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1

Potential for Excellence: Interdisciplinary Learning Outdoors as a Moral Enterprise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is concerned with the place and status of outdoor learning within formal schooling. In light of recent British outdoor educational trends, it considers the general educational significance of outdoor learning in the context of the recent Scottish "Curriculum for Excellence". The article begins with an overview of some key educational…

Allison, Pete; Carr, David; Meldrum, George

2012-01-01

2

Outdoor adventure education in a formal education curriculum in Finland: action research application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventure … it is real life,it is more than life,it is an experience to knowthat life is not too simple a thing!(a pupil, a boy of 12 years).Adventure in school culture may seem quite a contradiction. In this paper I will present arguments on the idea that outdoor adventure learning contributes to formal education and is compatible with school practice

Seppo J. A. Karppinen

2011-01-01

3

Outdoor adventure education in a formal education curriculum in Finland: action research application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventure … it is real life,it is more than life,it is an experience to knowthat life is not too simple a thing!(a pupil, a boy of 12 years).Adventure in school culture may seem quite a contradiction. In this paper I will present arguments on the idea that outdoor adventure learning contributes to formal education and is compatible with school practice

Seppo J. A. Karppinen

2012-01-01

4

Outdoor Learning Environments: Public Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of student-generated outdoor art as a vehicle for building students' hands-on experiences in public art and architecture that can augment in-class work. Choosing activity levels that are age appropriate is addressed. (GR)

Gould, Bill

2001-01-01

5

Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

Plano Independent School District, TX.

6

Outdoor Education and Environmental (Make that Nature) Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education cannot "not" be about nature learning. Just as David Orr (1992) says that all education is environmental education, so too all outdoor education teaches something about the natural world--either that it matters or that it doesn't. According to the Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario (COEO), "outdoor education directly exposes…

Johnston, Julie

2007-01-01

7

Digital Augmentation for Learning Outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous and mobile technologies provide opportunities for designing novel learning experiences that move out of the classroom. Information can be presented and interacted with in a variety of ways while exploring a physical environment. A key issue this raises is when, where, what and how much? Our research is concerned with the design, delivery and interaction of digital information when

Y. Rogers; S. Price; G. Fitzpatrick; R. Fleck; E. Harris; H. Smith; C. Randell; H. Muller

8

Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and posttests, progressive self-assessments, and ethnographic observations. Since I argue that the idea of learning from experience is underspecified, I present empirical findings to show that experience per se is not enough. I discuss tools and other artifacts that help learners notice key dimensions of their experiences, and demonstrate how they link these to other aspects of their culture and lives. Findings indicate that a mediated approach does in fact help students outperform participants who only received the experience. A time for telling was also advantageous for students to improve learning and using technology to reduce cognitive load was instrumental in further improving their learning. Future plans are discussed to follow up on these findings and to implement new tests as the dams are removed and the natural habitat is restored.

O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

9

Outdoor Education, Life Long Learning and Skills Development in Woodlands and Green Spaces: The Potential Links to Health and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Formal and informal education and learning in woodlands and green spaces can play an important role in contributing to people’s\\u000a health and well-being. Two mechanisms are outlined which might explain this: (1) through general exposure to nature when undertaking\\u000a educational activities outdoors; (2) through active ‘hands on’ intensive and\\/or extensive contact with nature gained through\\u000a learning outdoors. Outdoor learning, what

Liz O’Brien; Ambra Burls; Peter Bentsen; Inger Hilmo; Kari Holter; Dorothee Haberling; Janez Pirnat; Mikk Sarv; Kristel Vilbaste; John McLoughlin

10

Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

2013-01-01

11

Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced learning in…

Broda, Herbert W.

2011-01-01

12

Does (In)Formal Learning Enhance Employability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not much is known about the actual contribution of informal learning to employability over and above formal learning activities. This paper presents findings of a research project among university staff members and is aimed to determine the contribution of formal and informal learning activities in the light of future career potential. Findings…

van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Meys, Ely

2008-01-01

13

Planning an Outdoor Learning Environment for a Small School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to provide an outdoor learning environment for a small school which had relatively undeveloped grounds, these plans are aimed toward providing: physical activity (climbing, running, jumping, and games); imaginative activity; social learning; environmental study; mathematics and science; exploring materials, e.g., water and soil; and the…

Keats, C.; And Others

1981-01-01

14

Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context- aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are unable to search, collect, share, and edit information by using information technology. To address such concerns,

Tsung-Yu Liu; Tan-Hsu Tan; Yu-Ling Chu

2009-01-01

15

Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

2009-01-01

16

Inclusion through Access to Outdoor Education: Learning in Motion (LIM)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in Motion (LIM) was a European project involving seven partners in five countries: Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Germany and Greece. The project focused on inclusion and access to outdoor education and was financed by the European Commission within the framework of the Socrates-Grundtvig Programme. The aim of the project was to explore if and…

Brodin, Jane

2009-01-01

17

Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

2011-01-01

18

A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

2013-01-01

19

Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

2014-01-01

20

Uses of the Across Mobile Platform Learning System (AMPLe) in supporting outdoor mobile learning scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on how a mobile learning system entitled AMPLe (across mobile platform learning system) was integrated in an elementary school setting to support outdoor learning scenarios. Ninety-six students from 3 classes of NH Elementary school participated in this study. The results reveal that the students were overwhelmingly positive with uses of AMPLe with various mobile devices. However, PDA

Shelley Shwu-Ching Young; Eric Chia-hang Liang; Yi-Hsuan Wang

2008-01-01

21

Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

2014-01-01

22

Green School Grounds as Sites for Outdoor Learning: Barriers and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their review of evidence-based research entitled "A Review of Research on Outdoor Learning," Rickinson "et al." (2004) identify five key constraints that limit the amount of outdoor learning. This paper explores whether green school grounds might be a location where these constraints could be minimised. Specifically, it reports on a study that…

Dyment, Janet E.

2005-01-01

23

Green School Grounds as Sites for Outdoor Learning: Barriers and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their review of evidence-based research entitled A Review of Research on Outdoor Learning, Rickinson et al. (2004) identify five key constraints that limit the amount of outdoor learning. This paper explores whether green school grounds might be a location where these constraints could be minimised. Specifically, it reports on a study that sought to investigate the use of green

Janet E. Dyment

2005-01-01

24

Students' Imaginings of Spaces of Learning in Outdoor and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I interrogate students' stories about the spaces and places in a tertiary Outdoor and Environmental Education course that support and shape their environmental ethics. Drawing on a longitudinal qualitative study, I explore the ways in which particular sites of learning (outdoor, practical learning) are privileged and how…

Preston, Lou

2014-01-01

25

Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

Abbatiello, James

26

Development and Evaluation of an RFID-based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification (RFID), the Internet, ubiquitous computing, embedded systems and database technologies to resolve such

Tan-Hsu Tan; Tsung-Yu Liu; Chi-Cheng Chang

2007-01-01

27

Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

2007-01-01

28

The Slow Death of Formal Learning: A Polemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over recent years, approaches to education and training have become more informal, situated, outcome focused and experiential. Within this context, formal learning now plays a greatly diminished role, being supplanted by activity-based and technologically-based learning. This article, structured in the form of a polemic challenges readers to critically examine the importance and value of formal learning in modern learning environments.

David McGuire; Claire Gubbins

2010-01-01

29

The Place of Experience and the Experience of Place: Intersections between Sustainability Education and Outdoor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As social, economic and environmental issues have become more prominent in the 21st century, there has been increased critical scrutiny into the ways that outdoor learning interacts with sustainability issues and concepts. As a result, a number of discourses have emerged which interrogate human/nature relationships in traditional outdoor education…

Hill, Allen

2013-01-01

30

The outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens as pedagogical space for toddlers' play, learning and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of the institution and the pedagogical leaders in these institutions have completed questionnaires.

Thomas Moser; Marianne T. Martinsen

2010-01-01

31

The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of…

Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.

2010-01-01

32

Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

Misko, Josie

2008-01-01

33

Canadian outdoor adventure education: Hear the challenge — Learn the lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is the second largest country in the world by area. With its diverse geophysical features and relatively small population density it is a mecca for outdoor enthusiasts of all types. In the Canadian outdoor adventure education field there is an awakened acknowledgement of the centrality of Native peoples that pervades its practice today. There is also a strong sense

Tom G. Potter; Bob Henderson

2004-01-01

34

Learning from leisure: Developing nature connectedness in outdoor education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “greening” of outdoor education has received increasing attention from educators in Aotearoa-New Zealand and internationally. Given contemporary global concerns about the scale of environmental issues and the associated recognition that educating for sustainability is a matter of urgency, the continuing exploration of pedagogies promoting human connection to nature is arguably a central concern for outdoor educators. This paper contributes

Marg Cosgriff

2011-01-01

35

Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors. Workshop of the University of New Hampshire Outdoor Education Program (Durham, New Hampshire, March 5, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of information from the "Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors" workshop provides brief summaries of each workshop session along with lists of human, community, and bibliographical resources available to outdoor education practitioners, the workshop itinerary, and promotional brochures. The 18 workshop topics included: expedition…

Gass, Michael A.

36

Location Based Services for Outdoor Ecological Learning System: Design and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aimed to demonstrate how location-based services were implemented in ubiquitous outdoor ecological learning system. In an elementary school in northern Taiwan, two fifth grade classes on an ecology project were randomly selected: The experimental group could access the ecological learning system on hand-held devices while the control…

Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Feng, Ruei-Ting; Li, Kun Jing

2010-01-01

37

Learning from Leisure: Developing Nature Connectedness in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "greening" of outdoor education has received increasing attention from educators in Aotearoa-New Zealand and internationally. Given contemporary global concerns about the scale of environmental issues and the associated recognition that educating for sustainability is a matter of urgency, the continuing exploration of pedagogies promoting…

Cosgriff, Marg

2011-01-01

38

Formalizing Triggers: A Learning Model for Finite Spaces  

E-print Network

In a recent seminal paper, Gibson and Wexler (1993) take important steps to formalizing the notion of language learning in a (finite) space whose grammars are characterized by a finite number of parameters. They introduce ...

Niyogi, Partha

1993-11-01

39

Losing Our Way? The Downward Path for Outdoor Learning for Children Aged 2-11 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on three related empirical studies in the South West of England: a survey of outdoor experiential learning opportunities, examining attitudes, practice and aspirations of practitioners and children in educational and care settings for children between 2-11 years within a rural county; a follow-up series of five case studies; and…

Waite, Sue

2010-01-01

40

Young Children and Educators Engagement and Learning Outdoors: A Basis for Rights-Based Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This article reports on a study undertaken with 4 early childhood programs in a medium-size city in Canada investigating young children's and educators' perspectives on engagement and learning possibilities outdoors. A rights-based methodology including participant observations and interactive activities with children as well as focus groups and discussion groups with educators reveals the diversity and richness of young

Natasha Blanchet-Cohen; Enid Elliot

2011-01-01

41

"Did You Enjoy Your Holiday?" Can Residential Outdoor Learning Benefit Mainstream Schooling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United Kingdom there is a long tradition of residential outdoor learning provision, but to date there is limited research evidence for the direct educational benefits of such experiences, and to both critics and supporters the distinction between such visits and "holidays in school time" is not always apparent. This paper…

Christie, Beth; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

2014-01-01

42

School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda

2007-01-01

43

Formalizing Informal EFL Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation focused on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teachers' and students' awareness and utilization of English outside the school context. Tentative techniques are suggested for introducing this type of English more formally, along with curricular materials. The investigation is motivated by a desire to improve upon continued low…

Hajjaj, Ali H. S.

44

The Great Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how outdoor learning opens new possibilities for expanding educational opportunities. Explores various lifelong skills that can be learned from outdoor environments, and presents ways to expand classrooms beyond the school building. (GR)

Layton, Rob

2001-01-01

45

Distance Learning and Non-Formal Education: Existing Trends and New Possibilities of Distance Learning Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the characteristics of non-formal education as expressed in various academic-theoretical definitions, presents the links in this field to distance learning, and recommends future directions for exploring distance learning in non-formal education. Discusses the use of information and communication technology and considers problems with…

Romi, Shlomo

2000-01-01

46

Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

Gibson, J. Paul

47

The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

Thompson, Carol C.

2012-01-01

48

An Approach to Learning Research with a Wireless Sensor Network in an Outdoor Setting  

E-print Network

Automated collection of environmental data may be accomplished with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a general discussion of WSNs is given for the gathering of data for educational research. WSNs have the capability to enhance the scope of a researcher to include multiple streams of data: environmental, location, cyberdata, video, and RFID. The location of data stored in a database can allow reconstruction of the learning activity for the evaluation of significance at a later time. A brief overview of the technology forms the basis of an exploration of a setting used for outdoor learning.

Anderson, Tom Adam Frederic

2008-01-01

49

Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

2012-01-01

50

How Teachers Learn: The Roles of Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study of math and science teachers at two middle schools identifies how their system for learning to integrate technology into their teaching goes beyond what school leaders typically consider when planning for teachers' learning. In addition to (a) the district-initiated, or formal, system of professional development (PD) and…

Jones, W. Monty; Dexter, Sara

2014-01-01

51

New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

2010-01-01

52

Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2011-01-01

53

Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

2012-01-01

54

Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy

55

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview.  

PubMed

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the 'artificial grammar-learning' paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

Fitch, W Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D

2012-07-19

56

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview  

PubMed Central

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

2012-01-01

57

Outdoor Settings for Playing and Learning: Designing School Grounds to Meet the Needs of the Whole Child and Whole Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a list of imaginative design options for optimal outdoor learning as well as intimate contact with nature. Focuses on entrances, pathways, signage and displays, barriers and enclosures, manufactured equipment and play structures, multipurpose game settings, groundcovers and safety surfaces, landforms and topography, trees and vegetation,…

Moore, Robin C.

1996-01-01

58

Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

2014-01-01

59

Non-formal Education in the Philippines: A Fundamental Step towards Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to significantly contribute to human resource development, the Philippines must develop an integrated educational system of lifelong learning, with a special emphasis on non-formal education. Despite the value that is placed on formal, or sequential academic schooling, it is non-formal schooling that makes accessible the acquisition of…

Gonzales, Ma. Celeste T.; Pijano, Ma. Concepcion V.

60

Enough of Ronald and Mickey: Focusing on Learning in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen years ago Loynes expressed concern that market-place values were detrimentally impacting on the provision of outdoor education experiences. As tertiary educators with an interest in the impact of globalization on outdoor education, we have sought to extend Loynes' use of McDonaldization by drawing on Bryman's conceptual framework…

Beames, Simon; Brown, Mike

2014-01-01

61

Outdoor Learning in Aotearoa New Zealand: Voices Past, Present, and Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the principles and practices that have influenced outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand find their genesis in the United Kingdom and North America. In recent times, many of these foundational assumptions have been called into question. This paper highlights how emerging "local" voices are questioning and reframing how outdoor education…

Cosgriff, Marg; Legge, Maureen; Brown, Mike; Boyes, Mike; Zink, Robyn; Irwin, Dave

2012-01-01

62

Outdoor learning in Aotearoa New Zealand: voices past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the principles and practices that have influenced outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand find their genesis in the United Kingdom and North America. In recent times, many of these foundational assumptions have been called into question. This paper highlights how emerging ‘local’ voices are questioning and reframing how outdoor education is conceptualised and practiced. In large part this

Marg Cosgriff; Maureen Legge; Mike Brown; Mike Boyes; Robyn Zink; Dave Irwin

2012-01-01

63

The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning

Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

2014-01-01

64

Learning about Genes and Evolution through Formal and Informal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the way learning about genetics and evolution raises ideas that pupils and adults should relate to themselves whether what is learned helps reveal what science can and cannot say about human nature. Reviews the impact of informal learning after exploring the role and influence of informal learning channels. (Contains 79 references.)…

Thomas, Jeff

2000-01-01

65

Architecture for environmental learning : a National Outdoor Leadership School in Baja, Mexico  

E-print Network

An understanding of people, program, and place establishes a foundation from which to make architectural decisions. The focus of this thesis is to understand the needs of those involved in an outdoor education school in ...

Galyean, Taylor

1994-01-01

66

Learning 2.0 Promoting Innovation in Formal Education and Training in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Take up of Web 2.0 applications in formal Education and Training is still in an experimental phase and scientific evidence\\u000a on Learning 2.0 practices in schools and universities is scarce. To gather more insights on the current use and potential\\u000a impact of Learning 2.0, IPTS conducted an exploratory study on the use of social media applications in formal Education and

Christine Redecker; Yves Punie

2010-01-01

67

Science Class Moves Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Corporate Lands for Learning (CLL) program whose goal is to improve environmental education opportunities for students of all ages. Highlights the range of hands-on outdoor programs available for students. (JRH)

Grove, Mary Anna

1997-01-01

68

Organisational Factors Influencing the Assessment of Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly the different ways in which learning can be conceptualised alongside debates within the field of HRD regarding its nature and purpose, potentially lead to confusion regarding how learning is to be assessed in the workplace. This paper identifies some of the complexities associated with assessing learning in today's workplace and…

Clarke, Nicholas R.

2004-01-01

69

The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor

Wood, Gregory

1997-01-01

70

Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

Gadio, Moussa

2011-01-01

71

Active Learning Facilitates Success of Formal Methods in Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development does not consist only of technical ac- tivities, as it usually regarded. It also involves social and cognitive ac- tivities that are particularly important in complex projects. To make a software development project successful the staff involved should possess the necessary social and cognitive skills. The significance of such skills increases if some novel, advanced techniques, including formal

Victor V. Kuliamin; Vitaliy A. Omelchenko; Olga L. Petrenko

2005-01-01

72

A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

73

Facilitating Place-Based Learning in Outdoor Informal Environments with Mobile Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper advocates for place-based education to guide research and design for mobile computers used in outdoor informal environments (e.g., backyards, nature centers and parks). By bringing together research on place-based education with research on location awareness, we developed three design guidelines to support learners to develop robust…

Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Land, Susan M.

2014-01-01

74

Supporting Whole-Child Learning in Nature-Filled Outdoor Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts." This much-repeated quote speaks eloquently to the kinds of life-enhancing skills children develop when they interact with caring adults in thoughtfully designed nature-filled outdoor classrooms. As a network of these classrooms springs…

Wirth, Susan; Rosenow, Nancy

2012-01-01

75

Schoolyard Enhanced Learning: Using the Outdoors as an Instructional Tool, K-8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book shows how the school grounds, whether urban, suburban, or rural, can become an enriching extension of the classroom. The author blends theory and practice, providing readers with teacher-tested suggestions and activities for using the outdoors. The book offers step-by-step guidance to help ensure success when teachers take a class…

Broda, Herbert W.

2007-01-01

76

The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

Wistoft, Karen

2013-01-01

77

Preservice early childhood educators’ perceptions of outdoor settings as learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they associate with them. Based on the results of 110 participants, this study suggests

Julie Ernst; Ladona Tornabene

2012-01-01

78

Outdoor Adventure Education: Applying Transformative Learning Theory in Addressing Instrumental and Emancipatory EE Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an interpretive study of the experiences of 23 Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) alumni to determine what participants found significant about their course and to what course elements they attributed this significance. Participants experienced personal transformations, which they attributed to spending extended time in pristine nature, separation of the course from normal life, the community that formed among course

Marianne E. Krasny

79

Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.

Eick, Charles J.

2012-11-01

80

Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor

Forsey, Katherine

2014-01-01

81

Computational neural learning formalisms for manipulator inverse kinematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient, adaptive neural learning paradigm for addressing the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the infinite local stability of terminal attractors - a new class of mathematical constructs which provide unique information processing capabilities to artificial neural systems. For robotic applications, synaptic elements of such networks can rapidly acquire the kinematic invariances embedded within the presented samples. Subsequently, joint-space configurations, required to follow arbitrary end-effector trajectories, can readily be computed. In a significant departure from prior neuromorphic learning algorithms, this methodology provides mechanisms for incorporating an in-training skew to handle kinematics and environmental constraints.

Gulati, Sandeep; Barhen, Jacob; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

1989-01-01

82

Formal and Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Research Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The radical economic, social and cultural changes experienced by the labour market within recent decades have helped to highlight the central role played by the learning process in individual career development and organizational success. In such fast-moving working contexts, skills and competencies rapidly become outdated and need to be…

Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Giancaspro, Maria Luisa; Morciano, Daniele

2015-01-01

83

Outdoor Adventure Education: Applying Transformative Learning Theory to Understanding Instrumental Learning and Personal Growth in Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted a qualitative study of the experiences of 23 Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) participants to determine what participants found significant about their course and to what course elements they attributed this significance. Participants experienced personal transformations, which they attributed to spending extended time in pristine…

D'Amato, Laura Galen; Krasny, Marianne E.

2011-01-01

84

Outdoor Adventure Education: Applying Transformative Learning Theory to Understanding Instrumental Learning and Personal Growth in Environmental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a qualitative study of the experiences of 23 Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) participants to determine what participants found significant about their course and to what course elements they attributed this significance. Participants experienced personal transformations, which they attributed to spending extended time in pristine nature, separation of the course from normal life, the community that formed among course

Laura Galen DAmato; Marianne E. Krasny

2011-01-01

85

What Would You Like? Identifying the Required Characteristics of an Industry-Wide Incident Reporting and Learning System for the Led Outdoor Activity Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics that led outdoor activity providers agree are necessary for the development of a new industry-wide incident reporting and learning system (UPLOADS). The study involved: 1) a literature review to identify a set of characteristics that are considered to be hallmarks of successful reporting…

Goode, Natassia; Finch, Caroline F.; Cassell, Erin; Lenne, Michael G.; Salmon, Paul M.

2014-01-01

86

Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

2012-01-01

87

Learning Goal Orientation, Formal Mentoring, and Leadership Competence in HRD: A Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest a conceptual model of formal mentoring as a leadership development initiative including "learning goal orientation", "mentoring functions", and "leadership competencies" as key constructs of the model. Design/methodology/approach: Some empirical studies, though there are not many, will provide…

Kim, Sooyoung

2007-01-01

88

Mobile City and Language Guides--New Links between Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major challenges in second and foreign language education, is to create links between formal and informal learning environments. Mobile City and Language Guides present examples of theoretical and practical reflections on such links. This paper presents and discusses the first considerations of Mobile City and Language Guides in…

Bo-Kristensen, Mads; Ankerstjerne, Niels Ole; Neutzsky-Wulff, Chresteria; Schelde, Herluf

2009-01-01

89

Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests and questions raised during visits to informal settings. Consequently teachers noted their students were better able to connect to traditional elements of school as a result of their informal experiences. Personal growth of students was also a major area of change. Increases in self-esteem, fieldtrip and classroom participation, as well as improved classroom behavior were reported and observed and improved the way the classroom functioned.

Schneider, Barbara P.

90

Outdoor allergens.  

PubMed Central

Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

2000-01-01

91

Outdoor Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Outdoor Education is a series of outdoor activities that include orienteering, soil and water conservation, forestry, minerals, wildlife, and basic first aid disciplines. This program was designed to enable learners to have hands-on contact with the natural world as well as experience various facets of their natural environment.

John Cooper

1998-01-01

92

Outdoor Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

Mayes, Valynda

2010-01-01

93

Formal to Informal Learning with IT: Research Challenges and Issues for E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the purpose of clarity and consistency, the term e-learning is used throughout the paper to refer to technology-enhanced learning and information technology (IT) in teaching and learning. IT depicts computing and other IT resources. Research into e-learning has changed in focus and breadth over the last four decades as a consequence of…

Cox, M.J.

2013-01-01

94

Take Math Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scavenger hunts, collecting bottle caps, observing shadows, and other outdoor activities can be developed into a mathematics unit that motivates students to acquire basic mathematical skills. A variety of natural ways to collect data are offered to help foster learning. (DF)

Schall, William E.

1984-01-01

95

Outdoor Ecology School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

Cole, Anna Gahl

2004-01-01

96

Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

Myers, Ray

97

Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

2009-01-01

98

Exploring salutogenic mechanisms of an outdoor experiential learning programme on youth care farms in the Netherlands: untapped potential?  

PubMed Central

This study explored how (learning) experiences offered through outdoor experiential programmes, particularly the youth care farm approach, may (or may not) enhance young peoples’ ability to recognise and then utilise available resources for personal growth, protection and health promotion. A total of 11 youngsters were asked to look back on their half-year stay on a care farm in the Netherlands, by using semi-structured interviews to elicit their experiences from a salutogenic perspective. Analysis revealed that several resources (and the interaction of these resources) on the youth care farm worked well for the youngsters; contributed to their personal development and to their sense of coherence: the feeling that the world is or can be meaningful, comprehensible and manageable, associated with positive outcome in endeavours linked to improving health and well-being. In general, the attitude of the farmer, working with animals, the informal atmosphere and being temporarily cut-off from the former environment were elements most positively highlighted by the youngsters. The farm environment was mentioned as calming, however, as structuring as well. The strength of the programme as an experiential learning opportunity appears to be the diversity and richness of resources (and stressors!) available to the participants. This creates various opportunities for learning: making sense, interpreting and giving meaning to resources and stressors. Further research into the impact of this kind of programmes, compared to more ‘traditional’ programmes, especially on the ability of youngsters to use resources to finish school, find employment and develop better relationships with their parents is recommended. PMID:24910490

Schreuder, Ester; Rijnders, Mandy; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hassink, Jan; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Kennedy, Lynne

2014-01-01

99

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

2012-01-01

100

Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

2012-01-01

101

Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

2007-01-01

102

Science Sampler: Inquiry Goes Outdoors--What Can We Learn at the Pond?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication "What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide" (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing…

Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary E.

2008-01-01

103

Handbook for Students, Teachers and Parents. BOCES/SCOPE Outdoor Learning Laboratory at Sunken Meadow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1971 a fully equipped learning laboratory building and the open fields, woodlands, salt water marshes, and beaches of Sunken Meadow State Park have been available for year round day use by students and educators in New York's Suffolk and Nassau counties. Funded by the New York Office of Parks and Recreation and local Boards of Cooperative…

Long Island State Park and Recreation Commission, NY.

104

Multiple Modes in Corporate Learning: Propelling Business IQ with Formal, Informal and Social Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that the shifting corporate environment is placing ever greater stresses on learning organizations, this paper reports how companies are increasingly offering employees a wide choice of learning options beyond conventional classroom training, including online, social learning, and other modalities in "blended" programs. Identifying a…

Ambrose, John; Ogilvie, Julie

2010-01-01

105

Teacher Learning and Instructional Change: How Formal and On-the-Job Learning Opportunities Predict Change in Elementary School Teachers' Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent education reform has emphasized the importance of teacher learning in improving classroom instruction and raising student achievement. This article focuses on teachers' learning opportunities, including formal professional development and on-the-job learning that occurs through interactions with colleagues. Using data from 30 elementary…

Parise, Leigh Mesler; Spillane, James P.

2010-01-01

106

Granular Computing Approach to Two-Way Learning Based on Formal Concept Analysis in Fuzzy Datasets.  

PubMed

The main task of granular computing (GrC) is about representing, constructing, and processing information granules. Information granules are formalized in many different approaches. Different formal approaches emphasize the same fundamental facet in different ways. In this paper, we propose a novel GrC method of machine learning by using formal concept description of information granules. Based on information granules, the model and mechanism of two-way learning system is constructed in fuzzy datasets. It is addressed about how to train arbitrary fuzzy information granules to become necessary, sufficient, and necessary and sufficient fuzzy information granules. Moreover, an algorithm of the presented approach is established, and the complexity of the algorithm is analyzed carefully. Finally, to interpret and help understand the theories and algorithm, a real-life case study is considered and experimental evaluation is performed by five datasets from the University of California-Irvine, which is valuable for applying these theories to deal with practical issues. PMID:25347892

Xu, Weihua; Li, Wentao

2014-10-22

107

Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of formalisms—specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention—is prerequisite to applied knowledge. A formalisms first (FF) view of learning, rooted

Mitchell J. Nathan

2012-01-01

108

Youth Clubs as Spaces of Non-Formal Learning: Professional Idealism Meets the Spatiality Experienced by Young People in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many young people, youth clubs constitute a key instrument for learning outside the school curriculum. In this article, we scrutinise Finnish youth clubs empirically as spaces of non-formal learning from the perspectives of both professional youth workers and young people themselves. We propose that youth workers tend to present an educational…

Kiilakoski, Tomi; Kivijärvi, Antti

2015-01-01

109

Sustainable Graduates: Linking Formal, Informal and Campus Curricula to Embed Education for Sustainable Development in the Student Learning Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper hypothesises that student learning about sustainable development (SD) might usefully be configured within a broad framework combining formal, informal and campus curriculum. Student learning about sustainable development is a form of education for sustainable development (ESD), a term which has many definitions and interpretations. In…

Hopkinson, Peter; Hughes, Peter; Layer, Geoff

2008-01-01

110

Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

111

Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

112

Lights, Camera: Learning! Findings from studies of video in formal and informal science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the panel, media researcher, Jennifer Borland, will highlight findings from a variety of studies of videos across the spectrum of formal to informal learning, including schools, museums, and in viewers homes. In her presentation, Borland will assert that the viewing context matters a great deal, but there are some general take-aways that can be extrapolated to the use of educational video in a variety of settings. Borland has served as an evaluator on several video-related projects funded by NASA and the the National Science Foundation including: Data Visualization videos and Space Shows developed by the American Museum of Natural History, DragonflyTV, Earth the Operators Manual, The Music Instinct and Time Team America.

Borland, J.

2013-12-01

113

Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

2014-01-01

114

Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

2014-01-01

115

Participation in Non-Formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states. The paper also seeks to extend analysis of the training gap by pursuing the distinction between the supply and the demand for skills. We use aggregate data from the Adult Education Survey (Eurostat)…

Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

2012-01-01

116

Traffic, Outdoor Air Pollution, and Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that outdoor air pollution can affect the health of patients with asthma. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased levels of outdoor pollutants are associated with acute and chronic changes in lung function, increased risk for asthma exacerbations, increased risk for work or school absenteeism, and need for rescue bronchodilators. For- tunately, we have also learned that

Fernando Holguin

2008-01-01

117

The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

Ettenger, Jim

118

Outdoor Education: Opening and Closing Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Opening activites (to create an atmosphere of cooperation and a desire to work, explore, and learn together) and closing activities (to summarize what has happened or been learned) for outdoor education programs are described. All activities are intended to incite enthusiasm to learn and make the learning activity a desired, joyful experience.…

Mingie, Walter, Comp.

119

Formal and Informal Context Factors as Contributors to Student Engagement in a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explored informal (after-school) and formal (elective course in-school) learning contexts as contributors to middle-school student attitudinal changes in a guided discovery-based and blended e-learning program in which students designed web games and used social media and information resources for a full school year. Formality of the…

Reynolds, Rebecca; Chiu, Ming Ming

2013-01-01

120

Outdoor Education -- Edinburgh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Scotland, outdoor education is seen as a combination of outdoor pursuits and environmental studies. The article describes various centres in the Edinburgh area, outdoor education expeditions, and programs, such as mountaineering, rock climbing, orienteering, and canoeing. (KM)

Parker, Terry

1974-01-01

121

Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

Rillo, Thomas J.

122

Outdoor Play: Occupation in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that playgrounds and other outdoor environments offer children important opportunities for play, learning and social participation that differ from those offered by indoor environments (DeBord, Hestenes, Moore, Cosco, & McGinnis, 2002; Nabors, Willoughby, & McManamin, 2001). In addition, inclusion, group membership and meaningful participation are all challenges presented when the playground environment anc activities do not match the

Linn Wakeford; Roger Ideishi; Judith Olson; Petra Kern

2006-01-01

123

Outdoor Education--Fifth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning activities; lesson plans, and various resource materials are contained in this guide for the fifth grade outdoor education program in the Dixon Public Schools, Dixon, Illinois. Well over 100 activities are suggested, and many of these are described in detail. Although some information is specific to the Dixon program, which has access to…

Harris, Jean, Comp.; And Others

124

Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

Knapp, Clifford E.

125

‘Is what you see what you get?’ The production of knowledge in-between the indoors and the outdoors in outdoor education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many believe the ‘outdoors’ is a key factor influencing student learning in ‘outdoor education’ because it is so different from the ‘everyday’ indoor contexts of students' lives. In much of the outdoor education literature the outdoors is construed as a neutral and simplified space which allows students to have more ‘real’ and meaningful experiences than is possible in mainstream

Robyn Zink; Lisette Burrows

2008-01-01

126

Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills. The data indicated that there is not a significant difference between adolescents and post-adolescents (up to 16-years-old) ability to learn formal thinking skills. Both groups (adolescent and post-adolescent) showed improvement in their formal thinking skill ability after the intervention. The intervention also demonstrated evidence of improving students' intelligence scores.

Towne, Forrest S.

127

Decision Making in the Outdoor Pursuits Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines types of decisions, how they are made, and how adverse conditions effect them all in the context of outdoor experiential learning. Compares these issues in light of related work done in psychology and sociology. (CW)

Ewert, Alan

1988-01-01

128

Does Formal Complexity Reflect Cognitive Complexity? Investigating Aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an Artificial Language Learning Study  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning. According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive). In two artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiments participants were presented with a language containing either nested or cross-serial dependencies. A learning effect for both types of dependencies could be observed, but no difference between dependency types emerged. These behavioral findings do not seem to reflect complexity differences as described in the Chomsky Hierarchy. This study extends previous findings in demonstrating learning effects for nested and cross-serial dependencies with more natural stimulus materials in a classical AGL paradigm after only one hour of exposure. The current findings can be taken as a starting point for further exploring the degree to which the Chomsky Hierarchy reflects cognitive processes. PMID:25885790

Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

2015-01-01

129

Development of a Parent's Guide for the Singapore Primary Science Curriculum: Empowering Parents as Facilitators of Their Children's Science Learning outside the Formal Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents can play a vital and active role in facilitating their children's science learning outside the formal classrooms. Parental involvement in their children's science learning process not only could enhance their children's learning motivation and interest in science, it could also help to strengthen the family bond when parents and children…

Lee, Ai Noi

2012-01-01

130

Learning Journeys: The Road from Informal to Formal Learning--The UK Open University's Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning is now achieving recognition as offering a way for learning to scale. However we need to learn from the experiences in distance learning institutions. The Open University was established over 40 years ago and offers a unique experience in building a distance learning organisation on innovative use of media, originally through…

Taylor, Josie

2013-01-01

131

Fancy a Career Doing Therapy in the Outdoors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United Kingdom, no outdoor practitioner is working as a professional therapist and little formal training in outdoor therapy exists. Practice of this type requires supervision and professional accreditation. Interested undergraduates should check social work, probation, mental health, educational psychology, or occupational therapy…

Reed, Chris

2003-01-01

132

Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

Nathan, Mitchell J.

2012-01-01

133

A Evaluation of a Learning Cycle Intervention Method in Introductory Physical Science Laboratories in Order to Promote Formal Operational thought Process.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition, future studies should attempt to use vigorous measures of formal reasoning ability to pinpoint exactly when the transition occurs in students.

Shadburn, Randy Glen

134

Expanding "Within Context" to "Across Contexts" Learning: A Case Study of Informal and Formal Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning happens not only in schools, but also in every context that affords new experiences and opportunities for metacognition. We aim to maximize the different activity-milieux in which learners are engaged in developing their life-long learning dispositions to learn within and across contexts. This paper is a follow up of an earlier published…

Kim, Mi Song; Hung, Wei Loong David; Jamaludin, Azilawati Bte; Lim, Seo Hong

2014-01-01

135

Your Outdoor Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

Hinman, Laurie

2005-01-01

136

Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

2003-01-01

137

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

138

A Resident Outdoor Education Program for Public Schools. Goals and Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resident outdoor education experience for public schools enhances all areas of the curriculum and breaks down barriers between the various disciplines. Learning is more rapid and retention is greater because outdoor learning experiences involve all of the child's senses. Resident outdoor programs improve communications between teacher and…

Russell, Jacqueline

139

Developing an eLearning tool formalizing in YAWL the guidelines used in a transfusion medicine service.  

PubMed

The blood transfusion is a complex activity subject to a high risk of eventually fatal errors. The development and application of computer-based systems could help reducing the error rate, playing a fundamental role in the improvement of the quality of care. This poster presents an under development eLearning tool formalizing the guidelines of the transfusion process. This system, implemented in YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language), will be used to train the personnel in order to improve the efficiency of care and to reduce errors. PMID:22874389

Russo, Paola; Piazza, Miriam; Leonardi, Giorgio; Roncoroni, Layla; Russo, Carlo; Spadaro, Salvatore; Quaglini, Silvana

2012-01-01

140

Towards the Construction of a Personal Professional Pathway: An Experimental Project for the Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the University of Catania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Italy, accreditation of prior learning is a sensitive issue. Despite the lack of laws or qualification frameworks regulating the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, most Italian universities proceed with caution, allowing only a restricted number of credits in the university curriculum related to practical activities or to external…

Piazza, Roberta

2013-01-01

141

Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to…

Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis

2013-01-01

142

The Impact of Formal and Informal Learning on Students' Improvisational Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, based on my PhD empirical study, was conducted in a qualitative and holistic approach. It had examined how students had used formal and informal strategies, styles and situations while improvising and composing for the research task. Eighteen research groups made up of a total of 40 males and nine females had participated in…

Augustyniak, Sylvana

2014-01-01

143

Non-Formal Adult Learning Programs at Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: Trends, Issues, and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of recent policy reports have suggested that Canadian universities and community colleges should play a more significant role in response to the adult education and training needs of Canada's workforce. This article discusses the results of a study that examined investment trends and the characteristics of non-formal adult learner…

Kirby, Dale; Curran, Vernon; Hollett, Ann

2009-01-01

144

Formal Adult Learning and Working in Europe: A New Typology of Participation Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how a typology of participating patterns is developed to deepen understanding of participation in formal adult education and the relationship between current workplace and educational programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of conceptual work based on a qualitative analysis…

Hefler, Gunter; Markowitsch, Jorg

2010-01-01

145

A Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning: Students Learn Better When Words Are in Conversational Style Rather Than Formal Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which \\

Richard E. Mayer; Sherry Fennell; Lindsay Farmer; Julie Campbell

2004-01-01

146

A Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning: Students Learn Better When Words Are in Conversational Style Rather Than Formal Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which "the" was changed to "your" in 12 places. In 3 experiments,…

Mayer, Richard E.; Fennell, Sherry; Farmer, Lindsay; Campbell, Julie

2004-01-01

147

CHAT-IT: Toward Conceptualizing Learning in the Context of Formal Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is intended to spark a discussion between two research communities--scholars who study learning and scholars who study educational organizations. A secondary purpose is to encourage researchers to look beyond schools to examine learning in other types of educational organizations. The authors outline a framework to guide research on…

Ogawa, Rodney T.; Crain, Rhiannon; Loomis, Molly; Ball, Tamara

2008-01-01

148

A Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network: The role of formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education research has consistently shown that elementary teachers have a low self-efficacy and background knowledge to teach science. When they teach science, there is a lack of field experiences and inquiry-based instruction at the elementary level due to limited resources, both material and pedagogical. This study focused on an analysis of a professional development (PD) model designed by the author known as the Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network (CDLN). The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school teacher participants pedagogical content knowledge related to their experiences in a CDLN model. The CDLN model taught formal and informal instruction using a science coach and an informal educational institution. Another purpose for this research included a theoretical analysis of the CDLN model to see if its design enabled teachers to expand their resource knowledge of available science education materials. The four-month-long study used qualitative data obtained during an in-service professional development program facilitated by a science coach and educators from a large natural history museum. Using case study as the research design, four elementary school teachers were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of their science coach and museum educator workshop sessions. During the duration of this study, semi-structured individual/group interviews and open-ended pre/post PD questionnaires were used. Other data sources included researcher field notes from lesson observations, museum field trips, audio-recorded workshop sessions, email correspondence, and teacher-created artifacts. The data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged included increased self-efficacy; increased pedagogical content knowledge; increased knowledge of museum education resources and access; creation of a professional learning community; and increased knowledge of science notebooking. Implications for formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform are offered. It is suggested that researchers investigate collaborative coaching through the lenses of organizational learning network theory, and develop professional learning communities with formal and informal educators; and that professional developers in city school systems and informal science institutions work in concert to produce more effective elementary teachers who not only love science but love teaching it.

Cooke-Nieves, Natasha Anika

149

Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher’s use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language\\u000a arts standards is described. Data from the researcher’s field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document\\u000a how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum.\\u000a This teacher’s early life

Charles J. Eick

150

Outdoor advertising as experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can outdoor advertising substantially influence in purchase rates? The answer in brief: the limited evidence from field experiments\\u000a indicates that outdoor advertising is likely to increase sales.\\u000a \\u000a The evidence from survey research studies in the form of verbal reports indicates substantial increases in shopper\\/visitor\\u000a traffic and purchase rates associated with the use of outdoor advertising signs. However, only two published

Arch G. Woodside

1990-01-01

151

Outdoor Banner Approval Form  

E-print Network

organization's banner: Name(print):__________________________________________________ SignatureOutdoor Banner Approval Form Organizations are responsible for hanging and taking down banners:____________________________________________________ Phone:___________ Organization:_____________________________ Center for Student Involvement Student

Gering, Jon C.

152

Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning.  

PubMed

In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning. PMID:22284806

Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D

2012-05-01

153

Saskatchewan's Trek School and the Greenall Outdoor School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trek School is an outdoor school program for any Grade 11 students in Regina, Saskatchewan. During the program, students engage in a series of classroom, outdoor, and experiential activities. The various courses are taught through these experiences. The program is designed to help students develop in the areas of independent learning, critical and…

Notenboom, Rob; Moore, Jeff

2011-01-01

154

Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

Shortill, Rob

2011-01-01

155

Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set I contains 24 varied activities which make use of crafts, simulations, and basic investigative techniques to provide introductory learning experiences in outdoor biology for children aged 10 to 15. The individual water-resistant folio for each activity includes biological…

Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

156

The Learning Lives of Digital Youth--Beyond the Formal and Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of the paper is to present an outline for an approach studying young people as learners across contexts, presented here as a "learning lives approach". For youth, the two most time-consuming aspects of their daily lives are schooling and media use. In research, we tend to study these as two separate worlds. The challenge is to…

Erstad, Ola

2012-01-01

157

Economics of Outdoor Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the purposes of presenting an overview of outdoor recreation in the United States and defining the significant outdoor recreation policy issues of the next 10 to 20 years, this document also includes major sections on recreation resources and economic considerations. Projections to the year 2000 are made for a national time budget,…

Clawson, Marion; Knetsch, Jack L.

158

Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

159

Outdoor Education Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed primarily as a source of information for teachers planning outdoor education experiences, the material in this resource book can be used by any teacher in environmental studies. Subjects and activities most often taught as part of the outdoor education program are outlined both as resource (basic information) and teaching units. The…

Prince George's County Board of Education, Upper Marlboro, MD.

160

Hunting and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

Matthews, Bruce E.

1991-01-01

161

Effective Thinking Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

Hyde, Rod

1997-01-01

162

The Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

Thomas, Dorothy E.

163

Outdoor Classroom Coordinator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

Keeler, Rusty

2010-01-01

164

Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the environment,…

Auer, Matthew R.

2008-01-01

165

Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

Galloway, Shayne

2005-01-01

166

Exploring Sound in the Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes teaching the phenomena of sound in the outdoor classroom to enhance learning experiences. Methods for demonstrating sound travel and speed are explained. Activities cover listening to natural sounds, determining tone and volume, and constructing instruments from natural sources. The suggested lesson plan for exploring sounds…

Rillo, Thomas J.

167

Using Formal Embedded Formative Assessments Aligned with a Short-Term Learning Progression to Promote Conceptual Change and Achievement in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical…

Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

168

Immigrant and Aboriginal First Languages as Prior Learning Qualifications for Formal Employment in the Business, Government and Education Sectors. NALL Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which Canadian employers recognize the informally acquired first languages of immigrants and aboriginal persons as prior learning qualifications for formal employment in the business, government, and education sectors was examined through a survey of organizations across Ontario. Personalized questionnaires were mailed to a sample of…

Goldberg, Michelle P.; Corson, David

169

GameBuilder, an outdoor AR creation software  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the author designed and implemented GameBuilder, a desktop application targeted towards 11-14 year olds for creating Outdoor AR games. The software attempts to reduce its learning curve by limiting the ...

Zhang, Chuan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

170

Outdoor Leadership Competencies: A Research Study Surveying Outdoor Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified land-based outdoor leadership competencies deemed necessary by outdoor leaders in the western United States. Using resources such as outdoor leadership literature, competency-based teacher education manuals, consultation with outdoor leadership specialists in educational, private, and governmental agencies, and personal…

Swiderski, Michael J.

171

Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

2006-05-10

172

Merging social networking environments and formal learning environments to support and facilitate interprofessional instruction.  

PubMed

This study describes the redesign of an interprofessional team development course for health science students. A theoretical model is hypothesized as a framework for the redesign process, consisting of two themes: 1) the increasing trend among post-secondary students to participate in social networking (e.g., Facebook, Second Life) and 2) the need for healthcare educators to provide interprofessional training that results in effective communities of practice and better patient care. The redesign focused on increasing the relevance of the course through the integration of custom-designed technology to facilitate social networking during their interprofessional education. Results suggest that students in an educationally structured social networking environment can be guided to join learning communities quickly and access course materials. More research and implementation work is required to effectively develop interprofessional health sciences communities in a combined face-to-face and on-line social networking context. PMID:20165519

King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Michael; Drummond, Jane; Patterson, Steven

2009-01-01

173

Merging Social Networking Environments and Formal Learning Environments to Support and Facilitate Interprofessional Instruction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the redesign of an interprofessional team development course for health science students. A theoretical model is hypothesized as a framework for the redesign process, consisting of two themes: 1) the increasing trend among post-secondary students to participate in social networking (e.g., Facebook, Second Life) and 2) the need for healthcare educators to provide interprofessional training that results in effective communities of practice and better patient care. The redesign focused on increasing the relevance of the course through the integration of custom-designed technology to facilitate social networking during their interprofessional education. Results suggest that students in an educationally structured social networking environment can be guided to join learning communities quickly and access course materials. More research and implementation work is required to effectively develop interprofessional health sciences communities in a combined face-to-face and on-line social networking context. PMID:20165519

King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Michael; Drummond, Jane; Patterson, Steven

2009-01-01

174

Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

Folta, Elizabeth Eason

2010-01-01

175

Introducing the Use of a Semi-Structured Video Diary Room to Investigate Students' Learning Experiences during an Outdoor Adventure Education Groupwork Skills Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…

Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.

2014-01-01

176

Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural world around them. The game is set around a mystery in which red wolves in eastern North Carolina are being poisoned. The students are asked to portray the role of a wildlife biologist, botanist, or entomologist, whose job it is to determine who is poisoning the red wolves. MSEG are a new form of SEG that is divided into components or modules. Each module has to be completed before the player can move on to the next module. A module can take on any format, but must encompass the storyline of the game and end in an assessment. The study focused on three research questions. How would students improve the Red Wolf Caper mSEG? Do mSEG affect students' understanding in environmental education concepts, specifically, collecting, evaluating, and developing an explanation for data they collected in the game and knowledge of environmental systems and biological and social implications for the reintroduction of a species? Which role within the mSEG do the students choose and what is their reasoning behind choosing that particular role? The game was tested by 81 middle school students during six sessions in June 2010. The study participants played the game and participated in design sessions. In addition, they were given a 5-question pretest/ posttest, role selection survey, and Serious Educational Game Rubric (SEGR). They were asked to develop a hypothesis and provide evidence to support their hypothesis. Finally, they were asked to write a letter to a local in judge explaining the importance of the red wolf reintroduction project. Twenty-three students were selected to participate in interviews to determine how to improve the game and why they chose the role they did. The mean student score for the SEGR was 18.13 out of 28. Five categories in particular stood out as needing improvement: rules, increasing complexity, manipulation, identity, and tutorial/ practice level. Sixty-nine completed pretests/posttests final scores were analyzed using a paired t-test ( p = 0.000046). The letters to the judge showed that study participants understood scientific concepts and were able to apply them to real world settings that were only portrayed briefly in the game, such as the food chain. Study participants chose to play one of three roles: a wildlife biologist ( n = 64), an entomologist (n = 10), and a botanist (n = 6). Their reason behind choosing a role included interest in learning more about the topic or the profession, a previous positive experience in that field, thought the role sounded fun or exciting, the role was better than the alternatives, or misunderstood the role. The experience overall was positive for the participants. They felt they learned how to identify tracks, scat, trees, and invertebrates depending on the role they played. The AR field tests were one of their favorite parts about the game. Only one student expressed that they did not like the game, while the others not only enjoyed playing the game, but felt that is was a good educational tool. This study explores only one possibility of how mSEGs can be used in education.

Folta, Elizabeth Eason

177

Take Your Class Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers suggestions for designing outdoor activities to provide students with opportunities for exploring, observing, and discovering. Outlines several science activities for each of the following topics: trees, rocks, soil, insects, wild flowers, grasses, lichens, and clouds. (DS)

Shellenberger, Barbara R.

1981-01-01

178

Natural Resources: Outdoor Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community

Valynda Mayes

2010-02-01

179

E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care  

PubMed Central

Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point. PMID:24742168

2014-01-01

180

A Rationale for Outdoor Activity as Experiential Education: The Reason for Freezin'.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Dewey said, "Learning is thinking about experience". This dictum accurately reflects the rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education. The term "outdoor learning" refers to a set of activities which have the following characteristics in common: environmental contrast (a sharp environmental change for the participant); physical…

Kesselheim, A. Donn

181

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

/ logica antiqua distinction in the middle ages. #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science / logica antiqua distinction in the middle ages. We have learned that the mathematical part (while in the middle ages. We have learned that the mathematical part (whi

Löwe, Benedikt

182

Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison  

SciTech Connect

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-02-01

183

Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1980-01-01

184

The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

Rich, Steve

2000-01-01

185

Voices in the Park: Researching the Participation of Young Children in Outdoor Play in Early Years Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically reflects on the participation of young children aged 3-4 years in an ongoing outdoor learning project started in 2004. The aims of the research are to investigate children's dispositions within the outdoor environment, to elicit children's perspectives of their outdoor experiences and to investigate the…

Waller, Tim

2014-01-01

186

Feminist Perspectives on Outdoor Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist perspectives provide a basis for examining the nature of participation in outdoor experiences, the goals of outdoor leadership, and the meanings associated with the outdoors. Feminism is concerned with the correction of both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to social change and removal of social…

Henderson, Karla

187

Children and the Outdoor Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we will discuss the outdoor environment for younger children with the help of two different concepts. The first concept, affordance, is well known in the discussion about outdoor environments. What the affordance in the outdoor environment is perceived as can differ between actors. How the affordance is used can be another source…

Niklasson, Laila; Sandberg, Anette

2010-01-01

188

Your Brain Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way technology influences a person's cognition is seldom recognized, but is of increasing interest among brain researchers. Outdoor educators tend to pay attention to the way different activities offer different perceptions of an environment. When natural spaces can no longer be accessed, they adapt and simulate natural activities in available…

MacEachren, Zabe

2012-01-01

189

Outdoor Education in Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

Myers, Ray H.

190

[Outdoor Ethics Information Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains information about outdoor ethics issues. The information was compiled by the Izaak Walton League of America, established in 1922 as a national nonprofit organization whose members educate the public about emerging natural resource threats and promote citizen involvement in environmental protection efforts. The league…

Izaak Walton League of America, Arlington, VA.

191

Outdoor Water Conservation  

E-print Network

L-438 Outdoor Water Conservation The City of OKLAHOMA CITY UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Oklahoma.JustinQ.Moss 1 #12;2 SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING A WATER CONSERVING LANDSCAPE 1. GOOD LANDSCAPE PLANNING University Water Saving Design Ideas for Oklahoma Landscapes #12;About this guide: The

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

192

Journey to the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A keen personal interest in natural history, involvement in environmental organisations, and experience, first as a secondary biology teacher and later as a field teacher, means that this author has spent many years working outdoors. Any part of the curriculum involving ecological concepts would lead her to open the door and go outside. She…

Boyd, Margaret

2013-01-01

193

[Science in the Outdoors].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

Sarage, Joe; And Others

194

Theories, Practices and Benefits of Debriefing in Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the theory and practice of debriefing and considers its importance in experiential learning and outdoor adventure education. Discusses theories of transfer of learning; levels of cognitive processing in relation to sequence of debriefing questions and activities; establishing supportive group behaviors; 10 soft skills needed by debriefing…

Brackenreg, Mark

1993-01-01

195

The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.  

PubMed

Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

2015-01-01

196

The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education  

PubMed Central

Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A.; Soh, Jenny

2015-01-01

197

Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. PMID:24462995

Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

2014-05-01

198

Mobile learning in medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

Serkan Güllüoü?lu, Sabri

2013-03-01

199

Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities in Government Organisations: Experiences of Public Sector Employees from Six Asian Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifelong learning and professional development have been the focus of government organisations after the 21st century was declared the "learning century", amidst the impact of globalisation and growth of knowledge-based economies. Although lifelong learning and professional development opportunities are available in most government organisations,…

Mokhtar, Intan A.

2010-01-01

200

Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership 2012, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 16-26 Wilderness-Based Semester Learning  

E-print Network

on these courses. KEYWORDS: wilderness education, semester, expedition behavior, overlearning, #12;WILDERNESS BASED SEMESTER LEARNING 17 http://www.ejorel.com/ The intended outcome of most, if not all, wilderness education outcomes, from the broadest to the most simplistic, learning in wilderness education is mediated

Provancher, William

201

Teaching English through Open Non-Formal Education (ONFE) in Bangladesh with an Effective Integration of ICT to Support Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program entitled "English in Action (EIA)", 9 year period DFID funded project in Bangladesh, was launched in 2008, for the desire to bring a change in the learning of English language. EIA works to reach a total of 25 million primary and secondary students and adult learners through communicative language learning techniques and the use of…

Rahman, Md. Mizanoor; Panda, Santosh

2012-01-01

202

Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineers at Pennsylvania State University have devised an air conditioning system that is more efficient than current standards and is highly resistant to dangerous airborne microbes such as anthrax. Because the Dedicated Outdoor Air System (DOAS) does not use recirculated air, a letter contaminated with anthrax would not spread throughout the building. A detailed technical overview of the concept is given on the DOAS home page, as well as an assessment of its benefits over traditional air conditioning. A collection of over twenty research papers and five presentations related to the system's development is also provided.

2001-01-01

203

On Becoming Human: An Examination of the Contributions Made by Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the components of outdoor education and its potential as an ideal context in which experiential learning can take place. Touches heavily on spirituality, which is seen to be fundamentally concerned with relationships between ourselves and others, the earth, and God. Promotes outdoor education as a vehicle for discovering what life has to…

Davies, Gareth

1992-01-01

204

Outdoor Education on Your School Grounds: An Action Approach to Better Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of school grounds as an outdoor learning area is the main emphasis of this manual for elementary and junior high school teachers. Detailed plannin g steps, site plots, directions for planting, and other related planning information are given, along with guidelines concerning the use of an outdoor classroom by teachers of various subjects.…

Marsh, Norman F.

205

Reflective Practice as a Means for Preparing to Teach Outdoors in an Ecological Garden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers are engaged in many field-trips, they seldom have the pedagogical knowledge and experience to enact them. This article presents an effort to support reflective practice of teachers in the outdoors. The teaching experience of five pre- and in-service teachers included preparation for teaching in the outdoors, designing learning

Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

2009-01-01

206

Supporting Outdoor Play for Young Children: The Zone Model of Playground Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff at the Frank Porter Graham (FPG) Child Care Program developed the zone model of playground supervision (ZoMPS) to ensure a safe environment for outdoor play and enhance playground time for all children. In addition to the social and free-play elements of outdoor play, they wanted to provide activities that support learning and development.…

Kern, Petra; Wakeford, Linn

2007-01-01

207

The School Ground Classroom: A Curriculum to Teach K-6 Subjects Outdoors. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggesting that outdoor activities can be positive learning experiences, lesson plans and activities were designed to demonstrate that the outdoors is an interdisciplinary classroom, to be used on virtually any school site, and to teach subject matter taught as part of the standard curriculum. Seventeen interdisciplinary ideas with correlated…

Green, Dan; And Others

208

The Double-Edged Sword: Critical Reflections on Traditional and Modern Technology in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outdoor education experience continues to be influenced by a proliferation of modern technological innovations, most of which have been accepted and even embraced by educators with little inquiry. Seldom do instructors of outdoor programmes consider the impact that modern techniques and equipment can have upon students' learning. This paper…

Cuthbertson, Brent; Socha, Teresa L.; Potter, Tom G.

2004-01-01

209

Inglemoor High School Curriculum Guide for Outdoor Recreation & Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptions of 12-week courses in hunting and fishing and in outdoor activities for male and female students at Inglemoor High School in Bothell, Washington, are presented in this curriculum guide for outdoor education and recreation. Offering both classroom and field experience, each of the two courses meets 55 minutes daily; recommended class…

Kline, Jim

210

Gender Choreography and Micro-Structures--Early Childhood Professionals' Understanding of Gender Roles and Gender Patterns in Outdoor Play and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre-school professionals understand the notion of gender-equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre-school playground. The study draws on socio-cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre-schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on…

Arlemalm-Hagser, Eva

2010-01-01

211

Preparing Effective Outdoor Pursuit Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information related to selecting, training, and certifying outdoor leaders for high adventure pursuits, is provided by selected experts from five English-speaking nations (Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States). Patterns of differences and similarities among these nations regarding outdoor leadership components and…

Priest, Simon

212

Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

Ball, Matt

213

Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin

2007-01-01

214

Selected Bibliography for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-one books and articles published between 1940 and 1967 are listed. Although the major portion of the bibliography is devoted to outdoor education, also included are publications on recreational activities, conservation, national and state parks, camping, and outdoor crafts. (SW)

American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

215

Outdoor advertising for business markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the history and current prevalence of outdoor advertising suggests that although the medium is very effective it is not widely used in business-to-business markets. A case for using outdoor advertising is deductively made based on the unique characteristics of business markets such as: geographic concentration of buyers, need to target buying center members, advantages of having integrated

J. David Lichtenthal; Vivek Yadav; Naveen Donthu

2006-01-01

216

Outdoor Education Student Log Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

217

Including "Everyone" in Outdoor Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guidelines for outdoor play that are important when young children have special needs. Details a decision-making process for planning adaptations and practical strategies for making adaptations and interventions to enhance outdoor play for children with special needs. Lists adaptations for a child who is blind, is deaf, has physical…

Flynn, Lynda L.; Kieff, Judith

2002-01-01

218

Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

Matthews, Bruce E.

1978-01-01

219

Gender choreography and micro?structures – early childhood professionals' understanding of gender roles and gender patterns in outdoor play and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre?school professionals understand the notion of gender?equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre?school playground. The study draws on socio?cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre?schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on gender education. Video recording and focus group discussions

2010-01-01

220

Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)

Briggs, James N.

1993-01-01

221

Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

Rosenow, Nancy

2011-01-01

222

COEO's Landmark Research Summary: "Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past year, Andrea Foster reviewed a wide array of current and international research into the multiple, powerful and lasting outcomes produced through utilizing outdoor and experiential education (OEE) as a key learning methodology. As co-authors, Foster and Linney produced an 80-page document that reports the findings according to the…

Linney, Grant

2007-01-01

223

Old Time Apple Cider Makin': An Outdoor Education Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An illustrated, self-contained packet, the resource materials contained in this guide are designed for adaptation to K-8. The resources and ideas presented here are designed to encourage utilization of the outdoors as a learning resource. While intrinsically multidisciplinary, the activities are particularly adaptable to social studies, science,…

Matthews, Bruce E.; Oakes, David B.

224

Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

225

75 FR 20765 - A 21st Century Strategy for America's Great Outdoors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...April 16, 2010 A 21st Century Strategy for America's Great Outdoors...locally supported conservation strategies. (iii) Use science-based...shall conduct listening and learning sessions around the country...approaches; (C) proposed strategies and activities to...

2010-04-20

226

Using NASA Data in the Classroom: Promoting STEM Learning in Formal Education using Real Space Science Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provides formal educators the opportunity to teach their students real-world applications of the STEM subjects. Combining real space science data with lessons aimed at meeting state and national education standards provides a memorable educational experience that students can build upon throughout their academic careers. Many of our colleagues have adopted the use of real data in their education and public outreach (EPO) programs. There are challenges in creating resources using real data for classroom use that include, but are not limited to, accessibility to computers/Internet and proper instruction. Understanding and sharing these difficulties and best practices with the larger EPO community is critical to the development of future resources. In this session, we highlight three examples of how NASA data is being utilized in the classroom: the Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET) that utilizes real Hubble Space Telescope data; the computer image-analysis resources utilized by the NASA WISE infrared mission; and the space science derived math applications from SpaceMath@NASA featuring the Chandra and Kepler space telescopes. Challenges and successes are highlighted for these projects. We also facilitate small-group discussions that focus on additional benefits and challenges of using real data in the formal education environment. The report-outs from those discussions are given here.

Lawton, B.; Hemenway, M. K.; Mendez, B.; Odenwald, S.

2013-04-01

227

Participating in Non-Formal Learning: Patterns of Inequality in EU-15 and the New EU-8 Member Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We concentrate on the following research questions: (1) Do the structure of the educational system and its interaction with the labour market affect the training gap between low-skilled blue collar workers and high-skilled white collar workers? and (2) Do the ways that institutional systems shape opportunities for lifelong learning differ between…

Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

2010-01-01

228

Informal Learning Organizations as Part of an Educational Ecology: Lessons from Collaboration across the Formal-Informal Divide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do informal learning organizations work with schools as part of a broader educational ecology? We examined this question through a comparative case study of two collaborative efforts whereby informal arts education organizations, a children's museum and a community-based organization, worked with an urban school district to redefine the…

Russell, Jennifer Lin; Knutson, Karen; Crowley, Kevin

2013-01-01

229

Integrating outdoor activities into the FOSS curriculum: Effect on teacher practices on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A goal of the Center for Learning and Teaching West based at the University of Montana is to provide in-depth professional development through a combination of on-site and distance education activities to mathematics and science middle and high school teachers at identified high-needs schools. In accordance with the Center's goal, teachers on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation have been contacted as they meet the "high-needs" criteria: the schools are in a rural setting and educate mainly Native American students. Since the spring of 2003, contact with the directors of the Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI) on the Blackfeet Reservation has uncovered the need for integration of local outdoor earth science activities into the current Full Option Science System (FOSS) curriculum used in the middle school classrooms. This information combined with the results of a teacher interest survey sent out to the Blackfeet educators in early 2004 indicates an interest in professional development (PD) that covers training in both earth science and field experiences. This research focuses on the earth science teachers and their use of outdoor activities in their science curriculum. Much research has been conducted on the learning styles of Native American students and show that these students have some tendency toward: global/holistic style of organizing information, visual style of mental representation in thinking, reflective style for information processing, and preference of collaborative work on assigned tasks (Hilberg and Tharp, 2002). Though native students generally perform poorly in science, the belief is that their learning styles matched with hands-on, outdoor instruction may improve the students' connection with science and their performance on science assessments. Therefore, the first step in the process is to work with the teachers through professional development in order to incorporate activities that match the learning styles of their students. The workshop designed for the middle school teachers on the Blackfeet Reservation provides support for teachers with regards to FOSS training, content, and activities at local field sites (example is the outdoor classroom at Cut Bank Creek outside of Browning, MT) specific to the Earth History FOSS kit activities chosen for the workshop. The field activities will highlight National and Montana Science Content Standards identified by the teachers and specifically Montana Science Content Standard 5 which reads: "Students understand how scientific knowledge and technological developments impact society." The specific focus on this standard provides opportunity for the "traditional" and "practical" earth science experiences to be "integrated into the more formal content approach of school science (Cajete, 1988)"; a format more accessible to native students."

Geraghty, E.

2004-12-01

230

Resident Program Guide: Hillside Outdoor Education Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1972 as part of the private, non-profit Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Centers, the Hillside Outdoor Education Center offers services to various educational groups by providing residential experiences for students and faculty, day-visit programs, school-site outdoor education programs, teacher workshops, college courses in outdoor

Sommer, Bonnie

231

Feminists Challenging Assumptions about Outdoor Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, women outdoor leaders discuss how gender influences their work, and explore and challenge some assumptions underlying outdoor leadership that continue to privilege the impartial, disembodied practices typified by the masculine outdoor leader. Four feminist, and three other feminist outdoor leaders participated in personal interviews…

Bell, Martha

232

The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

Cashel, Chris

233

Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

1970

234

Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

Olson, Joann S.

2014-01-01

235

Outdoor sports and skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers.Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such

Matthias Moehrle

2008-01-01

236

Beyond formalism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

Denning, Peter J.

1991-01-01

237

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE) (14th, Oxford, Ohio, November 7-12, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings contains 15 conference papers and presentation summaries from the 14th annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE). Titles are: "The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training" (Christian Bisson); "The Service Learning Concept: Service Learning in the National Parks" (Tom…

Freidline, Mark, Ed.; Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Moore, Tim, Ed.; Versteeg, Julie, Ed.

238

75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...family and friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew...as well as our National Parks, local parks, fishing holes, beaches...especially children, fall into unhealthy sedentary...launched the America's Great Outdoors Initiative...

2010-06-07

239

9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3...shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless such...

2010-01-01

240

OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

241

Outdoor Education and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of increasing effective communication in outdoor education programs. Examines sensory preferences and how they affect vocabulary, voice tone, and body language. Describes ways that outdoor educators can use this information to improve their communication skills. (LP)

Lee, Alistair

1993-01-01

242

Princeton University Outdoor Action Sustainability Guide  

E-print Network

and peers. Outdoor Action has always been aware of its unique opportunity to influence Princeton's students experiences. For this reason, Outdoor Action provides an ideal situation not only for students to make friends

243

Learning Outdoors: The Forest School Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the role that Forest School can play in children's development. With over 100 Forest Schools in England, 20 in Scotland and 20 in Wales, this concept is growing across Britain. Forest School involves children having regular contact with woodland over an extended period of time; it allows them to become familiar, and have…

O'Brien, Liz

2009-01-01

244

Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

2006-01-01

245

Traditional adventure activities in outdoor environmental education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the place of adventure activities in outdoor education has become contentious, particularly in Australia and the United Kingdom. It can be challenging for outdoor leaders to incorporate adventure activities with attempts to foster environmental awareness, understanding and action. Recently, some authors have suggested practitioners eliminate the tension by removing adventure activities from outdoor environmental education programs altogether. This paper

Glyn Thomas

246

Outdoor Experiential Education: Its Power and Pitfalls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces origin of outdoor education to Aristotle. Expresses concern over cutbacks and "back to basics" movements that are eliminating outdoor programs. Proposes outdoor educators examine program objectives, staff, student needs, focus, and techniques to improve physiological and psychological aspects and avoid instructor traps to become stronger,…

Ewert, Alan

1985-01-01

247

How Effective Are Outdoor Education Centres?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve classes of students in grades 4 through 6 studied beaver ecology, either at an outdoor-education center near Toronto or in the classroom. Results indicate that outdoor education was more effective in promoting students' cognitive achievement than classroom study, but did not confirm the popular belief that outdoor programs influence…

Eaton, Dennis

1999-01-01

248

Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

2009-01-01

249

Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The interconnections of these three concepts---the outdoor setting, the students' interest, the social interaction---worked to provide the mechanisms by which the students increased their understanding of the rock cycle.

Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

250

Setting Up an Outdoor Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation and operation of an outdoor laboratory in a city environment for use in teaching environmental education. A map of the laboratory is included. Also describes various stations in the laboratory, presenting a list of materials used as well as several activities based in the laboratory. (JM)

Schneider, Mike

1984-01-01

251

Outdoor HV composite polymeric insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

HV composite polymeric insulators are being accepted increasingly for use in outdoor installations by the traditionally cautious electric power utilities worldwide. They currently represent ~60 to 70% of newly installed HV insulators in North America. The tremendous growth in the applications of non-ceramic composite insulators is due to their advantages over the traditional ceramic and glass insulators. These include light

R. Hackam

1999-01-01

252

Outdoor Education as Wilderness Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents outline for introductory course designed to allow student exploration of outdoor opportunities and instill interest and basic knowledge. Includes nature trail development, edible wild plants, Adirondack/St. Lawrence geology, mountain climbing, fall camping, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, winter camping, ice fishing, knots,…

Clark, Glenn

1987-01-01

253

MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS  

E-print Network

. This is necessary in order to reduce light pollution, which has a negative effect on people, wildlife sky. This causes light pollution, also known as artificial sky glow. Glare Glare is any overlappingMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

California at Davis, University of

254

MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS  

E-print Network

to reduce light pollution, which has a negative effect on wildlife and the surrounding environments pollution, also known as artificial sky glow. Glare Glare is any overlapping light between the uplightMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

California at Davis, University of

255

MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS  

E-print Network

, and high-angle brightness. This is necessary in order to reduce light pollution, which has a negative as excess lighting directed into the night sky. This causes light pollution, also known as artificial skyMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

California at Davis, University of

256

Wellness: How Outdoor Education Helps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional emphases of outdoor education--cognitive understanding of ecological balances, sensory awareness, aesthetic appreciation of the natural environment are important to a wellness approach to life. Frost Valley YMCA (New York) is promoting the application of wellness concepts to its resident environmental education programs. (LC)

Ketcham, Michael; Marion, James

1982-01-01

257

Outdoor Recreation at Brock University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brock University offers both undergraduate and graduate programs and is host to approximately 17,000 students. It is the only Canadian university located in a World Biosphere Reserve--the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail passes through campus, and offers ample opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, nature interpretation and outdoor

Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Hutson, Garrett

2007-01-01

258

Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

Renner, Hans-Georg

2011-01-01

259

The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starr Commonwealth has served troubled children and youth and their families for nearly a century. Starr's Montcalm Schools operate from campuses in Michigan and Ohio, enrolling students referred by families and educational consultants. The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program is a key part of Starr's network of nonprofit alternative education and…

Mitchell, Martin; McCall, Herman J.

2007-01-01

260

Families Discover the Outdoors Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

Parent, Polly

1980-01-01

261

Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

Kennedy, Carolyn L.

262

Outdoor Recreation Activities at Cispus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the activities in this booklet have been developed around skills related to the outdoors and, in particular, to the logging industry and forest fire fighting. The activities attempt to develop muscles, coordination skills, and teamwork. They also give the students (junior high school or high school) and staff the opportunity to do…

Cispus Environmental Center, Randle, WA.

263

Recommendations on "Learning To Learn."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1987, the Learning to Learn Subcommittee was formed at Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) to help design a formal course in teaching/learning theory, to identify effective student behaviors and teaching strategies to develop critical thinking skills, and to identify strategies to implement the "learning to learn" concept across all…

Miami-Dade Community Coll. District, FL.

264

Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

2003-07-01

265

Outdoor Adventure Program Bike ODU Bike Share Program and Outdoor Rental Center  

E-print Network

: Sports Management, Higher Education, Physical Education, or other closely related field Demonstrate and management of the Outdoor Adventure Program, specifically the Outdoor Adventure Center including Education or related field. Acceptance to one of the following Old Dominion University academic majors

266

Columbus Outdoor Pursuits: A Model Structure for Volunteer Based Outdoor Pursuits Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Columbus Outdoor Pursuits (COP) is a volunteer-based nonprofit organization in Ohio that has offered outdoor educational and recreational opportunities to its members for 63 years. COP day and trip programs focus on outdoor activities such as bicycling, kayaking, hiking, and rock climbing. In addition, COP offers classes in the skills required for…

Gerckens, Ann E.

267

"Let's Throw That Big Stick in the River": An Exploration of Gender in the Construction of Shared Narratives around Outdoor Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will explore the role of gender in the construction of shared narratives around outdoor spaces. The paper draws on findings from a long-term project investigating young children's learning and the outdoor curriculum. The project is ongoing and involves children aged 3- to 4-years in a nursery school in England. The children are given…

Waller, Tim

2010-01-01

268

The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for those interested in the mechanics of establishing outdoor education programs, this text is basically a guide to program development and includes examples of procedures, forms, conceptualizations, etc. Chapters deal with: (1) the contemporary education scene (an overview); (2) the basic concepts of outdoor education (17 concept…

Lewis, Charles A., Jr.

269

Visual Terrain Classification by Mobile Outdoor Robots  

E-print Network

Visual Terrain Classification by Mobile Outdoor Robots Yasir Niaz Khan and Andreas Zell University and mapping · For guiding vehicles and humans on ground · For a safe traversal for mobile outdoor robots on a real flying robot 3Yasir Niaz Khan #12;Driving Robot Platform · RC model truck 1:8 · Dual-core PC · 32

Berns, Karsten

270

Fast Outdoor Robot Localization Using Integral Invariants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Integral Invariant Features have shown to be useful for robot localization in indoor environments. In this paper, we present a method that uses integral invariants for outdoor environments. To make the integral invariant features more distinctive for outdoor images, we split the image into a grid of subimages and calculate integral invariants for each grid cell individually. We then

Christian Weiss; Andreas Masselli; Hashem Tamimi; Andreas Zell

2007-01-01

271

Outdoor Education Units. Pull Out Feature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly presents 15 outdoor education units covering orienteering, map reading, safety, rescue, rope skills, first aid, camping, kayaking, rock and wall climbing, caving, survival skills, sailing, hiking, and outdoor equipment. Each unit has a brief description, including the knowledge and skills that students should be able to demonstrate. (TD)

Levi, Jan

2001-01-01

272

Outdoor Education for Behavior Disordered Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education programs ranging from simple, near-school activities to lengthy wilderness camping experiences can benefit behavior disorderd students. Studies of outdoor education programs for these students have shown positive effects including improvements in self-concept, social adjustment, academic achievement, and group cohesion. Many…

Lappin, Edward

273

Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

274

Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

275

Outdoor Adventure Leadership Program at Laurentian University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laurentian University (Ontario) offers a 4-year holistic outdoor adventure leadership program that promotes personal growth, develops leadership skills, and trains individuals to be safety-minded in various outdoor settings. A strong environmental ethic is promoted through courses in biology and Canadian Native culture. Practicums, internships,…

Couture, Roger T.

2001-01-01

276

INDEX OF SELECTED OUTDOOR RECREATION LITERATURE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INDEXED ARE 991 PERIODICALS, REPORTS, BOOKS, AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS CONTAINING INFORMATION PERTINENT TO OUTDOOR RECREATION WHICH WERE RECEIVED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LIBRARY DURING 1966. THIS SHOULD NOT BE MISTAKEN FOR A COMPREHENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OUTDOOR RECREATION LITERATURE BECAUSE NOT ALL PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED BY THE DEPARTMENT…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

277

The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directed to the Multnomah County, Oregon, sixth grade students who participate in the Outdoor School program, the reusable handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Each week, four sixth grade classes from different…

Gilfillan, Warren C., Comp.; Burgess, Robert A., Comp.

278

Calibration of outdoor thermal comfort models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses the calibration of predictive models of outdoor thermal comfort through field studies. The objective is to verify their applicability in outdoor spaces of Grande Sao Paulo, a Brazilian metropolitan area with over 18 million inhabitants. The method adopted is experimental inductive (field research of micro-climatic variables and subjective answers) and deductive (simulation and calibration of predictive models).

Leonardo Marques Monteiro; Marcia Peinado Alucci

2006-01-01

279

Does Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Really Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), using wilderness therapy and related outdoor programming, is an emerging treatment for adolescents with behavioral, psychological, and substance abuse disorders. A literature review examining OBH outcomes related to self-concept, interpersonal skills, substance abuse, criminal recidivism, and behavioral and…

Russell, Keith C.

2002-01-01

280

Therapeutic Uses of Outdoor Education. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest examines the positive effects on emotional well-being of several types of outdoor education programs. Although many outdoor education and experiential programs enhance emotional growth, such "therapeutic" outcomes may be considered incidental to program goals. In contrast, programs aimed primarily at "therapy" usually involve a process…

Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

281

Multiculturalism: Implications for Outdoor and Conservation Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the role of multiculturalism in outdoor and conservation education. Multiculturalism promotes appreciation of diversity including differences originating from race, ethnicity, gender, and abilities, thereby developing tolerance and human understanding. Several trends make multiculturalism relevant to outdoor activities. By the…

Matthews, Bruce E.

282

Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

Senda-Cook, Samantha

2012-01-01

283

Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

284

Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

Whitcombe, Mark

1989-01-01

285

A Guide for Conducting Outdoor Field Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since research indicates teachers generally lack confidence in their ability to conduct lessons in the outdoors and feel inadequate regarding knowledge of the natural world, this guide has been developed to build teacher confidence in utilizing the outdoors. Designed to be used in conjunction with a practicum workshop, this guide presents…

Matthews, Bruce; And Others

286

Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-print Network

in this report labeled Duke Power Water System Water Quality Table. Water Source The Outdoor Laboratory Water = Nephelometric Turbidity Units #12;2 Duke Power Water System Water Quality Table Contaminant Date Tested Unit MCL1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 1999 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

Duchowski, Andrew T.

287

Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-print Network

in this report labeled Duke Power Water System Water Quality Table. Water Source The Outdoor Laboratory Water = Nephelometric Turbidity Units #12;2 Duke Power Water System Water Quality Table Contaminant Date Tested Unit MCL1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 2000 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

Duchowski, Andrew T.

288

Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.

289

Outdoor mixed reality utilizing surveillance cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outdoor mixed-reality system designed for pedestrians who carries a camera-attached PDA is presented. Our system utilizes surveillance cameras for two purposes; for showing hidden area to the pedestrians by mixed-reality technology and for updating textures of calibration markers in order to handle possible texture changes in outdoor real world.

Yoshinari Kameda; Taisuke Takemasa; Yuichi Ohta

2004-01-01

290

Instincts for Survival in Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the outdoor education program in Waterloo County (Ontario) has become an important component of the school system by developing a sound philosophy, staying abreast of educational trends, implementing professional development, providing data on the value of outdoor education, developing community partnerships, and initiating projects…

Glew, Frank

1994-01-01

291

UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

Maher, Pat

2007-01-01

292

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PARKS A National Environmental Research Park is an outdoor laboratory where research may be  

E-print Network

CHARTER NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PARKS A National Environmental Research Park is an outdoor for a quality environment into environmental goals, and the National Environmental Research Parks network DIRECTIVES FOR THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PARKS PROGRAM The network of research parks was formally

Georgia, University of

293

Lessons from the Mud: Nurturing an Outdoor Classroom in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A muddy area between two new elementary schools was transformed into a school "wetlands"--an outdoor learning center used for nature study and various creative and sensory activities. The area encourages children's natural curiosity, provides many discoveries about nature, and promotes a sense of stewardship. (SV)

Bodner, Virginia; Sampson, Karla

1999-01-01

294

Canoe Pedagogy and Colonial History: Exploring Contested Spaces of Outdoor Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I explore how histories of colonialism are integral to the Euro-Western idea of wilderness at the heart of much outdoor environmental education. In the context of canoe tripping, I speculate about why the politics of land rarely enters into teaching on the land. Finally, because learning from difficult knowledge often troubles the…

Newbery, Liz

2012-01-01

295

Wilderness U.: Opportunities for Outdoor Education in the U.S. & Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1980s saw a dramatic change in the use of leisure as millions of Americans turned to vacations that emphasized exploration, learning, and renewed awareness of the natural world. The first part of this three-part sourcebook lists approximately 270 institutions, organizations, and businesses offering programs in outdoor education, environmental…

McMillon, Bill

296

Freedom, Flow and Fairness: Exploring How Children Develop Socially at School through Outdoor Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report on a study that sought to discover micro-level social interactions in fluid outdoor learning spaces. Our methodology was centred around the children; our methods moved with them and captured their social interactions through mobile audio-recording. We argue that our methodological approach supported access to…

Waite, Sue; Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie

2013-01-01

297

Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio

2007-01-01

298

Outdoor air pollution and asthma.  

PubMed

Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R

2014-05-01

299

Issues Surrounding the Introduction of Formal Student Contracts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the appropriateness of introducing formal learning agreements in a higher education institution (HEI). It begins by examining the current legal nature of the student/university relationship and the legal status of formal learning agreements. The paper then explores the impact of such agreements on student satisfaction by…

Gaffney-Rhys, Ruth; Jones, Joanna

2010-01-01

300

Creating and Enriching Quality and Safe Outdoor Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can teachers of young children create stimulating and enriching outdoor environments that are also safe? This article highlights early childhood outdoor safety standards and presents a framework for creating quality and SAFE™ outdoor environments in early childhood programs that support children's interest and best practice. The outdoor

Olsen, Heather

2013-01-01

301

Cooperative Programs in Residential Outdoor Environmental Education: Teacher's Materials Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as teacher orientation materials for the cooperative programs in residential outdoor education located in Marin County, California, this guide includes the following: (1) "This I Believe" (a philosophical statement on outdoor environmental education); (2) "Outdoor Science and Conservation Education Report" (a brief history of outdoor

Marin County Superintendent of Schools, Corte Madera, CA.

302

Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

303

Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory  

PubMed Central

This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in “normal” science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p < 10?4), and that the outdoor-teaching has generally been perceived as more practical than teaching at the normal school context (p < 10?4), irrespective of gender or school culture. We are going to provide in-depth analyses of all quantitative findings with our qualitative data and thus explain the findings logically, with respect to the direction of the statistical interpretation, and substantially, with respect to the meaning of the discoveries. We conclude that outdoor programming appears to be a suitable tool to trigger interest in science in youngsters, especially for less motivated pupils. PMID:25741301

Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

2015-01-01

304

The effect of an outdoor setting on the transfer of earth science concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of students to transfer concepts learned in school to future learning and employment settings is critical to their academic and career success. Concept transfer can best be studied by defining it as a process rather than an isolated event. Preparation for future learning (PFL) is a process definition of transfer which recognizes the student's ability to draw from past experiences, make assumptions, and generate potential questions and strategies for problem resolution. The purpose of this study was to use the PFL definition of concept transfer to examine whether a knowledge-rich outdoor setting better prepares students for future learning of science concepts than the classroom setting alone does. The research hypothesis was that sixth-grade students experiencing a geology-rich outdoor setting would be better prepared to learn advanced earth science concepts than students experiencing classroom learning only. A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study on two non-equivalent, self-contained sixth-grade rural public school classes. After a pretest was given on prior geology knowledge, the outdoor treatment group was taken on a geology-rich field excursion which introduced them to the concepts of mineral formation and mining. The indoor treatment group received exposure to the same concepts in the classroom setting via color slides and identification of mineral specimens. Subsequently, both groups received direct instruction on advanced concepts about mineral formation and mining. They were then given a posttest, which presented the students with a problem-solving scenario and questions related to concepts covered in the direct instruction. A t-test done on pretest data revealed that the indoor treatment group had previously learned classroom geology material significantly better than the outdoor treatment group had. Therefore an analysis of covariance was performed on posttest data which showed that the outdoor treatment group was better prepared for future learning of advanced geology concepts than the indoor treatment group. Because the environment chosen for this study was by nature one that contained variables outside the control of the researcher, it can only be speculated that the outdoor environment was the agent of transfer. Subsequent studies need to be done to substantiate this hypothesis.

Simmons, Jerry Marvin

305

Thermal insulating capabilities of outdoor clothing materials  

SciTech Connect

A single heat transfer measurement technique was used to determine the thermal insulating capabilities of four materials used in outdoor clothing--goose down, wool, polyester, and polyolefin. It was found that all provide very similar degrees of insulation.

Kaufman, W.C.; Bothe, D.; Meyer, S.D.

1982-02-01

306

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits kept outdoors to protect themselves from the direct rays of the sun. When the atmospheric temperature exceeds 90 °F. artificial cooling shall be provided by a sprinkler system or other...

2011-01-01

307

Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Air Pollution Everyone is adversely affected by poor air quality; however, individuals who suffer from pulmonary problems are ... avoid exposure to, and complications from, poor outdoor air quality. Avoid exposure to noxious fumes The Environmental Protection ...

308

9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS ...facilities unless such facilities are located in an appropriate climate and prior approval for such outdoor housing is obtained...

2011-01-01

309

9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS ...facilities unless such facilities are located in an appropriate climate and prior approval for such outdoor housing is obtained...

2012-01-01

310

9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS ...facilities unless such facilities are located in an appropriate climate and prior approval for such outdoor housing is obtained...

2014-01-01

311

9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS ...facilities unless such facilities are located in an appropriate climate and prior approval for such outdoor housing is obtained...

2013-01-01

312

Outdoor performance of fluid dielectric CPV modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of several experimental tests performed to analyze the potential of CPV modules based on a single reflective stage and a fluid dielectric are summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is put on analyzing outdoor performance. The improved thermal design maintains the temperature difference between the solar cell and the ambient below 37°C during outdoor operation. In addition, the system performance under different spectra is analyzed experimentally determining the limiting subcell within the multijunction solar cell under variable spectral conditions.

Victoria, M.; Askins, S.; Domínguez, C.; Antón, I.; Sala, G.

2012-10-01

313

Outdoor tobacco advertising in six Boston neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in its 1996 regulations to restrict certain forms of cigarette advertising likely to appeal to adolescents, prohibited outdoor tobacco advertising within 1,000 feet of schools and playgrounds. No published studies have determined the density of outdoor tobacco advertising within the FDA’s prescribed 1,000-foot buffer zone around schools.Objective: To determine the prevalence, type, and

Linda G Pucci; Herbert M Joseph; Michael Siegel

1998-01-01

314

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Where are we right

Löwe, Benedikt

315

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 6 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 6 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 6 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reminder: Controlled

Löwe, Benedikt

316

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 12 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 12 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 12 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Plan for today. #12

Löwe, Benedikt

317

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 5 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 5 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 5 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reminder: Controlled

Löwe, Benedikt

318

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 10 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 10 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 10 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe A reminder from

Löwe, Benedikt

319

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 3 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 3 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 3 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Binary connectives

Löwe, Benedikt

320

Programs for Children with Specific Learning Disabilities. P.L. 91-230, Title VI-G Formal Final Evaluation. (Statistical Analysis of Data).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports the final evaluation of a program for approximately 143 learning disabled (LD) students (grades 6-to-12) from six school districts. A number of test instruments were used to evaluate student progress during the program, including the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, and the…

Murphy, Philip J.

321

Blended Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

2013-01-01

322

If formal CME is ineffective, why do physicians still participate?  

PubMed

Formal or traditional CME can be criticized because organizers often ignore adult learning principles when designing courses. Critics also suggest that formal CME courses have limited impact on attendees' behaviors and practices. The authors agree that attention must be paid to pedagogic principles to assure success of educational courses, but feel that the extant negative evidence related to the impact of formal CME is narrow in scope and of inadequate strength to seriously damn formal approaches. Survey responses were received from 853 practicing physicians who say they still regularly attend formal CME courses. They are motivated to attend to satisfy specific professional needs and for personal reasons. Formal CME is still popular despite what its critics say. The authors are convinced that attention to physicians' perceived needs, effective use of social marketing strategies, and adherence to adult learning principles can assure successful delivery of CME and that formal CME is a useful complement to physician-driven informal CME. PMID:15203529

McLeod, P J; McLeod, A H

2004-03-01

323

An ethnography of the outdoor classroom – how teachers manage risk in the outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the approaches to risk that some teachers adopt when they are involved in facilitating outdoor activities. The research was carried out at a residential outdoor centre as part of a PhD study and a follow-up pilot project. The participants were primary school pupils, their teachers and the centre staff. For the purpose of this article, the term

Ina Stan; Barbara Humberstone

2011-01-01

324

An Ethnography of the Outdoor Classroom--How Teachers Manage Risk in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the approaches to risk that some teachers adopt when they are involved in facilitating outdoor activities. The research was carried out at a residential outdoor centre as part of a PhD study and a follow-up pilot project. The participants were primary school pupils, their teachers and the centre staff. For the purpose of this…

Stan, Ina; Humberstone, Barbara

2011-01-01

325

LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS,LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS, AND SPECTATOR SAFETYAND SPECTATOR SAFETY  

E-print Network

LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS,LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS, AND SPECTATOR SAFETYAND SPECTATOR SAFETYWednesday, January 21stst , 2004, 2004 #12;LIGHTNING STORIES...LIGHTNING STORIES... #12;LIGHTNING STORIES...LIGHTNINGVirginia Tech What happened?What happened? Lightning struck the ground, 6/10Lightning struck the ground, 6

Colorado at Boulder, University of

326

Adventure in Environment, Outdoor Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this handbook are questions and ideas for students to consider while studying their environment out-of-doors. Developed to accompany the National Environmental Education Development (NEED) program, it was written to help the student learn to look at familiar places and things in new ways. It utilizes the concept of "strand" approach…

National Park Foundation, Washington, DC.

327

Learning at Not-School: A Review of Study, Theory, and Advocacy for Education in Non-Formal Settings. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools do not define education, and they are not the only institutions in which learning takes place. After-school programs, music lessons, Scouts, summer camps, on-the-job training, and home activities all offer out-of-school educational experiences. In "Learning at Not-School," Julian Sefton-Green explores studies and scholarly research on…

Sefton-Green, Julian

2013-01-01

328

Nature, Nurture, Knowledge: The Promise of Experiential Learning for Students with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that many students learn best when teaching practices are outdoors, nature-based, and experiential. Meaningful outdoor experiences increase students' social and academic achievement and contribute to the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills Experiential and nature-based instruction in the outdoors has been…

Peterson, Kara Marie

2011-01-01

329

Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors  

SciTech Connect

A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed.

Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

1980-01-01

330

Terrain sensing and estimation for dynamic outdoor mobile robots  

E-print Network

In many applications, mobile robots are required to travel on outdoor terrain at high speed. Compared to traditional low-speed, laboratory-based robots, outdoor scenarios pose increased perception and mobility challenges ...

Ward, Christopher Charles

2007-01-01

331

Outdoor Science: A Practical Guide (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research shows that environment-centered education improves student achievement. Whatever your school's setting--urban, suburban, or rural--you can create stimulating outdoor classrooms for your students, with a little help from Outdoor Science . Au

Steve Rich

2010-06-03

332

Learning \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of our human learning involves some form of face to face communication between those that learn and those that teach. The World Wide Web has become a medium of education in recent times and a number of models of learning have been used in teaching via the Web. It is argued that any models so used need to include

Des Casey

1998-01-01

333

Contextualised Media for Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyse how contextualised media can be used to support learning. Additionally, the advantages of contextualised learning and the types of learning that are fit to be supported are discussed. Our focus throughout the paper will be on lifelong learning, and the integration of formal and informal learning therein. However, we think, to this date, most of

Tim De Jong; Marcus Specht; Rob Koper

2008-01-01

334

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 2 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe What for Forensic Science Lecture 2 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe What is logic anyway? The Wason task Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics Assessment and grade (1). #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 2 Prof

Löwe, Benedikt

335

Formal Languages and Computability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 360. Formal Languages and Computability I (3) Prerequisite: CSC 242 and CSC 332. An introduction to theoretical computer science. Topics include regular expression and finite state concepts; basic automata theory; formal grammars and languages; computability; Turing machines; elementary recursive function theory.

Dr Gur Adhar

336

Formal Requirements Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid problems in software development, requirements must be elicited and documented properly. The formal methods approach to requirements specification provides precision, helps to refine requirements, and strives to ensure their correctness by providing a mathematical basis. Overall, formal specifications can be very beneficial for the entire development process due to the mathematical rigor that can help in avoiding errors,

Jonathan P. Bowen; Mike Hinchey; Emil Vassev

2010-01-01

337

Software Formal Inspections Guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

1993-01-01

338

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

). Aristotle #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe A quick overview). Aristotle Logica vetus. Aristotle, Categories. Aristotle, De Interpretatione. Porphyry, Isagoge. Liber sex" perspective Course formalities Origins of Logic (1). Aristotle Logica vetus. Aristotle, Categories. Aristotle

Löwe, Benedikt

339

America's Outdoor Recreation Areas--Playgrounds for the Affluent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to assess the societal benefits of outdoor recreation and to determine the relationship of social stratification to utilization of outdoor recreation facilities. Conclusions are that many of America's outdoor recreation sites are located at considerable distances from population concentrations and require substantial…

Hunt, John D.

340

Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: understanding the human parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research being undertaken seeks to achieve a better understanding of the richness of microclimatic characteristics in outdoor urban spaces, and the comfort implications for the people using them. The underlying hypothesis is that these conditions influence people’s behaviour and usage of outdoor spaces. The initial results demonstrate that a purely physiological approach is inadequate in characterising comfort conditions outdoors,

Marialena Nikolopoulou; Nick Baker; Koen Steemers

2001-01-01

341

The Therapeutic Modification of Fear through Outdoor Recreation Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses recent findings in fear research to develop a paradigm for using and reducing levels of fear through outdoor adventure recreation. Includes tables showing components of fear in outdoor adventure activities, factor analysis of fears in outdoor environment, means of fear items, and fear modification techniques. (NEC)

Ewert, Alan

1986-01-01

342

Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

Borland, James

2011-01-01

343

Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

2011-01-01

344

Physical Education & Outdoor Education: complementary but discrete disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical Education. This in turn has mandated that OE teachers

Peter Martin; John McCullagh

2011-01-01

345

The Research, Evaluation and Measurement Dragons in Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model for research and evaluation in outdoor education is presented in this paper which includes a bibliography of representative research in outdoor, experiential education. The model stresses close interaction between program designers and evaluators and rests on the premise that the strength of outdoor education--interaction between people,…

Staley, Frederick A.

346

Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

Hanna, Glenda

347

Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared specifically for use in one-week outdoor summer camp programs for migrant children aged 10-15, the twenty bilingual (Spanish and English) educational and recreational activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps package have been revised to develop language skills as well as an awareness of the outdoor

California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

348

Outdoor See-Through Vision Utilizing Surveillance Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new outdoor mixed-reality sys- tem designed for people who carry a camera-attached small handy device in an outdoor scene where a num- ber of surveillance cameras are embedded. We propose a new functionality in outdoor mixed reality that the handy device can display live status of invisible areas hidden by some structures such as buildings, walls,

Yoshinari Kameda; Taisuke Takemasa; Yuichi Ohta

2004-01-01

349

First Person Indoor/Outdoor Augmented Reality Application: ARQuake  

E-print Network

First Person Indoor/Outdoor Augmented Reality Application: ARQuake Bruce Thomas, Ben Close, John: This paper presents a first person outdoor/indoor augmented reality application ARQuake that we have to convert a desktop first person application into an outdoor/indoor mobile augmented reality application. We

Thomas, Bruce

350

VISUAL NAVIGATION OUTDOORS: THE ARGOS PROJECT  

E-print Network

VISUAL NAVIGATION OUTDOORS: THE ARGOS PROJECT ENRIC CELAYA and CARME TORRAS Institut de Rob`otica i in the project ARGOS. This paper describes the goals of the project, the guidelines we follow to face each aspect. The goal of the ARGOS project 1 is to develop a system that, after placing the robot in an unstructured

Torras, Carme

351

Standards and Practices in Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide provides a series of checklists and guidelines to assist Quebec outdoor education teachers and/or leaders and their principals in planning safe, enjoyable, educational experiences for elementary and secondary school students. The basic planning checklist itemizes specific tasks under eight categories: (1) preliminary discussion with…

Robertson, Stuart, Ed.

352

Beyond Networking: Connecting University Outdoor Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, the authors started a discussion about St. Cloud State University Outdoor Endeavors working together to run a trip in the Everglades National Park. The following summer they began the planning process through phone conversations, email and division of tasks. Despite the physical distance and separate university systems, each with their…

Bartha, Ivan; Morgan, Brett

2008-01-01

353

by STEPHEN POLLOCK THE outdoor tennis court  

E-print Network

by STEPHEN POLLOCK THE outdoor tennis court at Perth Arena is slated to remain unused for 51 weeks recreation needs, I call on the Barnett government to open this tennis court for locals and to also population John Hyde wants locals to be able to use the tennis court at Perth Arena, but the managers say no

354

Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

355

A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 700 areas in Ohio, useful as sites for environmental and outdoor studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include national forests; state parks; forest and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; metropolitan, country, and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties; conservancy district lands and…

Melvin, Ruth W.

356

Risk Management in the Outdoor HPER Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses risk management in the outdoor physical education or recreation setting from the perspectives of traditional approaches to the problem, the assumption of risk concept, and the characteristics and attitudes of the participants. Guidelines for evaluating a risk management plan are included. (IAH)

Ewert, Alan

1989-01-01

357

Get Moving! Active Play Indoors and Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the importance of active play. Parts A and B of this experience provide learners with a variety of active play options for indoors and outdoors that promote physical fitness. This activity is featured on pp. 20-21 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

2014-04-30

358

Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…

Cinnamon, Jerry

359

Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

2009-01-01

360

Outdoor Path Labeling Using Polynomial Mahalanobis Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous robot navigation in outdoor environ- ments remains a challenging and unsolved problem. A key issue is our ability to identify safe or navigable paths far enough ahead of the robot to allow smooth trajectories at acceptable speeds. Colour or texture-based labeling of safe path regions in image sequences is one way to achieve this far field prediction. A challenge

Gregory Z. Grudic; Jane Mulligan

2006-01-01

361

Mechanistic Modeling of Broth Temperature in Outdoor  

E-print Network

Mechanistic Modeling of Broth Temperature in Outdoor Photobioreactors Q U E N T I N B ´E C H E presents the first mechanistic model describing broth temperature in column photobioreactors as a function agitated column photobioreactor (1 m2 illuminated area, 0.19 m internal diameter, 50 L gas-free cultivation

Fringer, Oliver B.

362

Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

Collins, Di

363

Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

364

Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Officially founded in 1972 (but existing in another form before that), the Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association (SOEEA) is steadily approaching its 40th birthday and still going strong. A year ago (2006), however, this was not the case. At that time both the past-president and administrative assistant (a married couple)…

White, Peta

2007-01-01

365

Outdoor Recreation. Curriculum Materials for Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for agricultural education contains nine chapters on outdoor recreation. Each is written by a different author (professors at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and follows a similar format: Objectives, list of references, list of teaching materials, notes on teacher preparation, content for presentation,…

McElwee, Robert; And Others

366

Colorado Outdoor Education Center Teacher's Field Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Colorado Outdoor Education Center aims to educate the total person by offering programs which help each individual to gain a sense of the earth, of community, and of self. At High Trails the students are brought into direct contact with nature, utilizing small groups and emphasizing direct experiences. The integrated, multi-disciplinary…

Colorado Outdoor Education Center, Inc., Florissant.

367

An International Survey of Outdoor Leadership Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways in which outdoor leadership preparation differs in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada based on questionnaire responses of 169 selected experts. Examines skills (technical activity, organizational, environmental, instructional, group management, problem solving) and attributes (motivational,…

Priest, Simon

1987-01-01

368

Syracuse University Leadership Outdoor Orientation Program  

E-print Network

Syracuse University Leadership Outdoor Orientation Program 08/17 ­ 20/2014 We will begin the L, it's rolling down the river with a great bunch of people. We continue our adventure by staying first semester at Syracuse University, knowing that you are now, so to speak, in the LOOP! Register

Raina, Ramesh

369

78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...reconnect with the outdoors. To lead the way, First Lady Michelle Obama's Let's Move Outside! initiative encourages families to...renew them in the years to come. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of...

2013-06-06

370

Emotional Safety in Outdoor and Experiential Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces the concept of emotional safety in outdoor programming. Information and protocols developed by the Canadian Outward Bound Wilderness School are included that outline procedures that staff follow in the event of an "assault" on any student, volunteer, or staff. For clarification, definitions are given for emotional, physical,…

Talbot, Wendy

371

Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad audience in a safe, efficient and controlled environment. This development is labeled as “The

L. R. Salome

2012-01-01

372

Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

373

Bridging the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal learning skills are enhanced throughout our daily lives through the public media, (television, newspapers, radio); while hiking our favorite park; or by visiting a museum or science center. Over the past few years the informal science community has started to bridge the gap with the formal education community. Although few informal education organizations have established set curriculum guidelines, many

C. Hamel

2001-01-01

374

Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants  

E-print Network

for regular turfgrass and buffalo grass (developed by UC Davis as a water efficient alternative to turfgrassOutdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use, the front lawn is one of the greatest consumers of outdoor water use. Because of population growth, water

Pasternack, Gregory B.

375

A field study of thermal comfort in outdoor and semi-outdoor environments in subtropical Sydney Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of empirical outdoor thermal comfort studies it has been widely assumed that indoor thermal comfort theory generalises to outdoor settings without modification. Many indoor models were developed to describe thermal discomfort, not stress, therefore their relevance to conditions that vary greatly from neutrality, as many outdoor climatic conditions do, has not been critically validated in the field

Jennifer Spagnolo; Richard de Dear

2003-01-01

376

Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

2014-01-01

377

The effects of analogy-based instruction on concept learning and retention in a non-formal coral reef ecology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a number of instructional models focus on the use of analogies, research into their effectiveness in enhancing comprehension and retention of scientific concepts, particularly involving adult learners, has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using the common teaching strategy for comparing the function of a coral reef to that of a city by using an analogy-based instructional model termed FAR. The training program entitled "Marine Resource Management for Dive Professionals" (MRMDP) was developed for this study. It was targeted to professionals in the recreational scuba industry to improve their understanding of coal reef ecology, as well as orient them to pertinent marine resource management issues, and promote environmentally-responsible attitudes and diving practices among their clients. A quasi-experimental pre-post-delayed posttest control group design was used to explore five research questions and corresponding hypotheses. A 55-item researcher-developed test of coral reef ecology was administered pre and post instruction. The delayed posttest was self-administered by the subjects three weeks after course completion. Data on seven experiential variables hypothesized as research factors were collected. Ten MRMPD courses were taught in seven nations, involving 194 subjects (85 subjects in four control courses, 109 in six treatment course). The results were analyzed using multiple regression/correlation (MRC) techniques to determine: (1) any significant relationship between pretest performance and experiential variables, (2) treatment versus control group posttest performance, and (3) treatment versus control group delayed posttest performance. Within the treatment group, learning gains and retention were determined by t-test analysis. Results indicated: (1) all research factors except one were significant predictors of pretest scores in the presence of the covariate; (2) no significant difference was found between control and treatment groups' pretest scores; (3) a significant interaction effect from a MANCOVA analysis, and resulting aptitude-treatment interaction analysis, showed group membership had a differential effect on the posttest relative to pretest scores; (4) the contribution of group membership to delayed posttest performance was significant; and (5) the treatment out-performed the control group on the posttest and delayed posttest. T-test analyses of treatment group performance showed a significant positive gain and retention.

Brylske, Alexander Frederick

378

The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

Duvekot, Ruud

2009-01-01

379

Formalizing Hypotheses with Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The frequently used strategy of forming hypotheses, based on observations, to generate predictions can be formalized in several\\u000a ways. We study an elaborated approach that has some conceptual flavour and translate the basic ideas in the language of Formal\\u000a Concept Analysis, blazing the trail for applications to other conceptual structures as well. We investigate the relation to\\u000a pseudo intents, discuss

Bernhard Ganter; Sergei O. Kuznetsov

2000-01-01

380

A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a mobile learning system for scaffolding students learning about bird-watching. The aim is to construct an outdoor mobile-learning activity using up-to-date wireless technology. The proposed Bird-Watching Learning (BWL) system is designed using a wireless mobile ad-hoc network. In the BWL system, each learner has a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) with a Wi-Fi-based (IEEE 802.11b) wireless network card.

Yuh-shyan Chen; Tai-chien Kao; Jay-ping Sheu

2003-01-01

381

Medical services for outdoor rock music festivals.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the medical services provided at an outdoor rock music festival near Toronto and reviews similar services at other outdoor concerts as reported in the literature. Between 0.5% and 1.5% of concertgoers were reported to have used medical services, proportions that may be useful in planning for future festivals. Most of the medical problems encountered were minor, although life-threatening problems occasionally occurred. Alcohol and drug abuse were common but led to major medical problems in only small proportions of patients. Guidelines for planning are suggested that include recommendations about facilities, supplies and equipment, transportation and communications, staffing and procedures. The need for liaison with the concert promoters, the police, ambulance officials and local hospital personnel is noted, and the use of the nonmedical ancillary staff is encouraged. PMID:7074491

Chapman, K. R.; Carmichael, F. J.; Goode, J. E.

1982-01-01

382

Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.  

PubMed

Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

Huang, Yuh-Chin T

2014-10-01

383

Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

2011-07-01

384

Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

Wood, Diane, Comp.

385

Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This presentation documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

Muller, M.

2011-04-01

386

Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics  

E-print Network

The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the system was built and analyzed. This was followed by building a mock-up of the system and conducting experiments to validate the CFD model. It was found that some of the simplest cooling techniques like white oil paint on the outer surface can significantly reduce the impact of solar loads. Adding internal circulation fans can also be very effective. Using air-to-air heat exchangers was found to be the most effective solution although it is more complex and costly.

Mahendra Wankhede; V. Khaire; A. Goswami; S. D. Mahajan

2008-01-07

387

Research on outdoor testing of solar modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of globe solar photovoltaic industry, performance testing and evaluation of solar modules have been largely concerned, while the primary basis of evaluations is the electrical performance of modules, namely the voltage - current characteristic curve. Nearly module's conversion efficiency which defined as its maximum electrical power (Pmax) divided by the total incident photon power (Pin) became more and more valued, because higher efficiency means lower cost. Generally, electrical performance parameters of the modules need to test under standard test conditions (STC), but STC can only be simulated in laboratory-controlled environment while solar modules actually work under natural sunlight outdoors, To solve this problem we propose researches on outdoor testing of solar modules to investigate the electrical performance parameters of solar modules in a variety of environmental conditions. Also, according to the results, we will analysis the impact of various environmental factors on the performance of solar modules, including radiation spectrum, Incident angle, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. In addition, we can analyze the difference between the performance parameters result of outdoor and indoor test and its main reason.

Liu, Dingpu; Xiong, Limin; Meng, Haifeng; He, Yingwei; Zhang, Jieyu

2012-10-01

388

Informal and Formal Computer Training in a Corporate Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiences with computer education at the Bank of America suggest that, when educating nontechnical people to use computers, formal learning environments are not as effective as informal learning environments. It has become increasingly necessary to use informal training to educate the approximately 4,000 people who need the training because of…

Shapiro, Karen Rosenkrantz

389

Formal and Integrated Strategies for Competence Development in SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the relationships among the workplace as a learning environment, strategies for competence development used by SMEs and learning outcomes. Specifically, there is a focus on a distinction between formal and integrated strategies for competence development, the conditions under which…

Kock, Henrik; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

2011-01-01

390

Supporting Professional Learning in a Massive Open Online Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional learning, combining formal and on the job learning, is important for the development and maintenance of expertise in the modern workplace. To integrate formal and informal learning, professionals have to have good self-regulatory ability. Formal learning opportunities are opening up through massive open online courses (MOOCs),…

Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison

2014-01-01

391

Learning for Life Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

Varmecky, Jane Hyde

2012-01-01

392

Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

393

Teaching and Learning outside the Classroom: Personal Values, Alternative Pedagogies and Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports on a recent survey of 334 settings in a county in the South West of England and five case studies exploring current practice and aspirations for learning outdoors for children between the ages of 2 to 11. Practitioners' aspirations for outdoor learning appear to go beyond providing fresh air and "letting off steam" and include…

Waite, Sue

2011-01-01

394

Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

1993-01-01

395

Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Out-of-school time programs that provide science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational content are promising approaches to develop skills and abilities in students. These programs may potentially inspire students with engaging hands-on, minds-on activities that encourages their natural curiosity around STEM content areas.…

Barker, Bradley S.; Larson, Kim; Krehbiel, Michelle

2014-01-01

396

Use of national parks for outdoor environmental education: An Australian case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for environmental education through outdoor education experiences is becoming increasingly evident in outdoor education theory and practice. In Australia, this environmental focus is reflected in recent outdoor education curriculum documents, particularly in the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE). For many outdoor education teachers who do not have expertise in environmental education, this curriculum development presents a challenge. Outdoor

Alison Lugg; Deirdre Slattery

2003-01-01

397

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

2011-07-01

398

Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

2007-01-01

399

Formal Synthesis of (±)-Roseophilin  

PubMed Central

A formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5’-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge formation via ?-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21. PMID:19053717

Bitar, Abdallah Y.; Frontier, Alison J.

2009-01-01

400

Correlates of Formal Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…

Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven

401

Formalizing architectural connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As software systems become more complex the overall system structure – or software architecture – becomes a central design problem. An important step towards an engineering discipline of sofware is a formal basis for describing and analyzing these designs. In this paper we present a theory for one aspect of architectural description: the interactions between components. The key idea is

Robert B. Allen; David Garlan

1994-01-01

402

Integrated formal operations plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of formal operations (that is, a collection of business practices to assure effective, accountable operations) has vexed the Laboratory for many years. To date most attempts at developing such programs have been based upon rigid, compliance-based interpretations of a veritable mountain of Department of Energy (DOE) orders, directives, notices, and standards. These DOE dictates seldom take the broad

G. Cort; W. Dearholt; S. Donahue; J. Frank; B. Perkins; R. Tyler; J. Wrye

1994-01-01

403

Learning Mathematics in the Mobile Phone Environment: Students' Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers point at the importance of emotions and its study in mathematics education. This research examines middle school students' emotions during learning mathematics outdoors using the mobile phone. The constant comparison method was used to analyze 30 middle school students' emotions while carrying out 15 outdoor activities using the mobile…

Daher, Wajeeh

2011-01-01

404

Peer Learning in Higher Education: Learning from & with Each Other.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection explore how educators can formalize the use of peer learning to encourage more effective learning in higher education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: Making the Move to Peer Learning" (David Boud); (2) "Designing Peer Learning" (Jane Sampson and Ruth Cohen); (3) "Strategies for Peer Learning: Some Examples"…

Boud, David, Ed.; Cohen, Ruth, Ed.; Sampson, Jane, Ed.

405

Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor #1 and by 96 percent for instructor #2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors. PMID:2029046

Tripathi, R K; Sherertz, P C; Llewellyn, G C; Armstrong, C W

1991-01-01

406

Developing an App-Titude for Learning in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a quarter of British households now own at least one tablet device, an increase of 63% in the 12 months from February 2013 (Internet Advertising Bureau UK, 2014). This trend has expanded into the classroom, with more schools either providing their pupils with an individual tablet device or encouraging parents to purchase them outright or via…

Baker, Emily

2014-01-01

407

24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section... Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor...designed to energize heating and/or air conditioning equipment located outside the...

2010-04-01

408

Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

2001-01-01

409

The Development of the Outdoor Leadership Training Simulator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A leadership simulation model, patterned after the avalanche simulator used by the United States Forest Service and applicable within a variety of field situations (outdoor camps, church groups, commercial enterprises) can augment the development and observation of outdoor leaders. The model includes both a broad base of practitioner inputs and an…

Ewert, Alan; Hollenhorst, Steven

410

Hierarchical Lighting Simulation for Outdoor Scenes Katja Daubert, Hartmut Schirmacher  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Lighting Simulation for Outdoor Scenes Katja Daubert, Hartmut Schirmacher Fran algorithms for outdoor scenes suffer from the sheer geometric and lighting complexity of such environments¸cois X. Sillion, George Drettakis ¡ ¢ MAGIS £¤£¥£ Laboratoire GRAVIR/IMAG-INRIA Abstract: Lighting

Boyer, Edmond

411

Different aspects of assessing indoor and outdoor thermal comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

As people spend most of their time indoors, steady state models may be appropriate for thermal comfort assessments there, while, for the relatively short times spent outdoors (mostly less than 1h), those models tend to overestimate discomfort. This discrepancy is larger for cool outdoor conditions than for warm ones. For example, for a person leaving a room in thermal comfort

Peter Höppe

2002-01-01

412

City to Country. Outdoor Education for New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for outdoor education for city children and the availability of facilities for it in the New York metropolitan area are explored in this feasibility study. The most significant finding is the existence of vast outdoor education resources waiting for school administrators to tap them. The information is presented in two parts--(1)…

Ezersky, Eugene M.

413

An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

2013-01-01

414

Brock BaseCamp--Outdoor Orientation Programs Come to Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What exactly is an "outdoor orientation program?" First offered in the United States in the 1930s by Dartmouth College, outdoor orientation programs (OOPs) use adventure programming to help incoming students adjust to university or college. Typically, these programs are conducted in a wilderness or backcountry setting, are several days long and…

O'Connell, Tim

2011-01-01

415

Fear in Outdoor Education: The Influence of Gender and Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify and measure the situational fears and anxieties held by participants before, during, and after participation in an outdoor program. Subjects in the study were college students with recreation and physical education majors, who were completing separate, but similar Outdoor Education Practicum (OEP) courses…

Young, Anderson B.; Ewert, Alan

416

Managing Fear in the Outdoor Experiential Education Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines components of fear in outdoor adventure activities. Reports ratings by 311 Outward Bound students of 23 common fears in the outdoors. Discusses techniques of fear reduction therapy: systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling of coping methods by instructors, and rehearsal of adaptive behaviors. Contains 16 references. (SV)

Ewert, Alan

1989-01-01

417

Health Benefits of Outdoor Recreation: Implications for Health Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…

Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan

1990-01-01

418

THE GEOMET INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the formulation of the GEOMET Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution (GIOAP) model. The model estimates indoor air pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor pollutant levels, indoor pollutant generation sources rates, pollutant chemical decay rates, and air ex...

419

Raleigh County Schools, Outdoor Education: Conference & Service Complex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposed Outdoor Education Conference and Service Complex in Raleigh County, West Virginia, that will offer opportunities for an outdoor education program closely correlated with classroom activities is discussed in this document. The site is described, and suggested units for study during the resident program for 6th-grade pupils are presented…

Raleigh County Schools, Beckley, WV.

420

Safety Management at the National Outdoor Leadership School, July 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) is an internationally recognized outdoor school with five branch schools located in Wyoming, Alaska, Kenya, Mexico, and Washington. The philosophy of NOLS is to develop judgment and leadership skills in its students. Three priorities guide this school: (1) safety and care of the individual; (2) safety…

National Outdoor Leadership School, Lander, WY.

421

Methodology in Outdoor Research: Approaches from an Alternative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Powerful, dominant discourses surrounding neo-Hahnian theory (as discussed by Brookes in 2003) and effectiveness (as discussed by Hargreaves and Fullan in 1998, for example) have influenced both practice and research in outdoor adventure education. This has led to a concentration of research that focuses on the impact of outdoor programmes. It has…

Rea, Tony

2008-01-01

422

Outdoor exploration and SLAM using a compressed filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the use of automatic explo- ration for autonomous mapping of outdoor scenes. We describe a real-time SLAM implementation along with an autonomous explo- ration algorithm. We have implemented SLAM with a compressed extended Kalman filter (CEKF) on an outdoor robot. Our implemen- tation uses walls of buildings as features. The state predictions are made by

John Folkesson; Henrik I. Christensen

2003-01-01

423

Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

Richards, Kaye

1999-01-01

424

Analysis of the GPS acquisition environment: indoors and outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of the LBS services (location based services) creates the need for indoor and outdoor positioning. Indoor environments refer to environments inside buildings, and outdoor environments refer to urban environments (streets). Indoor localization poses a true challenge for classical positioning systems. Indeed, radio propagation in indoor environments is affected by several factors particularly multipath, shadowing, cross-correlations, receiver mobility, interference.

H. E. N. Al Bitar; A. C. Escher; C. Macabiau; M.-L. Boucheret

2006-01-01

425

Last Updated: 3/9/2011 OUTDOOR SOCCER  

E-print Network

midfield. SECTION 3. EQUIPMENT I. Equipment Provided A. A regulation outdoor soccer ball will be provided for play. B. Players may use their own outdoor balls if both captains agree prior to play. II. Illegal to a composition bottom. iii. Shoes with rubber cleats are acceptable; no metal screw-in cleats are permitted. B

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

426

Jumping Deadfall: Overcoming Barriers To Implementing Outdoor and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers wishing to teach experientially and to include environmental outdoor education in their classes must have the knowledge and skills to overcome barriers that may impede their way to this goal. Common barriers include senior administrative support, teachers' comfort and competence levels, scheduling outdoor explorations, terrain and sites,…

Hanna, Glenda

1996-01-01

427

Wondering Outdoors. Adventures and Experiences in Earth's Oldest Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An aid for planning outdoor education for elementary and high school students in the Freeport Public Schools, Freeport, Illinois, this guide is designed to help teachers expand the existing curriculum by integrating outdoor activities in all areas of study. Activities for grades K-6 are organized by location (school ground, neighborhood,…

Lathrop, David M.; And Others

428

Appropriate Benefits for Outdoor Programs Targeting Juvenile Male Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A benefits-based management approach will enable outdoor adventure therapy programs for male adolescent offenders to be built around desired outcomes such as building connections to community, enhancing self-esteem, and establishing intergenerational relationships. Outdoor programs must maintain informal environments, involve participants in…

Bruyere, Brett L.

2002-01-01

429

Play and the Outdoors: What's New under the Sun?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood today is very different from what it was for previous generations, and a sizable part of the difference has something to do with the changing amount of outdoor play time. Early childhood educators are in a powerful and unique position to make sure that children's exposure to the outdoors and its ever-changing wonders is woven into the…

Oliver, Susan J.; Klugman, Edgar

2005-01-01

430

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

431

Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution Relationship: A Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While extensive measurements have been and are being made of outdoor pollution, relatively few data have been gathered on indoor pollution. The data that are available are compiled and analyzed in the report. Based on a review of the literature, it was possible to infer relationships between indoor and outdoor pollution and to identify factors…

Benson, Ferris B.; And Others

432

Outdoor Recreation Participation and Environmental Concern: A Research Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many experiential educators assume that participation in outdoor recreation creates an awareness and commitment to the environment through direct experience. This research summary looks to whether the research supports such an assumption. Specifically it reviews the key literature on this topic, examines the various classifications of outdoor

Berns, Gretchen Newhouse; Simpson, Steven

2009-01-01

433

Rice University Rice Outdoor Programs and Education (ROPE) Internship  

E-print Network

Rice University Rice Outdoor Programs and Education (ROPE) Internship Fall and Spring Semester 2012-2013 Position: Internship - Paid Location: Rice University, Houston, Texas Start Date: August 13th, 2012 End-lead students on outdoor adventure trips, aid in the teaching of a college course, and assist with supervision

434

Indoor and outdoor measurements of performance of photovoltaic arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the techniques and methodology for making outdoor I-V measurements of solar cells is given. Temperature and irradiance measurement, experimental arrangement, data acquisition system and I-V data transformations are discussed. Data are presented comparing outdoor measurements to indoor measurements using a pulsed solar simulator.

Curtis, H. B.

1976-01-01

435

Out, out, and Away! Collection Development: Outdoor Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is fast approaching, and it will soon be time to climb the mountains to get their good tidings, as naturalist John Muir put it. In other words, librarians must now prepare for the influx of patrons making weekend recreational and summer vacation plans by stocking up on books and other resources on the great outdoors. Outdoor recreational…

Helling, John

2009-01-01

436

NIST Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline  

E-print Network

NIST Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor Carbon Monoxide and Technology (NIST) conducted a study for CDC to examine the impact of distance of gasoline-powered portable

437

Using the Outdoors to Enrich the Teaching of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers in elementary and middle schools and for personnel at outdoor education centers, this publication is the second in an ERIC/CRESS series on utilizing outdoor education methodologies to enhance the academic curriculum. The resource guide suggests ways of getting students interested in arithmetic and mathematics and how to make…

Payne, Milton R.

438

ANIMATION OF CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES IN OUTDOOR AUGMENTED REALITY  

E-print Network

ANIMATION OF CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES IN OUTDOOR AUGMENTED REALITY Amir H. Behzadan 1 , Vineet R are animated with the passage of simulated project time in outdoor AR. KEY WORDS Augmented Reality, GPS, Position, Orientation, Transformation, Simulation, 4D CAD. INTRODUCTION Augmented Reality (AR

Kamat, Vineet R.

439

Building a Backcountry Yurt: Ecological Design Intelligence within Outdoor Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student volunteers at Utah State University's outdoor program designed, built, and carried a yurt 4 miles into the backcountry. A yurt is a traditional Mongolian structure, circular, with a lattice wall covered by material. Rafters slope upward to a top ring, on which sits a skylight. The outdoor program wanted to expand its offerings, and to do…

Kobe, Kevin; Goltra, Norman

440

Formalizing the concept of sound.  

SciTech Connect

The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-08-03

441

Relationship between parents’ beliefs and their responses to children’s risk-taking behaviour during outdoor play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning how to respond appropriately in risk situations comes not only from the child’s direct experiences but also through the guidance of those around them. The role of parent practices in guiding children’s decision-making in risky situations has mainly been investigated in experimental contexts. The present study examined children’s risk-taking behaviour and parent responses in everyday outdoor play settings. Parents’

Helen Little

2010-01-01

442

An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Outdoor "Places" and Intentions for Teaching in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores pre-service teachers' past interactions with "place" in outdoor settings and how these experiences contribute to their current perceptions of the importance of taking their own students into the outdoors. Specifically, the researchers were interested in investigating if current pre-service teachers are part of…

Blatt, Erica; Patrick, Patricia

2014-01-01

443

A critique of neo-Hahnian outdoor education theory. Part two: “The fundamental attribution error” in contemporary outdoor education discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first of a two part series of articles I argued that “character building” in outdoor adventure education (OAE) is a flawed concept. This, the second article, examines the persistence of the idea of character building in OAE in the face of strong evidence that outdoor experiences cannot change personal traits. I examine how the “fundamental attribution error” can

Andrew Brookes

2003-01-01

444

A Critique of Neo-Hahnian Outdoor Education Theory. Part Two: "The Fundamental Attribution Error" in Contemporary Outdoor Education Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first of a two part series of articles I argued that "character building" in outdoor adventure education (OAE) is a flawed concept. This, the second article, examines the persistence of the idea of character building in OAE in the face of strong evidence that outdoor experiences cannot change personal traits. I examine how the "fundamental…

Brookes, Andrew

2003-01-01

445

Syracuse University Outdoor Education in collaboration with Northern Arizona University Outdoors presents: San Juan River/Hiking Trip  

E-print Network

Syracuse University Outdoor Education in collaboration with Northern Arizona University Outdoors presents: San Juan River/Hiking Trip Trip Dates: May 27th ­ June 2nd This River Adventure begins at Sand Island, UT and traverses 27 miles of the famous San Juan River. During this adventure you'll run playful

Mather, Patrick T.

446

Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

1996-01-01

447

The Growth of Outdoor Teacher Education: Forty Years after the Vision. Lorado Taft Field Campus, 40th Anniversary, 1951-1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1949 the newly-inaugurated president of Northern Illinois University (NIU), Dr. Leslie Holmes, announced his intention to establish a program in outdoor teacher education. The program would provide opportunities for teaching and experiential learning in a naturalistic setting. Two years later, NIU acquired a 66-acre camp near Oregon, Illinois,…

Knapp, Clifford E., Ed.

448

A macromodel for outdoor algal mass production.  

PubMed

A model describing growth of an outdoor algal (Spirulina platensis)culture was developed. The model can simulate biomass production, pH, growth rate, oxygen evolution, and CO(2) fixation rate. It was calibrated and validated against experimental data obtained by a novel automatic data logger/controller instrumentation which can number most vital parameters of the culture including on line estimation of oxygen production rate (OPR). The importance of understanding light distribution through the pond and its effects on the photosynthesis and respiration processes are emphasized. A maximum yield of about 38 g day(-1) m(-2) under optimal conditions is predicted. The present model can also be a useful tool for optimization of algal mass production sites. PMID:18592582

Guterman, H; Vonshak, A; Ben-Yaakov, S

1990-04-01

449

Sensor selection for outdoor air quality monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas chemical monitoring for next-generation robotics applications such as fire fighting, explosive gas detection, ubiquitous urban monitoring, and mine safety require high performance, reliable sensors. In this work, we discuss the performance requirements of fixed-location, mobile vehicle, and personal sensor nodes for outdoor air quality sensing. We characterize and compare the performance of a miniature commercial electrochemical and a metal oxide gas sensor and discuss their suitability for environmental monitoring applications. Metal oxide sensors are highly cross-sensitive to factors that affect chemical adsorption (e.g., air speed, pressure) and require careful enclosure design or compensation methods. In contrast, electrochemical sensors are less susceptible to environmental variations, have very low power consumption, and are well matched for mobile air quality monitoring.

Dorsey, K. L.; Herr, John R.; Pisano, A. P.

2014-06-01

450

Outdoor propagation analysis of ultrawideband signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra wide band (UWB) signal is defined as any radiation in which the 3-dB bandwidth is greater than 25% of the center frequency. UWB signals are characterized by extreme low powers and large bandwidths, which can be used for data, voice and video communication. Since UWB waveforms have very short time duration, they are relatively immune to multi-path cancellation effects. In this paper we test the performance of a simulation to model the propagation of an UWB signal in outdoor forested environment. The simulation uses a combination of Finite Difference Time Domain and ray tracing methods to simulate the UWB wave propagation. The model takes into consideration the dielectric constants of the materials of the trees and measures the signal strength for vertical and horizontal polarizations of the UWB antennas placed at various heights and distances from each other. The results of the simulation are compared to measurements obtained from tests conducted at a wooded area in Seneca Creek State Park, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was observed that upto 150 ft distance between the transmitter and receiver, the horizontally polarized antenna system gave better signal-to-noise ratio, but at greater distances the vertically polarized antenna system gave a better signal-to-noise ration performance. Three dimensional plots of the signal strengths and the signal-to-noise ratio for various transmitter and receiver distances are plotted for the system. These are compared with experimental results and the simulation closely matched the experimental data. The results of the simulation and measurements will be used for further developing an UWB location and tracking system for outdoor environments.

Schiavone, Guy A.; Wahid, Parveen; Palaniappan, Ravi; Tracy, Judd; Van Doorn, Eric; Lonske, Benjamin

2003-08-01

451

Indoor and outdoor characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds in city centre and suburban elementary schools of Aveiro, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants inside school buildings may affect children's health and influence learning performance and attendance. This study investigated pollutant concentrations inside and outside school buildings at different locations (city centre and suburban) in Aveiro, Portugal, between April and June 2010. The aim was to evaluate simultaneously comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and CO) and indoor and outdoor concentrations of VOCs, NO2, PM10 and bioaerosols. PM10 samples were analysed and characterised, for the first time, for the water soluble inorganic ions (WSII), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbonates, and detailed organic speciation. The CO2 and bioaerosol levels were higher than the acceptable maximum values to the occupants' comfort. Concentrations of the traffic tracer NO2 were higher outdoors. The daily indoor PM10 levels were always higher than those outdoors, except on weekends, suggesting that the physical activity of pupils and class works highly contributed to the emission and resuspension of particles. Almost all identified VOCs showed I/O ratios higher than one, which denotes an important contribution from indoor sources at both schools. The suburban school was more exposed to industrial emissions than the institution located in the city centre. Especially at the city centre, infiltration of outdoor particulates leads to contamination of school indoor environment with vehicle emissions and biomass burning smoke likely coming from biofuel use in nearby restaurants and bakeries.

Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Silva, J. R.; Vieira, S. L. A.; Caseiro, A.; Pio, C. A.

2012-08-01

452

Indoor and outdoor concentrations of inorganic acidic aerosols and gases  

SciTech Connect

Annular denuder-filter pack sampling systems were used to make indoor and outdoor measurements of aerosol strong H{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and the gaseous pollutants SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, HONO and NH{sub 3} during summer and winter periods in Boston, Massachusetts. Outdoor levels of SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} exceeded their indoor concentrations during both seasons. Winter indoor/outdoor ratios were lower than during the summer, probably due to lower air exchange rates during the winter period. During both monitoring periods, indoor/outdoor ratios of aerosol strong H{sub +} were 40-50% of the indoor/outdoor SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratio. Since aerosol strong acidity is typically associated with SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, this finding is indicative of neutralization of the acidic aerosol by the higher indoor NH{sub 3} levels. Geometric mean indoor/outdoor NH{sub 3} ratios of 3.5 and 23 respectively were measured for the summer and winter sampling periods. For HONO, NH{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, indoor concentrations were significantly higher than ambient levels. Indoor levels of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were slightly less than outdoor concentrations.

Brauer, M.; Koutrakis, P.; Keeler, G.J.; Spengler, J.D. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA))

1991-02-01

453

Physiological and psychological responses to outdoor vs. laboratory cycling.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological and psychological responses to laboratory vs. outdoor cycling. Twelve recreationally trained male cyclists participated in an initial descriptive testing session and 2 experimental trials consisting of 1 laboratory and 1 outdoor session, in a randomized order. Participants were given a standardized statement instructing them to give the same perceived effort for both the laboratory and outdoor 40-km trials. Variables measured include power output, heart rate (HR), core temperature, skin temperature, body weight, urine specific gravity (USG), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), attentional focus, and environmental conditions. Wind speed was higher in the outdoor trial than in the laboratory trial (2.5 ± 0.6 vs. 0.0 ± 0.0 m·s-1, p = 0.02) whereas all other environmental conditions were similar. Power output (208.1 ± 10.2 vs. 163.4 ± 11.8 W, respectively, p < 0.001) and HR (152 ± 4 and 143 ± 6 b·min-1, respectively, p = 0.04) were higher in the outdoor trial than in the laboratory trial. Core temperature was similar, whereas skin temperature was cooler during the outdoor trial than during the laboratory trial (31.4 ± 0.3 vs. 33.0 ± 0.2° C, respectively, p < 0.001), thus creating a larger thermal gradient between the core and skin outdoors. No significant differences in body weight, USG, RPE, or attentional focus were observed between trials. These data indicate that outdoor cycling allows cyclists to exercise at a higher intensity than in laboratory cycling, despite similar environmental conditions and perceived exertion. In light of this, cyclists may want to ride at a higher perceived exertion in indoor settings to acquire the same benefit as they would from an outdoor ride. PMID:24476776

Mieras, Molly E; Heesch, Matthew W S; Slivka, Dustin R

2014-08-01

454

Survival of Streptococcus equi on surfaces in an outdoor environment  

PubMed Central

Management practices to prevent or control outbreaks of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi often include consideration of environment survival, but limited objective data are available. This study involved evaluation of S. equi persistence following inoculation of wood, metal, and rubber surfaces in an outdoor environment. Survival was short, ranging from < 1 to 3 d. There was no effect of rain (P = 0.33) or surface type (P = 0.95), but there was an effect of sunlight (P = 0.002). Outdoor survival of S. equi is poor, and prolonged quarantine of outdoor areas, particularly areas exposed to the sun, is probably unnecessary. PMID:19949559

Weese, J. Scott; Jarlot, Capucine; Morley, Paul S.

2009-01-01

455

Current Status and Future Prospects of School Camping, Outdoor Education and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"School camping," a term used from the 1920's to 1950's to denote camping programs conducted by schools, later became part of the larger outdoor education movement and experienced a boom period in the 1960's and 1970's, when it came to be called "resident outdoor education." Outdoor education teaches outdoor-related facts, concepts and skills,…

Rogers, S. Elaine

456

Outdoor, Experiential, and Environmental Education: Converging or Diverging Approaches? ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest examines the definitions of outdoor, experiential, and environmental education and clarifies the boundaries and essential elements of each tradition. Early in its history, outdoor education was influenced by advocates of camping education and nature study. Today outdoor education includes outdoor experiences designed to meet objectives…

Adkins, Carol; Simmons, Bora

457

The Inseparable Links of Outdoor Education or You Can't Divide a Mobius.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This speech, presented at the reception of the Julian Smith Award, provides a short history of the author and of outdoor education. Outdoor education is defined as education in, about, and for the outdoors. Several points of interest regarding outdoor education are stressed by the author. These include: (1) there is a need for the public to be…

Ford, Phyllis M.

458

An Integrative Review of the Literature on Women in the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the research on women in the outdoors, 1978-97. Among the major findings are the following: women were underrepresented and underpaid in executive and management positions related to outdoor programs; women tended to lead outdoor groups differently than men; outdoor recreation patterns differed in that women were more likely to…

Henderson, Karla A.; Roberts, Nina S.

459

Outdoor recreation preferences of persons at a military installation: A case study.  

E-print Network

Bicycling Horseback riding Trail biking Outdoor roller skating Miniature golf Jogging Horseshoe pitching Volleyball Tennis Badminton Baseball-softball Outdoor basketball Flag football Golf (regulation course) Swimming 8 diving Surfboarding..., sightseeing and pleasure driving, picnicking, attending outdoor sports events, attending outdoor events (non-sports), relaxing, bicycling, trail biking, jogging, horseshoe pitching, miniature golf, flag football, badminton, volleyball, surfboarding...

McDaniel, Walter Robert

1973-01-01

460

Study of Relation between Indoor Radon in Multi-storey Building and Outdoor Factors  

SciTech Connect

A continuous radon monitoring in indoor and outdoor air was carried out for the period of one year. The relation between indoor radon and indoor-outdoor temperature difference, as well as between indoor radon and outdoor radon was investigated. The best correlation was obtained between indoor and outdoor radon concentrations.

Muellerova, Monika; Holy, Karol [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina F1, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

2010-01-05

461

Extended antifield formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antifield formalism is extended so as to incorporate the rigid symmetries of a given theory. To that end, it is necessary to introduce global ghosts not only for the given rigid symmetries, but also for all the higher order conservation laws, associated with conserved antisymmetric tensors j?13 ?k fulfilling ??1j?13 ?k 2~ 0. Otherwise, one may encounter obstructions of the type discussed in by the authors. These higher order conservation laws are shown to define additional rigid symmetries of the master equation and to form — together with the standard symmetries — an interesting algebraic structure. They lead furthermore to independent Ward identities which are derived in the standard manner, because the resulting master ("Zinn-Justin") equation capturing both the gauge symmetries and the rigid symmetries of all orders takes a known form. Issues such as anomalies or consistent deformations of the action preserving some set of rigid symmetries can be also systematically analysed in this framework.

Brandt, Friedemann; Henneaux, Marc; Wilch, André

1998-02-01

462

The Influence of Music Learning Cultures on the Construction of Teaching-Learning Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research in music education tends to put the emphasis on learning processes outside formal academic contexts, both to rethink and to renew academic educational formats. Our aim is to observe and describe three music learning cultures simultaneously, including formal, non-formal and informal settings: Classical, Jazz and Flamenco,…

Casas-Mas, Amalia; Pozo, Juan Ignacio; Montero, Ignacio

2014-01-01

463

An Assessment of the Validity and Precision of the Intensive Time-Series Design Through Monitoring Learning Differences in Groups of Students with Formal and with Concrete Cognitive Tendencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether the intensive time-series design would yield data discriminating between concrete and formal operational students and whether achievement curves exhibited in previous studies would be found with students in this study. Daily measurement of variables is characteristic of the data collection procedure in the time-series…

Farnsworth, Carolyn H.; Mayer, Victor J.

464

Relations between Gold-style learning and query learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dierent formal learning models address dierent aspects of human learning. Below we compare Gold-style learning—modelling learning as a limiting process in which the learner may change its mind arbitrarily often before converging to a correct hypothesis—to learning via queries—modelling learning as a one-shot process in which the learner is required to identify the target concept with just one hypothesis. In

Steffen Lange; Sandra Zilles

2005-01-01

465

Case for usability : designing Outdoor Augmented Reality games  

E-print Network

Creating a successful Outdoor Augmented Reality (OAR) game can be a complicated process. With every new feature added to the OAR toolset, games gain more levels of complexity, grow in size of content, and become increasingly ...

Wang, Tiffany (Tiffany N.)

2008-01-01

466

OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND EXPENDITURES: LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS  

E-print Network

i OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND EXPENDITURES: LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS John R. Mc to Total Annual Willingness-To-Pay . . . . . . . . . . 19 The Snake River Reservoirs As An Intervening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Lower Snake Rive Reservoir Demand Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

O'Laughlin, Jay

467

THE CONTRIBUTION OF OUTDOOR-BASED RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES TO LOCAL  

E-print Network

strategy for outdoor-recreation based tourism development. Despite its reputation as a leading rock development are provided. Keywords: economic impact analysis; tourism development; recreation-based tourism; rock climbing; visitor monitoring Subject Terms: Leisure -- Economic aspects; Tourism -- Economic

468

Spoken command of large mobile robots in outdoor environments  

E-print Network

We describe a speech system for commanding robots in human-occupied outdoor military supply depots. To operate in such environments, the robots must be as easy to interact with as are humans, i.e. they must reliably ...

Chuangsuwanich, Ekapol

469

Using Digital Imaging in Classroom and Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to use digital cameras and related basic equipment during indoor and outdoor activities. Uses digital imaging in general botany class to identify unknown fungus samples. Explains how to select a digital camera and other necessary equipment. (YDS)

Thomasson, Joseph R.

2002-01-01

470

ASSESSMENT OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL PM DIFFERENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that a correlation exists between daily ambient particle concentrations and health effects.' One major area of concern with respect to particulate matter (PM) is the relationship between indoor and outdoor particle concentr...

471

Robotic Lander Completes Multiple Outdoor Flight - Duration: 2:14.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASAâ??s Robotic Lander Development Project in Huntsville, Ala., has successfully completed seven autonomous outdoor flight tests of a lander prototype, dubbed Mighty Eagle. On Oct. 14, Mighty Eagl...

472

Spellbound : an activity-based outdoor mobile multiplayer game  

E-print Network

Traditional outdoor recreation is physically and emotionally rewarding from goal directed social activities and encourages a connection with the real world but can be logistically difficult. Online gaming allows people to ...

Sra, Misha

2013-01-01

473

MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

474

9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards...1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities...attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated to the...

2010-01-01

475

Deep First Formal Concept Search  

PubMed Central

The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis. PMID:25254232

Zhang, Tao; Li, Hui; Hong, Wenxue; Yuan, Xiamei; Wei, Xinyu

2014-01-01

476

Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we

Neil E. Klepeis; Wayne R. Ott; Paul Switzer; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Guangming Zeng; Amit Chakma; Beidou Xi; John Gillies; Hampden Kuhns; Johann Engelbrecht; Sebastian Uppapalli; Vicken Etyemezian; George Nikolich; Yinchang Feng; Yonghua Xue; Xiaohua Chen; Jianhui Wu; Tan Zhu; Zhipeng Bai; Shengtang Fu; Changju Gu; Richard Corsi; Matthew Walker; Howard Liljestrand; Heidi Hubbard; Dustin Poppendieck; Jawad Touma; Vlad Isakov; Alan Cimorelli; Roger Brode; Bret Anderson; John Offenberg; Michael Lewandowski; Edward Edney; Tadeusz Kleindienst; Mohammed Jaoui; Shin-An Chen; Jun-Nan Nian; Chien-Cheng Tsai; Hsisheng Teng; Birnur Buzcu-Guven; Steven Brown; Anna Frankel; Hilary Hafner; Paul Roberts; Elizabeth Vega; Hugo Ruiz; Gerardo Marti´nez-Villa; Gustavo Gonza´lez-A´; Elizabeth Reyes; Jose´ Garci´a

2007-01-01

477

Shut Down Schedule Optimization with Outdoor Humidity Level  

E-print Network

Shut Down Schedule Optimization with Outdoor Humidity Level Hui Chen, P.E. Project Manager David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, Associate Director Song Deng, P.E. Associate Director W. D. Turner, Ph.D., P... humid air from entering the building, or the units are shut down based on the time of day alone, which can result in the problems mentioned when the outdoor humidity is high. This paper suggests a methodology to optimize the shutdown schedule...

Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Clingenpeel, K.

2006-01-01

478

Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a major threat to older people’s health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people’s experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. Methods We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Results Forty-four adults aged 65 – 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. Conclusions This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people. PMID:24245830

2013-01-01

479

Formal verification of AI software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

1989-01-01

480

Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

Bitbol, Michel

481

Autonomous detection of indoor and outdoor signs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most goal-oriented mobile robot tasks involve navigation to one or more known locations. This is generally done using GPS coordinates and landmarks outdoors, or wall-following and fiducial marks indoors. Such approaches ignore the rich source of navigation information that is already in place for human navigation in all man-made environments: signs. A mobile robot capable of detecting and reading arbitrary signs could be tasked using directions that are intuitive to hu-mans, and it could report its location relative to intuitive landmarks (a street corner, a person's office, etc.). Such ability would not require active marking of the environment and would be functional in the absence of GPS. In this paper we present an updated version of a system we call Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN). This system relies on cues common to most signs, the presence of text, vivid color, and compact shape. By not relying on templates, SUSAN can detect a wide variety of signs: traffic signs, street signs, store-name signs, building directories, room signs, etc. In this paper we focus on the text detection capability. We present results summarizing probability of detection and false alarm rate across many scenes containing signs of very different designs and in a variety of lighting conditions.

Holden, Steven; Snorrason, Magnus; Goodsell, Thomas; Stevens, Mark R.

2005-05-01

482

Fate of permethrin in model outdoor ponds  

SciTech Connect

In 1979 and 1980, outdoor artificial ponds were treated with /sup 14/C-permethrin (labelled at either the cyclopropyl or methylene position) at 0.028 kg/ha (15 ug/L). Uptake of permethrin by duckweed and hydrosoil was monitored by direct combustion, TLC-autoradiography, HPLC, and liquid scintillation counting. Rapid loss of permethrin from the water coincided with the detection of five degradation products in the water at concentrations below 2.0 ug/L. The products were cis- and trans-cyclopropyl acid, phenoxybenzoic acid, and phenoxybenzyl alcohol, and an unknown non-cleaved product of permethrin. Permethrin was readily sorbed by duckweed but was not persistent. Permethrin residues in the hydrosoil, which was the major sink for permethrin added to the ponds, were persistent and were detected at 420 days post-treatment. Cis-permethrin was more persistent in the hydrosoil than the trans-permethrin. The results indicated that permethrin in water was short-lived at an application rate of 15 ug/L because of the rapid degradation of permethrin in the water and sorption of permethrin by the hydrosoil and vegetation. However, at one year post-treatment, permethrin residues were still detected in the hydrosoil at 1.0 ug/kg.

Rawn, G.P.; Webster, G.R.; Muir, D.C.

1982-01-01

483

Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality  

PubMed Central

Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

2014-01-01

484

Framing the Adoption of Serious Games in Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays formal education systems are under increasing pressure to respond and adapt to rapid technological innovation and associated changes in the way we work and live. As well as accommodation of technology in its ever-diversifying forms, there is a fundamental need to enhance learning processes through evolution in pedagogical approaches, so…

Arnab, Sylvester; Berta, Riccardo; Earp, Jeffrey; de Freitas, Sara; Popescu, Maria; Romero, Margarida; Stanescu, Ioana; Usart, Mireia

2012-01-01

485

Formal and Informal Mentoring: Complementary, Compensatory, or Consistent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informal mentors likely play a substantial role in novice teacher learning, yet we know little about them, especially in relation to formal mentoring, which is the cornerstone to most induction programs. This study analyzes survey and interview data from 57 first-year mathematics teachers from 11 districts to investigate differences in the…

Desimone, Laura M.; Hochberg, Eric D.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Schwartz, Robert; Johnson, L. Joy

2014-01-01

486

HPM: A Computational Formalism for Heuristic Procedure Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HPM (Heuristic Procedure Modification) system is a model of strategy learning and optimization, implemented as a processing environment within the PRISM production system package (4). This paper describes progress in getting HPM to emulate children's discoveries about basic addition procedures. HPM s goal-trace and production trace formalisms allow it to maintain a history of its actions which is both

Robert Neches

1981-01-01

487

Improving Project Management Using Formal Models and Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk discusses the advantages formal modeling and architecture brings to project management. These emerging technologies have both great potential and challenges for improving information available for decision-making. The presentation covers standards, tools and cultural issues needing consideration, and includes lessons learned from projects the presenters have worked on.

Kahn, Theodore; Sturken, Ian

2011-01-01

488

MAKING FORMAL METHODS PRACTICAL Marc Zimmerman, Mario Rodriguez, Benjamin Ingram,  

E-print Network

1 MAKING FORMAL METHODS PRACTICAL Marc Zimmerman, Mario Rodriguez, Benjamin Ingram, Masafumi and analysis that requires a large learning time. Contributing to this skepticism is the fact that some types. used in industrial practice for day-to-day software development. Several reasons may be hypothesized

Leveson, Nancy

489

On Combining SemiFormal and Formal Object Specification Techniques  

E-print Network

how constructs of the formal specification language TROLL light are related to the graphical elements aspects of TROLL light specifications having equivalent formal semantics [GH95] as the corresponding UML of this, namely the way we combine TROLL light specifications with the UML software development approach

Gogolla, Martin - Fachbereich 3

490

Experiential Learning as a Constraint-Led Process: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present key ideas for an ecological dynamics approach to learning that reveal the importance of learner-environment interactions to frame outdoor experiential learning. We propose that ecological dynamics provides a useful framework for understanding the interacting constraints of the learning process and for designing learning

Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

2014-01-01

491

Proceedings of the 1984 Conference on Outdoor Recreation: A Landmark Conference in the Outdoor Recreation Field (1st, Bozeman, Montana, November 1-4, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of materials presented at a conference organized by representatives of university outdoor programs to discuss issues and exchange ideas about outdoor topics. Twenty-six papers were presented: (1) "Conference on Outdoor Recreation for the Disabled: Breaking the Stereotype" (Tom Whittaker and Sheila Brashear); (2) "Aquatics: A…

Miles, John C., Ed.; Watters, Ron, Ed.

492

Seven Myths of Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven widely held conceptions about formal methods are challenged. These beliefs are variants of the following: formal methods can guarantee that software is perfect; they work by proving that the programs are correct; only highly critical systems benefit from their use; they involve complex mathematics; they increase the cost of development; they are incomprehensible to clients; and nobody uses them

Anthony Hall

1990-01-01

493

How Have Concepts of Informal Learning Developed over Time?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the current interest in informal learning seems recent, performance improvement professionals have long had an interest in informal learning-the ways that people learn outside of formal structures. The earliest forms of learning for work were informal, including de facto and formal apprenticeship programs and the "school of…

Carliner, Saul

2013-01-01

494

Informal Learning from Error in Hospitals: What Do We Learn, How Do We Learn and How Can Informal Learning Be Enhanced? A Narrative Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning from error is not just an individual endeavour. Organisations also learn from error. Hospitals provide many learning opportunities, which can be formal or informal. Informal learning from error in hospitals has not been researched in much depth so this narrative review focuses on five learning opportunities: morbidity and mortality…

de Feijter, Jeantine M.; de Grave, Willem S.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.

2013-01-01

495

Hard Times for HRD, Lean Times for Learning?: Workplace Participatory Practices as Enablers of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article aims to show how in times of austerity when formal HRD activity is curtailed and yet the need for learning is greatest, non-formal learning methods such as workplace involvement and participation initiated by line managers can compensate by enabling the required learning and change. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative…

Warhurst, Russell

2013-01-01

496

Outdoor Adventures: Tracking Eastern Box Turtles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thematic and hands-on approach to learning ensures that students develop a deeper understanding and retain information longer. Bouillion and Gomez (2001) argue that real-world problems and school-community partnerships help engage students to connect with school science. When there is a disconnect between the activities of school science and…

Somers, Ann Berry; Matthews, Catherine E.; Bennett, Kristin R.; Seymour, Sarah; Rucker, John

2003-01-01

497

Trip Leaders Guide. Outdoor Expeditions and Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written to help teachers or leaders plan and lead field trips, excursions, or expeditions which stimulate a motivation to positive action, this pamphlet provides assistance in conducting learning experiences outside the classroom. Topics and subtopics discussed include: (1) Campsites: selection; firebuilding; knives, axes, saws; neat campsites;…

Leister, Bob

498

Awareness and Monitoring in Outdoor Marine Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This paper examines learning relationships associated with awareness, attitude and participatory action skills in the context of community education programs concerning the marine environment. Purpose: An investigation of the relationship of experiential marine education to environmental knowledge, attitudes and responsible ecological…

Stepath, Carl

2004-01-01

499

Formal Versus Agile: Survival of the Fittest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research have focused on new formal methods, integrating formal methods into agile ones, and assessing the agility of formal methods. This paper proves that formal methods can survive in an agile world; they are not obsolete and can be integrated into it. The potential for combining agile and formal methods holds promise. It might not always be an easy

Sue Black; Paul P. Boca; Jonathan P. Bowen; Jason Gorman; Mike Hinchey

2009-01-01

500

Perspectives on ecological research at the Outdoor StreamLab, a field-scale experimental stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial streams hold great promise for examining ecological processes. They lend themselves to manipulations of discharge, sediment load, water chemistry, and other parameters difficult or impossible to control in natural streams. However, artificial streams also have important limitations. In this presentation we describe insights gained from several ecological studies conducted at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory’s Outdoor StreamLab, including, 1) short-term turbidity exposure effects on fish health, 2) macroinvertebrate grazing rates on periphyton as a function of velocity, 3) rates of macroinvertebrate colonization as related to velocity, and 4) fine-scale correlations of periphytic biomass with hydraulic conditions. Several lessons emerge from these initial attempts at ecological research in the Outdoor StreamLab. We have learned that the size, flow rate, substrate, water chemistry, and available colonization population of the artificial stream limit the kinds of organisms and types of ecological processes that can be examined and the types of experiments that can be run. We suggest that short-term biotic responses are best for study in a system of this type, and note that constant experiment maintenance is essential. Operating artificial streams to meet the needs of multiple researchers also presents challenges of scheduling, coordination, and conflict resolution. Although ecological research in artificial streams has considerable potential, the planning required is no less than that of traditional field studies.

Merten, E. C.; Dieterman, D.; Kramarczuk, K.; Lightbody, A.; Orr, C. H.; Wellnitz, T.

2009-12-01