Note: This page contains sample records for the topic formal outdoor learning from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Outdoor Adventure Education in a Formal Education Curriculum in Finland: Action Research Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adventure in school culture may seem quite a contradiction. In this paper I will present arguments on the idea that outdoor adventure learning contributes to formal education and is compatible with school practice and goals. This paper is based on research conducted for my thesis. The doctoral degree was completed at Oulu University, Finland, in…

Karppinen, Seppo J. A.

2012-01-01

2

Outdoor adventure education in a formal education curriculum in Finland: action research application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventure … it is real life,it is more than life,it is an experience to knowthat life is not too simple a thing!(a pupil, a boy of 12 years).Adventure in school culture may seem quite a contradiction. In this paper I will present arguments on the idea that outdoor adventure learning contributes to formal education and is compatible with school practice

Seppo J. A. Karppinen

2012-01-01

3

Outdoor adventure education in a formal education curriculum in Finland: action research application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventure … it is real life,it is more than life,it is an experience to knowthat life is not too simple a thing!(a pupil, a boy of 12 years).Adventure in school culture may seem quite a contradiction. In this paper I will present arguments on the idea that outdoor adventure learning contributes to formal education and is compatible with school practice

Seppo J. A. Karppinen

2011-01-01

4

Field Study Manual for Outdoor Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecology, the study of natural resources, and influences on natural resources are the concerns of this study, along with the idea of learning how to live with and understand our resources. This manual gives a detailed presentation of using the outdoors as a classroom and, although written on a more advanced level, probably could be adapted even to…

Milliken, Margaret; And Others

5

The Caboose Hike: Enhancing Outdoor Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes techniques for enhancing the experiences of participants in nature hikes or other outdoor group learning activities. Presents three techniques: (1) "The Caboose Hike" that engages students in sharing information; (2) "The Five Tools" that emphasizes use of the five senses; and (3) "Nature Detectives" that engages participants in a…

Siers, Gloria

2002-01-01

6

Using the Outdoors as a Learning Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a rationale for using the outdoors as a way of enriching the learning that takes place in the classroom for hearing-impaired learners. Specific examples of activities include examining the microworld, conducting a hypothetical interview with an animal, and making a map of community energy sources. (Author/JDD)|

Luckner, John L.; Humphries, Sherry

1992-01-01

7

Go outside to Learn: The Value of Outdoor Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outdoors opens up endless possibilities. Every place and space people experience offers an opportunity to learn. Accepted educational research first theorized by social scientist and author, Howard Gardner, shows that learners have nine multiple intelligences--visual, logical, intrapersonal, musical, body-kinesthetic, linguistic, interpersonal,…

Randall, Robin R.

2012-01-01

8

Shaping Learning through Space: The Case of Outdoor Management Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the relationship between experiential learning theory and outdoor management training, and describes a British outdoor management program grounded in adult learning theory. An introduction explores competing paradigms in management education: the managerialist perspective, which focuses on development of skills and…

Hall, Roger; Rowland, Caroline

9

Maternal Knowledge: Beyond Formal Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with first-time mothers indicate the importance of informal, incidental, and experiential learning with peers and mentors such as their mothers. Although not always recognized as such, material knowledge is a crucial learning resource. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

Fowler, Cathrine

2002-01-01

10

Learning to Transform Natural to Formal Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for inducing transformation rules that map natural-language sentences into a formal query or command language. The approach assumes a formal gram- mar for the target representation language and learns trans- formation rules that exploit the non-terminal symbols in this grammar. The learned transformation rules incrementally map a natural-language sentence or its syntactic parse tree into

Rohit J. Kate; Yuk Wah Wong; Raymond J. Mooney

2005-01-01

11

Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced learning in…

Broda, Herbert W.

2011-01-01

12

A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

2013-01-01

13

Attributes of Meaningful Learning Experiences in an Outdoor Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological study sought to identify the attributes of meaningful learning experiences as found in an outdoor education program. Thirteen students in the Wilderness Writing Program at Brigham Young University were the sample of this study. Their participation in outdoor recreational activities and their reflections about their…

Taniguchi, Stacy T.; Freeman, Patti A.; Richards, A. LeGrand

2005-01-01

14

Teaching and Learning Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer systems continue to advance, the positions they hold in human society continue to gain power. Computers now control the flight of aircraft, the cooling systems in chemical plants, and feedback loops in nuclear reactors. Because of the vital roles these systems play, there has been growing concern about the reliability and safety of these advanced computers. Formal methods

C. Neville Dean; Michael G. Hinchey

1996-01-01

15

Teacher Education: Learning to Use the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After an attempt to initiate a viable Outdoor Education program in the early 1960s was abandoned, during the early 1970s the Faculty of Education at the University of Western Ontario created an optional, 20-hour credit course in Outdoor Education for teacher education majors, which now attracts about 200 students per year. Objectives for the…

Bain, Rodney

16

A formalism for learning from demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes and formalizes the concepts and assumptions involved in Learning from Demonstration (LFD), a common learning technique used in robotics. LFD-related concepts like goal, generalization, and repetition are here defined, analyzed, and put into context. Robot behaviors are described in terms of trajectories through information\\u000a spaces and learning is formulated as mappings between some of these spaces. Finally,

Erik A. Billing; Thomas Hellström

2010-01-01

17

Learning elementary formal systems with queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elementary formal system (EFS) is a kind of logic programs which directly manipulates strings, and the learnability of the subclass called hereditary EFSs (HEFSs) has been investigated in the frameworks of the PAC-learning, query-learning, and inductive inference models. The hi- erarchy of HEFS is expressed by HEFS(m;k;t;r), where m; k; t and r denote the number of clauses, the

Hiroshi Sakamoto; Kouichi Hirata; Hiroki Arimura

18

Outdoor Experiential Education: Learning through the Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people can recall a time when they learned a skill or came to understand an idea while participating in an experience: learning in such a way that the action being taken and the resulting learning outcomes were synonymous. Time spent in hands-on efforts tend to engage learners physically and emotionally in both the process of learning and the…

Howden, Eric

2012-01-01

19

Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.  

PubMed

We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model. PMID:23777520

Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Prodi, P Di

2013-06-18

20

Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context- aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are unable to search, collect, share, and edit information by using information technology. To address such concerns,

Tsung-Yu Liu; Tan-Hsu Tan; Yu-Ling Chu

2009-01-01

21

Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

2009-01-01

22

Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

2009-01-01

23

Learning in the outdoor environment: a missed opportunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, the Welsh Assembly Government announced proposals for a Foundation Phase for children aged three to seven years. The Foundation Phase framework promotes a play?based approach to children's learning in both indoor and outdoor contexts and places children's well?being and their personal and social development at its core. While the framework is currently being piloted across Wales, full implementation

Trisha Maynard; Jane Waters

2007-01-01

24

Analysing attempts to support outdoor learning in Scottish schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new ‘Curriculum for Excellence’ in Scotland outlines a policy vision of a more integrated and holistic form of education; a commitment which offers considerable prospects for increased levels of outdoor learning in schools. With reference to Fullan’s theorizing on achieving educational change, this study investigated four main implementation areas, namely: policy aims, partnerships arrangements, and associated professionalism and sustainability

Malcolm Thorburn; Peter Allison

2012-01-01

25

Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning

Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

2011-01-01

26

‘Memories are made of this’: some reflections on outdoor learning and recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential benefits for learning that the outdoors may hold have been brought into increased focus in the UK by the recent introduction of a manifesto for learning outside the classroom (DfES, Learning outside the classroom: manifesto; Nottingham, Department for Education and Skills, 2006). This article draws on two recent studies of outdoor learning practices—a survey of 334 practitioners with children

Sue Waite

2007-01-01

27

The Outdoor Classroom Ages 3-7: Using Ideas from Forest Schools to Enrich Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outdoor area is now an integral part of many early years settings and schools, but is it being used to its full potential? This book clearly explains the learning potential of the outdoor environment and practically demonstrates how the "Outdoor Classroom" can be developed in early years settings and schools. Drawing on the Forest School…

Constable, Karen

2012-01-01

28

Formal and Non-Formal Digital Practices: Institutionalizing Transactional Learning Spaces in a Media Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how a classroom procedure known as PGE (Plan/Go-through/Evaluate) group work aims at integrating formal and non-formal media experiences and practices into classroom-based media learning. The study displays, on the one hand, how PGE group work emerged and was institutionally embedded in a media course. On the other hand, the…

de Lange, Thomas

2011-01-01

29

Non-Formal Learning: Clarification of the Concept and Its Application in Music Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…

Mok, On Nei Annie

2011-01-01

30

Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This paper explores the conceptual and methodological prob- lems arising from several empirical investigations of professional education and learning in the workplace. Aims. 1. To clarify the multiple meanings accorded to terms such as ' non- formal learning' , ' implicit learning' and ' tacit knowledge' , their theoretical assumptions and the range of phenomena to which they refer.

Michael Eraut

2000-01-01

31

Losing our way? The downward path for outdoor learning for children aged 2–11 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on three related empirical studies in the South West of England: a survey of outdoor experiential learning opportunities, examining attitudes, practice and aspirations of practitioners and children in educational and care settings for children between 2–11 years within a rural county; a follow-up series of five case studies; and an ongoing ESRC funded study of outdoor learning

Sue Waite

2010-01-01

32

Formalizing Triggers: A Learning Model for Finite Spaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a recent seminal paper, Gibson and Wexler (1993) take important steps to formalizing the notion of language teaming in a (finite) space whose grammars are characterized by a finite number of parameters. They introduce the Triggering Learning Algorithm ...

P. Niyogi R. C. Berwick

1993-01-01

33

Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

2007-01-01

34

Development and Evaluation of an RFID-based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification (RFID), the Internet, ubiquitous computing, embedded systems and database technologies to resolve such

Tan-Hsu Tan; Tsung-Yu Liu; Chi-Cheng Chang

2007-01-01

35

Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.  

PubMed

This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. PMID:23335571

Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

2013-01-01

36

The Slow Death of Formal Learning: A Polemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over recent years, approaches to education and training have become more informal, situated, outcome focused and experiential. Within this context, formal learning now plays a greatly diminished role, being supplanted by activity-based and technologically-based learning. This article, structured in the form of a polemic challenges readers to…

McGuire, David; Gubbins, Claire

2010-01-01

37

School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda

2007-01-01

38

Machine Learning on the Basis of Formal Concept Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of machine learning from positive and negative examples (JSM-learning) is described in terms of Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). Graph-theoretical and lattice-theoretical interpretations of hypotheses and classifications resulting in the learning are proposed. Hypotheses and classifications are compared with other objects from domains of data analysis and artificial intelligence: implications in FCA, functional dependencies in the theory of relational

S. O. Kuznetsov

2001-01-01

39

Stations Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

Madison, John P.; And Others

1976-01-01

40

Canadian outdoor adventure education: Hear the challenge — Learn the lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is the second largest country in the world by area. With its diverse geophysical features and relatively small population density it is a mecca for outdoor enthusiasts of all types. In the Canadian outdoor adventure education field there is an awakened acknowledgement of the centrality of Native peoples that pervades its practice today. There is also a strong sense

Tom G. Potter; Bob Henderson

2004-01-01

41

Connecting outdoor field experiences to classroom learning: A qualitative study of the participation of students and teachers in learning science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation focuses on improving the teaching and learning of science for teachers and students participating in outdoor field trips. Participants in this research included three classroom teachers, their students, and me as a teacher-researcher. The research was situated in the science classroom of three teachers representing schools with diverse socioeconomic factors and diverse student populations and The Outdoor Classroom,

Kimberly Lebak

2005-01-01

42

The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

Thompson, Carol C.

2012-01-01

43

Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors. Workshop of the University of New Hampshire Outdoor Education Program (Durham, New Hampshire, March 5, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of information from the "Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors" workshop provides brief summaries of each workshop session along with lists of human, community, and bibliographical resources available to outdoor education practitioners, the workshop itinerary, and promotional brochures. The 18 workshop topics included: expedition…

Gass, Michael A.

44

Bridging In-school and Out-of-school Learning: Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper thoroughly examines how one can effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning. The first part\\u000a discusses the difficulty in defining out-of-school learning. It proposes to distinguish three types of learning: formal, informal,\\u000a and non-formal. The second part raises the question of whether out-of-school learning should be dealt with in the in-school system, in view of the fact that

Haim Eshach

2007-01-01

45

IMS Learning Design Support for the Formalization of Collaborative Learning Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative Learning Patterns (CLPs) are detailed descriptions of best practices in collaborative learning. These patterns provide a way for a representation of key aspects of CSCL (Computer- Supported Collaborative Learning) that is easy to understand by software developers. To formalize these CLPs we have focused our attention on IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD). IMS-LD provides a means of expressing many different

Davinia Hernández Leo; Juan I. Asensio Pérez; Yannis A. Dimitriadis

46

IMS Learning Design Support for the Formalization of Collaborative Learning Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Collaborative Learning Patterns (CLPs) are detailed descriptions of best practices in collaborative learning These patterns provide a way easily understandable by software developers of representing key aspects of CSCL (Computer - Supported Collaborative Learning) To formalize these CLPs we have focused our attention on IMS Learning Design (IMS - LD) IMS - LD provides a means of expressing many

Davinia Hernández Leo; Juan I. Asensio-pérez; Yannis A. Dimitriadis

2004-01-01

47

Location Based Services for Outdoor Ecological Learning System: Design and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aimed to demonstrate how location-based services were implemented in ubiquitous outdoor ecological learning system. In an elementary school in northern Taiwan, two fifth grade classes on an ecology project were randomly selected: The experimental group could access the ecological learning system on hand-held devices while the control…

Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Feng, Ruei-Ting; Li, Kun Jing

2010-01-01

48

Rural Camp School Eco Learn--Outdoor Education in Rural Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outdoor education in rural and agricultural surroundings offers many possibilities for learning and studying different school subjects as well as teaching. This study aims to explore the development of an educational rural camp school, Eco Learn, and to investigate pupils' expectations and experiences and teachers' experiences of carrying out the…

Smeds, Pia; Jeronen, Eila; Kurppa, Sirpa; Vieraankivi, Marja-Liisa

2011-01-01

49

IMS Learning Design Support for the Formalization of Collaborative Learning Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative Learning Patterns (CLPs) are detailed descriptions of best practices in collaborative learning. These patterns provide a way easily understandable by software developers of representing key aspects of CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning). To formalize these CLPs we have focused our attention on IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD). IMS-LD provides a means of expressing many different pedagogical approaches (including collaborative learning), however

Davinia Hernández; Juan I. Asensio; Yannis A. Dimitriadis

50

Learning from Leisure: Developing Nature Connectedness in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "greening" of outdoor education has received increasing attention from educators in Aotearoa-New Zealand and internationally. Given contemporary global concerns about the scale of environmental issues and the associated recognition that educating for sustainability is a matter of urgency, the continuing exploration of pedagogies promoting…

Cosgriff, Marg

2011-01-01

51

Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection between PLE, social media, and self-regulated learning, and (c) provide a

Nada Dabbagh; Anastasia Kitsantas

52

New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

2010-01-01

53

Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module…

Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

2012-01-01

54

Learning through Landscape Designing Natural Children Outdoor Play in Jakarta Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses that the design of natural environment to promote greater learning opportunities for children. Limited space, lack of accessibility, lack of time and place, safety and security concerns, as well as advance influence of media and technology become problems in the development of natural children outdoor play area in Jakarta. This paper will look on the phenomena of

Susinety Prakoso

55

Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing the Learning Environment of Outdoor Science Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development of the Science Outdoor Learning Environment Inventory which includes seven scales. The instrument was used by high school students (N=643) and the results indicate that the instrument is a sensitive measure that differentiates between different types of field trips. Contains 19 references. (DDR)|

Orion, Nir; And Others

1997-01-01

56

Optimizing an Outdoor Experience for Experiential Learning by Decreasing Boredom through Mindfulness Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conditions conducive to mindfulness (being fully present and engaged in life as it is actually happening) enhance experiential learning and may be compared to Buddhist traditions of meditation. Among 164 Utah college students who participated in educational outdoor experiences, meditative techniques, such as mindfulness, reduced boredom by…

Trunnell, Eric P.; And Others

1996-01-01

57

Young Children and Educators Engagement and Learning Outdoors: A Basis for Rights-Based Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This article reports on a study undertaken with 4 early childhood programs in a medium-size city in Canada investigating young children's and educators' perspectives on engagement and learning possibilities outdoors. A rights-based methodology including participant observations and interactive activities with children as well as focus groups and discussion groups with educators reveals the diversity and richness of young

Natasha Blanchet-Cohen; Enid Elliot

2011-01-01

58

A Comparison between Children's Physical Activity Levels at School and Learning in an Outdoor Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physical activity levels were measured with an accelerometer in a case study including 19 children, from nine to ten years of age, in a Danish primary school. The teachers conducted their teaching in a forest every Thursday from 2000 to 2003. The purpose of this study was to measure the students' activity levels during outdoor learning days in…

Mygind, Erik

2007-01-01

59

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview  

PubMed Central

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective.

Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

2012-01-01

60

Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

2012-01-01

61

Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

2012-01-01

62

Authenticity in Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Bridging the Formal and the Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper attempts to bridge informal and formal learning by leveraging on affordance structures associated with informal environments to help learners develop social, cognitive, and metacognitive dispositions that can be applied to learning in classrooms. Most studies focus on either learning in formal or informal contexts, but this study seeks…

Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

2012-01-01

63

Professional Development across the Teaching Career: Teachers' Uptake of Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teachers' uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities across the career cycle. Analyses were based on data from 1939 German secondary teachers in 198 schools. Results showed that formal learning opportunities (in-service training) were used most frequently by mid-career teachers, whereas informal learning opportunities…

Richter, Dirk; Kunter, Mareike; Klusmann, Uta; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

2011-01-01

64

Do social networking technologies have a place in formal learning environments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This viewpoint essay seeks to discuss the promise and perils of integrating social networking technologies into formal learning environments. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The work is grounded in a new literacies perspective and brings insights from learning in participatory cultures to bear in the discussion of social networking sites in formal settings. Findings – The paper describes three major design

Erica Rosenfeld Halverson

2011-01-01

65

Gender Differences in Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Adult Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At first sight, participation rates in adult learning do not differ strongly between men and women. Further exploration, however, makes clear that differences exist at the level of the type of learning. Men participate more in work-related learning and experience more job-related motives to participate. Women take on the main responsibilities in…

Boeren, Ellen

2011-01-01

66

Non-Formal Education, Out-of-School Learning Needs and Employment Opportunities: Evidence from Mali  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Non-formal education (NFE) is now considered as playing a critical role in the achievement of the objective of Education for All, by reaching the learning needs of youth and adults who do not have access to formal education, increasing their employment opportunities and therefore contributing to poverty alleviation. Yet there is still…

Weyer, Frederique

2009-01-01

67

A learning algorithm for elementary formal systems and its experiments on identification of transmembrane domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a method for algorithmic learning of transmembrane domains based on elementary formal systems. An elementary formal system (EFS) is a kind of a logic program consisting of if-then rules. With this framework, the authors have implemented the algorithm for identifying transmembrane domains in amino acid sequences. Because of the limitations on computational resources, they restrict candidate hypotheses to EFSs

S. Arikawa; S. Kuhara; S. Miyano; A. Shinohara; T. Shinohara

1992-01-01

68

Formal and Informal Learning: Incorporating Communities of Practice into Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the focus on formal training and proposes a new way of incorporating communities of practice into professional development. It describes formal and informal learning found in organizations and discusses the implications of using communities of practice to foster professional development. Data collection involved observations…

Hara, Noriko

69

The Lifelong Learning Iceberg of Information Systems Academics--A Study of On-Going Formal and Informal Learning by Academics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a study that examined the lifelong learning of information systems academics in relation to their normal work. It begins by considering the concept of lifelong learning, its relationship to real-life learning and that lifelong learning should encompass the whole spectrum of formal, non-formal and informal learning. Most…

Davey, Bill; Tatnall, Arthur

2007-01-01

70

Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris' distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector

Philipp Cimiano; Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab

2005-01-01

71

Outdoor Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

2011-01-01

72

FORMAL COURSE DESIGN AND THE STUDENT LEARNING EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

What impact does collaboration between faculty and professional course designers have on the student learning experience? As the use of technologies increases, educational institutions have to find ways of identifying and addressing expectations about how technologies can best be incorporated into the teaching and learning experiences. This paper reports on efforts at Washington State University to develop and assess the

Gary Brown; Carrie B. Myers; Sharon Roy

2003-01-01

73

Self-Assessment of Language Learning in Formal Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the need for self-assessment as a learning strategy for second language learning. Argues that self-assessment produces learners who are more active and focused and better placed to assess their own progress in terms of communication. Offers practical suggestions for carrying self-assessment at the secondary school and university level.…

Harris, Michael

1997-01-01

74

Underpinnings of adult learning in formal teacher professional development in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite controversy in the literature, the present article assumes that the adult learning theory provides a powerful framework for evaluating training practices. This study explores the degree to which adult learning traits are embedded in optional seminars, the primary form of formal in?service teacher training in Cyprus and a traditional, structural approach towards teacher development. A quantitative research design is

Yiasemina Karagiorgi; Chrystalla Kalogirou; Valentina Theodosiou; Maria Theophanous; Panagiota Kendeou

2008-01-01

75

Teaching Science in the City: Exploring Linkages between Teacher Learning and Student Learning across Formal and Informal Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Science in the City seminar, an innovative approach to in-service and preservice science teacher development that bridges formal and informal science learning contexts. Drawing upon the tenets of design and evaluation research, the study focuses on the teachers' presentations of evidence of student learning from trips they made to the museum. The findings show linkages between

Maria S. Rivera Maulucci; Jennie S. Brotman

2010-01-01

76

Teaching Science in the City: Exploring Linkages between Teacher Learning and Student Learning across Formal and Informal Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the Science in the City seminar, an innovative approach to in-service and preservice science teacher development that bridges formal and informal science learning contexts. Drawing upon the tenets of design and evaluation research, the study focuses on the teachers' presentations of evidence of student learning from trips…

Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.; Brotman, Jennie S.

2010-01-01

77

Learning Taxonomy for Text Segmentation by Formal Concept Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the problems of deriving a taxonomy from a text and\\u000aconcept-oriented text segmentation are approached. Formal Concept Analysis\\u000a(FCA) method is applied to solve both of these linguistic problems. The\\u000aproposed segmentation method offers a conceptual view for text segmentation,\\u000ausing a context-driven clustering of sentences. The Concept-oriented Clustering\\u000aSegmentation algorithm (COCS) is based on k-means linear

Mihaiela Lupea; Doina Tatar; Zsuzsana Marian

2010-01-01

78

The Design of Learning Environments Using Videogames in Formal Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental aim of this contribution is to analyze the design of learning environments using videogames in schools. This analysis is the result of work done by our research team in primary and secondary education in Spain. Our interest is to analyze how content and strategies in education should be learnt via the use of digital games. During the last

Begoña Gros

2007-01-01

79

Job requirements and workers' learning: formal gaps, informal closure, systemic limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence that formal educational attainments increasingly exceed the educational job requirements of the employed labour force in many advanced market economies – a phenomenon variously termed ‘underemployment’, ‘underutilisation’, or ‘overqualification’. Conversely, both experiential learning and workplace case studies suggest that workers continually negotiate such ‘gaps’. This paper summarises results of recent national labour force surveys and workplace

D. W. Livingstone

2010-01-01

80

Supporting non-formal learning through co-design of social games with children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic motivation is hard to attain when designing games for educational purposes in non-formal learning settings. The approach I take in my research is to use a co-design technique to understand what motivates and entertains children while they work together in the creation of a social game aiming to teach younger children how to respond to an emergency. The technique

Diego Alvarado

2012-01-01

81

Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

2012-01-01

82

Oral Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Formal Instruction and Study Abroad Learning Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the differential effects of two learning contexts, formal instruction (FI) at home and a study abroad period (SA), on the oral production skills of advanced-level Catalan-Spanish undergraduate learners of English. Speech samples elicited through an interview at three data collection times over a 2-year period were…

Mora, Joan C.; Valls-Ferrer, Margalida

2012-01-01

83

Online Social Networks as Formal Learning Environments: Learner Experiences and Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the potential of social networking sites to contribute to educational endeavors is highlighted by researchers and practitioners alike, empirical evidence on the use of such sites for formal online learning is scant. To fill this gap in the literature, we present a case study of learners' perspectives and experiences in an online course…

Veletsianos, George; Navarrete, Cesar C.

2012-01-01

84

Portfolio Method in Assessment of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the use of portfolio method in the process of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (ANILA), with reference to the example of vocational teacher education. The purpose of the article is to explore the use of "portfolio" method as an opportunity to monitor the professional development of vocational (VET)…

Fokiene, Ausra; Sajiene, Laima

2009-01-01

85

Using CALL in a Formal Learning Context to Develop Oral Language Awareness in ESL: An Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|French learners at university meet difficulties in the comprehension of oral English. Being in a formal context of language learning, they need to develop language awareness to compensate for insufficient exposure to the English language. To meet the students' needs, data was collected in order to pinpoint the main errors made by French learners…

Vincent-Durroux, Laurence; Poussard, Cecile; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Aparicio, Xavier

2011-01-01

86

Toward a Theory of Self-Directed Learning: A Study of Experts without Formal Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors analyzed the biographies of twenty acknowledged experts without formal training beyond high school in search of commonalities that might suggest ways people become effectively self-directed in learning and accomplishment. Of the 154 characteristics identified, the fifty rated as most important were examined. They outline a pattern of education that is sharply focussed, active, experiential, self-directed, situational, and often

Maurice Gibbons; Alan Bailey; Paul Comeau; Joe Schmuck; Sally Seymour; David Wallace

1980-01-01

87

Managers become leaders at NDS : Program integrates formal learning, coaching, mentoring and project work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at how an integrated program of formal learning, coaching, business mentoring and project work is delivering results for a television solutions company, NDS. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Presents the comments of Philippa Davidson, human resources (HR) director at NDS, and Peter Ferrigno, NDS vice-president of communications and HR, plus the viewpoint of

Anthony Landale

2005-01-01

88

Outdoor Learning in Aotearoa New Zealand: Voices Past, Present, and Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many of the principles and practices that have influenced outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand find their genesis in the United Kingdom and North America. In recent times, many of these foundational assumptions have been called into question. This paper highlights how emerging "local" voices are questioning and reframing how outdoor

Cosgriff, Marg; Legge, Maureen; Brown, Mike; Boyes, Mike; Zink, Robyn; Irwin, Dave

2012-01-01

89

Outdoor Education, Camp Casey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A curriculum guide for the Camp Casey Outdoor Education program is contained in this document. Designed for fifth grade students and teachers in Northshore School District, Bothell, Washington, it emphasizes learning activities for use in the outdoors. General understandings relevant to the objectives of the program form the frame into which the…

Stansberry, Steve; And Others

90

Outdoor Education, Camp Casey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A curriculum guide for the Camp Casey Outdoor Education program is contained in this document. Designed for fifth grade students and teachers in Northshore School District, Bothell, Washington, it emphasizes learning activities for use in the outdoors. General understandings relevant to the objectives of the program form the frame into which the…

Stansberry, Steve; And Others

91

Enriching the Outdoor Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to expand the range of outdoor learning experiences by providing: (1) prop boxes or play crates; (2) a transition area to make going outdoors easier; (3) opportunities to observe birds, insects, weather, other children, and plants; (4) semi-structures to provide protection from weather conditions; and (5) a digging area for plants.…

McGinnis, Janet R.

2002-01-01

92

Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests and questions raised during visits to informal settings. Consequently teachers noted their students were better able to connect to traditional elements of school as a result of their informal experiences. Personal growth of students was also a major area of change. Increases in self-esteem, fieldtrip and classroom participation, as well as improved classroom behavior were reported and observed and improved the way the classroom functioned.

Schneider, Barbara P.

93

Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

2009-01-01

94

Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning

van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

2009-01-01

95

Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: an empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site, considerable research evidence underpinning these views

Beatrice van der Heijden; Jo Boon; Marcel van der Klink; Ely Meijs

2009-01-01

96

Incremental Learning of Cellular Automata for Parallel Recognition of Formal Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel language recognition by cellular automata (CAs) is currently an important subject in computation theory. This paper describes incremental learning of one-dimensional, bounded, one-way, cellular automata (OCAs) that recognize formal languages from positive and negative sample strings. The objectives of this work are to develop automatic synthesis of parallel systems and to contribute to the theory of real-time recognition by cellular automata. We implemented methods to learn the rules of OCAs in the Occam system, which is based on grammatical inference of context-free grammars (CFGs) implemented in Synapse. An important feature of Occam is incremental learning by a rule generation mechanism called bridging and the search for rule sets. The bridging looks for and fills gaps in incomplete space-time transition diagrams for positive samples. Another feature of our approach is that the system synthesizes minimal or semi-minimal rule sets of CAs. This paper reports experimental results on learning several OCAs for fundamental formal languages including sets of balanced parentheses and palindromes as well as the set {a n b n c n | n ? 1}.

Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Imada, Keita

97

The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor

Wood, Gregory

1997-01-01

98

The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor

Wood, Gregory

1997-01-01

99

Outdoor learning: curriculum imperatives and community relevance in a rural setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum imperatives motivate the school, and increasingly, the community, to participate

Myra Maposah-Kandemiri; Peter Higgins; Pat McLaughlin

2009-01-01

100

Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

2009-01-01

101

The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

Wistoft, Karen

2013-01-01

102

Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

2009-01-01

103

Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

2012-01-01

104

Outdoor Adventure Education: Applying Transformative Learning Theory in Addressing Instrumental and Emancipatory EE Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an interpretive study of the experiences of 23 Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) alumni to determine what participants found significant about their course and to what course elements they attributed this significance. Participants experienced personal transformations, which they attributed to spending extended time in pristine nature, separation of the course from normal life, the community that formed among course

Marianne E. Krasny

105

A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

106

Preservice early childhood educators’ perceptions of outdoor settings as learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they associate with them. Based on the results of 110 participants, this study suggests

Julie Ernst; Ladona Tornabene

2012-01-01

107

Dynamic Outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of the Dynamic Outdoors is to give participants an opportunity to experience and be able to utilize outdoor education for training purposes. The participants will explore trust, intimacy, honesty, openness, self esteem, self awareness, teamwork, and relationship building through outdoor initiatives and icebreakers. They will also gain knowledge, background information, and the foundations of outdoor education.

Laura Manley; Sara Emerick; Tait Davidson

2004-01-01

108

New Trade and Industrial Teachers' Perceptions of Formal Learning versus Informal Learning and Teaching Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trade and industrial (T&I) teachers enter the classroom as content level experts who may have acquired their content expertise through a combination of formal industry training and informal on-the-job experiences. When they make the career transition from industry to teaching, they must acquire professional teaching competencies. Like the content…

Burns, Janet Z.; Schaefer, Karen; Hayden, Jessie M.

2005-01-01

109

Teacher Learning and Instructional Change: How Formal and On-the-Job Learning Opportunities Predict Change in Elementary School Teachers' Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent education reform has emphasized the importance of teacher learning in improving classroom instruction and raising student achievement. This article focuses on teachers' learning opportunities, including formal professional development and on-the-job learning that occurs through interactions with colleagues. Using data from 30 elementary…

Parise, Leigh Mesler; Spillane, James P.

2010-01-01

110

Affordances and Form: Applying Lessons from Informal Learning to Formal Learning on the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of us, learning online is performed with a web browser and a search engine. With experience, we develop and hone skills at finding, filtering, and assessing resources made available on the World Wide Web. This kind of informal learning is entirely self-directed. We regulate our goals and time allotted in reaction to what we find as our inquiries

L. Howard; J. Johnson; G. Pap; K. Pence; L. Jurácz

111

The Substance Beneath the Labels of Experiential Learning: The Importance of John Dewey for Outdoor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper recommends a reconceptualisation of "experience learning". It is premised on a belief that the simplistic learning cycle is problematic and moreover is an oversimplified interpretation of Kolb's original model of experiential learning. We argue that to understand experiential learning fully a return to the original theoretical…

Ord, Jon; Leather, Mark

2011-01-01

112

The Substance Beneath the Labels of Experiential Learning: The Importance of John Dewey for Outdoor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recommends a reconceptualisation of "experience learning". It is premised on a belief that the simplistic learning cycle is problematic and moreover is an oversimplified interpretation of Kolb's original model of experiential learning. We argue that to understand experiential learning fully a return to the original theoretical…

Ord, Jon; Leather, Mark

2011-01-01

113

Outdoor Adventure Education: Applying Transformative Learning Theory to Understanding Instrumental Learning and Personal Growth in Environmental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a qualitative study of the experiences of 23 Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) participants to determine what participants found significant about their course and to what course elements they attributed this significance. Participants experienced personal transformations, which they attributed to spending extended time in pristine nature, separation of the course from normal life, the community that formed among course

Laura Galen DAmato; Marianne E. Krasny

2011-01-01

114

Outdoor Classrooms -- Planning Makes Perfect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum and provide a creative outlet for meeting national and state standards in several disciplines.

Haines, Sarah

2006-07-01

115

Tacit and Formal Knowledge and Learning in Small Business: An Exploratory Study on the Perceptions of Successful Businessmen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an exploratory study, whose objectives are: a)- to examine the perceptions of suc cessful small enterprises executives about the tacit and formal knowledge used in the leading of their businesses: what is their perceived level of knowledge in the main management topics, how do they think they learn and how do they see the knowledge of t heir

LUIZ CARLOS DE SÁ CARVALHO; MÔNICA ESTEVES RODRIGUES; BENITO DIAZ PARET

116

Outdoor allergens.  

PubMed Central

Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control.

Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

2000-01-01

117

Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

2012-01-01

118

Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

2012-01-01

119

Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

2007-01-01

120

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

2012-01-01

121

Ambient wood: designing new forms of digital augmentation for learning outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous and mobile technologies provide opportunities for designing novel learning experiences that move out of the classroom. Information can be presented and interacted with in a variety of ways while exploring a physical environment. A key issue this raises is when, where, what and how much? Our research is concerned with the design, delivery and interaction of digital information when

Y. Rogers; S. Price; G. Fitzpatrick; R. Fleck; E. Harris; H. Smith; C. Randell; H. Muller; C. O'Malley; D. Stanton; M. Thompson; M. Weal

2004-01-01

122

Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

2007-01-01

123

Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while contributing to the local community. Project methodology included research, site selection and analysis, conceptual diagrams, preliminary

Renee K. Byrd; Mary Taylor Haque; Lolly Tai; Gina K. McLellan; Erin Jordan Knight

2007-01-01

124

Outdoor Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Outdoor Education is a series of outdoor activities that include orienteering, soil and water conservation, forestry, minerals, wildlife, and basic first aid disciplines. This program was designed to enable learners to have hands-on contact with the natural world as well as experience various facets of their natural environment.

Cooper, John

1998-01-01

125

Outdoor Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

Mayes, Valynda

2010-01-01

126

Becoming an Outdoors-Woman.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a program developed to address barriers that prevent women from participating in hunting and fishing, and to give participants opportunities to learn outdoor skills in a nonthreatening environment. Over 600 women participated in 6 outdoor skill clinics in Wisconsin, Nebraska, Oregon, and Texas. Overviews marketing strategies related to…

Thomas, Christine L.; Peterson, Tammy A.

1995-01-01

127

Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills. The data indicated that there is not a significant difference between adolescents and post-adolescents (up to 16-years-old) ability to learn formal thinking skills. Both groups (adolescent and post-adolescent) showed improvement in their formal thinking skill ability after the intervention. The intervention also demonstrated evidence of improving students' intelligence scores.

Towne, Forrest S.

128

Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

Myers, Ray

129

Outdoor Unified Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Escalante (Utah) High School's outdoor unified studies field trip is a learning experience to be remembered. The four-day camping experience begins with pre-trip plans, pretests, and lecture/introductions to the Anasazi culture and to geologic formations to be visited. Horses (and equipment-carrying trucks) take the students into the desert to…

Liston, Louise

130

Take Math Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scavenger hunts, collecting bottle caps, observing shadows, and other outdoor activities can be developed into a mathematics unit that motivates students to acquire basic mathematical skills. A variety of natural ways to collect data are offered to help foster learning. (DF)

Schall, William E.

1984-01-01

131

Outdoor Ecology School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

Cole, Anna Gahl

2004-01-01

132

Science Sampler: Inquiry goes outdoors--What can we learn at the pond?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing science skills. Lessons in this publication are supported by the Inquiry in Action model (Bourdeau 2004b), which provides a framework for students to use all the steps needed for science inquiry. This article illustrates how this model can be used to engage students in an investigation about life in and around ponds.

Arnold, Mary E.; Bourdeau, Virginia

2008-09-01

133

Outdoor Classrooms--Planning Makes Perfect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however, the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum…

Haines, Sarah

2006-01-01

134

Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

Murphy, Tony

135

A National Study of Outdoor Wilderness Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the learning and character development effects of the outdoor wilderness experience. The research consisted of a retrospective study in which surveys were completed by 429 participants in outdoor programs sponsored by the Student Conservation Association, the National Outdoor Leadership School, and Outward Bound; and a…

Kellert, Stephen R.

136

Development of a Parent's Guide for the Singapore Primary Science Curriculum: Empowering Parents as Facilitators of Their Children's Science Learning outside the Formal Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents can play a vital and active role in facilitating their children's science learning outside the formal classrooms. Parental involvement in their children's science learning process not only could enhance their children's learning motivation and interest in science, it could also help to strengthen the family bond when parents and children…

Lee, Ai Noi

2012-01-01

137

Responses of human frontal cortex to surprising events are predicted by formal associative learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning depends on surprise and is not engendered by predictable occurrences. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of causal associative learning, we show that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is associated specifically with the adjustment of inferential learning on the basis of unpredictability. At the outset, when all associations were unpredictable, DLPFC activation was maximal. This response attenuated with

J. M. Anderson; D. R. Shanks; R. Honey; T. A. Carpenter; T. Donovan; N. Papadakis; E. T. Bullmore; P. C. Fletcher

2001-01-01

138

Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

139

Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

140

Exploring careership in outdoor education and the lives of women outdoor educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen significant interest in research associated with outdoor education and outdoor learning in the UK. However, there has been little research into the perspectives of those staff, particularly women, who make available outdoor experiences to various groups in different situations and locations. The importance of understanding the lives of educators for understanding their professional development has

Linda Allin; Barbara Humberstone

2006-01-01

141

A Evaluation of a Learning Cycle Intervention Method in Introductory Physical Science Laboratories in Order to Promote Formal Operational thought Process.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition, future studies should attempt to use vigorous measures of formal reasoning ability to pinpoint exactly when the transition occurs in students.

Shadburn, Randy Glen

142

Do theory and pedagogy have an impact on provisions for outdoor learning? A comparison of approaches in Australia and Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we contrast the early childhood education and care aims and curriculum in Norway and Australia and the theoretical underpinnings of Norwegian and Australian pedagogy in an attempt to partially explain the different approaches to (risky) outdoor play in these two countries. We argue that Norwegian pedagogical approaches may allow teachers to theorize more about, and place greater

Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter; Helen Little; Shirley Wyver

2012-01-01

143

Mature Student Perceptions of Formal and Informal Learning on a Diploma in Childcare and Education Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social learning theory and situated learning were reflected in the discourse of British adult students in a childcare/early childhood education course. They attached considerable importance to placement experiences and had concerns about the theory-practice gap and the quality of placement support. (Contains 51 references.) (SK)|

Coleman, Phil

2003-01-01

144

CHAT-IT: Toward Conceptualizing Learning in the Context of Formal Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is intended to spark a discussion between two research communities--scholars who study learning and scholars who study educational organizations. A secondary purpose is to encourage researchers to look beyond schools to examine learning in other types of educational organizations. The authors outline a framework to guide research on…

Ogawa, Rodney T.; Crain, Rhiannon; Loomis, Molly; Ball, Tamara

2008-01-01

145

Sustainable Development and Cooperative Learning in the Formal Education System in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the effective implementation of education for sustainable development (ESD), appropriate teaching-learning strategies need to be carefully selected and used. Cooperative Learning (CL) is a well-studied strategy that has been found effective across various academic levels and subjects. CL refers to a method of instruction whereby students work together in groups to reach common goals. In contrast to the conventional

Lalita Agashe

146

From Concrete Experiences to Abstract Formalisms: Learning with Interactive Simulations that Combine Physical and Computational Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I present my efforts in exploring the integration of physical and computational media for the design of interactive simulations to support learning about complex domains. My effort involves the design of interactive learning environments to integrate systems supporting alternative ways of interaction with simulations, with an emphasis upon support for shared interaction to mediate social aspects of

Marcelo Milrad

2001-01-01

147

Using a Multifaceted Approach Including Community-Based Service-Learning to Enrich Formal Ethics Instruction in a Dental School Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the degree to which a multifaceted approach to formal ethics instruction including community-based service-learning can enrich the learning environment and how it influences students' attitudes and perceptions about their role as oral health care providers, access to care, disparity, and working in a diverse community. Students' attitudes were evaluated prior to and

Cynthia C. Gadbury-Amyot; Melanie Simmer-Beck

148

AGORA V: Identification, Evaluation and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning (Thessaloniki, Greece, March 15-16, 1999). CEDEFOP Panorama Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains papers from a 2-day meeting on identification, evaluation, and recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union. The following papers are included: "Identification, Assessment, and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning: European Tendencies" (Jens Bjornavold); "Why Measure Human Capital?" (Riel Miller); "Mobility and…

Guggenheim, Eric Fries, Ed.

149

A Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning: Students Learn Better When Words Are in Conversational Style Rather Than Formal Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which \\

Richard E. Mayer; Sherry Fennell; Lindsay Farmer; Julie Campbell

2004-01-01

150

A Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning: Students Learn Better When Words Are in Conversational Style Rather Than Formal Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which "the" was changed to "your" in 12 places. In 3 experiments,…

Mayer, Richard E.; Fennell, Sherry; Farmer, Lindsay; Campbell, Julie

2004-01-01

151

A Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network: The role of formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education research has consistently shown that elementary teachers have a low self-efficacy and background knowledge to teach science. When they teach science, there is a lack of field experiences and inquiry-based instruction at the elementary level due to limited resources, both material and pedagogical. This study focused on an analysis of a professional development (PD) model designed by the author known as the Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network (CDLN). The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school teacher participants pedagogical content knowledge related to their experiences in a CDLN model. The CDLN model taught formal and informal instruction using a science coach and an informal educational institution. Another purpose for this research included a theoretical analysis of the CDLN model to see if its design enabled teachers to expand their resource knowledge of available science education materials. The four-month-long study used qualitative data obtained during an in-service professional development program facilitated by a science coach and educators from a large natural history museum. Using case study as the research design, four elementary school teachers were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of their science coach and museum educator workshop sessions. During the duration of this study, semi-structured individual/group interviews and open-ended pre/post PD questionnaires were used. Other data sources included researcher field notes from lesson observations, museum field trips, audio-recorded workshop sessions, email correspondence, and teacher-created artifacts. The data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged included increased self-efficacy; increased pedagogical content knowledge; increased knowledge of museum education resources and access; creation of a professional learning community; and increased knowledge of science notebooking. Implications for formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform are offered. It is suggested that researchers investigate collaborative coaching through the lenses of organizational learning network theory, and develop professional learning communities with formal and informal educators; and that professional developers in city school systems and informal science institutions work in concert to produce more effective elementary teachers who not only love science but love teaching it.

Cooke-Nieves, Natasha Anika

152

Orientation of nurses towards formal and informal learning: motives and perceptions.  

PubMed

The aim of this exploratory study was to gain information on the current orientation of registered nurses towards continuing education and lifelong learning. The population (N=162) consists of 2nd and 1st Level nurses who have or are currently taking part in continuing education. Qualitative empirical data were obtained through semi structured one to one interviews. The research questions sought information related to some of the reasons and motives for the participants' taking part in various categories of learning. Also explored was what factors might influence these participants' learning activities and the views and perceptions of their learning experiences. For many of these nurses, the initial motive for taking part in continuing education was the perception that they were being left behind by the higher educational level of nurses entering the profession. Contrary to some anecdotal views, the participants generally felt that higher education (HE) contributed to enhanced client care, reporting additional personal and professional satisfaction. Alleged poor support from managers for continuing education and the lack of parity, often within the same organisation regarding the selection criteria to take part in a variety of learning activities, was a source of dissatisfaction for some of these participants. Their determination to learn, however, remained strong. PMID:17126454

Bahn, Dolores

2006-11-28

153

Take the Classroom Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how child care providers can use outdoor activities to enhance young children's cognitive, social, emotional, and motor development. Discusses surveying the outdoor play space, using outdoor prop boxes, planting a garden, and reflecting on outdoor experiences after moving indoors. Includes list of sample outdoor play materials and sample…

Widler, Theresa

2001-01-01

154

USING THE MOLES AND MINI MOLES SOFTWARE SYSTEM TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses on bridging the gap between inside and outside classroom learning experiences. We present Moles and Mini Moles, a learning software tools system specifically designed to serve this purpose. Secondary school students use these tools for hypothesizing, gathering, and transferring information learned within the classroom and testing their knowledge and recording their experiences in the physical environment

André Melzer; Lia Hadley; Marie Glasemann; Michael Herczeg

155

The Learning Lives of Digital Youth--Beyond the Formal and Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of the paper is to present an outline for an approach studying young people as learners across contexts, presented here as a "learning lives approach". For youth, the two most time-consuming aspects of their daily lives are schooling and media use. In research, we tend to study these as two separate worlds. The challenge is to…

Erstad, Ola

2012-01-01

156

Television Goes to School: The Impact of Video on Student Learning in Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report focuses on key questions concerning the relationship of television to learning, and provides examples drawn from current television research to demonstrate television's positive effect on student achievement. A set of practical recommendations are also provided so that broadcasters and educators can maximize the effectiveness of video…

Education Development Center, Inc, 2004

2004-01-01

157

Challenges and opportunities for learning analytics when formal teaching meets social spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networking is revolutionizing the world in ways few imagined just a few years ago. The power of social networking technology can also be leveraged to improve education and enhance the instructor and learner experience. Unlike conventional learning management systems, social software environments such as Athabasca Landing provide a persistent space and are flexible enough to support social and learner-led

Nazim Rahman; Jon Dron

2012-01-01

158

The learning lives of digital youth—beyond the formal and informal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the paper is to present an outline for an approach studying young people as learners across contexts, presented here as a ‘learning lives approach’. For youth, the two most time-consuming aspects of their daily lives are schooling and media use. In research, we tend to study these as two separate worlds. The challenge is to find

Ola Erstad

2012-01-01

159

The learning lives of digital youth—beyond the formal and informal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the paper is to present an outline for an approach studying young people as learners across contexts, presented here as a ‘learning lives approach’. For youth, the two most time-consuming aspects of their daily lives are schooling and media use. In research, we tend to study these as two separate worlds. The challenge is to find

Ola Erstad

2011-01-01

160

The Learning Lives of Digital Youth--Beyond the Formal and Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main objective of the paper is to present an outline for an approach studying young people as learners across contexts, presented here as a "learning lives approach". For youth, the two most time-consuming aspects of their daily lives are schooling and media use. In research, we tend to study these as two separate worlds. The challenge is to…

Erstad, Ola

2012-01-01

161

The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

Ettenger, Jim

162

Formalizing the Informal: From Informal to Organizational Learning in the PostIndustrial Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of current examples of reengineering, restructuring, mergers and acquisitions, some Canadian organizations in\\u000a the public, private and not-for-profit sectors provide an environment for individuals and teams to negotiate effectively the\\u000a kind of organizational change which has become endemic in today’s workplace. A focus on informal learning through basic social\\u000a processes contributes to employees’ collective ability to move

Marilyn Laiken; Karen Edge; Stephen Friedman; Karima West

163

Outdoor Education -- Edinburgh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Scotland, outdoor education is seen as a combination of outdoor pursuits and environmental studies. The article describes various centres in the Edinburgh area, outdoor education expeditions, and programs, such as mountaineering, rock climbing, orienteering, and canoeing. (KM)|

Parker, Terry

1974-01-01

164

Community, Caring And Outdoor Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we discuss the close ties that exist between the concepts of community and caring on the one hand, and the teaching and learning strategies which are relevant to these concepts in the area of outdoor education on the other. We begin by gauging the extent of our human need for community. The existence of this need leads

John Quay; Stewart Dickinson; Brian Nettleton

165

Writing to learn physics: The effectiveness of personal analytic and formal analytic essays as methods of writing to learn in high school physics classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ten-week study investigated the effects of writing to learn on 24 high school physics students. Students were divided into two writing groups: personal analytical essays and formal analytical. Students wrote one 500-word essay for each of five study units. At the end of the second study unit, students switched writing groups. For the fifth study unit, students chose the kind of essay they wished to write. The 24 students produced a total of 120 essays. Students were given measures of writing apprehension before and after the study, and an evaluation instrument at the end of the study. Effects of writing-to-learn were measured at the end of each study unit by students' performance on standardized tests containing concept, application, and analysis questions. Results indicate no significant difference between groups writing personal analytic and formal analytic essays. Results also indicate no significant effect of writing apprehension on essay quantity. Significant differences appear on application and concept questions when group performances are analyzed in terms of essay word quantities. Grouping by quantity and writing group produces no significance. Responses indicate that students favor the use of writing in science. Many found writing the long essays easier as the semester progressed; many found that writing did help them learn the material since, in some cases, the need to write produced the need to read and study. The cooperating physics teacher also responded favorably to the use of a writing component in physics, especially a two-level one because the first level allowed her to monitor student understanding of concepts.

Johnson, Sidney Thomas

166

Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

2006-05-10

167

"Is What You See What You Get?" The Production of Knowledge in-between the Indoors and the Outdoors in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Many believe the "outdoors" is a key factor influencing student learning in "outdoor education" because it is so different from the "everyday" indoor contexts of students' lives. In much of the outdoor education literature the outdoors is construed as a neutral and simplified space which allows students to have more "real" and…

Zink, Robyn; Burrows, Lisette

2008-01-01

168

An Idea (Like a Seedling) Grows. Genesis and Development of Outdoor/Conservation Education in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes how outdoor education in the Bloomfield Hills School District of Michigan can be traced to 1957, when elementary school students participated in a resident outdoor school experience for a week. In 1968, a committee on outdoor education was formally organized. The committee developed a rationale and objectives for outdoor

Hollums, Don

169

Fancy a Career Doing Therapy in the Outdoors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the United Kingdom, no outdoor practitioner is working as a professional therapist and little formal training in outdoor therapy exists. Practice of this type requires supervision and professional accreditation. Interested undergraduates should check social work, probation, mental health, educational psychology, or occupational therapy…

Reed, Chris

2003-01-01

170

Beyond Formalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that a...

P. J. Denning

1991-01-01

171

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)|

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

172

Hamiltonian Formalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chapter 2, we introduced the Lagrange function (or Lagrangian) L(q, q, t), which depends on generalized coordinates q and generalized velocities q, considered as independent variables, and, possibly, on time. The Hamiltonian formalism is an alternative to the Lagrangian\\u000a formalism for the description of a mechanical system. Instead of generalized velocities employed in Lagrangian formalism,\\u000a it relies on generalized

Claude Gignoux; Bernard Silvestre-Brac

173

Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher’s use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language\\u000a arts standards is described. Data from the researcher’s field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document\\u000a how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum.\\u000a This teacher’s early life

Charles J. Eick

174

Issues of Interaction in Pure-Online English Learning Environment through Perspectives of Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism: A Case Study for Non-formal Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most previous studies on the use of Internet technology and computers for second language learning have been conducted in\\u000a blended learning environments. Although much research has been undertaken into interactions in online learning, little work\\u000a has focused on online English learning, let alone the pure-online (ie non-blended) English learning environment with no face-to-face\\u000a element. This paper investigates the English-language learning

Yanhui Han

2010-01-01

175

Bridging Formal and Informal Learning - A Case Study on Students' Perceptions of the Use of Social Networking Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networking tools have been enthusiastically heralded as a means to support different learning types and innovative\\u000a pedagogical practices. They have also been recognized as potential tools to promote informal learning. In this paper we describe\\u000a work carried out using the synergy of social web tools, learning models and innovative pedagogical practices across a Masters\\u000a Degree Course. Findings suggest that

Margarida Lucas; António Moreira

2009-01-01

176

Learning Physiotherapy: The Impact of Formal Education and Professional Experience. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 50.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated whether students of physiotherapy experienced the concepts "health,""movement,""function," and "interaction" differently during formal education and after some professional experience. Data were gathered by interviewing two groups of physiotherapy students at Linkoping University (Sweden) Faculty of Health Sciences, with…

Abrandt, Madeleine

177

Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections…

Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

178

Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

179

Hunting and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting…

Matthews, Bruce E.

1991-01-01

180

Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

181

The Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

Thomas, Dorothy E.

182

Environmental Outdoor Lighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lighting for the outdoor environment presents challenges not usually found in interior lighting. Outdoors, the universal standard is the daytime sun, yet nighttime electric lighting falls far short of daylight. This presentation provides guidance in dealing with these shortcomings, allowing electric lighting systems to solve multiple needs while being responsive to the need for quality exterior lighting. Main aspects include

D. Nelson

2004-01-01

183

Queering Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Queer pedagogy is rife with possibilities for outdoor educators to challenge the status quo of heterosexism and sexism. From recognizing and addressing the heteronormative assumptions that influence the outdoor classroom, to subverting oppressive gender norms, to noticing the cultural constructs through which we view nature, queer pedagogy can…

Russell, Connie; Sarick, Tema; Kennelly, Jackie

2003-01-01

184

The Missing Link to Connect Education and Employment: Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of learning outcomes is at the heart of many research programmes and policy responses. International surveys (from the International Adult Literacy Survey, back in the mid-nineties, to the forthcoming Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes two OECD surveys), National Qualifications Frameworks or the European Qualifications…

Werquin, Patrick

2012-01-01

185

Promoting Argumentation in Primary Science Contexts: An Analysis of Students' Interactions in Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper reports on the outcomes of a study that utilized a graphical tool, Digalo, to stimulate argumentative interactions in both school and informal learning settings. Digalo was developed in a European study to explore argumentation in a range of learning environments. The focus here is on the potential for using Digalo in promoting…

Simon, S.; Johnson, S; Cavell, S.; Parsons, T.

2012-01-01

186

Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set I contains 24 varied activities which make use of crafts, simulations, and basic investigative techniques to provide introductory learning experiences in outdoor biology for children aged 10 to 15. The individual water-resistant folio for each activity includes biological…

Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

187

In the Field: Mansfield: An Enduring Outdoor Centre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mansfield Outdoor Centre (Ontario) is a privately operated outdoor education center delivering school programs for grades 5-8. The philosophy that humans and the environment are interdependent and all life has inherent value is delivered via residential programs that immerse students in situations where living and learning are inseparable.…

Berti, Bob

2000-01-01

188

In the Field: Mansfield: An Enduring Outdoor Centre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Mansfield Outdoor Centre (Ontario) is a privately operated outdoor education center delivering school programs for grades 5-8. The philosophy that humans and the environment are interdependent and all life has inherent value is delivered via residential programs that immerse students in situations where living and learning are inseparable.…

Berti, Bob

2000-01-01

189

Exploring Small Climates--An Outdoor Science Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of climates in small areas as an outdoor science teaching technique is described in this paper. It is suggested that, while teachers are presenting a weather unit to their elementary school classes, they should not overlook the opportunity to make learning more meaningful through outdoor teaching techniques. Explorations of temperatures…

Rillo, Thomas J.

190

Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

Shortill, Rob

2011-01-01

191

Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural world around them. The game is set around a mystery in which red wolves in eastern North Carolina are being poisoned. The students are asked to portray the role of a wildlife biologist, botanist, or entomologist, whose job it is to determine who is poisoning the red wolves. MSEG are a new form of SEG that is divided into components or modules. Each module has to be completed before the player can move on to the next module. A module can take on any format, but must encompass the storyline of the game and end in an assessment. The study focused on three research questions. How would students improve the Red Wolf Caper mSEG? Do mSEG affect students' understanding in environmental education concepts, specifically, collecting, evaluating, and developing an explanation for data they collected in the game and knowledge of environmental systems and biological and social implications for the reintroduction of a species? Which role within the mSEG do the students choose and what is their reasoning behind choosing that particular role? The game was tested by 81 middle school students during six sessions in June 2010. The study participants played the game and participated in design sessions. In addition, they were given a 5-question pretest/ posttest, role selection survey, and Serious Educational Game Rubric (SEGR). They were asked to develop a hypothesis and provide evidence to support their hypothesis. Finally, they were asked to write a letter to a local in judge explaining the importance of the red wolf reintroduction project. Twenty-three students were selected to participate in interviews to determine how to improve the game and why they chose the role they did. The mean student score for the SEGR was 18.13 out of 28. Five categories in particular stood out as needing improvement: rules, increasing complexity, manipulation, identity, and tutorial/ practice level. Sixty-nine completed pretests/posttests final scores were analyzed using a paired t-test ( p = 0.000046). The letters to the judge showed that study participants understood scientific concepts and were able to apply them to real world settings that were only portrayed briefly in the game, such as the food chain. Study participants chose to play one of three roles: a wildlife biologist ( n = 64), an entomologist (n = 10), and a botanist (n = 6). Their reason behind choosing a role included interest in learning more about the topic or the profession, a previous positive experience in that field, thought the role sounded fun or exciting, the role was better than the alternatives, or misunderstood the role. The experience overall was positive for the participants. They felt they learned how to identify tracks, scat, trees, and invertebrates depending on the role they played. The AR field tests were one of their favorite parts about the game. Only one student expressed that they did not like the game, while the others not only enjoyed playing the game, but felt that is was a good educational tool. This study explores only one possibility of how mSEGs can be used in education.

Folta, Elizabeth Eason

192

Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

Folta, Elizabeth Eason

2010-01-01

193

Enhancing Outdoor Play with an Obstacle Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses building an outdoor obstacle course with found materials to enhance static playground equipment and promote developmentally appropriate play activity for 3- to 8-year olds. Discusses developmental and learning goals of obstacle courses; includes photographs of building equipment and sample layouts. Encourages enlisting children to help…

Griffin, Christina; Rinn, Brad

1998-01-01

194

Camping Out: An Outdoor Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Camping Out is an outdoor education program designed to meet the needs of hearing-impaired, mentally retarded children. The program aims to help children overcome language deficits and restrictions of their limited environments while learning recreation skills which can enhance their motor, cognitive, and affective skills. The program covers…

Jenks, Mark

195

Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

Auer, Matthew R.

2008-01-01

196

Environmental Outdoor Lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting for the outdoor environment presents challenges not usually found in interior lighting. Outdoors, the universal standard is the daytime sun, yet nighttime electric lighting falls far short of daylight. This presentation provides guidance in dealing with these shortcomings, allowing electric lighting systems to solve multiple needs while being responsive to the need for quality exterior lighting. Main aspects include visual issues, ordinances, sources, energy conservation, structure, softscape and hardscape, roadways and walkways, retail and parking lots, sports, and outdoor hospitality lighting. We will review many of the present recommendations for such lighting applications, ones designed to minimize any adverse effects.

Nelson, D.

2004-05-01

197

Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Education and the Economy of Scotland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews and a literature review found that outdoor recreation contributes significantly to Scotland's tourist income, particularly in rural areas; outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas; the provision of outdoor education by secondary schools has decreased in the last 20 years; and therapeutic outdoor

Higgins, Peter

2000-01-01

198

Using NASA Data in the Classroom: Promoting STEM Learning in Formal Education using Real Space Science Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provides formal educators the opportunity to teach their students real-world applications of the STEM subjects. Combining real space science data with lessons aimed at meeting state and national education standards provides a memorable educational experience that students can build upon throughout their academic careers. Many of our colleagues have adopted the use of real data in their education and public outreach (EPO) programs. There are challenges in creating resources using real data for classroom use that include, but are not limited to, accessibility to computers/Internet and proper instruction. Understanding and sharing these difficulties and best practices with the larger EPO community is critical to the development of future resources. In this session, we highlight three examples of how NASA data is being utilized in the classroom: the Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET) that utilizes real Hubble Space Telescope data; the computer image-analysis resources utilized by the NASA WISE infrared mission; and the space science derived math applications from SpaceMath@NASA featuring the Chandra and Kepler space telescopes. Challenges and successes are highlighted for these projects. We also facilitate small-group discussions that focus on additional benefits and challenges of using real data in the formal education environment. The report-outs from those discussions are given here.

Lawton, B.; Hemenway, M. K.; Mendez, B.; Odenwald, S.

2013-04-01

199

Natural Resources: Outdoor Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community

Mayes, Valynda

2010-02-01

200

Participating in Non-Formal Learning: Patterns of Inequality in EU-15 and the New EU-8 Member Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We concentrate on the following research questions: (1) Do the structure of the educational system and its interaction with the labour market affect the training gap between low-skilled blue collar workers and high-skilled white collar workers? and (2) Do the ways that institutional systems shape opportunities for lifelong learning differ between…

Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

2010-01-01

201

RESIDUAL GAIN IN LEARNING AS A CORRELATE OF DEGREE AND DIRECTION OF EFFORT IN FORMAL ADULT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF STUDY BEHAVIOR AND THREE KINDS OF LEARNING--KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION, AND APPLICATION. TWO STUDY BEHAVIOR SCALES WERE DEVELOPED BY HOMOGENEITY ANALYSIS, BEHAVIOR ONE REFLECTING DEMONSTRATED ACCEPTANCE OF THE ESTABLISHED COURSE CONTENT AND GOALS AND BEHAVIOR TWO REFLECTING THE TENDENCY OF…

DANNENMAIER, WILLIAN DEAL

202

Outdoor thermal comfort.  

PubMed

A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces. PMID:21622290

Nikolopoulou, Marialena

2011-06-01

203

Adequate formalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies problems with regard to providing criteria that regulate the matching of logical formulae and natural\\u000a language. We then take on to solve these problems by defining a necessary and sufficient criterion of adequate formalization.\\u000a On the basis of this criterion we argue that logic should not be seen as an ars iudicandi capable of evaluating the validity

Michael Baumgartner; Timm Lampert

2008-01-01

204

A Sri Lankan one-to-one computing initiative and its impact on formal learning in primary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-to-one computing has lately become a frequently used buzzword in the discussions on e-learning in primary education. The main idea in one-to-one computing is to provide every student with a personal computer. This has often been combined with Internet access and the idea to share content but not to share the computers This study has been focused on the Sri

Peter Mozelius; Kalelur Rahuman; G. N. Wikramanayake

2012-01-01

205

Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

206

Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

Carter, Candice C.

2013-01-01

207

Mobile learning in medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

Serkan Güllüoü?lu, Sabri

2013-03-01

208

Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)|

Horvath, Victor G.

209

Polymeric outdoor insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for resistance to surface tracking and erosion partially differentiates outdoor insulation from indoor insulation. A review of the current status of development of standards for testing these properties worldwide on materials and components is presented. Of special interest is the self-restoration of the hydrophobicity of some materials, most notably silicones, after the hydrophobicity has been removed by surface

W. T. Starr

1990-01-01

210

Hunting and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research and other literature on hunters' values, ethics, motivations, connection to the land, environmental attitudes, and wildlife knowledge and attitudes. Suggests that hunting in its best and most ethical sense shares and supports the goals of outdoor education. Contains 32 references. (SV)|

Matthews, Bruce E.

1992-01-01

211

[Outdoor Ethics Information Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains information about outdoor ethics issues. The information was compiled by the Izaak Walton League of America, established in 1922 as a national nonprofit organization whose members educate the public about emerging natural resource threats and promote citizen involvement in environmental protection efforts. The league…

Izaak Walton League of America, Arlington, VA.

212

Outdoor Lighting Ordinances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A principal means to prevent poor exterior lighting practices is a lighting control ordinance. It is an enforceable legal restriction on specific lighting practices that are deemed unacceptable by the government body having jurisdiction. Outdoor lighting codes have proven to be effective at reducing polluting and trespassing light. A well written exterior lighting code will permit all forms of necessary

S. Davis

2004-01-01

213

The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)|

Rich, Steve

2000-01-01

214

Outdoor Education: A Guide for Planning Resident Programs. (Revision September 1977.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The culmination of educational experiences in the outdoors is the resident outdoor education program. Involving teachers and pupils living and learning in the natural environment, the program emphasizes the development of human values and provides students with learning opportunities that focus on direct, real, and relevant experiences. Intended…

Rosenstein, Irwin; Donaldson, George W.

215

Characteristics of Bicycling as a Viable Component to Outdoor Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bicycling is a valuable medium for outdoor experiential learning. Bicycling shares with other outdoor learning activities some common elements such as environmental contrast, physical activity, a small group context, and a self-reliant form of transportation. However, bicycling has several unique characteristics that set it apart from other…

McArthur, Cynthia

216

A Rationale for Outdoor Activity as Experiential Education: The Reason for Freezin'.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|John Dewey said, "Learning is thinking about experience". This dictum accurately reflects the rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education. The term "outdoor learning" refers to a set of activities which have the following characteristics in common: environmental contrast (a sharp environmental change for the participant); physical…

Kesselheim, A. Donn

217

Outdoor Education in Michigan Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since outdoor education has already become an integral part of the curriculum of schools in Michigan, this booklet has been prepared both to assist schools planning to initiate outdoor education programs and to recommend improvements in existing programs. Included in the document are the history and development of outdoor education; the basic…

Smith, Julian W.

218

Children and the Outdoor Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we will discuss the outdoor environment for younger children with the help of two different concepts. The first concept, affordance, is well known in the discussion about outdoor environments. What the affordance in the outdoor environment is perceived as can differ between actors. How the affordance is used can be another source…

Niklasson, Laila; Sandberg, Anette

2010-01-01

219

Contemporary Perspectives in Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to provide the student of outdoor education with a synthesis of current literature in the field, this collection presents 26 articles which range from administrative to practical applications of outdoor education theory and philosophy. Articles include discussions of: (1) the philosophy of outdoor education; (2) a London school and its…

Lewis, Charles A., Jr., Ed.; Carlson, Marcia K., Ed.

220

Is Adolescence a Critical Period for Learning Formal Thinking Skills? A Case Study Investigating the Development of Formal Thinking Skills in a Short-Term Inquiry-Based Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking…

Towne, Forrest S.

2009-01-01

221

Is Adolescence a Critical Period for Learning Formal Thinking Skills? A Case Study Investigating the Development of Formal Thinking Skills in a Short-Term Inquiry-Based Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking…

Towne, Forrest S.

2009-01-01

222

Gender Choreography and Micro-Structures--Early Childhood Professionals' Understanding of Gender Roles and Gender Patterns in Outdoor Play and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre-school professionals understand the notion of gender-equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre-school playground. The study draws on socio-cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre-schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on…

Arlemalm-Hagser, Eva

2010-01-01

223

A Formalization of Student Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on student modeling within an Intelligent Tutoring System. Describes three domain-independent properties that the formalism representing student knowledge and the processes synthesizing this knowledge must possess to build accurate student models for second-language learning. Notes when, how, and where hypothetical reasoning mechanisms…

Danna, Frederic; Sebillot, Pascale

1997-01-01

224

Gender choreography and micro?structures – early childhood professionals' understanding of gender roles and gender patterns in outdoor play and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre?school professionals understand the notion of gender?equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre?school playground. The study draws on socio?cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre?schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on gender education. Video recording and focus group discussions

2010-01-01

225

Outdoor recreational opportunities in Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What comes to mind when you think about outdoor recreational opportunities? Diagram of the recreational opportunities to enjoy First we will look at the forest services and recreational opportunities. Forest Services There is plenty of hunting opportunities in Alabama to enjoy. Hunting Opportunities Outdoor tips can be essential when enjoying the outdoors. Outdoor Tips What a better way to spend a weekend then going fishing with family and friends. Places to Fish A great way to spend a weekend could also consist of hiking. Hiking Now ...

Smith, Adam

2012-04-04

226

Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education: The Strategic Uses of Formal and Non-Formal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of educational strategy is to determine the kinds of behavior which are desired and to create those educational environments which most clearly support and encourage this behavior. This paper is an inquiry into the nature of formal and non-formal learning. The structural characteristics of each kind of educational environment are…

Brembeck, Cole S.

227

Inglemoor High School Curriculum Guide for Outdoor Recreation & Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptions of 12-week courses in hunting and fishing and in outdoor activities for male and female students at Inglemoor High School in Bothell, Washington, are presented in this curriculum guide for outdoor education and recreation. Offering both classroom and field experience, each of the two courses meets 55 minutes daily; recommended class…

Kline, Jim

228

Systems-based accident analysis in the led outdoor activity domain: application and evaluation of a risk management framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety-compromising accidents occur regularly in the led outdoor activity domain. Formal accident analysis is an accepted means of understanding such events and improving safety. Despite this, there remains no universally accepted framework for collecting and analysing accident data in the led outdoor activity domain. This article presents an application of Rasmussen's risk management framework to the analysis of the Lyme

P. Salmon; A. Williamson; M. Lenné; E. Mitsopoulos-Rubens; C. M. Rudin-Brown

2010-01-01

229

Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

Ball, Matt

230

Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin

2007-01-01

231

Outdoor advertising for business markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the history and current prevalence of outdoor advertising suggests that although the medium is very effective it is not widely used in business-to-business markets. A case for using outdoor advertising is deductively made based on the unique characteristics of business markets such as: geographic concentration of buyers, need to target buying center members, advantages of having integrated

J. David Lichtenthal; Vivek Yadav; Naveen Donthu

2006-01-01

232

Outdoor Education Student Log Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6…

Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

233

Alternatives ... Bruderhof Education: Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the quality of teaching offered at the Hutterian kindergarten school in New Meadow Run, Pennsylvania, as an example of an outdoor school. Suggests that, based on the ideas of Rousseau, Pestallozzi, and Froebel on early play and natural development, outdoor schools can offer an alternative to current structured academic school activities…

Wardle, Francis

1995-01-01

234

Alternatives ... Bruderhof Education: Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the quality of teaching offered at the Hutterian kindergarten school in New Meadow Run, Pennsylvania, as an example of an outdoor school. Suggests that, based on the ideas of Rousseau, Pestallozzi, and Froebel on early play and natural development, outdoor schools can offer an alternative to current structured academic school activities…

Wardle, Francis

1995-01-01

235

Supporting Outdoor Play for Young Children: The Zone Model of Playground Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Staff at the Frank Porter Graham (FPG) Child Care Program developed the zone model of playground supervision (ZoMPS) to ensure a safe environment for outdoor play and enhance playground time for all children. In addition to the social and free-play elements of outdoor play, they wanted to provide activities that support learning and development.…

Kern, Petra; Wakeford, Linn

2007-01-01

236

The School Ground Classroom: A Curriculum to Teach K-6 Subjects Outdoors. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggesting that outdoor activities can be positive learning experiences, lesson plans and activities were designed to demonstrate that the outdoors is an interdisciplinary classroom, to be used on virtually any school site, and to teach subject matter taught as part of the standard curriculum. Seventeen interdisciplinary ideas with correlated…

Green, Dan; And Others

237

The double-edged sword: Critical reflections on traditional and modern technology in outdoor education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outdoor education experience continues to be influenced by a proliferation of modern technological innovations, most of which have been accepted and even embraced by educators with little inquiry. Seldom do instructors of outdoor programmes consider the impact that modern techniques and equipment can have upon students' learning. This paper argues that in an unexamined adoption of this technology, some

Brent Cuthbertson; Teresa L. Socha; Tom G. Potter

2004-01-01

238

View the Zoo! Evaluation of Visual Communication in an Outdoor Educational Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost all of what people learn from outdoor educational settings such as zoos and gardens stems from the exhibits themselves or signs about the exhibits. Evaluation of the various forms of visual communication in outdoor educational settings is necessary to determine the effectiveness of exhibitions, educational activities, and/or conservation…

Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others

239

Using a Tactile Map with a 5-Year-Old Child in a Large-Scale Outdoor Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors constructed an 11 x 17 in. tactile map to teach routes in an outdoor play environment to a 5-year-old blind child. After learning the routes on the tactile map, the child independently navigated them in the outdoor play environment. With practice, the child reduced the time necessary to learn and navigate the routes. The authors…

Renshaw, Rebecca L.; Zimmerman, George J.

2007-01-01

240

Using a Tactile Map with a 5-Year-Old Child in a Large-Scale Outdoor Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors constructed an 11 x 17 in. tactile map to teach routes in an outdoor play environment to a 5-year-old blind child. After learning the routes on the tactile map, the child independently navigated them in the outdoor play environment. With practice, the child reduced the time necessary to learn and navigate the routes. The authors…

Renshaw, Rebecca L.; Zimmerman, George J.

2007-01-01

241

Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)|

Briggs, James N.

1993-01-01

242

Confronting passive behavior through outdoor experience: a TA ...  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... growth, developing responsibility, and teaching cooperative behavior. ... A no-discount contract and individual growth or learning contracts are prerequisite to responsible behavior. ... Permission, protection, and potency are essential for effective facilitation of outdoor growth experiences.

243

COEO's Landmark Research Summary: "Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past year, Andrea Foster reviewed a wide array of current and international research into the multiple, powerful and lasting outcomes produced through utilizing outdoor and experiential education (OEE) as a key learning methodology. As co-authors, Foster and Linney produced an 80-page document that reports the findings according to the…

Linney, Grant

2007-01-01

244

Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

Rosenow, Nancy

2011-01-01

245

Old Time Apple Cider Makin': An Outdoor Education Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An illustrated, self-contained packet, the resource materials contained in this guide are designed for adaptation to K-8. The resources and ideas presented here are designed to encourage utilization of the outdoors as a learning resource. While intrinsically multidisciplinary, the activities are particularly adaptable to social studies, science,…

Matthews, Bruce E.; Oakes, David B.

246

Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

Mullins, Philip M.

2011-01-01

247

Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

Rosenow, Nancy

2011-01-01

248

Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

249

Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The key is to never let your picnic food remain in the "Danger Zone" - between 40° F and 140° F - for more than 2 hours, or 1 hour if outdoor ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

250

Outdoor life, green education and landscaping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor sport and activities in green nature are an important part of popular sport and education. But the practice of 'green' activity is not just one. The Danish term natur- og friluftsliv, which is used in Danish 'Sport for all', is difficult or even impossible to translate: life in nature and open air? outdoor life? outdoor sport? green sports? Outdoor

Henning Eichberg

251

Outdoor Experiences for Young Children. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…

Rivkin, Mary S.

252

Formal Methods Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This contract final technical report documents the Formal Methods Framework (FMF) project results. This project consider the impact of formal methods on industries such as high assurance and telecommunications software and proposes a framework within whic...

2002-01-01

253

Nonconstructivizable Formal Arithmetic Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonconstructivizability of a number of formal arithmetric structures is established in nonstandard models of formal Peano arithmetric (PA). Also considered is a formal structure whose constructivizability in a countable nonstandard model of PA depends on the choice of the model. All concrete examples are built on formulas of class ?1(PA). Therefore the standard interpretations are recursive. Bibliography: 12 titles.

Tversko?, A. A.

1988-02-01

254

Learning Outdoors: The Forest School Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper outlines the role that Forest School can play in children's development. With over 100 Forest Schools in England, 20 in Scotland and 20 in Wales, this concept is growing across Britain. Forest School involves children having regular contact with woodland over an extended period of time; it allows them to become familiar, and have…

O'Brien, Liz

2009-01-01

255

Problematising “education” and “training” in the Scottish sport and fitness, play and outdoor sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sets out the issues peculiar to the Scottish workforce in sport and fitness, play and the outdoor sectors. Provides an exploration of the development of vocational education in the form of sector skills training for these sectors in opposition to that formal education provided at further and higher education level. Draws on empirical research gathered as part of a report

M. Foley; M. Frew; D. McGillivray; A. McIntosh; G. McPherson

2004-01-01

256

Problematising "Education" and "Training" in the Scottish Sport and Fitness, Play and Outdoor Sectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sets out the issues peculiar to the Scottish workforce in sport and fitness, play and the outdoor sectors. Provides an exploration of the development of vocational education in the form of sector skills training for these sectors in opposition to that formal education provided at further and higher education level. Draws on empirical research…

Foley, M.; Frew, M.; McGillivray, D.; McIntosh, A.; McPherson, G.

2004-01-01

257

Problematising "Education" and "Training" in the Scottish Sport and Fitness, Play and Outdoor Sectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sets out the issues peculiar to the Scottish workforce in sport and fitness, play and the outdoor sectors. Provides an exploration of the development of vocational education in the form of sector skills training for these sectors in opposition to that formal education provided at further and higher education level. Draws on empirical research…

Foley, M.; Frew, M.; McGillivray, D.; McIntosh, A.; McPherson, G.

2004-01-01

258

What's so interesting outside? A study of child?initiated interaction with teachers in the natural outdoor environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research question addressed in this paper is: What specific elements in the outdoor environment draw children's attention? The new approach to Welsh early years education – the Foundation Phase: Framework for children aged 3–7 years in Wales (DCELLS 2008) – requires the inclusion of both teacher?led and child?initiated activities and emphasises the use of outdoor environments for learning and

Jane Waters; Trisha Maynard

2010-01-01

259

The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starr Commonwealth has served troubled children and youth and their families for nearly a century. Starr's Montcalm Schools operate from campuses in Michigan and Ohio, enrolling students referred by families and educational consultants. The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program is a key part of Starr's network of nonprofit alternative education and treatment programs. It operates from a base camp and involves

Martin Mitchell; Herman J. McCall

260

Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

Kennedy, Carolyn L.

261

Outdoor Recreation Activities at Cispus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most of the activities in this booklet have been developed around skills related to the outdoors and, in particular, to the logging industry and forest fire fighting. The activities attempt to develop muscles, coordination skills, and teamwork. They also give the students (junior high school or high school) and staff the opportunity to do…

Cispus Environmental Center, Randle, WA.

262

How Effective Is Outdoor Training?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluation of 80 outdoor-based training programs showed (1) improvement in overall work group functioning; (2) no significant changes in individual behavior; (3) different effects for intact versus nonintact work groups, voluntary participation, gender composition, and supervisor presence; and (4) impact of facilitator training on group…

Wagner, Richard J.; Roland, Christopher C.

1992-01-01

263

Genuine Sustainability in Outdoor Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author addresses the issue of sustainable behaviors. To become truly sustainable, the author suggests that outdoor programs need to develop comprehensive, well-founded plans. Understanding the roots of unsustainable behaviors is the first step in this process.|

Van Horn, Paul

2007-01-01

264

Families Discover the Outdoors Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)|

Parent, Polly

1980-01-01

265

Outdoor Education Site Inventory Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An inventory of site opportunities for use by teachers as a planning aid can increase the utilization of the outdoors in educational experiences. The inventory should be a loose-leaf catalog organized in terms of site accessibility and human density, with a summary of each site. (SB)|

Stansfield, Charles A., Jr.

1979-01-01

266

[Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

Farquhar, Carin; And Others

267

Pathways to the Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography is designed to assist educators in establishing an outdoor classroom for environmental education. A process is detailed by which school districts can effectively and efficiently develop a site on or near the school. The first step involves organizing a planning committee, enlisting administrative support, and developing a…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

268

Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

2005-01-01

269

Outdoor HV composite polymeric insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

HV composite polymeric insulators are being accepted increasingly for use in outdoor installations by the traditionally cautious electric power utilities worldwide. They currently represent ~60 to 70% of newly installed HV insulators in North America. The tremendous growth in the applications of non-ceramic composite insulators is due to their advantages over the traditional ceramic and glass insulators. These include light

R. Hackam

1999-01-01

270

75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conserving our great outdoors. Moreover, as Americans, we are responsible for protecting our heritage, including the raw beauty of our lands and waters. Together, let us rise to meet that responsibility and safeguard our cherished outdoor spaces...

2010-06-07

271

Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

U.S. Geological Survey

1992-01-01

272

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Facilities and Operating Standards...sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits kept outdoors to protect themselves... (b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided...

2013-01-01

273

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE) (14th, Oxford, Ohio, November 7-12, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This proceedings contains 15 conference papers and presentation summaries from the 14th annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE). Titles are: "The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training" (Christian Bisson); "The Service Learning Concept: Service Learning in the National Parks" (Tom…

Freidline, Mark, Ed.; Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Moore, Tim, Ed.; Versteeg, Julie, Ed.

274

Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

2006-01-01

275

Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research on the health effects of outdoor air pollution has been published in the last decade. The goal of this review is to concisely summarize a wide range of the recent research on health effects of many types of outdoor air pollution. A review of the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur and

Luke Curtis; William Rea; Patricia Smith-Willis; Ervin Fenyves; Yaqin Pan

2006-01-01

276

Outdoor Education in an Urban Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1995 the streamlined British national curriculum defined outdoor education as "outdoor and adventurous activities" (OAA) and placed it within the physical education (PE) curriculum. However, many PE teachers lack a knowledge of outdoor education and, when faced with limitations in time, resources, facilities, and expertise, may choose…

Beedie, Paul

277

Outdoor Recreation Action: Federal, State, Local, Private.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet reports on outdoor recreation actions taken at the federal, state, local, and private levels. The Land and Water Conservation Fund and the financing of outdoor recreation on all levels are discussed. New agencies, personnel, reorganizations, resolutions, and recommendations for the organization and administration of outdoor

Kyle, George M., Ed.

278

Effectiveness of Outdoor Advertising of Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor advertisements are now routinely used by marketers of products and services as they have been found to be effective in general. However, there have been no studies testing the effectiveness of outdoor advertising of services in particular nor have there been studies comparing the effectiveness of outdoor advertisements of services with that of consumer goods. In this paper we

Naveen Donthu

1995-01-01

279

BBM Approach to Outdoor Recreation Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The benefits based management (BBM) approach to outdoor recreation programming is a technique focused on outcomes and benefits derived from participating in outdoor recreation activities. This approach can be used to establish the significance of college outdoor programs on campus. The four premises of BBM are the articulation of outcome-oriented…

Harwell, Rick; Brookover, Bob

280

FORMALIZING CONTEXT (Expanded Notes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relation is ist(c,p). It asserts that the pro-position ? is true in the context c. The most important formulas relate the propositions true in different contexts. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit axiomatizations in limited contexts to be expanded to tran- scend the original limitations. This seems necessary

John McCarthy; Sasa Buvac

1997-01-01

281

Formal specification: a roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal specifications have been a focus of software engi- neering research for many years and have been applied in a wide variety of settings. Their industrial use is still limited but has been steadily growing. After recalling the essence, role, usage, and pitfalls of formal specification, the paper reviews the main specification paradigms to date and dis- cuss their evaluation

Axel van Lamsweerde

2000-01-01

282

Formal Fault Tree Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In train control systems, more and more (electro-)mechanical devices are substituted by software based devices. To sustain the high level safety standards for these embedded systems, we propose the integration of fault tree analysis and formal methods. This combines two important safety analysis methods from the involved domains of engineering and software development. Our approach proposes to build a formal

Gerhard Schellhorn; Andreas Thums; Wolfgang Reif Lehrstuhl

2002-01-01

283

Notes on Formalizing Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

These notes discuss formalizing contexts as rst class objects. The basic relation is ist(c; p). It asserts that the proposition p is true in the context c. The most important formulas relate the propositions true in dieren t contexts. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit ax- iomatizations in limited contexts to be expanded to transcend the original limitations. This

John Mccarthy

1993-01-01

284

Applying Formal Methods Informally  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many problems associated with software development and the associated vulnerabilities are well documented and discussed, there is a distinct and obvious lack of consensus on the means to overcome and remedy these identified issues. This paper introduces the idea of integrating the concepts of formal methods into the programming process from the beginning. This method of applying formal methods

Matt Bishop; Brian Hay; Kara L. Nance

2011-01-01

285

Installation to teach energy conservation to kids through tangible objects in an outdoor environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design case of an interactive installation in a contextual outdoor environment for helping kids learn about how to save energy in their day to day life activities. Playful Interaction, physical movement and manipulation of tangible objects were combined to create a playful learning experience linked to their daily behaviors. By eliminating traditional input devices like buttons

Samiksha Kothari; Arnab Chakravarty

2010-01-01

286

Indoor-Outdoor Image Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how high-level scene properties can be inferred from classification of low-level image features,specifically for the indoor-outdoor scene retrieval problem.We systematically studied the features: (1) histograms in the Ohta color space (2) multiresolution, simultaneous autoregressive model parameters (3) coefficients of a shift-invariant DCT. We demonstrate that performance is improved by computing features on subblocks,classifying these subblocks, and then combining

Martin Szummer; Rosalind W. Picard

1998-01-01

287

Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated through a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

Muller, Matthew; Deline, Chris; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah; Bosco, Nick

2011-12-01

288

Learning at Not-School: A Review of Study, Theory, and Advocacy for Education in Non-Formal Settings. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Schools do not define education, and they are not the only institutions in which learning takes place. After-school programs, music lessons, Scouts, summer camps, on-the-job training, and home activities all offer out-of-school educational experiences. In "Learning at Not-School," Julian Sefton-Green explores studies and scholarly research on…

Sefton-Green, Julian

2013-01-01

289

Energetic Polynitro Formal Plasticizers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasticizers which are commonly used in gun propellants and other energetic compositions are nitroglycerin (NG), butanetriol trinitrate (BTTN), metriol trinitrate (METN), diethylene glycol dinitrate (DEGN), and bis (2,2-dinitropropyl) formal/acetal (BDNPF...

H. D. Adolph K. E. Kim

1987-01-01

290

Formal and Implemented Pragmatics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our aim in this project was to explore the reasonings and representations that make natural language dialogs possible, using in particular the formalism of active logics. We continued worked on approaches using active logics to treat problems in dialog su...

D. Perlis

2000-01-01

291

Case studies of individualized professional development at an outdoor education center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the publishing of A Nation at Risk in 1983, educators across the country have directed attention and formal research studies towards discovering why American schools are not producing graduates who measure up to students in other countries. Research has been done which deals with children's responses to learning science while utilizing a variety of educational strategies. Factors such as gender, ethnicity, class size, length of the school day or school year, equipment availability and usage, have been studied and their impact analyzed. New assessment devices and testing instruments have been used to measure the amount and quality of their learning. Significant in its absence from most studies is the recognition of what classroom teachers believe about science, what they feel to be the best way(s) to teach science, and how they actually teach science. Related research on these factors laid the ground work for this study. Teaching is a profession characterized by a need for life-long learning. Some teachers study for advanced degrees. "Workshops" and "teacher institutes", either on-site at their own schools or through other enrichment situations provide learning opportunities for others. Informal educational institutions which have provided science enrichment field trip opportunities have recently begun to look at the curriculum goals and expectations of the state boards of education and regional school districts. As they become informed about these goals, their enrichment opportunities are found to serve the schools more fully. This study focuses on the Arlington Echo Outdoor Education Center, where the staff does not merely plan, prepare for, and present lessons on various age-appropriate science topics to schoolchildren which come to them. Instead, it is the policy of this center to prepare the individual classroom teachers so that the teacher assumes the responsibility to provide the preparation of the children for the experience, the facilitation of the various activities and lessons while at the center, and the assessment of the student's learning following the experience. The staff works with each teacher to prepare them to use transdisciplinary science lessons which were planned to satisfy and enrich state, district, and school expectations (Outdoor Education Guidebook, 1997). The staff members believe that if the teachers are prepared to do these things, not only will the current students learn more, but that the teacher will experience growth professionally and this will impact more children over time. The teachers gain science content knowledge and learn constructivist teaching strategies while learning how to use the facilities and equipment safely and confidently. Ideas for preparatory and follow-up activities are made available. This study looked closely at the individualization of the professional development provided by this informal science institution. Data from observations of professional development sessions as well as the on-site experiences with the children were used in the study. Teachers were asked to reflect on the degree to which the Arlington Echo approach to professional development was beneficial in building their confidence about providing science-based, interdisciplinary experiences for their students, with comparisons made between the responses of veteran teachers and those of teachers with fewer years of experience. Through the reflections of the participant teachers, it was possible to gather data about whether their beliefs about science and about how science is best taught were modified by this experience.

Pearsall, Marjorie

292

Assessing Readiness for Lifelong Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, lifelong learning can occur in two modes: formal and informal. Formal (or directed) modes include university courses or corporate training, whereas the informal modes, which occur naturally as part of learning to accomplish work tasks, are \\

Thomas Litzinger; John Wise; Sangha Lee; Timothy Simpson; Sanjay Joshi

2001-01-01

293

Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

2003-07-01

294

Human detection in outdoor video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach for detection of multiple pedestrians from binocular video sequences is reported. First foreground is segmented using an efficient algorithm [3]. Then ? shape is used to detect head-shoulder contour. We propose a Simplified Fourier Descriptor to represent transformed 1-D shape in phasor notation. A probabilistic model is introduced to evaluate the distribution of SFD in frequency domain. Clues from motion flow and object depth is used to filter out false detection. The proposed system has been tested on several indoor and outdoor sequences. Preliminary experiments have shown that it can robustly detect multiple pedestrians. Experimental results show that the approach is a suitable for real time pedestrian detection.

Ran, Chunyu; Huang, Ji; Song, Jie

2004-06-01

295

Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges  

SciTech Connect

Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. (University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

1991-06-01

296

Note on the Relationship Between Outdoor and Indoor Exposure Integrals for Air Pollution of Outdoor Origin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beryllium-7 created by cosmic radiation has been used as a tracer in preliminary measurements designed to enable an estimation of the ratio between outdoor and indoor exposure integrals for aerosols of outdoor origin, with special reference to the reducti...

H. L. Gjoerup J. Roed

1980-01-01

297

Virginia Outdoors Plan, 1989: a Plan for Meeting Virginia's Outdoor Recreational Needs and Conserving the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1989 Virginia Outdoors Plan is Virginia's sixth State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan. The purpose of this plan is to provide guidance to federal, state, and local units of government, as well as the private sector in acquiring, protecting, and ...

1989-01-01

298

Minimizing Variation In Outdoor CPV Power Ratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor module power ratings. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measurement off the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true on-sun performance. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that conditions that impact the measurement such as the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux. This work examines methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, Matthew; Marion, Bill; Rodriguez, Jose; Kurtz, Sarah

2011-12-01

299

The effects of analogy-based instruction on concept learning and retention in a non-formal coral reef ecology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a number of instructional models focus on the use of analogies, research into their effectiveness in enhancing comprehension and retention of scientific concepts, particularly involving adult learners, has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using the common teaching strategy for comparing the function of a coral reef to that of a city by using an analogy-based instructional model termed FAR. The training program entitled "Marine Resource Management for Dive Professionals" (MRMDP) was developed for this study. It was targeted to professionals in the recreational scuba industry to improve their understanding of coal reef ecology, as well as orient them to pertinent marine resource management issues, and promote environmentally-responsible attitudes and diving practices among their clients. A quasi-experimental pre-post-delayed posttest control group design was used to explore five research questions and corresponding hypotheses. A 55-item researcher-developed test of coral reef ecology was administered pre and post instruction. The delayed posttest was self-administered by the subjects three weeks after course completion. Data on seven experiential variables hypothesized as research factors were collected. Ten MRMPD courses were taught in seven nations, involving 194 subjects (85 subjects in four control courses, 109 in six treatment course). The results were analyzed using multiple regression/correlation (MRC) techniques to determine: (1) any significant relationship between pretest performance and experiential variables, (2) treatment versus control group posttest performance, and (3) treatment versus control group delayed posttest performance. Within the treatment group, learning gains and retention were determined by t-test analysis. Results indicated: (1) all research factors except one were significant predictors of pretest scores in the presence of the covariate; (2) no significant difference was found between control and treatment groups' pretest scores; (3) a significant interaction effect from a MANCOVA analysis, and resulting aptitude-treatment interaction analysis, showed group membership had a differential effect on the posttest relative to pretest scores; (4) the contribution of group membership to delayed posttest performance was significant; and (5) the treatment out-performed the control group on the posttest and delayed posttest. T-test analyses of treatment group performance showed a significant positive gain and retention.

Brylske, Alexander Frederick

300

Formal Solution: EXPLICIT Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of the radiation field arising from a specified set of thermodynamic and kinetic material conditions is known as the Formal Solution. The ability to find such solutions efficiently is critical to the iterative solution of the implicit coupled matter plus radiation problem. It is first shown how the exact relativistic radiation transport along a ray may be reduced to a set of easily evaluated integrals. The short characteristic approach is then used to find the formal solution of multi-dimensional radiation problems.

Auer, L.

2003-01-01

301

Columbus Outdoor Pursuits: A Model Structure for Volunteer Based Outdoor Pursuits Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Columbus Outdoor Pursuits (COP) is a volunteer-based nonprofit organization in Ohio that has offered outdoor educational and recreational opportunities to its members for 63 years. COP day and trip programs focus on outdoor activities such as bicycling, kayaking, hiking, and rock climbing. In addition, COP offers classes in the skills required…

Gerckens, Ann E.

302

MARINE EDUCATION: LEARNING EVALUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education research related to the fi eld of marine education is limited and evaluating students' learning outcomes associated with outdoor experiences is important for improving pedagogies. It is diffi cult to learn about related research designs because the amount of research literature, regarding marine education learning evaluation is small. In this article a multi-method research evaluation technique is presented and

Carl M. Stepath

303

Formalizing Spider Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geared to complement UML and to the specification of large software systems by non-mathematicians,spider di- agrams are a visual language that generalizes the popu- lar and intuitive Venn diagrams and Euler circles. The language design emphasized scalability and expressiveness while retaining intuitiveness. In this extended abstract we describe spider diagrams from a mathematical standpoint and show how their formal semantics

Joseph Gil; John Howse; Stuart Kent

1999-01-01

304

Formalizing the Evolution Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on identifying and formalizing the process under- lying the development of an evolution algorithm. The main argument elabo- rated in this work is that the development of an algorithm dealing with the in- corporation of new knowledge in a logical structure (such as an ontology) is based on a pattern consisting of discrete and well-defined steps which

Giorgos Flouris; George Konstantinidis

305

Formal verification of microprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method is presented for formally verifying the correctness of microprocessor designs. The abstract-level specification of the processor defines the effect of every instruction in terms of a suitably chosen programmer model of the processor. The concrete-level specification describes the design of the processor at a synchronous level by defining the behavior over a single microcycle. A general criterion

Mandayam Srivas; Mark Bickford

1989-01-01

306

Bibliographies in Non-Formal Education. Number 1: Non-Formal Education in Anthropological Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and twenty citations of books, periodicals, and government documents dating from 1913 to 1969 are included in this annotated bibliography of selected anthropological materials related to the influence of culture on the learning process. The bibliography is designed to assist those venturing into the area of "non-formal" education to…

Colletta, Nat J.

307

PERSONALITY DISPOSITIONS IN THE OUTDOORS: LEADERSHIP AS \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the psychology of personality has a long history, it does not appear to have been systematically researched and applied to leadership in outdoor recreation and outdoor education, nor to the experiences of students or clients in those settings. These shortfalls are notwithstanding the attention that meeting the needs of the individual has received in the general post-modern educational debate.

Nils O. Vikander

308

Planning and Design of Outdoor Sports Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information required for the planning and design of outdoor sports facilities is provided in the format of an outline text and design criteria placed opposite an accompanying page of definitive drawings. Scope of the manual covers those outdoor sports and games most commonly played for competition and/or recreation by military and civilian…

Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

309

Outdoor Education Units. Pull Out Feature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly presents 15 outdoor education units covering orienteering, map reading, safety, rescue, rope skills, first aid, camping, kayaking, rock and wall climbing, caving, survival skills, sailing, hiking, and outdoor equipment. Each unit has a brief description, including the knowledge and skills that students should be able to demonstrate. (TD)|

Levi, Jan

2001-01-01

310

Fast Outdoor Robot Localization Using Integral Invariants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Integral Invariant Features have shown to be useful for robot localization in indoor environments. In this paper, we present a method that uses integral invariants for outdoor environments. To make the integral invariant features more distinctive for outdoor images, we split the image into a grid of subimages and calculate integral invariants for each grid cell individually. We then

Christian Weiss; Andreas Masselli; Hashem Tamimi; Andreas Zell

2007-01-01

311

Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.

312

Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

Senda-Cook, Samantha

2012-01-01

313

The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for those interested in the mechanics of establishing outdoor education programs, this text is basically a guide to program development and includes examples of procedures, forms, conceptualizations, etc. Chapters deal with: (1) the contemporary education scene (an overview); (2) the basic concepts of outdoor education (17 concept…

Lewis, Charles A., Jr.

314

Outdoor Adventure Leadership Program at Laurentian University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Laurentian University (Ontario) offers a 4-year holistic outdoor adventure leadership program that promotes personal growth, develops leadership skills, and trains individuals to be safety-minded in various outdoor settings. A strong environmental ethic is promoted through courses in biology and Canadian Native culture. Practicums, internships,…

Couture, Roger T.

2001-01-01

315

Decontamination of Large Horizontal Concrete Surfaces Outdoors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfa...

C. V. Chester M. M. Barbier

1980-01-01

316

Outdoor scene analysis using range data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques for outdoor scene analysis using range data. The purpose of these techniques is to build a 3-D representation of the environment of an mobile robot equipped with a range sensor. Algorithms are presented for scene segmentation, object detection, map building, and object recognition. We present results obtained in an outdoor navigation environment in which a laser

Martial Hebert

1986-01-01

317

Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

Whitcombe, Mark

1989-01-01

318

NAFTA Opportunities: Outdoor and Recreational Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provides the U.S. outdoor and recreational equipment industry new opportunities to expand its exports to Mexico and Canada. The U.S. outdoor and recreational equipment industry is made up of producers of spo...

1993-01-01

319

Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

320

Outdoor Education for Behavior Disordered Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education programs ranging from simple, near-school activities to lengthy wilderness camping experiences can benefit behavior disorderd students. Studies of outdoor education programs for these students have shown positive effects including improvements in self-concept, social adjustment, academic achievement, and group cohesion. Many…

Lappin, Edward

321

Climate and Thermal Stress in Outdoor Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outdoor conditioning is becoming an important research field not only in temperate climate areas, but also, and specially, in tropical climate ones. Nevertheless there is no consensual comfort index to evaluate such areas. In Brazil, although significantly part of its territory have tropical climate characteristics, the amount of field research, that could develop a specific methodology to outdoor spaces,

Márcia Peinado Alucci; Leonardo Marques Monteiro

2004-01-01

322

Sources of Funding for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The financing of outdoor education should be the responsibility of the school district according to the same policies that pertain to other emphases in the curriculum. However, sources of funding other than local school tax funds are state funds, Federal funds, and private funds. State funds that might be used for outdoor education programs…

Rosenstein, Irwin

323

Suggested Bibliography for Outdoor Education and Camping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-seven books and articles published between 1939 and 1964 are listed in this bibliography for students and teachers of outdoor education. The entries are listed alphabetically under the following subject headings: outdoor education, conservation, administration, aquatics, archery, arts and crafts, Indian lore, nature study, riding, rifle,…

New Jersey State School of Conservation, Branchville.

324

Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

325

Career Opportunities Outdoors and Underwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. In this episode of ATETV, marine technology and environmental technology are discussed. A student competition of remotely operated underwater vehicle technology is shown in the video. Employees with training and experience in this technology are in high demand in the workforce, and industry is using such competitions as scouting opportunities. In technological programs like the ones shown here, students gain hands-on experience that prepares them for the workplace. The episode can be watched in full or through the two segments: âÂÂDiving into A Marine-Based Career,â and âÂÂEnvironmental Technology Takes to the Great Outdoors.â Running time for the full episode of this streaming video is 7:01.

2010-07-27

326

"Let's Throw That Big Stick in the River": An Exploration of Gender in the Construction of Shared Narratives around Outdoor Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper will explore the role of gender in the construction of shared narratives around outdoor spaces. The paper draws on findings from a long-term project investigating young children's learning and the outdoor curriculum. The project is ongoing and involves children aged 3- to 4-years in a nursery school in England. The children are given…

Waller, Tim

2010-01-01

327

Formal and Integrated Strategies for Competence Development in SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the relationships among the workplace as a learning environment, strategies for competence development used by SMEs and learning outcomes. Specifically, there is a focus on a distinction between formal and integrated strategies for competence development, the conditions under which…

Kock, Henrik; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

2011-01-01

328

Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio

2007-01-01

329

Lessons from the Mud: Nurturing an Outdoor Classroom in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A muddy area between two new elementary schools was transformed into a school "wetlands"--an outdoor learning center used for nature study and various creative and sensory activities. The area encourages children's natural curiosity, provides many discoveries about nature, and promotes a sense of stewardship. (SV)|

Bodner, Virginia; Sampson, Karla

1999-01-01

330

New Perspectives for Teaching Physical Education: Preservice Teachers' Reflections on Outdoor and Adventure Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers' perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in…

Timken, Gay L.; McNamee, Jeff

2012-01-01

331

Student Evaluation of the Waterloo County Board of Education Outdoor and Environmental Education Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a survey of 517 8th- and 12th-grade students in Waterloo County (Ontario) schools, the majority of students who had attended outdoor and environmental education programs reported high levels of learning in key areas of ecology and environmental studies. In addition, most respondents reported feeling positive about the program and their…

Eagles, Paul; And Others

1997-01-01

332

Exploring Bi-Cultural Awareness through Outdoor Education in Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the use of outdoor-based experiential learning in an undergraduate physical education teacher preparation program to develop a culturally-sensitive pedagogy for work with children from different cultures. Applying the six-stage process for becoming a bi-cultural teacher (Klug & Whitfield, 2003), teacher preparation students…

Brawdy, Paul J.

2004-01-01

333

Exploring Bi-Cultural Awareness through Outdoor Education in Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the use of outdoor-based experiential learning in an undergraduate physical education teacher preparation program to develop a culturally-sensitive pedagogy for work with children from different cultures. Applying the six-stage process for becoming a bi-cultural teacher (Klug & Whitfield, 2003), teacher preparation students…

Brawdy, Paul J.

2004-01-01

334

Wilderness U.: Opportunities for Outdoor Education in the U.S. & Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1980s saw a dramatic change in the use of leisure as millions of Americans turned to vacations that emphasized exploration, learning, and renewed awareness of the natural world. The first part of this three-part sourcebook lists approximately 270 institutions, organizations, and businesses offering programs in outdoor education, environmental…

McMillon, Bill

335

Life in Early California: A New Approach to the Outdoor Field Trip  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an outdoor educational program at the University of California Botanical Garden in which children are encouraged to handle the plants and are provided with a taped commentary. By the use of an inquiry method, children learn how the Californian Indians used many of the native plants. (JR)|

Falk, John H.

1973-01-01

336

Canoe Pedagogy and Colonial History: Exploring Contested Spaces of Outdoor Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, I explore how histories of colonialism are integral to the Euro-Western idea of wilderness at the heart of much outdoor environmental education. In the context of canoe tripping, I speculate about why the politics of land rarely enters into teaching on the land. Finally, because learning from difficult knowledge often troubles the…

Newbery, Liz

2012-01-01

337

Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range  

SciTech Connect

The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

NONE

1989-05-01

338

A FORMALIZATION OF METAPHORS AND IMAGE-SCHEMAS IN USER INTERFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound engineering approaches to user interface design require t he formalization of key interaction concepts, one of them being metaphor. Work on interface metaphors has, however, been largely non-formal so far. The few existing formal theories of meta phor have been developed in the context of natural language understanding, learning, or reasoning. We propose to form alize interface metaphors by

WERNER KUHN; ANDREW U. FRANK

1991-01-01

339

Formalizing the concept of sound.  

SciTech Connect

The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-08-03

340

Contextualised Media for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we analyse how contextualised media can be used to support learning. Additionally, the advantages of contextualised learning and the types of learning that are fit to be supported are discussed. Our focus throughout the paper will be on lifelong learning, and the integration of formal and informal learning therein. However, we…

de Jong, Tim; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

2008-01-01

341

Contextualised Media for Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyse how contextualised media can be used to support learning. Additionally, the advantages of contextualised learning and the types of learning that are fit to be supported are discussed. Our focus throughout the paper will be on lifelong learning, and the integration of formal and informal learning therein. However, we think, to this date, most of

Tim De Jong; Marcus Specht; Rob Koper

2008-01-01

342

Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Air Pollution Everyone is adversely affected by poor air quality; however, individuals who suffer from pulmonary problems are ... avoid exposure to, and complications from, poor outdoor air quality. Avoid exposure to noxious fumes The Environmental Protection ...

343

Black - White Ethnic Differences in Outdoor Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper clarifies theoretically the nature of ethnic differences in participation of black and white in outdoor recreation. The study used substantiating sociological and anthropological theory. Rather, Black leisure patterns result from a distinct cul...

R. Washburne P. Wall

1980-01-01

344

Measuring Perception of Elements in Outdoor Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The meanings of 10 general concepts that describe elements of natural outdoor environments and experiences were measured with the semantic differential technique. Each element or concept was evaluated in terms of semantic scores on three factors of meanin...

G. H. Moeller R. MacLachlan D. A. Morrison

1974-01-01

345

Outdoor tobacco advertising in six Boston neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in its 1996 regulations to restrict certain forms of cigarette advertising likely to appeal to adolescents, prohibited outdoor tobacco advertising within 1,000 feet of schools and playgrounds. No published studies have determined the density of outdoor tobacco advertising within the FDA’s prescribed 1,000-foot buffer zone around schools.Objective: To determine the prevalence, type, and

Linda G Pucci; Herbert M Joseph; Michael Siegel

1998-01-01

346

Visual localisation in outdoor industrial building environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vision-based method of vehicle localisation that has been developed and tested on a large forklift type robotic vehicle which operates in a mainly outdoor industrial setting. The localiser uses a sparse 3D-edge- map of the environment and a particle filter to estimate the pose of the vehicle. The vehicle operates in dynamic and non-uniform outdoor lighting

Stephen Nuske; Jonathan M. Roberts; Gordon Wyeth

2008-01-01

347

Outdoor performance of fluid dielectric CPV modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of several experimental tests performed to analyze the potential of CPV modules based on a single reflective stage and a fluid dielectric are summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is put on analyzing outdoor performance. The improved thermal design maintains the temperature difference between the solar cell and the ambient below 37°C during outdoor operation. In addition, the system performance under different spectra is analyzed experimentally determining the limiting subcell within the multijunction solar cell under variable spectral conditions.

Victoria, M.; Askins, S.; Domínguez, C.; Antón, I.; Sala, G.

2012-10-01

348

Value of unstructured time (breaks) during formal continuing medical education events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Unstructured time (breaks) at formal continuing medical education (CME) events is nonaccredited in some jurisdictions. Program participants, however, perceive this time as valuable to their learning. The purpose of this research was to determine what activ- ities occur during unstructured time in formal CME events and how these activities impact learning for physicians. Methods: A qualitative method based on

Jane Tipping; Jill Donahue; Eileen Hannah

2001-01-01

349

The effect of an outdoor setting on the transfer of earth science concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of students to transfer concepts learned in school to future learning and employment settings is critical to their academic and career success. Concept transfer can best be studied by defining it as a process rather than an isolated event. Preparation for future learning (PFL) is a process definition of transfer which recognizes the student's ability to draw from past experiences, make assumptions, and generate potential questions and strategies for problem resolution. The purpose of this study was to use the PFL definition of concept transfer to examine whether a knowledge-rich outdoor setting better prepares students for future learning of science concepts than the classroom setting alone does. The research hypothesis was that sixth-grade students experiencing a geology-rich outdoor setting would be better prepared to learn advanced earth science concepts than students experiencing classroom learning only. A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study on two non-equivalent, self-contained sixth-grade rural public school classes. After a pretest was given on prior geology knowledge, the outdoor treatment group was taken on a geology-rich field excursion which introduced them to the concepts of mineral formation and mining. The indoor treatment group received exposure to the same concepts in the classroom setting via color slides and identification of mineral specimens. Subsequently, both groups received direct instruction on advanced concepts about mineral formation and mining. They were then given a posttest, which presented the students with a problem-solving scenario and questions related to concepts covered in the direct instruction. A t-test done on pretest data revealed that the indoor treatment group had previously learned classroom geology material significantly better than the outdoor treatment group had. Therefore an analysis of covariance was performed on posttest data which showed that the outdoor treatment group was better prepared for future learning of advanced geology concepts than the indoor treatment group. Because the environment chosen for this study was by nature one that contained variables outside the control of the researcher, it can only be speculated that the outdoor environment was the agent of transfer. Subsequent studies need to be done to substantiate this hypothesis.

Simmons, Jerry Marvin

350

Environmental Respect: A New Approach to Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most outdoor education programs do not include the teaching of correct outdoor behavior. The purpose of this manual is to assist educators and concerned lay persons in establishing an outdoor education program with an instructional strategy that will manipulate students into becoming responsible, ethical, respectful outdoor citizens. Both lay…

Huck, Albert R.; Decker, Eugene

351

Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

2012-01-01

352

Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

Huffman, Michael G.

353

A Teachers' Guide for the Outdoor School Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general aim of this guide is to aid the teachers of the fifth and sixth grade boys and girls who participate in the Outdoor School program at the Battle Creek Outdoor Center. Another major aim of this guide is to aid the outdoor school teachers who bear the major responsibility in implementing the outdoor school program. An historical overview…

Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

354

Cooperative Programs in Residential Outdoor Environmental Education: Teacher's Materials Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Serving as teacher orientation materials for the cooperative programs in residential outdoor education located in Marin County, California, this guide includes the following: (1) "This I Believe" (a philosophical statement on outdoor environmental education); (2) "Outdoor Science and Conservation Education Report" (a brief history of outdoor

Marin County Superintendent of Schools, Corte Madera, CA.

355

Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

356

The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs have been…

Higgins, Peter

2000-01-01

357

Adaptive Mobile Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general framework for adaptive mobile learning. The mobile learner performs an educational activity using the infrastructure (e.g. handheld devices, networks) in an environment (e.g. outdoors). An adaptation engine personalizes the educational activity and the infrastructure to the learner according to the context. The adaptation engine may be deterministic or probabilistic. Learning automata are employed as probabilistic

Anastasios A. Economides

2006-01-01

358

Scenario based outdoor simulation in pre-hospital trauma care using a simple mannequin model  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a system of scenario-based training using simple mannequins under realistic circumstances for the training of pre-hospital care providers. Methods A simple intubatable mannequin or student volunteers are used together with a training version of the equipment used on a routine basis by the pre-hospital care team (doctor + paramedic). Training is conducted outdoors at the base location all year round. The scenarios are led by scenario facilitators who are predominantly senior physicians. Their role is to brief the training team and guide the scenario, results of patient assessment and the simulated responses to interventions and treatment. Pilots, fire-fighters and medical students are utilised in scenarios to enhance realism by taking up roles as bystanders, additional ambulance staff and police. These scenario participants are briefed and introduced to the scene in a realistic manner. After completion of the scenario, the training team would usually be invited to prepare and deliver a hospital handover as they would in a real mission. A formal structured debrief then takes place. Results This training method technique has been used for the training of all London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (London HEMS) doctors and paramedics over the last 24 months. Informal participant feedback suggests that this is a very useful teaching method, both for improving motor skills, critical decision-making, scene management and team interaction. Although formal assessment of this technique has not yet taken place we describe how this type of training is conducted in a busy operational pre-hospital trauma service. Discussion The teaching and maintenance of pre-hospital care skills is essential to an effective pre-hospital trauma care system. Simple mannequin based scenario training is feasible on a day-to-day basis and has the advantages of low cost, rapid set up and turn around. The scope of scenarios is limited only by the imagination of the trainers. Significant effort is made to put the participants into "the Zone" - the psychological mindset, where they believe they are in a realistic setting and treating a real patient, so that they gain the most from each teaching session. The method can be used for learning new skills, communication and leadership as well as maintaining existing skills. Conclusion The method described is a low technology, low cost alternative to high technology simulation which may provide a useful adjunct to delivering effective training when properly prepared and delivered. We find this useful for both induction and regular training of pre-hospital trauma care providers.

2010-01-01

359

Terra in K-16 formal education settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

2009-12-01

360

Formal Geometry of Differential Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we lay the geometric foundations of the formal theory of differential equations. The name “formal theory” stems from the fact that it is, at least indirectly, concerned with the analysis of formal power\\u000a series solutions, i. e. one ignores the question whether the series actually converge. Another interpretation of the name\\u000a is that one tries to extract

Werner M. Seiler

361

Radon in outdoor air in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. The state-wide median of 15 Bq m{sup -3} (0.4 pCi L{sup -1}) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m{sup -3} (0.07-1.40 pCi L{sup -1}). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which >20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations >48 Bq m{sup -3} (4 pCi L{sup -1}) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Price, J.G. [National Research Council, Washington, DC (United States); Rigby, J.G.; Christensen, L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)] [and others

1994-04-01

362

Radon in outdoor air in Nevada.  

PubMed

Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. (1991). The statewide median of 15 Bq m-3 (0.4 pCi L-1) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m-3 (0.07-1.40 pCi L-1). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which > 20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations > 48 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both. PMID:8138410

Price, J G; Rigby, J G; Christensen, L; Hess, R; LaPointe, D D; Ramelli, A R; Desilets, M; Hopper, R D; Kluesner, T; Marshall, S

1994-04-01

363

Gaugeon Formalism with BRST Symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a BRST symmetric version of Yokoyama's Type I gaugeon formalism for quantum electrodynamics; the similar theory by Izawa can be considered as a BRST symmetrized Type II theory. With the help of the BRST symmetry, Yokoyama's physical subsidiary conditions are replaced by the Kugo-Ojima type condition. As a result, the formalism becomes applicable even in the background gravitational field. We show how the Hilbert spaces of standard formalism in various gauges are embedded in the single Hilbert space of the present formalism. We also give a path integral derivation of the Lagrangian.

Koseki, M.; Sato, M.; Endo, R.

1993-11-01

364

Presenting and documenting formal proofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literate proving is the analogue for literate programming in the mathematical realm. That is, the goal of literate proving is to produce clear expositions of formal mathematics that could even be enjoyable for people to read whilst remaining faithful representations of the actual proofs. This paper describes maze, a generic literate proving system. Au- thors markup formal proof les, such

Paul Cairns; Jeremy Gow

365

Seven Myths of Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven widely held conceptions about formal methods are challenged. These beliefs are variants of the following: formal methods can guarantee that software is perfect; they work by proving that the programs are correct; only highly critical systems benefit from their use; they involve complex mathematics; they increase the cost of development; they are incomprehensible to clients; and nobody uses them

Anthony Hall

1990-01-01

366

A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education centers such as museums, zoos and aquariums has stimulated studies of the relationship between learning in and outside of schools. Although many studies focus on the teachers, the contexts, and/or the students during the field trip, only a few look at the entire process of learning by including the classroom setting before and after the field trip. This study was designed to develop understandings of the student process of learning during and surrounding an environmental science field trip to an outdoor setting. John Dewey's extensive writings on the relationship between experience and learning informed the analysis, creating a focus on active and passive elements of the experience, continuity within and across contexts, the interactive nature of the experience and the importance of subject matter. An exploration of environmental education (EE), environmental science (ES), and nature study as content revealed the complexities of the subject matter of the field trip that make its presentation problematic. An urban school was chosen to contribute to the research literature about urban student learning in outdoor environments. During the field trip, the students' active engagement with each other and the environment supported meaningful remembrances of the field trip experiences during interviews after the field trip. The students accurately described plants and animals they had observed in different habitats during the field trip. They also made connections with their home life and prior experiences in the outdoors as they discussed the field trip and drew pictures that represented their experiences. One student integrated his outdoor experience with a language arts assignment as he reflected deeply on the field trip. One implication of this study is that educational experiences in outdoor natural environments are complex in ways that contribute to lack of continuity between science lessons in an elementary classroom and environmental science field trip. Long term relationships between schools and informal settings that recognize the strengths of both contexts in terms of student learning processes surrounding field trip experiences are needed to strengthen the educative process for field trip participants.

Preusch, Peggy L.

367

Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…

Cinnamon, Jerry

368

The Seed Scene: An Outdoor Teaching Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of seeds and their dispersal is an excellent way to help students understand basic concepts which will help them in their adult decision-making activities regarding environmental problems. This article discusses the purpose of seeds, aspects of seeds, and collecting seeds. Classroom and outdoor activities with seeds are listed. (NQ)|

Rillo, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

369

Depth estimation from a monocular outdoor image  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm to estimate 3D depth from a single monocular outdoor image based on the multi- resolution analysis of the various cues including edge, hue, saturation, vertical depth prior, and dark channel prior. Our experimental results show a huge amount of computational savings over literature work while keeping our depth map close to the ground truth.

Tien-Ying Kuo; Yi-Chung Lo; Yun-Yang Lai

2011-01-01

370

Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

371

The Crystal Lake Outdoor Education Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-year school-community outdoor education program in the elementary school district in Crystal Lake, Illinois, was funded in 1967 under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Success of the project was such that the board of education agreed to fund the program locally and enlarge its scope. As reported, the keynotes were…

Donaldson, George W.

372

Outdoor Adventure Leadership at Laurentian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduating with a Bachelor of Physical and Health Education (BPHE) degree with a specialty in Outdoor Adventure Leadership (ADVL) is a unique reality in Canada offered by Sudbury's Laurentian University. Developed over 20 years ago, the ADVL program has been one of Laurentian's six landmark Human Kinetics programs. From a scholastic perspective…

Little, Jim

2007-01-01

373

Designing an Outdoor Meditation Space. Idea Corner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outdoor meditation area can support campers' and guests' spiritual growth through a peaceful sensory experience. The bench, alcove, or place of worship should have a focus. Other suggested elements include a bridging pathway; photogenic view; soothing sounds and smells; inspirational plaques, inscriptions, or prayers; recognition of donors; and…

Forster, Gary

1998-01-01

374

Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad audience in a safe, efficient and controlled environment. This development is labeled as “The

L. R. Salome

2012-01-01

375

Outdoor Weathering Effect on Shipping Label Covers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative study was performed where different shipping label covers were affixed to porous weather-resistant, triple-wall fiberboard boxes and subjected to an outdoor weathering environment for a six-month period. Even though the water-resistant brush...

J. A. Hincks

1972-01-01

376

Beyond Networking: Connecting University Outdoor Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2006, the authors started a discussion about St. Cloud State University Outdoor Endeavors working together to run a trip in the Everglades National Park. The following summer they began the planning process through phone conversations, email and division of tasks. Despite the physical distance and separate university systems, each with their…

Bartha, Ivan; Morgan, Brett

2008-01-01

377

Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…

Cinnamon, Jerry

378

Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

Aikman, John H.; And Others

379

Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

380

Get Moving! Active Play Indoors and Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the importance of active play. Parts A and B of this experience provide learners with a variety of active play options for indoors and outdoors that promote physical fitness. This activity is featured on pp. 20-21 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2012-06-26

381

9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of pinnipeds...unauthorized persons out. Fences less than 8 feet high for polar bears or less than 6 feet high for other marine...

2013-01-01

382

Calibration of an Outdoor Active Camera System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric camera model and calibration procedures are developed for an outdoor active camera system with pan, tilt and zoom control. Unlike traditional methods, active camera motion plays a key role in the calibration process, and no special laboratory setups are required. Intrinsic pa- rameters are estimated automatically by fitting parametric models to the optic flow induced by rotating and

Robert T. Collins; Yanghai Tsin

1999-01-01

383

Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

384

Educational Specifications for the Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to develop educational specifications for an outdoor school after determining curricular offerings and recognizing administrative problems. A review of literature provided a basis for the formulation of tentative criteria in the areas of curriculum, administration, site selection, and facilities development. Tentative…

Homan, Paul Barringer

385

North Carolina Outdoor Education Association Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives the Association's constitution which covers membership, executive board, elections, terms of office, duties of officers, committees, parliamentary authority, amendments, and quorum. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal…

North Carolina Journal of Outdoor Education, 1980

1980-01-01

386

Outdoor Education: Issues & Investigations, 5-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to familiarize Oklahoma students with their environment by providing opportunities for exploration, investigation, and evaluation, this outdoor education guide contains suggested activities to be used as a starting point to arouse the interest and curiosity of students through direct observation and investigation. As an additional…

Boules, Allen, Ed.

387

Risk Management in the Outdoor HPER Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses risk management in the outdoor physical education or recreation setting from the perspectives of traditional approaches to the problem, the assumption of risk concept, and the characteristics and attitudes of the participants. Guidelines for evaluating a risk management plan are included. (IAH)|

Ewert, Alan

1989-01-01

388

Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.  

PubMed Central

In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions.

Cohen, A J

2000-01-01

389

Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

1991-01-01

390

OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

391

Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

392

Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor and Indoor air pollution in China is mainly due to direct combustion of coal for domestic heating and cooking purposes. In general, air pollution levels are more severe in the northern parts of the country, during the cold season and cooking hours than in the southern parts, during the warm season and non-cooking hours. The direct impact of air

S Niu

1987-01-01

393

Bioaerosol Concentration at an Outdoor Composting Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compost centers are one of many environments that produce airborne microorganisms. The objective of this study was to compare the bacterial, fungal, and acti-nomycete concentrations at the Norman, OK, compost center to background concentration of these same microorganisms. For this comparison, a modified Andersen Microbial Sampler was used. Sampling was performed at three sites at the outdoor compost center and

Martha Folmsbee; Keith A. Strevett

1999-01-01

394

Outdoor Education--Its Origin and Purpose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outdoor education is potentially a powerful tool for teaching children about conservation, the beauty of nature, the interrelatedness of the natural and social sciences, and the meaning of life. These goals are not accomplished through an emphasis on any single aspect of the curriculum, but rather through all subject areas. This has resulted in…

Kirk, John J.

395

Colorado Outdoor Education Center Teacher's Field Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Colorado Outdoor Education Center aims to educate the total person by offering programs which help each individual to gain a sense of the earth, of community, and of self. At High Trails the students are brought into direct contact with nature, utilizing small groups and emphasizing direct experiences. The integrated, multi-disciplinary…

Colorado Outdoor Education Center, Inc., Florissant.

396

Evaluating white LEDs for outdoor lighting application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to understand the acceptability of different white light emitting diodes (LEDs) for outdoor landscape lighting. The study used a scaled model setup. The scene was designed to replicate the exterior of a typical upscale suburban restaurant including the exterior façade of the building, an approach with steps, and a garden. The lighting was designed to

Insiya Shakir; Nadarajah Narendran

2002-01-01

397

Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

2009-01-01

398

Outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of urban racial/ethnic ...  

Treesearch

Description: A study of outdoor recreation preferences and behavior of ... In addition, gender, age, education, income, residence, and household size helped explain ... Keywords: tourism, outdoor recreation, ethnicity, recreation marketiing.

399

America's Great Outdoors: A Promise to Future Generations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Connecting Americans to the Great Outdoors (1. Provide Quality Jobs, Career Pathways, and Service Opportunities, 2. Enhance Recreational Access and Opportunities, 3. Raise Awareness of the Value and Benefits of America's Great Outdoors, 4. Engag...

2011-01-01

400

Easing into Outdoor Workouts on Sultry Summer Days  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Easing into outdoor workouts on sultry summer days (*this news item will not be available after ... outdoor exercisers who dread the long, hot summer days of steamy runs and breathless aerobics during a ...

401

Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education in US Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considerable attention has focused on the challenges of English language learners without age-appropriate formal education and first language literacy. They are viewed here as students with high-context learning experiences and expectations (Hall in Beyond culture, Anchor, New York, 1976), and a collectivistic orientation, with a pragmatic,…

DeCapua, Andrea; Marshall, Helaine W.

2010-01-01

402

Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

Hug, J. William

1998-09-01

403

Nature, Nurture, Knowledge: The Promise of Experiential Learning for Students with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research suggests that many students learn best when teaching practices are outdoors, nature-based, and experiential. Meaningful outdoor experiences increase students' social and academic achievement and contribute to the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills Experiential and nature-based instruction in the outdoors has been…

Peterson, Kara Marie

2011-01-01

404

Formalization of clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

Clinical practice guidelines are textual recommendations based on the consensus of medical experts with the aim to solve diagnostic and therapeutic problems. For more advanced use in real medical applications it is necessary to find out mathematical models of physicians' decision-making processes. The acquisition of a formal model from text-based guidelines is a crucial point for development of decision support systems. We introduce a system for formalization and presentation of medical knowledge contained in clinical practice guidelines where knowledge formalization is based on the GLIF model. PMID:18487723

Buchtela, David; Peleska, Jan; Veselý, Arnost; Zvárová, Jana; Zvolský, Miroslav

2008-01-01

405

Designing Outdoor Spaces for People with DementiaDesigning Outdoor Spaces for People with Dementia.  

PubMed

ALL OF us value spending time outdoors and people with dementia will derive as much wellbeing from fresh air, nature and exercise as the rest of us. However, as one of the contributors to this sumptuous book points out, while inmates of UK prisons are granted an hour's outdoor exercise a day, many people with dementia in residential care settings are rarely assisted to venture outside. PMID:23984695

2013-09-01

406

Leadership and Administration of Outdoor Pursuits. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outdoor leadership aims to assist outdoor participants in making logical and safe transitions from the routine of everyday life to a positive interaction with the natural world. Designed for outdoor leaders and administrators of recreational, educational, and adventure programs, this book provides an overview of current professional practices in…

Ford, Phyllis; Blanchard, Jim

407

Physical Education & Outdoor Education: complementary but discrete disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical Education. This in turn has mandated that OE teachers

Peter Martin; John McCullagh

2011-01-01

408

The Content of a College-Level Outdoor Leadership Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study used the Delphi technique to determine the ideal content of a college-level outdoor leadership course for land-based outdoor pursuits in the Pacific Northwest. Topics were generated and value-rated by 61 Pacific Northwest outdoor leaders using a Likert-type scale in three separate questionnaires. Thirty-five topics were…

Green, Paul

409

The Outdoor Education Student in the Canadian University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires completed by third- and fourth-year Canadian university students (1980-81) illustrate some characteristics of outdoor education students: many aspire to a career in outdoor education; their academic performance is average; and they engage more in outdoor recreation activities than their peers, but have the same reasons for…

Cousineau, Claude

1982-01-01

410

Research in Outdoor Education; (Summaries of Doctoral Studies).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-two doctoral dissertations in the area of outdoor education are summarized. Topics include consideration of the goals and rationale of outdoor education, proposals for camping programs and other outdoor education programs, the development of evaluation methods, evaluations of programs, investigations of changes in student behaviors,…

Hammerman, Donald R.; And Others

411

Peer Learning in Higher Education: Learning from & with Each Other.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection explore how educators can formalize the use of peer learning to encourage more effective learning in higher education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: Making the Move to Peer Learning" (David Boud); (2) "Designing Peer Learning" (Jane Sampson and Ruth Cohen); (3) "Strategies for Peer Learning: Some Examples"…

Boud, David, Ed.; Cohen, Ruth, Ed.; Sampson, Jane, Ed.

412

Formal Languages in Dynamical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treat here the interrelation between formal languages and those dynamical systems that can be described by cellular automata (CA). There is a well-known injective map which identifies any CA-invariant subshift with a central formal language. However, in the special case of a symbolic dynamics, i.e. where the CA is just the shift map, one gets a stronger result: the

G. Troll

1993-01-01

413

Formal semantics of SQL queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semantics of SQL queries is formally defined by stating a set of rules that determine a syntax-driven translation of an SQL query to a formal model. The target model, called Extended Three Valued Predicate Calculus (E3VPC), is largely based on a set of well-known mathematical concepts. The rules which allow the transformation of a general E3VPC expression to a

Mauro Negri; Giuseppe Pelagatti; Licia Sbattella

1991-01-01

414

Formal Language Constrained Path Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given an alphabet ?, a (directed) graph G whose edges are weighted and ?-labeled, and a formal language L ? ??, the formal-language-constrained shortest\\/simple path problem con- sists of finding a shortest (simple) path p in G complying with the additional constraint that l(p) ? L. Here l(p) denotes the unique word obtained by concatenating the ?-labels of the edges

Christopher L. Barrett; Riko Jacob; Madhav V. Marathe

1998-01-01

415

Formal Versus Agile: Survival of the Fittest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research have focused on new formal methods, integrating formal methods into agile ones, and assessing the agility of formal methods. This paper proves that formal methods can survive in an agile world; they are not obsolete and can be integrated into it. The potential for combining agile and formal methods holds promise. It might not always be an easy

Sue Black; Paul P. Boca; Jonathan P. Bowen; Jason Gorman; Mike Hinchey

2009-01-01

416

A field study of thermal comfort in outdoor and semi-outdoor environments in subtropical Sydney Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of empirical outdoor thermal comfort studies it has been widely assumed that indoor thermal comfort theory generalises to outdoor settings without modification. Many indoor models were developed to describe thermal discomfort, not stress, therefore their relevance to conditions that vary greatly from neutrality, as many outdoor climatic conditions do, has not been critically validated in the field

Jennifer Spagnolo; Richard de Dear

2003-01-01

417

Aging in EPDM used for outdoor insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of accelerated weather aging on ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber used for outdoor insulation was studied by surface roughness measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface roughness of EFDM rubber changed with aging time. The surface oxygen and aluminum content were found to increase and that of carbon, silicon and nitrogen to decrease with time. The detailed XPS

Y. Xu; Y. He; F. Zeng; R. Zhang

1999-01-01

418

Surface reconstruction from outdoor image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study aimed at inferring the surface structure of outdoor scenes from video data acquired by a vehicle-mounted TV camera. The method is based on a decomposition of each frame of the video sequence into a dense set of feature points. Through the application of a Structure-from-Motion algorithm, the 3D locations of the time-consistent

Debra Charnley; Rod Blissett

1989-01-01

419

Measuring Outdoor Airflow into HVAC Systems  

SciTech Connect

The rate of outdoor air (OA) supply affects building energy consumption, occupant health, and work performance; however, minimum ventilation rates are often poorly controlled. Real-time measurements of OA flow rates into HVAC systems would enable improved flow control. This article demonstrates that at least some of the available technologies for real-time measurement of OA air intake rate are reasonably accurate and provides guidance on how these technologies should be used.

Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2005-08-01

420

Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

Wood, Diane, Comp.

421

Designing Outdoor Mixed Reality Hardware Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing usable and robust mixed reality systems requires unique human-computer interaction techniques and customized hardware systems. The design of the hardware is directed by the requirements of the rich 3D interactions that can be performed using immersive mobile MR systems. Geometry modeling and capture, navigational annotations, visualizations, and training simulations are all enhanced using augmented computer graphics. We present the design guidelines that have led us through 10 years of evolving mobile outdoor MR hardware systems.

Avery, Benjamin; Smith, Ross T.; Piekarski, Wayne; Thomas, Bruce H.

422

Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

2011-07-01

423

A User-Centric Adaptive Learning System for E-Learning 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The success of Web 2.0 inspires e-learning to evolve into e-learning 2.0, which exploits collective intelligence to achieve user-centric learning. However, searching for suitable learning paths and content for achieving a learning goal is time consuming and troublesome on e-learning 2.0 platforms. Therefore, introducing formal learning in these…

Huang, Shiu-Li; Shiu, Jung-Hung

2012-01-01

424

Research on outdoor testing of solar modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of globe solar photovoltaic industry, performance testing and evaluation of solar modules have been largely concerned, while the primary basis of evaluations is the electrical performance of modules, namely the voltage - current characteristic curve. Nearly module's conversion efficiency which defined as its maximum electrical power (Pmax) divided by the total incident photon power (Pin) became more and more valued, because higher efficiency means lower cost. Generally, electrical performance parameters of the modules need to test under standard test conditions (STC), but STC can only be simulated in laboratory-controlled environment while solar modules actually work under natural sunlight outdoors, To solve this problem we propose researches on outdoor testing of solar modules to investigate the electrical performance parameters of solar modules in a variety of environmental conditions. Also, according to the results, we will analysis the impact of various environmental factors on the performance of solar modules, including radiation spectrum, Incident angle, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. In addition, we can analyze the difference between the performance parameters result of outdoor and indoor test and its main reason.

Liu, Dingpu; Xiong, Limin; Meng, Haifeng; He, Yingwei; Zhang, Jieyu

2012-10-01

425

Modeling formalisms in Systems Biology  

PubMed Central

Systems Biology has taken advantage of computational tools and high-throughput experimental data to model several biological processes. These include signaling, gene regulatory, and metabolic networks. However, most of these models are specific to each kind of network. Their interconnection demands a whole-cell modeling framework for a complete understanding of cellular systems. We describe the features required by an integrated framework for modeling, analyzing and simulating biological processes, and review several modeling formalisms that have been used in Systems Biology including Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, Petri nets, process algebras, constraint-based models, differential equations, rule-based models, interacting state machines, cellular automata, and agent-based models. We compare the features provided by different formalisms, and discuss recent approaches in the integration of these formalisms, as well as possible directions for the future.

2011-01-01

426

Learning to Take Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domainsand show that PAC-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We thenidentify a class of rule based action strategies for which polynomial time learning is possible.The representation of strategies is generalization of decision lists; strategies include rules withexistentially quantified conditions, simple recursive predicates,

Roni Khardon

1996-01-01

427

The concept of formal justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Greek mythology, Themis, the goddess of justice, is blindfolded so that she may not see those who stand before her, and consequently, so that she can administer justice consistently and impartially. The imagery provides an apt illustration of the formal dimension of justice. Yet it serves only to blind us to the actual workings and character of the practice

Craig L. Carr

1981-01-01

428

A Formal Description of SYMBOL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the work is to develop a formal description of the SYMBOL system using the Vienna Definition Language. The three major research goals are (1) to demonstrate that a programming language can be defined by using an abstract machine which clo...

C. W. Cheng

1973-01-01

429

Towards a Unified AI Formalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unified approach to building intelligent architectures. Our approach relies on making some semantic, ontological, os well os architectural commitments. Semantically, we commit ourselves to principles governing the nature of the entities represented by the knowledge representation formalism, and the relationships between the faculties of reasoning, acting, and natural language understanding. More specifically, we concentrate on the

Deepak N. Kumar; Susan M. Haller; Syed S. Ali

1994-01-01

430

The Traps of Formal Correspondence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The dangers of translation are discussed when the translator does not try to create textual equivalence, but settles for formal correspondence (i.e., with simple transcoding at a linguistic level) during the process of translating. Difficulties of explaining, commenting, or summarizing rather than translating are also discussed. Pedagogical and…

Albert, Sandor

431

Chao Formalism & Kondratenko Crossing Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently started testing Chao's proposed new matrix formalism for describing the spin dynamics due to a single spin resonance; this seems to be the first generalization of the Froissart-Stora equation since it was published in 1960. The Chao matrix formalism allows one to calculate analytically the polarization's behavior inside a resonance, which is not possible using the Froissart-Stora equation. We recently tested some Chao formalism predictions using a 1.85 GeV/c polarized deuteron beam stored in COSY. We swept an rf dipole's frequency through 200 Hz while varying the distance from the sweep's end frequency to an rf-induced spin resonance's central frequency. While the Froissart-Stora formula can make no prediction in this case, the data seem to support the Chao formalism. We also started investigating the new Kondratenko method to preserve beam polarization during a spin resonance crossing; the method uses 3 rapid changes of the crossing rate near the resonance. With a proper choice of crossing parameters, Kondratenko Crossing may better preserve the polarization than simple fast crossing. We tested Kondratenko's idea using 2.1 GeV/c polarized protons stored in COSY; the frequency of a ferrite rf dipole was swept though an rf-induced spin resonance using Kondratenko's crossing shape. We have not yet observed a significant advantage of Kondratenko Crossing over simple fast crossing. We plan to study it further by choosing better crossing parameters and a smaller momentum spread.

Raymond, R. S.; Chao, A. W.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Schnase, A.; Stockhorst, H.; Hinterberger, F.; Ulbrich, K.; Kondratenko, A. M.

2007-06-01

432

Formal Verification of Ada Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Penelope verification editor and its formal basis are described. Penelope is a prototype system for the interactive development and verification of programs that are written in a rich subset of sequential Ada. Because it generates verification conditions incrementally, Penelope can be used to develop a program and its correctness proof in concert. If an already-verified program is modified, one

David Guaspari; Carla Marceau; Wolfgang Polak

1990-01-01

433

Formal Approach to Scenario Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios offer promise as a way to tame requirements analysis, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a systematic way to analyze, generate, and validate them. The authors propose such a method and apply it to a simple PBX system. Their method has a formal mathematical base, generates precise scenarios, accommodates change, and keeps users involved in the

Pei Hsia; Jayarajan Samuel; Jerry Gao; David Chenho Kung; Yasufumi Toyoshima; Cris Chen

1994-01-01

434

TRX: A Formally Verified Parser Interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parsing is an important problem in computer science and yet surprisingly little attention has been devoted to its formal verification. In this paper, we present TRX: a parser interpreter formally developed in the proof assistant Coq, capable of producing formally correct parsers. We are using parsing expression grammars (PEGs), a formalism essentially representing recursive descent parsing, which we consider an

Adam Koprowski; Henri Binsztok

2011-01-01

435

[The management of indoor and outdoor pollutions].  

PubMed

We are living daily more than 22 hours into occupational/domestic building. Consequently, the exposure to indoor pollutants could play a major role in human health. The main indoor pollutants are the allergens, CO, NO2 and fine particles. A body of data suggests that the ventilation of the indoor air, by opening the windows, could limit the risk to develop health problems. The last conclusion is supported by the data reported in this short review on indoor/outdoor pollution. PMID:19899390

Michel, O

2009-09-01

436

USB-based portable outdoor multi-function tester design  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of society, outdoor measurements demand increased fast. The traditional test instruments due to their bulky, costly, inconvenience to carry, are not suited for outdoor operations. Based on this, this paper proposed a multi-function tester suitable for outdoor using. The instrument consists of data acquisition card with a USB interface, combined with notebook and LabVIEW. Self-made data acquisition

Aiju Chen; Jingjing Liu

2009-01-01

437

Handikapp och Friluftsliv--Om Tillgaenglighet i Friluftsomraden (Handicapps and Outdoor Life: Accessibility of Outdoor Areas).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At present, many outdoor recreational areas cannot be enjoyed by the handicapped because their needs were not taken into account when these areas were designed. It is often the case, however, that this situation could be remedied by simple and inexpensive...

1978-01-01

438

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

2011-07-01

439

Ontology Enabled Learning Resource Modeling and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed the learning resource ontology(LRO) models to formally describe learning content and learning context, respectively. In addition to utilizing the models to formally describe content, we also derived ontological relation between the content and context at semantic level. Furthermore, we have built a semantic similarity algorithm to measure the similarity between ontologies. Based on the similarity

Zongkai Yang; Tao Huang; Qingtang Liu; Xia Li; Bei Wu

2006-01-01

440

Collectively Seeing Climate Change: The Limits of Formal Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience investigates formal models used to study climate change. Understanding the risks posed by anthropogenic climate change and the possible societal responses to those risks has generated a prototypical example of the challenge of "collectively seeing complex systems." After briefly examining the ways in which problems like climate change reach the scientific and public agenda, we look at four different ways in which scientists collectively address the problem: general circulation models, integrated assessment models, formal assessments (e.g., the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and distributed learning networks. We examine the strengths and limitations of each of these methods, and suggest ways in which a greater self-consciousness of the need for plural approaches could improve the basis for learning and decision making.

RICHARD B. NORGAARD and PAUL BAER (;)

2005-11-01

441

Learning networks, crowds and communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Who we learn from, where and when is dramatically affected by the reach of the Internet. From learning for formal education to learning for pleasure, we look to the web early and often for our data and knowledge needs, but also for places and spaces where we can collaborate, contribute to, and create learning and knowledge communities. Based on the

Caroline Haythornthwaite

2011-01-01

442

Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)|

Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David

1985-01-01

443

Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)

Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David

1985-01-01

444

Cooperative Learning in Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

1994-01-01

445

Evaluating white LEDs for outdoor lighting application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to understand the acceptability of different white light emitting diodes (LEDs) for outdoor landscape lighting. The study used a scaled model setup. The scene was designed to replicate the exterior of a typical upscale suburban restaurant including the exterior façade of the building, an approach with steps, and a garden. The lighting was designed to replicate light levels commonly found in nighttime outdoor conditions. The model had a central dividing partition with symmetrical scenes on both sides for side-by-side evaluations of the two scenes with different light sources. While maintaining equal luminance levels and distribution between the two scenes, four types of light sources were evaluated. These include, halogen, phosphor white LED, and two white light systems using RGB LEDs. These light sources were tested by comparing two sources at a time placed side-by-side and by individual assessment of each lighting condition. The results showed that the RGB LEDs performed equal or better than the most widely used halogen light source in this given setting. A majority of the subjects found slightly dimmer ambient lighting to be more typical for restaurants and therefore found RGB LED and halogen light sources to be more inviting. The phosphor white LEDs made the space look brighter, however a majority of the subjects disliked them.

Shakir, Insiya; Narendran, Nadarajah

2002-09-01

446

Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems  

SciTech Connect

As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

Williams, L.G. [Software Engineering Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1991-11-15

447

Notoph gauge theory: Superfield formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations for the 4D free Abelian 2-form gauge theory by exploiting the superfield approach to BRST formalism. The antisymmetric tensor gauge field of the above theory was christened as the "notoph" (i.e. the opposite of "photon") gauge field by Ogievetsky and Palubarinov way back in 1966-67. We briefly outline the problems involved in obtaining the absolute anticonimutativity of the (anti-) BRST transformations and their resolution within the framework of geometrical superfield approach to BRST formalism. One of the highlights of our results is the emergence of a Curci-Ferrari type of restriction in the context of 4D Abelian 2-form (notoph) gauge theory which renders the nilpotent (anti-) BRST symmetries of the theory to be absolutely anticommutative in nature.

Malik, R. P.

2011-05-01

448

LFG within King's descriptive formalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, I will discuss how Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG: Bresnan, 1982a, etc.) canbe modeled in King's (forthcoming) descriptive formalism. This paper isn't an introduction to LFG.It assumes a reading knowledge of LFG as can be gained from Kaplan & Bresnan (1982) or one ofthe more tutorial introductions, such as Sells (1985). Our plan of attack has three parts. Firstly,we

Christopher Manning

449

Clean formal semantics for VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple formal semantics for the standard hardwaredescription language vhdl is set out in functionalstyle. The presentation comprises an executable specificationfor a synchronously clocked vhdl simulator.1 IntroductionThis paper attempts to lay the basis for simplerformal semantics for vhdl than available in the literature. Vhdl is a standardized hardware descriptionlanguage developed in the 1980s with the supportof the US DoD, and

Peter T. Breuer; Luis Sánchez Fernández; Carlos Delgado Kloos

1994-01-01

450

An Ill-Structured PBL-Based Microprocessor Course without Formal Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper introduces a problem-based learning (PBL) microprocessor application course designed according to the following strategies: 1) hands-on training without having a formal laboratory, and 2) intense student-centered cooperative learning through an ill-structured problem. PBL was adopted as the core educational technique of the course to…

Kim, Jungkuk

2012-01-01

451

Learning Mathematics in the Mobile Phone Environment: Students' Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers point at the importance of emotions and its study in mathematics education. This research examines middle school students' emotions during learning mathematics outdoors using the mobile phone. The constant comparison method was used to analyze 30 middle school students' emotions while carrying out 15 outdoor activities using the mobile…

Daher, Wajeeh

2011-01-01

452

Learning Mathematics in the Mobile Phone Environment: Students' Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers point at the importance of emotions and its study in mathematics education. This research examines middle school students' emotions during learning mathematics outdoors using the mobile phone. The constant comparison method was used to analyze 30 middle school students' emotions while carrying out 15 outdoor activities using the…

Daher, Wajeeh

2011-01-01

453

Probabilistic logic learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past few years have witnessed an significant interest in probabilistic logic learning, i.e. in research lying at the intersection of probabilistic reasoning, logical representations, and machine learning. A rich variety of different formalisms and learning techniques have been developed. This paper provides an introductory survey and overview of the state-of-the-art in probabilistic logic learning through the identification of a

Luc De Raedt; Kristian Kersting

2003-01-01

454

Outdoor recognition at a distance by fusing gait and face  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the possibility of using both face and gait in enhancing human recognition at a distance performance in outdoor condi- tions. Although the individual performance of gait and face based biometrics at a distance under outdoor illumination conditions, walk- ing surface changes, and time variations are poor, we show that recognition performance is significantly enhanced by combination of face

Zongyi Liu; Sudeep Sarkar

2007-01-01

455

A RATIONALE FOR THE MANDATORY LIMITATION OF OUTDOOR LIGHTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The great value of artificial outdoor lighting has largely obscured the social, ecological and environmental problems resulting from present lighting practice. The exponential growth of outdoor lighting observed in Australia and elsewhere is unsustainable and greatly at odds with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Artificial skyglow resulting largely from wasteful lighting design and overuse of lighting is

Barry A. J. Clark

2006-01-01

456

Jumping Deadfall: Overcoming Barriers To Implementing Outdoor and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers wishing to teach experientially and to include environmental outdoor education in their classes must have the knowledge and skills to overcome barriers that may impede their way to this goal. Common barriers include senior administrative support, teachers' comfort and competence levels, scheduling outdoor explorations, terrain and sites,…

Hanna, Glenda

1996-01-01

457

Women of Color in the Outdoors: Culture and Meanings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 24 self-identified women of color took part in focus groups and interviews concerned with attitudes toward the outdoors and involvement in outdoor activities. Analysis focuses on social support for participation, family influence, peer influence, role models, perceived isolation, sociocultural influences, discomfort and fear, personal…

Roberts, Nina S.; Henderson, Karla A.

1997-01-01

458

Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)|

Richards, Kaye

1999-01-01

459

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

460

Integration of Risk Management Techniques into Outdoor Adventure Program Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is designed to acquaint the outdoor professional with the risk management decision making process required for the operation and management of outdoor adventure activities. The document examines the programming implications of fear in adventure activities; the risk management process in adventure programming; a definition of an…

Bruner, Eric V.

461

Appropriate Benefits for Outdoor Programs Targeting Juvenile Male Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A benefits-based management approach will enable outdoor adventure therapy programs for male adolescent offenders to be built around desired outcomes such as building connections to community, enhancing self-esteem, and establishing intergenerational relationships. Outdoor programs must maintain informal environments, involve participants in…

Bruyere, Brett L.

2002-01-01

462

Play and the Outdoors: What's New under the Sun?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood today is very different from what it was for previous generations, and a sizable part of the difference has something to do with the changing amount of outdoor play time. Early childhood educators are in a powerful and unique position to make sure that children's exposure to the outdoors and its ever-changing wonders is woven into the…

Oliver, Susan J.; Klugman, Edgar

2005-01-01

463

Developing Approaches to Outdoor Education that Promote Sustainability Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social, economic, and environmental issues facing 21st century societies compel a transformative shift towards sustainability in all spheres of life, including education. The challenges this holds for outdoor education programs and practices is significant. If outdoor education theory and practice is to make a greater contribution to…

Hill, Allen

2012-01-01

464

Outdoor Education in the Battle Creek Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presenting a brief overview of the historical development, philosophy, programs, and facilities of the Battle Creek Public Schools' year-round outdoor education center, this document also details four current programs as follows: (1) a 30-week resident outdoor school program for fifth and sixth grade students; (2) a 25-week farm-garden program…

Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

465

Using the Outdoors to Enrich the Teaching of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers in elementary and middle schools and for personnel at outdoor education centers, this publication is the second in an ERIC/CRESS series on utilizing outdoor education methodologies to enhance the academic curriculum. The resource guide suggests ways of getting students interested in arithmetic and mathematics and how to make…

Payne, Milton R.

466

Managing Fear in the Outdoor Experiential Education Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines components of fear in outdoor adventure activities. Reports ratings by 311 Outward Bound students of 23 common fears in the outdoors. Discusses techniques of fear reduction therapy: systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling of coping methods by instructors, and rehearsal of adaptive behaviors. Contains 16 references. (SV)|

Ewert, Alan

1989-01-01

467

Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

Richards, Kaye

1999-01-01

468

Foucault on Camp: What Does His Work Offer Outdoor Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we examine aspects of French social theorist, Michel Foucault's work and the contributions these can make to understanding practices in outdoor education. We look specifically at his notions of practice, discourse, power and the self and the lines of questioning that these concepts make possible in relation to outdoor education. We…

Zink, Robyn; Burrows, Lisette

2006-01-01

469

Patterns of outdoor recreation activities among Norwegians: an evolutionary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Røskaft, E., Hagen, M. L., Hagen, T. L. & Moksnes, A. 2004: Patterns of outdoor recreation activi- ties among Norwegians: an evolutionary approach. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 41: 609-618. We argue that our ancestors had the nature as their only playground, therefore, the understanding of patterns of present-day outdoor recreation activities has to be consid- ered in relation to this

Eivin Røskaft; Morten Løge Hagen; Trond Løge Hagen; Arne Moksnes

2004-01-01

470

Experience and Medical Decision-Making in Outdoor Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outdoor leaders function in naturalistic decision-making contexts and may be influenced by personal, social, and environmental factors in making critical decisions in the field. The experience level of the outdoor instructor is posited as a critical variable in the development of his/her decision-making and overall judgment. This research…

Galloway, Shayne

2007-01-01

471

Jumping Deadfall: Overcoming Barriers To Implementing Outdoor and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers wishing to teach experientially and to include environmental outdoor education in their classes must have the knowledge and skills to overcome barriers that may impede their way to this goal. Common barriers include senior administrative support, teachers' comfort and competence levels, scheduling outdoor explorations, terrain and sites,…

Hanna, Glenda

1996-01-01

472

Outdoor Leadership Evaluation: Nature and Scope of the Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Beyond the ability to exhibit good judgment and common sense while performing duties as a leader under stress and pressure, an outdoor adventure program leader should possess technical skills, human relations skills, and philosophical understanding of outdoor programming. Technical skills include knowledge of initiatives/ropes course activities,…

James, Leroy M.

473

Building a Backcountry Yurt: Ecological Design Intelligence within Outdoor Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student volunteers at Utah State University's outdoor program designed, built, and carried a yurt 4 miles into the backcountry. A yurt is a traditional Mongolian structure, circular, with a lattice wall covered by material. Rafters slope upward to a top ring, on which sits a skylight. The outdoor program wanted to expand its offerings, and to do…

Kobe, Kevin; Goltra, Norman

474

HeartBeat: an outdoor pervasive game for children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the design of a pervasive game for children to demonstrate the design vision of Head-Up games, a genre of pervasive games that puts outdoors play center stage, combining the benefits of traditional outdoor games with the opportunities for richer experiences and innovation offered by new media. The design of the game, called HeartBeat, explores the use of

Remco Magielse; Panos Markopoulos

2009-01-01

475

HYDROPHOBICITY OF SILICONE RUBBER USED FOR OUTDOOR INSULATION (AN OVERVIEW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the new insulating materials widely used in high voltage outdoor insulation sys- tems, silicon rubber materials also called polymeric materials are very important; during last 20 years they have been applied for manufacturing outdoor insulators. These materials are organic in nature; therefore they are prone to decomposition under different environmental conditions; the most important among these conditions for consideration

Mohammad Amin; Mohammad Akbar; Salman Amin

476

Teacher's Handbook: Environmental Education Outdoor School Program [with Supplement].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Santa Barbara County Environmental Education Outdoor School Program provides for conduct of programs and classes in outdoor science and conservation. The aim of the school is to increase the maturity and awareness of students to man's role in ecology and the world of nature around us. This handbook for teachers will assist in the preparation…

Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

477

Outdoor Recreation in America. Trends, Problems, and Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Containing 14 chapters of information about agencies, programs, problems, and trends related to outdoor recreation, this book is designed to cover the field of study and (1) to interpret the present and future significance of outdoor recreation, (2) to describe the responsibilities of the numerous agencies and organizations involved, (3) to cover…

Jensen, Clayne R.

478

Supporting outdoor mixed reality applications for architecture and cultural heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces new approaches to enable collaborative outdoor mixed reality design review in the architectural domain as well as outdoor mixed reality experiences in the cultural heritage domain. For this purpose we present the results of three closely related European projects, IMPROVE and CINeSPACE, which are currently succeeded by MAXIMUS, continuing the development of technologies relevant to the two

Pedro Santos; Dominik Acri; Thomas Gierlinger; Hendrik Schmedt; André Stork

2010-01-01

479

Modelling of sample surface temperature in an outdoor weathering test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat transfer model is constructed to derive the surface temperature of specimens in outdoor weathering. Data on thermal properties of materials and routinely collected weather data are used as inputs for the model. The model is validated against surface temperature data measured on samples of 11 different materials exposed to natural outdoor weathering in Jokioinen, Finland, over a period

P. Bijl; A. Heikkilä; S. Syrjälä; A. Aarva; A. Poikonen

2011-01-01

480

Brock BaseCamp--Outdoor Orientation Programs Come to Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What exactly is an "outdoor orientation program?" First offered in the United States in the 1930s by Dartmouth College, outdoor orientation programs (OOPs) use adventure programming to help incoming students adjust to university or college. Typically, these programs are conducted in a wilderness or backcountry setting, are several days long and…

O'Connell, Tim

2011-01-01

481

Increasing Outdoor Recreation Participation through the Schools: A Critical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the rationale for increasing outdoor recreation participation through schools; it attempts to demonstrate that very little is known about the intensity of participation in schools, and opportunities for such participation seem limited; finally, it suggests strategies to increase youth participation in outdoor recreation. (IAH)

Cousineau, Claude

1989-01-01

482

Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

2011-01-01

483

An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

2013-01-01

484

Indoor vs. Outdoor Depth Perception for Mobile Augmented Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested users' depth perception of virtual objects in our mobile augmented reality (AR) system in both indoor and outdoor environments using a depth matching task. The indoor environment is characterized by strong linear perspective cues; we attempted to re-create these cues in the outdoor environment. In the indoor environment, we found an overall pattern of underestimation of depth that

Mark A. Livingston; Zhuming Ai; J. Edward Swan II; Harvey S. Smallman

2009-01-01

485

Out, out, and Away! Collection Development: Outdoor Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is fast approaching, and it will soon be time to climb the mountains to get their good tidings, as naturalist John Muir put it. In other words, librarians must now prepare for the influx of patrons making weekend recreational and summer vacation plans by stocking up on books and other resources on the great outdoors. Outdoor recreational…

Helling, John

2009-01-01

486

An IBM Compatible Participant Data Base System for Outdoor Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The process of maintaining mailing lists and other informational files on outdoor program participants is, plainly and simply, a pain in the neck. Mailing list maintenance is particularly difficult for programs that deal with university students, due to their frequent moves. This paper describes a new software program, the Outdoor Program Data…

Watters, Ron

487

Wondering Outdoors. Adventures and Experiences in Earth's Oldest Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An aid for planning outdoor education for elementary and high school students in the Freeport Public Schools, Freeport, Illinois, this guide is designed to help teachers expand the existing curriculum by integrating outdoor activities in all areas of study. Activities for grades K-6 are organized by location (school ground, neighborhood,…

Lathrop, David M.; And Others

488

Influence of fillers on silicone rubber for outdoor insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

HV outdoor insulating systems such as line and station insulators, surge arresters and bushings, using silicone rubber for outdoor insulation have become very popular. This paper presents the mechanical behavior and electrical behavior of silicone rubber blend with different fillers. Various loadings of alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica are added to silicone rubber and their performance are evaluated. Different types

Fang Su; Jia Zhidong; Gao Haifeng; Guan Zhicheng

2007-01-01

489

THE EFFECTS OF OUTDOOR ADVERTISEMENTS ON CONSUMERS: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence ratio of outdoor advertisements on survey participants (consumers) who are living in Sivas city and to measure the effects on participants' purchasing behavior. The research also attempted to specify the different characteristics of outdoor advertisements in comparison to other advertising instruments. The other research aims are to designate the status

Mustafa Gulmez; Sukran Karaca; Olgun Kitapci

2010-01-01

490

Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution Relationship: A Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While extensive measurements have been and are being made of outdoor pollution, relatively few data have been gathered on indoor pollution. The data that are available are compiled and analyzed in the report. Based on a review of the literature, it was possible to infer relationships between indoor and outdoor pollution and to identify factors…

Benson, Ferris B.; And Others

491

Hierarchical loop detection for mobile outdoor robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loop closing is a fundamental part of 3D simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that can greatly enhance the quality of long-term mapping. It is essential for the creation of globally consistent maps. Conceptually, loop closing is divided into detection and optimization. Recent approaches depend on a single sensor to recognize previously visited places in the loop detection stage. In this study, we combine data of multiple sensors such as GPS, vision, and laser range data to enhance detection results in repetitively changing environments that are not sufficiently explained by a single sensor. We present a fast and robust hierarchical loop detection algorithm for outdoor robots to achieve a reliable environment representation even if one or more sensors fail.

Lang, Dagmar; Winkens, Christian; Häselich, Marcel; Paulus, Dietrich

2012-01-01

492

24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc...Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed...

2013-04-01

493

Least-Squares Finite Element Numerical Formalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties of a numerical formalism for solving the stationary and static electromagnetic field equations inside inhomogeneous media are analyzed. This numerical formalism is constructed such that the error in solving the relevant equations is minimiz...

I. E. Lager J. van Kan G. Mur

1996-01-01

494

Formalisms for Living Systems. Part I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various formalisms for expressing the structure and behavior of biological systems are proposed and discussed. The formalisms include tiling or 'domino' systems, the von Neumann cellular automaton system, and several systems based on the monogenic normal ...

R. A. Laing

1969-01-01

495

Experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds in the northern Rocky Mountains: A compendium of outdoor laboratories in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

This is a compendium of experimental forests, ranges, watersheds, and other outdoor laboratories, formally established by the Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the universities in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. The purposes, histories, natural resource bases, data bases, past and current studies, locations, and who to contact for information are given for these areas that represent ecosystems ranging from deserts to cold subalpine forests.

Schmidt, W.C.; Friede, J.L.

1996-04-01

496

TRX: A Formally Verified Parser Interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Parsing is an important problem in computer science and yet surprisingly little attention has been devoted to its formal verification.\\u000a In this paper, we present TRX: a parser interpreter formally developed in the proof assistant Coq, capable of producing formally\\u000a correct parsers. We are using parsing expression grammars (PEGs), a formalism essentially representing recursive descent parsing,\\u000a which we consider an

Adam Koprowski; Henri Binsztok

2010-01-01

497

Maude as a formal meta-tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the different perspectives from which a complex software system has to be analyzed, the multiplicity of formalisms is\\u000a unavoidable. This poses two important technical challenges: how to rigorously meet the need to interrelate formalisms, and\\u000a how to reduce the duplication of effort in tool and specification building across formalisms. These challenges could be answered\\u000a by adequate formal meta-tools that,

Manuel Clavel; Francisco Durán; Steven Eker

1999-01-01

498

Formal test specifications in open systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of formal test specifications for an open system standard is described. The effort is being conducted within the environment provided by the Clemson Automated Testing System (CATS). CATS features the ability to automatically translate formal test specifications into executable tests. The formal test specifications are written in accordance with a specification language designed in support of this effort.

J. F. Leathrum; K. A. Liburdy

1995-01-01

499

The economics of formal business networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the under-researched issue of formal business networks comprising voluntary groupings of entrepreneurs who share knowledge and experiences between themselves. Economic analysis is used to show how formal business networks which enable entrepreneurs to share good and bad practice can improve efficiency and social welfare. The paper also derives conditions for the existence and equilibrium size of formal

Simon C. Parker

2008-01-01

500

Seven More Myths of Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For whatever reason, formal methods remain one of the more contentious techniques inindustrial software engineering. Despite great increases in the number of organizations andprojects applying formal methods, it is still the case that the vast majority of potential usersof formal methods fail to become actual users. A paper by Hall in 1990 examined a number of`myths\\

Jonathan P. Bowen; Michael G. Hinchey

1995-01-01