ideas presented relate to role playing, games, group problems, values, pollution, arts and crafts, science, record keeping, music, and classroom nature. (SA)

  17. Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, John H.; And Others

    Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

  18. Standards and Practices in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Stuart, Ed.

    The guide provides a series of checklists and guidelines to assist Quebec outdoor education teachers and/or leaders and their principals in planning safe, enjoyable, educational experiences for elementary and secondary school students. The basic planning checklist itemizes specific tasks under eight categories: (1) preliminary discussion with…

  19. Equivalent outdoor temperature for district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, G.R.; Jonsson, V.K.

    1995-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of various climatic variables on the mass flow in district heating systems. The aim is to establish an equation of what is called the equivalent outdoor temperature. Two possible ways of doing this are considered. In both cases, dynamic models are needed of the mass flow with climatic variables as external inputs. The resulting equation for the equivalent outdoor temperature, which may be nonlinear, shows the equivalent value of each climatic variable in degrees Celsius. Thus, the equivalent temperature can be considered a variable that contains the effect of various weather factors on the mass flow. Measurements from the daily operation of a heating company in Iceland are used in a case study. It is also shown how the uncertainty in the parameters of the equivalent temperature equation can be estimated. The results indicate that, based on the present data, a linear relation between the outdoor temperature, the wind speed, and the number of sunshine hours is adequate for describing the equivalent outdoor temperature.

  20. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.103 Section 3.103 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Facilities and...

  1. National Outdoor Leadership School: Spotlight on Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimelpfenig, Tod

    1991-01-01

    Discusses safety management at the National Outdoor Leadership School. Describes safety responsibilities of staff and administrators, staff training and skills development courses, administration and paperwork, student responsibility for safety, field support services, evacuation support system, safety audits, and the safety review process. (SV)

  2. A Partnership in Outdoor Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.

    1977-01-01

    A Maryland school district and the Smithsonian Institution have become partners in outdoor science education. Working together, they have developed a series of activities for students in grades 1-8 that are an integrated part of a total unified science curriculum, meeting the need of teachers and students alike. (MA)

  3. Resident Outdoor Education: Ingredients for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    1980-01-01

    The author identifies eight factors as essential to the success of a school camping program: enthusiastic staff, curriculum developed around unique outdoor experiences, instruction stressing "doing" rather than "telling," a schedule allowing flexibility, student input in planning, inservice for staff, use of trained counselors, and community…

  4. Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

    Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

  5. JMU Event Approval Form Outdoor Addendum

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Elizabeth A.

    JMU Event Approval Form Outdoor Addendum Completion of this form does not guarantee space availability or event approval. Event Reference #: Org./Dept. Name: Event Date: Start Time: End Time: Title of Event: Location: Attendance: Requestor/On-site Contact: Email/Phone: Event Description

  6. Reflections on Connecting through Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen; Brinkman, Danielle; Wabano, Mary Jo; Young, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Connecting through outdoor adventure is a process that may or may not seem obvious. The word "connecting" resonates with a powerful and extensive implied meaning that the authors feel compelled to share. A recent collaborative research project between leaders from the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve and researchers from Laurentian University…

  7. Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinnamon, Jerry

    This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…

  8. Outdoor Recreation in Two European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by older adults in Luxembourg (N=138) and in France (N=100) revealed a high extent of participation in outdoor recreation (a demonstrated predictor of successful aging) in the two countries. Identified similarities and differences in socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes, and environmental factors associated with…

  9. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  10. Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    . This annual "Consumer Confidence Report," is not required by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for small results are reviewed by DHEC. Our drinking water is safe and met all federal and state requirements during1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 2000 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

  11. Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    . This annual "Consumer Confidence Report" is not required by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for small results are reviewed by DHEC. Our drinking water is safe and met all federal and state requirements during1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 1999 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

  12. GPS Navigation for Outdoor and Indoor Environments

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    GPS Navigation for Outdoor and Indoor Environments Project in Lieu of Thesis presented of this would matter. #12;i ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an accurate positioning system. The GPS has an accuracy that varies from 4mm up to 11m. This project in lieu of thesis investigates

  13. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  14. Exploring Fencerows--An Outdoor Teaching Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    The exploration of fencerows as an outdoor teaching technique is described. The concepts that can be developed as students walk down the fencerows are related to science, life styles, and economy. By dividing a class into small groups, a teacher can employ problem-solving techniques in fencerow exploration. The following group topics are possible…

  15. Reasoning and Formal Modelling

    E-print Network

    Löwe, Benedikt

    ). Aristotle #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe A quick overview). Aristotle Logica vetus. Aristotle, Categories. Aristotle, De Interpretatione. Porphyry, Isagoge. Liber sex" perspective Course formalities Origins of Logic (1). Aristotle Logica vetus. Aristotle, Categories. Aristotle

  16. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  17. Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    for regular turfgrass and buffalo grass (developed by UC Davis as a water efficient alternative to turfgrassOutdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use, the front lawn is one of the greatest consumers of outdoor water use. Because of population growth, water

  18. Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, J. William

    1998-09-01

    This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

  19. Learning in a Personal Context: Levels of Choice in a Free Choice Learning Environment in Science and Natural History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberger, Yael; Tal, Tali

    2007-01-01

    The study aims to characterize contextual learning during class visits to science and natural history museums. Based on previous studies, we assumed that "outdoor" learning is different from classroom-based learning, and free choice learning in the museums enhances the expression of learning in personal context. We studied about 750 students…

  20. The effects of analogy-based instruction on concept learning and retention in a non-formal coral reef ecology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brylske, Alexander Frederick

    While a number of instructional models focus on the use of analogies, research into their effectiveness in enhancing comprehension and retention of scientific concepts, particularly involving adult learners, has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using the common teaching strategy for comparing the function of a coral reef to that of a city by using an analogy-based instructional model termed FAR. The training program entitled "Marine Resource Management for Dive Professionals" (MRMDP) was developed for this study. It was targeted to professionals in the recreational scuba industry to improve their understanding of coal reef ecology, as well as orient them to pertinent marine resource management issues, and promote environmentally-responsible attitudes and diving practices among their clients. A quasi-experimental pre-post-delayed posttest control group design was used to explore five research questions and corresponding hypotheses. A 55-item researcher-developed test of coral reef ecology was administered pre and post instruction. The delayed posttest was self-administered by the subjects three weeks after course completion. Data on seven experiential variables hypothesized as research factors were collected. Ten MRMPD courses were taught in seven nations, involving 194 subjects (85 subjects in four control courses, 109 in six treatment course). The results were analyzed using multiple regression/correlation (MRC) techniques to determine: (1) any significant relationship between pretest performance and experiential variables, (2) treatment versus control group posttest performance, and (3) treatment versus control group delayed posttest performance. Within the treatment group, learning gains and retention were determined by t-test analysis. Results indicated: (1) all research factors except one were significant predictors of pretest scores in the presence of the covariate; (2) no significant difference was found between control and treatment groups' pretest scores; (3) a significant interaction effect from a MANCOVA analysis, and resulting aptitude-treatment interaction analysis, showed group membership had a differential effect on the posttest relative to pretest scores; (4) the contribution of group membership to delayed posttest performance was significant; and (5) the treatment out-performed the control group on the posttest and delayed posttest. T-test analyses of treatment group performance showed a significant positive gain and retention.

  1. Educación no formal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  2. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

    2011-07-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  3. Polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers for outdoor use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogl, O.

    1982-01-01

    Polymeric materials that are stable enough to use outdoors without changes in excess of 20 years are investigated. Ultraviolet stabilizers or plastic materials were synthesized, polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers, particularly of the 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)2H-benzotriazole family were prepared their polymerization, copolymerization and grafting onto other polymers were demonstrated, and ultraviolet stabilizing systems were devised. These materials were evaluated from the photophysical point of view.

  4. Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Diane, Comp.

    A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

  5. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This presentation documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  6. Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics

    E-print Network

    Mahendra Wankhede; V. Khaire; A. Goswami; S. D. Mahajan

    2008-01-07

    The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the system was built and analyzed. This was followed by building a mock-up of the system and conducting experiments to validate the CFD model. It was found that some of the simplest cooling techniques like white oil paint on the outer surface can significantly reduce the impact of solar loads. Adding internal circulation fans can also be very effective. Using air-to-air heat exchangers was found to be the most effective solution although it is more complex and costly.

  7. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means. PMID:8049001

  8. Research on outdoor testing of solar modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dingpu; Xiong, Limin; Meng, Haifeng; He, Yingwei; Zhang, Jieyu

    2012-10-01

    With the rapid development of globe solar photovoltaic industry, performance testing and evaluation of solar modules have been largely concerned, while the primary basis of evaluations is the electrical performance of modules, namely the voltage - current characteristic curve. Nearly module's conversion efficiency which defined as its maximum electrical power (Pmax) divided by the total incident photon power (Pin) became more and more valued, because higher efficiency means lower cost. Generally, electrical performance parameters of the modules need to test under standard test conditions (STC), but STC can only be simulated in laboratory-controlled environment while solar modules actually work under natural sunlight outdoors, To solve this problem we propose researches on outdoor testing of solar modules to investigate the electrical performance parameters of solar modules in a variety of environmental conditions. Also, according to the results, we will analysis the impact of various environmental factors on the performance of solar modules, including radiation spectrum, Incident angle, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. In addition, we can analyze the difference between the performance parameters result of outdoor and indoor test and its main reason.

  9. Teaching and Learning outside the Classroom: Personal Values, Alternative Pedagogies and Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue

    2011-01-01

    The article reports on a recent survey of 334 settings in a county in the South West of England and five case studies exploring current practice and aspirations for learning outdoors for children between the ages of 2 to 11. Practitioners' aspirations for outdoor learning appear to go beyond providing fresh air and "letting off steam" and include…

  10. The Outdoor Classroom: School Camping as Education in NSW 1890-1960s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    At all levels of education in New South Wales outdoor experiences and outdoor education are a prominent part of the curriculum. This emphasis on the outdoors begins early. Outdoor activities are an important part of most primary schools whether they are public or private. Likewise at secondary level and at university outdoor education is still an…

  11. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  12. Supporting Professional Learning in a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Professional learning, combining formal and on the job learning, is important for the development and maintenance of expertise in the modern workplace. To integrate formal and informal learning, professionals have to have good self-regulatory ability. Formal learning opportunities are opening up through massive open online courses (MOOCs),…

  13. Grounds for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes initiatives, including public private partnerships, in which existing schools are transforming their grounds into outdoor learning spaces. Discusses the recreational, social, academic, political, and environmental rationales for such efforts and how to get started. Also offers a list of additional resources. (EV)

  14. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  15. Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Sherertz, P.C.; Llewellyn, G.C.; Armstrong, C.W. )

    1991-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor {number sign}1 and by 96 percent for instructor {number sign}2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors.

  16. Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bradley S.; Larson, Kim; Krehbiel, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs that provide science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational content are promising approaches to develop skills and abilities in students. These programs may potentially inspire students with engaging hands-on, minds-on activities that encourages their natural curiosity around STEM content areas.…

  17. Learning Mathematics in the Mobile Phone Environment: Students' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2011-01-01

    Researchers point at the importance of emotions and its study in mathematics education. This research examines middle school students' emotions during learning mathematics outdoors using the mobile phone. The constant comparison method was used to analyze 30 middle school students' emotions while carrying out 15 outdoor activities using the mobile…

  18. Developing an App-Titude for Learning in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Over a quarter of British households now own at least one tablet device, an increase of 63% in the 12 months from February 2013 (Internet Advertising Bureau UK, 2014). This trend has expanded into the classroom, with more schools either providing their pupils with an individual tablet device or encouraging parents to purchase them outright or via…

  19. Peer Learning in Higher Education: Learning from & with Each Other.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boud, David, Ed.; Cohen, Ruth, Ed.; Sampson, Jane, Ed.

    The essays in this collection explore how educators can formalize the use of peer learning to encourage more effective learning in higher education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: Making the Move to Peer Learning" (David Boud); (2) "Designing Peer Learning" (Jane Sampson and Ruth Cohen); (3) "Strategies for Peer Learning: Some Examples"…

  20. The Development of the Outdoor Leadership Training Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan; Hollenhorst, Steven

    A leadership simulation model, patterned after the avalanche simulator used by the United States Forest Service and applicable within a variety of field situations (outdoor camps, church groups, commercial enterprises) can augment the development and observation of outdoor leaders. The model includes both a broad base of practitioner inputs and an…

  1. Play and the Outdoors: What's New under the Sun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Susan J.; Klugman, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Childhood today is very different from what it was for previous generations, and a sizable part of the difference has something to do with the changing amount of outdoor play time. Early childhood educators are in a powerful and unique position to make sure that children's exposure to the outdoors and its ever-changing wonders is woven into the…

  2. Outdoor Education: Research Topic or Universal Value? Part Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Robbie

    2003-01-01

    Deep ecology is suited to outdoor education because it depends on direct experience of the environment for self-realization to occur. Joining experiential, presentational, propositional, and practical ways of knowing with deep ecology creates an educational framework that will enable outdoor education to deliver outcomes relating to sustainability…

  3. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  4. Out, out, and Away! Collection Development: Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, John

    2009-01-01

    Summer is fast approaching, and it will soon be time to climb the mountains to get their good tidings, as naturalist John Muir put it. In other words, librarians must now prepare for the influx of patrons making weekend recreational and summer vacation plans by stocking up on books and other resources on the great outdoors. Outdoor recreational…

  5. A Teacher's Guide to Resource - Use Outdoor Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor County Board of Public Instruction, Perry, FL.

    Included in this guide are ideas on evaluation and conduct of outdoor education classes and unit guides and lesson plans. An interdisciplinary approach is emphasized and the unit guides and lesson plans present activities related to science, mathematics, social studies, art, and music relevant to outdoor education in general. Unit guides for soil,…

  6. An IBM Compatible Participant Data Base System for Outdoor Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ron

    The process of maintaining mailing lists and other informational files on outdoor program participants is, plainly and simply, a pain in the neck. Mailing list maintenance is particularly difficult for programs that deal with university students, due to their frequent moves. This paper describes a new software program, the Outdoor Program Data…

  7. Water-Based Outdoor Recreation and Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jo-Ellen

    People with disabilities have long been hindered from participating in outdoor recreation activities such as fishing and boating because of structural and social barriers. Within the past decade, significant progress has been made toward including people with disabilities in outdoor recreation programs and improving access to related facilities…

  8. Using the Outdoors to Enrich the Teaching of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Milton R.

    Written for teachers in elementary and middle schools and for personnel at outdoor education centers, this publication is the second in an ERIC/CRESS series on utilizing outdoor education methodologies to enhance the academic curriculum. The resource guide suggests ways of getting students interested in arithmetic and mathematics and how to make…

  9. Outdoor Recreation on Government Lands in Texas, An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, David J.; Reid, Leslie M.

    This study represents an inventory of major government, non-urban outdoor recreation programs and facilities in Texas, as well as an indication of visitor use reported by individual agencies. The purpose of the analysis is to illustrate the importance of outdoor recreation in Texas and the contribution of various agencies, rather than to determine…

  10. Conservation Plan, Seaman Outdoor Laboratory for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Unified School District 345, KS.

    This guide focuses on the conservation plan for an outdoor laboratory. Although the plan focuses specifically on Seaman Outdoor Education Laboratory, the concepts could be applied to any natural area including parks, farms, and school grounds. Along with an introduction and justification, the guide includes the conservation plan that serves as the…

  11. Experience and Medical Decision-Making in Outdoor Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Shayne

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor leaders function in naturalistic decision-making contexts and may be influenced by personal, social, and environmental factors in making critical decisions in the field. The experience level of the outdoor instructor is posited as a critical variable in the development of his/her decision-making and overall judgment. This research measures…

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  13. Long distance outdoor navigation of an autonomous mobile robot

    E-print Network

    Ohya, Akihisa

    Long distance outdoor navigation of an autonomous mobile robot by playback of Perceived Route Map of an autonomous mo- bile robot for long distance outdoor navigation in our university campus. We propose how developed an experimental robot system and conducted experiments of autonomous navigation using PRM in our

  14. Brock BaseCamp--Outdoor Orientation Programs Come to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Tim

    2011-01-01

    What exactly is an "outdoor orientation program?" First offered in the United States in the 1930s by Dartmouth College, outdoor orientation programs (OOPs) use adventure programming to help incoming students adjust to university or college. Typically, these programs are conducted in a wilderness or backcountry setting, are several days long and…

  15. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  16. Outdoor Recreation in America. Trends, Problems, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Clayne R.

    Containing 14 chapters of information about agencies, programs, problems, and trends related to outdoor recreation, this book is designed to cover the field of study and (1) to interpret the present and future significance of outdoor recreation, (2) to describe the responsibilities of the numerous agencies and organizations involved, (3) to cover…

  17. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  18. Building a Backcountry Yurt: Ecological Design Intelligence within Outdoor Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobe, Kevin; Goltra, Norman

    Student volunteers at Utah State University's outdoor program designed, built, and carried a yurt 4 miles into the backcountry. A yurt is a traditional Mongolian structure, circular, with a lattice wall covered by material. Rafters slope upward to a top ring, on which sits a skylight. The outdoor program wanted to expand its offerings, and to do…

  19. Examining the Quality of Outdoor Play in Chinese Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Li, Kejian; De Marco, Allison; Chen, Yuewen

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of outdoor play for children's well-rounded development are maximized when children experience enjoyment and, at the same time, gain physical, motor, cognitive, and social-emotional competence. This study examined the quality of outdoor play in Chinese kindergartens, the dominant form of full-day early childhood education program…

  20. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  1. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  2. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  3. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  4. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  5. Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution Relationship: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ferris B.; And Others

    While extensive measurements have been and are being made of outdoor pollution, relatively few data have been gathered on indoor pollution. The data that are available are compiled and analyzed in the report. Based on a review of the literature, it was possible to infer relationships between indoor and outdoor pollution and to identify factors…

  6. ANIMATION OF CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES IN OUTDOOR AUGMENTED REALITY

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    ANIMATION OF CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES IN OUTDOOR AUGMENTED REALITY Amir H. Behzadan 1 , Vineet R are animated with the passage of simulated project time in outdoor AR. KEY WORDS Augmented Reality, GPS, Position, Orientation, Transformation, Simulation, 4D CAD. INTRODUCTION Augmented Reality (AR

  7. Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

    2011-01-01

    Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

  8. The Social Climate and Peer Interaction on Outdoor Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirkin, Benjamin J.; Middleton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This two-study report investigates achievement goal theory in the social domain to gain greater understanding of how the social climate of outdoor courses relates to peer interactions. In Study 1, we used mixed methods to examine how adolescents experienced the social climate of weeklong outdoor courses and how those perceptions related to peer…

  9. Outdoor Education Summer Curriculum Project--1979. Phoenix Elementary District #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halley, Arthur; And Others

    Outside the classroom there are many opportunities that provide a variety of environmental, ecological and academic-oriented experiences. For inner city minority children from low income families the need for outdoor education programs is particularly critical. Much of the outdoor experience can be established right on the school site by using the…

  10. Parallax Park - A bilingual, outdoor, interactive family exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Benedict, G. F.; Preston, S. L.; Armosky, B. J.; Cianciolo, F. W., Jr.; Wetzel, M. N.; Freeman, R.; Ransenberg, A.

    2004-12-01

    We present a design for Parallax Park, an outdoor, interactive family exhibit for McDonald Observatory that will bring the quest for learning about extra-solar planets and the astronomical distance ladder down to Earth for the more than 100,000 visitors who come to the Observatory each year. The Park will teach visitors the basic principles of astrometry. It will concentrate on distance determination and extrasolar planet detection, and emphasize the advantages of space-based astrometric measurements. Visitors will experience parallax by traveling a path around a representation of the Sun, mimicking Earth's orbit, while viewing representations of stars at various distances and in various directions. Concepts include Cepheids as standard candles, the inverse square law, and motion around a center of mass. The exhibit includes interactive components suitable for children's use. Text labels and printed guides, in English and Spanish, will explain how to use the Park to explore the uses of astrometry in modern science. This program was made possible through funding from the Hubble Space Telescope Cycle 11 and 12 Education and Public Outreach Grant Programs. Support from the NASA/JPL Space Interferometry Mission (JPL contract #1227563) is also gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Institute on Outdoor Education for the Handicapped. (Battle Creek Outdoor Education Center, Clear Lake, Dowling, Michigan, June 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

    In early June 1969, 55 special education and physical education teachers and experts in outdoor education met for a week at the Battle Creek Public Schools' outdoor education center, Clear Lake Camp (Michigan). The participants shared in the camping activities of children from Battle Creek classes for the physically and mentally handicapped, deaf,…

  12. An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Outdoor "Places" and Intentions for Teaching in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica; Patrick, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study explores pre-service teachers' past interactions with "place" in outdoor settings and how these experiences contribute to their current perceptions of the importance of taking their own students into the outdoors. Specifically, the researchers were interested in investigating if current pre-service teachers are part of…

  13. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  14. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  15. Outdoor propagation analysis of ultrawideband signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Guy A.; Wahid, Parveen; Palaniappan, Ravi; Tracy, Judd; Van Doorn, Eric; Lonske, Benjamin

    2003-08-01

    An ultra wide band (UWB) signal is defined as any radiation in which the 3-dB bandwidth is greater than 25% of the center frequency. UWB signals are characterized by extreme low powers and large bandwidths, which can be used for data, voice and video communication. Since UWB waveforms have very short time duration, they are relatively immune to multi-path cancellation effects. In this paper we test the performance of a simulation to model the propagation of an UWB signal in outdoor forested environment. The simulation uses a combination of Finite Difference Time Domain and ray tracing methods to simulate the UWB wave propagation. The model takes into consideration the dielectric constants of the materials of the trees and measures the signal strength for vertical and horizontal polarizations of the UWB antennas placed at various heights and distances from each other. The results of the simulation are compared to measurements obtained from tests conducted at a wooded area in Seneca Creek State Park, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was observed that upto 150 ft distance between the transmitter and receiver, the horizontally polarized antenna system gave better signal-to-noise ratio, but at greater distances the vertically polarized antenna system gave a better signal-to-noise ration performance. Three dimensional plots of the signal strengths and the signal-to-noise ratio for various transmitter and receiver distances are plotted for the system. These are compared with experimental results and the simulation closely matched the experimental data. The results of the simulation and measurements will be used for further developing an UWB location and tracking system for outdoor environments.

  16. Experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds in the northern Rocky Mountains: A compendium of outdoor laboratories in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W.C.; Friede, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    This is a compendium of experimental forests, ranges, watersheds, and other outdoor laboratories, formally established by the Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the universities in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. The purposes, histories, natural resource bases, data bases, past and current studies, locations, and who to contact for information are given for these areas that represent ecosystems ranging from deserts to cold subalpine forests.

  17. Indoor and outdoor characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds in city centre and suburban elementary schools of Aveiro, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Silva, J. R.; Vieira, S. L. A.; Caseiro, A.; Pio, C. A.

    2012-08-01

    Pollutants inside school buildings may affect children's health and influence learning performance and attendance. This study investigated pollutant concentrations inside and outside school buildings at different locations (city centre and suburban) in Aveiro, Portugal, between April and June 2010. The aim was to evaluate simultaneously comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and CO) and indoor and outdoor concentrations of VOCs, NO2, PM10 and bioaerosols. PM10 samples were analysed and characterised, for the first time, for the water soluble inorganic ions (WSII), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbonates, and detailed organic speciation. The CO2 and bioaerosol levels were higher than the acceptable maximum values to the occupants' comfort. Concentrations of the traffic tracer NO2 were higher outdoors. The daily indoor PM10 levels were always higher than those outdoors, except on weekends, suggesting that the physical activity of pupils and class works highly contributed to the emission and resuspension of particles. Almost all identified VOCs showed I/O ratios higher than one, which denotes an important contribution from indoor sources at both schools. The suburban school was more exposed to industrial emissions than the institution located in the city centre. Especially at the city centre, infiltration of outdoor particulates leads to contamination of school indoor environment with vehicle emissions and biomass burning smoke likely coming from biofuel use in nearby restaurants and bakeries.

  18. Indoor and Outdoor Mobility following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Ava S.T.; Myrah, Ainslie M.; Bauck, Robyn A.; Brinkman, Danielle M.; Friess, Shawn N.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor mobility capacity in older adults with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and, secondarily, to determine walking intensity in the same population and to compare all outcomes to a control group of older adults without knee pathology. Method: In this cross-sectional study, participants (TKA=16, mean 22.9 (SD 9.7) mo post TKA; control=22) completed indoor walking tests and a 580 m outdoor course that included varying terrain (e.g., curbs, grass, sidewalk) and frequent changes in direction. Walking capacity was assessed using stopwatches, global positioning system watches and accelerometers. Results: Outdoor walking time was moderately correlated (p<0.05) with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (r=0.65), stair-climb test (SCT) (r=0.67 ascending, r=0.79 descending), 10 m walk test (10 mWT) (r=0.73), and 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) (r=?0.75). Based on activity counts, walking intensity levels for participants in both groups were moderate (outdoor walk and 6 MWT). There was no significant difference in walking capacity between groups (TUG, SCT, 10 mWT, 6 MWT, outdoor walk). Conclusions: Common clinical walking tests are moderately correlated with outdoor mobility. Mobility capacity of individuals post TKA was similar to controls in both indoor and outdoor environments, and participants in both groups achieved moderate physical activity levels with walking. PMID:24403699

  19. Physiological and psychological responses to outdoor vs. laboratory cycling.

    PubMed

    Mieras, Molly E; Heesch, Matthew W S; Slivka, Dustin R

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological and psychological responses to laboratory vs. outdoor cycling. Twelve recreationally trained male cyclists participated in an initial descriptive testing session and 2 experimental trials consisting of 1 laboratory and 1 outdoor session, in a randomized order. Participants were given a standardized statement instructing them to give the same perceived effort for both the laboratory and outdoor 40-km trials. Variables measured include power output, heart rate (HR), core temperature, skin temperature, body weight, urine specific gravity (USG), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), attentional focus, and environmental conditions. Wind speed was higher in the outdoor trial than in the laboratory trial (2.5 ± 0.6 vs. 0.0 ± 0.0 m·s-1, p = 0.02) whereas all other environmental conditions were similar. Power output (208.1 ± 10.2 vs. 163.4 ± 11.8 W, respectively, p < 0.001) and HR (152 ± 4 and 143 ± 6 b·min-1, respectively, p = 0.04) were higher in the outdoor trial than in the laboratory trial. Core temperature was similar, whereas skin temperature was cooler during the outdoor trial than during the laboratory trial (31.4 ± 0.3 vs. 33.0 ± 0.2° C, respectively, p < 0.001), thus creating a larger thermal gradient between the core and skin outdoors. No significant differences in body weight, USG, RPE, or attentional focus were observed between trials. These data indicate that outdoor cycling allows cyclists to exercise at a higher intensity than in laboratory cycling, despite similar environmental conditions and perceived exertion. In light of this, cyclists may want to ride at a higher perceived exertion in indoor settings to acquire the same benefit as they would from an outdoor ride. PMID:24476776

  20. Second Language Learning in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Denny, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews second-language learning literature concerning factors which may affect adult students. Focuses on cognitive mechanisms, cerebral dominance theories, formal operations, motivation, and second-language teaching and learning. Offers suggestions for community college teaching and programs. (DMM)