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Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

Black, Rosemary



Vision + Community = Outdoor Learning Stations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor learning areas are becoming more popular as a means for community-based, cross-curricular learning where children study issues of local relevance (Sobel 2004). Outdoor learning areas, any place outside of the school building where children can observe and interact with the natural world around them, include outdoor structures for seating…

Eick, Charles; Tatarchuk, Shawna; Anderson, Amy



Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard



Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas




E-print Network

state-of-the-art outdoor robots have perception systems that are pri- marily hand-tuned, which makes to this problem. Assuming that training data describing the desired output of the system is available, many su perception systems. This approach has been successfully demon- strated in many areas, and is gaining momentum

Shamos, Michael I.


Outdoor Education and Experiential Learning in the U.K.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers that describe a spectrum of experiential and outdoor education opportunities in the United Kingdom. The first section focuses on provision of outdoor education in schools, colleges, and outdoor education centers, drawing on formal curricula, including the British national curriculum. The second section examines outdoor

Higgins, Peter, Ed.; Humberstone, Barbara, Ed.


Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

Plano Independent School District, TX.


Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine



Student Learning in Outdoor Education: A Case Study from the National Outdoor Leadership School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much attention has been paid to what students learn in outdoor education settings, little has been paid to the process through which that learning occurs. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which students report learning one of six targeted objectives on courses offered by the National Outdoor Leadership School.…

Paisley, Karen; Furman, Nathan; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John



Statistical Relational Learning with Formal Ontologies  

E-print Network

of Bath, United Kingdom, 3 Siemens AG, CT, IC, Learning Systems, Germany, volker machine learning with on- tologies specified by formal logics. In contrast to existing approaches

Tresp, Volker


Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced learning in…

Broda, Herbert W.



Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez



Outdoor Learning: Supervision Is More than Watching Children Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood programs strive to provide good-quality care and education as young children develop their physical, emotional, social, and intellectual skills. In order to provide children with positive, developmentally appropriate learning opportunities, educators ensure the safety and security of children, indoors and outdoors. The outdoor

Olsen, Heather; Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan



Attributes of Meaningful Learning Experiences in an Outdoor Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological study sought to identify the attributes of meaningful learning experiences as found in an outdoor education program. Thirteen students in the Wilderness Writing Program at Brigham Young University were the sample of this study. Their participation in outdoor recreational activities and their reflections about their…

Taniguchi, Stacy T.; Freeman, Patti A.; Richards, A. LeGrand



Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran



Embedding mobile technology to outdoor natural science learning based on the 7E learning cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor learning in areas such as natural science has high potential to enhance learning by giving students a real experience of what they shall learn. However, traditional outdoor learning faces several problems. One of the major problems is that students lack instant guidance so that they often can not get suitable feedback. In the long run, students' learning achievements are

Kuan-Jhen Huang; Tzu-Chien Liu; Sabine Graf; Yi-Chun Lin


Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

Walsh, Lori; Straits, William



Developing sustainability-literate citizens through outdoor learning: possibilities for outdoor education in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNESCO's challenge to Higher Education institutions to provide educational leadership in sustainable development, provides an impetus to develop innovative, interdisciplinary curricula and pedagogy. Whereas Higher Education curricula in sustainability and sustainable development have tended to come from the environmental sciences, recent studies have highlighted the need for more holistic, experiential, interdisciplinary approaches. As a pedagogical approach, outdoor learning may have

Alison Lugg



Outdoor Experiential Education: Learning through the Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people can recall a time when they learned a skill or came to understand an idea while participating in an experience: learning in such a way that the action being taken and the resulting learning outcomes were synonymous. Time spent in hands-on efforts tend to engage learners physically and emotionally in both the process of learning and the…

Howden, Eric



Learning Conditions for Non-Formal and Informal Workplace Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…

Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne



Learning-Centered Planning Strategies in "Outdoor Education Programs": Enhancing Participation and Self-Directed Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education (OE) takes place within a range of program settings and contexts (e.g., recreational, educational, developmental, or therapeutic). Experiential learning is central to OE and focuses these programs around elements of inquiry, active learning and reflection in the outdoor classroom. The personal, social and environmental benefits…

Hubball, Harry; West, Darren



Inclusion through Access to Outdoor Education: Learning in Motion (LIM)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in Motion (LIM) was a European project involving seven partners in five countries: Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Germany and Greece. The project focused on inclusion and access to outdoor education and was financed by the European Commission within the framework of the Socrates-Grundtvig Programme. The aim of the project was to explore if and…

Brodin, Jane



Analysing Attempts to Support Outdoor Learning in Scottish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new "Curriculum for Excellence" in Scotland outlines a policy vision of a more integrated and holistic form of education; a commitment which offers considerable prospects for increased levels of outdoor learning in schools. With reference to Fullan's theorizing on achieving educational change, this study investigated four main…

Thorburn, Malcolm; Allison, Peter



Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning

Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.



Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

Misko, Josie



The Nature of "Udeskole": Outdoor Learning Theory and Practice in Danish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing number of Danish teachers have started introducing school-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day for school children--often called "udeskole" in Danish. Although at least 14% of Danish schools practise this form of outdoor teaching with some classes, it is not mentioned in the national curriculum and…

Bentsen, Peter; Jensen, Frank Sondergaard



Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim



"Memories Are Made of This": Some Reflections on Outdoor Learning and Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potential benefits for learning that the outdoors may hold have been brought into increased focus in the UK by the recent introduction of a manifesto for learning outside the classroom (DfES, "Learning outside the classroom: manifesto"; Nottingham, Department for Education and Skills, 2006). This article draws on two recent studies of outdoor

Waite, Sue



Strategies for Social Learning: Testing Predictions from Formal Theory  

E-print Network

and experimental studies of social learning in animals, there has been relatively little productive interchange between theoreti- cians and empirical investigators; formal models have had relatively little impact the potential costs of individual learning, formal, mathematical analyses of the tradeoffs between relatively

Galef Jr., Bennett G.


Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.

Hamilton, David



Students' Imaginings of Spaces of Learning in Outdoor and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I interrogate students' stories about the spaces and places in a tertiary Outdoor and Environmental Education course that support and shape their environmental ethics. Drawing on a longitudinal qualitative study, I explore the ways in which particular sites of learning (outdoor, practical learning) are privileged and how…

Preston, Lou



Blending Student Technology Experiences in Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…

Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald



Formal and non-formal digital practices: institutionalizing transactional learning spaces in a media classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how a classroom procedure known as PGE (Plan\\/Go-through\\/Evaluate) group work aims at integrating formal and non-formal media experiences and practices into classroom-based media learning. The study displays, on the one hand, how PGE group work emerged and was institutionally embedded in a media course. On the other hand, the study displays how students in this media course

Thomas de Lange



The Hidden Turmoil: Females Achieving Longevity in the Outdoor Learning Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being a woman in the outdoor learning profession can bring distinctive challenges and roadblocks. Even more difficult is sustaining a life-long career, flourishing into a woman's 50s or 60s. Based on this premise, career longevity seems elusive for some women who aspire to work in the outdoors. This paper analyses the autobiographies of three…

Wright, Michelle; Gray, Tonia



The Place of Experience and the Experience of Place: Intersections between Sustainability Education and Outdoor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As social, economic and environmental issues have become more prominent in the 21st century, there has been increased critical scrutiny into the ways that outdoor learning interacts with sustainability issues and concepts. As a result, a number of discourses have emerged which interrogate human/nature relationships in traditional outdoor education…

Hill, Allen



Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors

Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas



Formalizing Informal EFL Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation focused on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teachers' and students' awareness and utilization of English outside the school context. Tentative techniques are suggested for introducing this type of English more formally, along with curricular materials. The investigation is motivated by a desire to improve upon continued low…

Hajjaj, Ali H. S.


Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…

Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen



Enriching Formal Language Learning with an Informal Social Component  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an informal component that we added to an online formal language learning environment in order to help the learners reach relevant Internet pages they can freely use to complement their learning activity. Thanks to this facility, each lesson is enriched, at run time, with a number of links automatically retrieved from social…

Dettori, Giuliana; Torsani, Simone



Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach activity in many communities, there has been

Mark Griffiths; Kathleen Armour



School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda



Canadian outdoor adventure education: Hear the challenge — Learn the lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is the second largest country in the world by area. With its diverse geophysical features and relatively small population density it is a mecca for outdoor enthusiasts of all types. In the Canadian outdoor adventure education field there is an awakened acknowledgement of the centrality of Native peoples that pervades its practice today. There is also a strong sense

Tom G. Potter; Bob Henderson



Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian



Distance Learning and Non-formal Education: Existing Trends and New Possibilities of Distance Learning Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

English:The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of non-formal education as expressed in various academic-theoretical definitions, to present the links in this field to distance learning and to recommend future directions for exploring distance learning in non-formal education. The field of non-formal education as expressed in its diverse forms is explained, as are distance learning in general

Shlomo Romi



A systemic examination of the introduction of an outdoor learning-based science curriculum to students, their teacher, and the school principal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outdoor environment has been under-utilized as a legitimate setting for learning within the formal school context, resulting in few examples of curriculum materials that integrate the indoors and outdoors. This systemic problem is explored holistically through investigation of key sets of players in the school system. The overarching research question is "What is the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences within the school system?" I developed an eight-week Earth systems science unit grounded in research-based design principles. One teacher enacted the unit with 111 sixth graders, whose learning gains and perspectives of the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences were explored using a mixed-methods approach in a pre-post study design, including individual interviews, and instruments regarding students' perspectives of the outdoor component of the curricular enactment. I conducted six interviews with the participating teacher and one interview with the school principal, to explore their perspectives of the role of outdoor learning experiences, and their personal roles in the unit. The main finding from this study was that the outdoor component of the curriculum enhanced coherence---connectedness across science concepts, activities, and learning environments. Higher ability students were more aware of connections than lower ability students. Field experiences were seen as a tool for learning, and all students achieved substantial learning gains. The teacher viewed the role of the outdoor experiences as a way to engage students, and promote connections across the unit through firsthand and relevant experiences. The school principal viewed his role as supporting teachers in their practice and encouraging risk-taking and creativity in instructional approaches. This study is a valuable contribution to the field as it (1) identifies outdoor learning experiences as one way to enhance intraunit coherence, and (2) highlights variations in students' awareness of coherence while examining the teacher's experience. I discuss potential revisions to improve the curriculum based on the findings from the students, teacher, principal, and external curriculum evaluation. These data indicate a need for greater support for teachers to help all students make coherent connections across the unit, and to take account of students' developing ideas.

Yunker, Molly Louis


Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

Gibson, J. Paul


The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

Thompson, Carol C.



Design of an eLearning System for Accreditation of Non-formal Learning  

E-print Network

-formal learning in vocational education, and the role of ICT for providing appropriate accreditation model in such education. The presented conclusions are based on the Leonardo da Vinci project LeoSPAN. The paper as well. The existence of non-formal learning that is not provided by an education or training institution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Location Based Services for Outdoor Ecological Learning System: Design and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aimed to demonstrate how location-based services were implemented in ubiquitous outdoor ecological learning system. In an elementary school in northern Taiwan, two fifth grade classes on an ecology project were randomly selected: The experimental group could access the ecological learning system on hand-held devices while the control…

Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Feng, Ruei-Ting; Li, Kun Jing



Integrating Formal and Grounded Representations in Combinatorics Learning David W. Braithwaite and Robert L. Goldstone  

E-print Network

relative to instruction employing only grounded or only formal representations (Freudenthal, 1991 compared to pure formalism. However, no difference in transfer performance due to training was foundIntegrating Formal and Grounded Representations in Combinatorics Learning David W. Braithwaite

Goldstone, Robert


Child-Initiated Learning, the Outdoor Environment and the "Underachieving" Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Foundation Phase for Wales advocates an experiential, play-based approach to learning for children aged three to seven years that includes child-initiated activity within the outdoor environment. In previous research, Foundation Phase practitioners maintained that children perceived to be "underachieving" within the classroom came…

Maynard, Trisha; Waters, Jane; Clement, Jennifer



"Did You Enjoy Your Holiday?" Can Residential Outdoor Learning Benefit Mainstream Schooling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United Kingdom there is a long tradition of residential outdoor learning provision, but to date there is limited research evidence for the direct educational benefits of such experiences, and to both critics and supporters the distinction between such visits and "holidays in school time" is not always apparent. This paper…

Christie, Beth; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat



Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing the Learning Environment of Outdoor Science Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of the Science Outdoor Learning Environment Inventory which includes seven scales. The instrument was used by high school students (N=643) and the results indicate that the instrument is a sensitive measure that differentiates between different types of field trips. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

Orion, Nir; And Others



Young Children and Educators Engagement and Learning Outdoors: A Basis for Rights-Based Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This article reports on a study undertaken with 4 early childhood programs in a medium-size city in Canada investigating young children's and educators' perspectives on engagement and learning possibilities outdoors. A rights-based methodology including participant observations and interactive activities with children as well as…

Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Elliot, Enid



Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar



Learning curves from a modified VC-formalism: a case study  

E-print Network

Learning curves from a modified VC-formalism: a case study A. Kowalczyk & J. Szyma´nski R learning curve is derived and compared against esti- mates from the classical formalism and its related pre- dictions from VC-formalism are relatively poor, at least for some cases of neural networks

Botea, Adi


Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle



Sunship Earth: An Acclimatization Program for Outdoor Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes a 5-day program of imaginative activities designed to help elementary school children learn how their world functions through seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and hearing. The book is designed to help children understand energy flow, the cycles of basic materials, the diversity of life, natural communities, change,…

Van Matre, Steve


Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia



A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Activities in a Non-Formal Blended Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research considers how professional participants in a non-formal self-directed learning environment (NFSDL) made use of self-directed learning activities in a blended face-to-face and on line learning professional development course. The learning environment for the study was a professional development seminar on teaching in higher education…

Schwier, Richard A.; Morrison, Dirk; Daniel, Ben K.



Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy


The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning

Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy



Space Matters: Experiences of Managing Static Formal Learning Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing the space in which learning takes place is subject to ongoing debate. Spatial management and movement can impact upon the construction of meaning within education and upon the dynamic of learning. It is suggested that there are now different learning goals and expectations and consequently a need for different learning environments. We…

Montgomery, Tim



Learning 2.0 Promoting Innovation in Formal Education and Training in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Take up of Web 2.0 applications in formal Education and Training is still in an experimental phase and scientific evidence\\u000a on Learning 2.0 practices in schools and universities is scarce. To gather more insights on the current use and potential\\u000a impact of Learning 2.0, IPTS conducted an exploratory study on the use of social media applications in formal Education and

Christine Redecker; Yves Punie



A Comparative Study of the Impacts and Students' Perceptions of Indoor and Outdoor Learning in the Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing awareness among educators around the world on the specialities of indoor and outdoor learning in enhancing students' academic performance and development of skills and attitudes influenced the purposes and background of this research study (Fagerstam, 2012; Jordet, 2010; Martin, 2010; Rickinson et al., 2004). Two key purposes…

Dhanapal, Saroja; Lim, Cally Cheng Yee



Outdoor Settings for Playing and Learning: Designing School Grounds to Meet the Needs of the Whole Child and Whole Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a list of imaginative design options for optimal outdoor learning as well as intimate contact with nature. Focuses on entrances, pathways, signage and displays, barriers and enclosures, manufactured equipment and play structures, multipurpose game settings, groundcovers and safety surfaces, landforms and topography, trees and vegetation,…

Moore, Robin C.



Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie



The Lifelong Learning Iceberg of Information Systems Academics--A Study of On-Going Formal and Informal Learning by Academics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a study that examined the lifelong learning of information systems academics in relation to their normal work. It begins by considering the concept of lifelong learning, its relationship to real-life learning and that lifelong learning should encompass the whole spectrum of formal, non-formal and informal learning. Most…

Davey, Bill; Tatnall, Arthur



Active Learning Facilitates Success of Formal Methods in Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development does not consist only of technical ac- tivities, as it usually regarded. It also involves social and cognitive ac- tivities that are particularly important in complex projects. To make a software development project successful the staff involved should possess the necessary social and cognitive skills. The significance of such skills increases if some novel, advanced techniques, including formal

Victor V. Kuliamin; Vitaliy A. Omelchenko; Olga L. Petrenko



Underpinnings of adult learning in formal teacher professional development in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite controversy in the literature, the present article assumes that the adult learning theory provides a powerful framework for evaluating training practices. This study explores the degree to which adult learning traits are embedded in optional seminars, the primary form of formal in?service teacher training in Cyprus and a traditional, structural approach towards teacher development. A quantitative research design is

Yiasemina Karagiorgi; Chrystalla Kalogirou; Valentina Theodosiou; Maria Theophanous; Panagiota Kendeou



The Potential of Interactive Learning Technologies in Formal and Nonformal Education in Rural and Urban Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College of Education and Human Service Professions of the University of Minnesota, Duluth, has established a Center for the Advancement of Learning Technologies. The Center is committed to the development of interactive learning technologies which can be used effectively in formal and nonformal continuing adult education. Emphasis has been on…

Bright, Larry K.; Simula, Vernon L.


Learning Taxonomy for Text Segmentation by Formal Concept Analysis  

E-print Network

In this paper the problems of deriving a taxonomy from a text and concept-oriented text segmentation are approached. Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) method is applied to solve both of these linguistic problems. The proposed segmentation method offers a conceptual view for text segmentation, using a context-driven clustering of sentences. The Concept-oriented Clustering Segmentation algorithm (COCS) is based on k-means linear clustering of the sentences. Experimental results obtained using COCS algorithm are presented.

Lupea, Mihaiela; Marian, Zsuzsana



Attitudes to Formal Business Training and Learning amongst Entrepreneurs in the Cultural Industries: Situated Business Learning through "Doing with Others."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents arguments supporting a social model of learning linked to situated learning and cultural capital. Critiques training methods used in cultural industries (arts, publishing, broadcasting, design, fashion, restaurants). Uses case study evidence to demonstrates inadequacies of formal training in this sector. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

Raffo, Carlo; O'Connor, Justin; Lovatt, Andy; Banks, Mark



American Studies Assessment Plan 1. Learning goals: what formal learning outcomes are students expected to achieve in the major?  

E-print Network

American Studies Assessment Plan 1. Learning goals: what formal learning outcomes are students expected to achieve in the major? The American Studies major provides an interdisciplinary, cross a concentration within American Studies that explores in detail a specific aspect of the culture(s) and society

Royer, Dana


Recognition, Accreditation and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Prospects for Lifelong Learning in Nepal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an exploration on the various issues related to recognition, accreditation and validation of non-formal and informal learning to open up avenues for lifelong learning and continuing education in Nepal. The perceptions, experiences, and opinions of Nepalese Development Activists, Educational Administrators, Policy Actors and…

Regmi, Kapil Dev



Computational neural learning formalisms for manipulator inverse kinematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient, adaptive neural learning paradigm for addressing the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the infinite local stability of terminal attractors - a new class of mathematical constructs which provide unique information processing capabilities to artificial neural systems. For robotic applications, synaptic elements of such networks can rapidly acquire the kinematic invariances embedded within the presented samples. Subsequently, joint-space configurations, required to follow arbitrary end-effector trajectories, can readily be computed. In a significant departure from prior neuromorphic learning algorithms, this methodology provides mechanisms for incorporating an in-training skew to handle kinematics and environmental constraints.

Gulati, Sandeep; Barhen, Jacob; Iyengar, S. Sitharama



Enough of Ronald and Mickey: Focusing on Learning in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen years ago Loynes expressed concern that market-place values were detrimentally impacting on the provision of outdoor education experiences. As tertiary educators with an interest in the impact of globalization on outdoor education, we have sought to extend Loynes' use of McDonaldization by drawing on Bryman's conceptual framework…

Beames, Simon; Brown, Mike



Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern



Job Requirements and Workers' Learning: Formal Gaps, Informal Closure, Systemic Limits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is substantial evidence that formal educational attainments increasingly exceed the educational job requirements of the employed labour force in many advanced market economies--a phenomenon variously termed "underemployment", "underutilisation", or "overqualification". Conversely, both experiential learning and workplace case studies suggest…

Livingstone, D. W.



Learning Goal Orientation, Formal Mentoring, and Leadership Competence in HRD: A Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest a conceptual model of formal mentoring as a leadership development initiative including "learning goal orientation", "mentoring functions", and "leadership competencies" as key constructs of the model. Design/methodology/approach: Some empirical studies, though there are not many, will provide…

Kim, Sooyoung



Didactic Strategies for Promoting Significant Learning in Formal Languages and Automata Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undergraduate course in Formal Languages and Autom- ata Theory (FLAT) involves dierent topics that are core to the CS curricula and whose level of abstraction makes them dicult both to teach and to learn. Such diculty stems from the complexity of the abstract notions involved and the required mathematical background. Surveys conducted among our students showed that many of

Carlos I. Ches; Mar ´ ia; Paula Gonz; Ana G. Maguitman


Didactic strategies for promoting significant learning in formal languages and automata theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undergraduate course in Formal Languages and Automata Theory (FLAT) involves different topics that are core to the CS curricula and whose level of abstraction makes them difficult both to teach and to learn. Such difficulty stems from the complexity of the abstract notions involved and the required mathematical background. Surveys conducted among our students showed that many of them

Carlos I. Chesñevar; Maria Paula Gonzalez; Ana G. Maguitman



Mobile City and Language Guides--New Links between Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major challenges in second and foreign language education, is to create links between formal and informal learning environments. Mobile City and Language Guides present examples of theoretical and practical reflections on such links. This paper presents and discusses the first considerations of Mobile City and Language Guides in…

Bo-Kristensen, Mads; Ankerstjerne, Niels Ole; Neutzsky-Wulff, Chresteria; Schelde, Herluf



Oral Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Formal Instruction and Study Abroad Learning Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the differential effects of two learning contexts, formal instruction (FI) at home and a study abroad period (SA), on the oral production skills of advanced-level Catalan-Spanish undergraduate learners of English. Speech samples elicited through an interview at three data collection times over a 2-year period were…

Mora, Joan C.; Valls-Ferrer, Margalida



Online Social Networks as Formal Learning Environments: Learner Experiences and Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the potential of social networking sites to contribute to educational endeavors is highlighted by researchers and practitioners alike, empirical evidence on the use of such sites for formal online learning is scant. To fill this gap in the literature, we present a case study of learners' perspectives and experiences in an online course…

Veletsianos, George; Navarrete, Cesar C.



Architecture for environmental learning : a National Outdoor Leadership School in Baja, Mexico  

E-print Network

An understanding of people, program, and place establishes a foundation from which to make architectural decisions. The focus of this thesis is to understand the needs of those involved in an outdoor education school in ...

Galyean, Taylor



Financial literacy among Turkish college students: the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental teaching.  


Summary.-This study assessed financial literacy and its correlates among Turkish college students, with special emphasis on the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental influences. Financial literacy was measured by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey, which assesses knowledge in four areas: general financial management, saving and borrowing, insurance, and investing. 853 Turkish university students were administered the survey (416 men, 437 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 0.6). The mean percentage of correct responses was 45% (SD = 12.8%). Regression results showed that formal finance education in college, a deep approach to learning, and direct financial teaching by parents were significantly associated with higher financial literacy scores. PMID:25153844

Akben-Selcuk, Elif; Altiok-Yilmaz, Ayse



A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.


Schoolyard Enhanced Learning: Using the Outdoors as an Instructional Tool, K-8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book shows how the school grounds, whether urban, suburban, or rural, can become an enriching extension of the classroom. The author blends theory and practice, providing readers with teacher-tested suggestions and activities for using the outdoors. The book offers step-by-step guidance to help ensure success when teachers take a class…

Broda, Herbert W.



The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

Wistoft, Karen



Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat



Supporting Whole-Child Learning in Nature-Filled Outdoor Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts." This much-repeated quote speaks eloquently to the kinds of life-enhancing skills children develop when they interact with caring adults in thoughtfully designed nature-filled outdoor classrooms. As a network of these classrooms springs…

Wirth, Susan; Rosenow, Nancy



Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests and questions raised during visits to informal settings. Consequently teachers noted their students were better able to connect to traditional elements of school as a result of their informal experiences. Personal growth of students was also a major area of change. Increases in self-esteem, fieldtrip and classroom participation, as well as improved classroom behavior were reported and observed and improved the way the classroom functioned.

Schneider, Barbara P.


Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of formalisms—specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention—is prerequisite to applied knowledge. A formalisms first (FF) view of learning, rooted

Mitchell J. Nathan



Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely



Swinging: What young children begin to learn about physics during outdoor play  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outdoor play environment provides an appropriate laboratory for young children’s early explorations of physics principles.\\u000a Swings, as life-sized pendulums, provide three-, four-, five-, and six-year-old children opportunities to experiment with\\u000a balance, force, gravity, resistance, and resonance. Findings of this study indicate that through play on swings young children\\u000a accommodate and assimilate the physics principles associated with pendulums. Implications for

Jill Englebright Fox



Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.

Eick, Charles J.



Great outdoors : outdoor education goes mainstream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor education addresses sustainability and provides a good learning environment for boys as well as girls, so it is no surprise that it has been quietly moving into a mainstream area of study in schools. It engages with issues related to a socially and ecologically sustainable future while imparting essential life and work skills for students from diverse cultural groups

C Eglington; P Broderick



Affordances and Form: Applying Lessons from Informal Learning to Formal Learning on the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of us, learning online is performed with a web browser and a search engine. With experience, we develop and hone skills at finding, filtering, and assessing resources made available on the World Wide Web. This kind of informal learning is entirely self-directed. We regulate our goals and time allotted in reaction to what we find as our inquiries

L. Howard; J. Johnson; G. Pap; K. Pence; L. Jurácz


What Would You Like? Identifying the Required Characteristics of an Industry-Wide Incident Reporting and Learning System for the Led Outdoor Activity Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics that led outdoor activity providers agree are necessary for the development of a new industry-wide incident reporting and learning system (UPLOADS). The study involved: 1) a literature review to identify a set of characteristics that are considered to be hallmarks of successful reporting…

Goode, Natassia; Finch, Caroline F.; Cassell, Erin; Lenne, Michael G.; Salmon, Paul M.



Sustainable Graduates: Linking Formal, Informal and Campus Curricula to Embed Education for Sustainable Development in the Student Learning Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper hypothesises that student learning about sustainable development (SD) might usefully be configured within a broad framework combining formal, informal and campus curriculum. Student learning about sustainable development is a form of education for sustainable development (ESD), a term which has many definitions and interpretations. In…

Hopkinson, Peter; Hughes, Peter; Layer, Geoff



The effects of a formal notebook on learning achievement of tenth grade biology students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the national agenda for achieving scientific literacy for all American students, there appears to be a paucity of research on the role of writing and, more specifically, on the organization of students' notes. The use of student notebooks as an ongoing record of both the process function and product function of notetaking has received little attention in the American research literature reviewed. The purposes of this study were to investigate if (a) the use of a formal notebook has a positive effect on learning achievement by high school biology students, (b) the gender of the biology student makes a difference with regard to the effect of keeping a formal notebook, (c) students perceive notetaking skills as an important set of study skills, and (d) students regard keeping a formal notebook as a valuable tool for improving learning outcomes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted, using a matching-only posttest control group design. A purposive cluster sample of four intact tenth grade biology classes with a total of 126 students from two Brevard County public high schools was used. The design resulted in two experimental conditions for the independent variable: (a) notebook treatment and (b) no notebook control. In each school, one class was randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. A Study Skills Questionnaire was pilot-tested, revised, and administered to all students as a pre-assessment to determine if notetaking was regarded as important. One teacher-made posttest was used to measure learning achievement in biology as a consequence of the experimental conditions. A researcher-developed six-item postquestionnaire was only administered to the students of the treatment groups to determine if students perceive the requirement of keeping a formal notebook as a valuable learning tool. A factorial independent measures analysis of variance (2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of experimental group, school, gender, and their interactions (alpha =.05). The results of ANOVA did not reveal a statistically significant difference on the posttest between the treatment group and control group for the entire sample and each subsample. However, ANOVA for school means indicated statistically significant differences on the posttest between the treatment and control group classes in the two schools. The interaction of gender and group, which approached statistical significance (alpha =.05), indicated that the gender of the biology student appears to make a difference with regard to the effect of keeping a formal notebook. This interaction was most notable between the experimental groups in school B. The data obtained from the questionnaires were reported in terms of number and percentage of positive responses for all items. The prequestionnaire results indicated that 61% of the students perceived notetaking skills as important for understanding what the teacher said in class. The results of the postquestionnaire showed that the treatment group students regarded notetaking as a valuable tool for preparing for tests and keeping up with homework. Future research on the use of notebooks should focus on the effects at different grade levels, the benefits for a wide range of science courses, and the variables of ability and gender.

Hirst, Sabine Korpus


Outdoor allergens.  

PubMed Central

Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

Burge, H A; Rogers, C A



Outdoor Classrooms -- Planning Makes Perfect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum and provide a creative outlet for meeting national and state standards in several disciplines.

Haines, Sarah



Outdoor Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Outdoor Education is a series of outdoor activities that include orienteering, soil and water conservation, forestry, minerals, wildlife, and basic first aid disciplines. This program was designed to enable learners to have hands-on contact with the natural world as well as experience various facets of their natural environment.

Cooper, John



Exploring salutogenic mechanisms of an outdoor experiential learning programme on youth care farms in the Netherlands: untapped potential?  

PubMed Central

This study explored how (learning) experiences offered through outdoor experiential programmes, particularly the youth care farm approach, may (or may not) enhance young peoples’ ability to recognise and then utilise available resources for personal growth, protection and health promotion. A total of 11 youngsters were asked to look back on their half-year stay on a care farm in the Netherlands, by using semi-structured interviews to elicit their experiences from a salutogenic perspective. Analysis revealed that several resources (and the interaction of these resources) on the youth care farm worked well for the youngsters; contributed to their personal development and to their sense of coherence: the feeling that the world is or can be meaningful, comprehensible and manageable, associated with positive outcome in endeavours linked to improving health and well-being. In general, the attitude of the farmer, working with animals, the informal atmosphere and being temporarily cut-off from the former environment were elements most positively highlighted by the youngsters. The farm environment was mentioned as calming, however, as structuring as well. The strength of the programme as an experiential learning opportunity appears to be the diversity and richness of resources (and stressors!) available to the participants. This creates various opportunities for learning: making sense, interpreting and giving meaning to resources and stressors. Further research into the impact of this kind of programmes, compared to more ‘traditional’ programmes, especially on the ability of youngsters to use resources to finish school, find employment and develop better relationships with their parents is recommended. PMID:24910490

Schreuder, Ester; Rijnders, Mandy; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hassink, Jan; Enders-Slegers, Marie-Jose; Kennedy, Lynne



Outdoor and Risk Educational Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor adventure education is an experiential method of learning which takes place primarily through sensory involvement with the outdoors. Characteristics of adventure education include uncertain outcomes, risk, inescapable consequences, energetic action, and willingness to participate. Adventure education occurs in a diversity of venues,…

Goldenberg, Marni


Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor

Thigpen, Betsy



Handbook for Students, Teachers and Parents. BOCES/SCOPE Outdoor Learning Laboratory at Sunken Meadow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1971 a fully equipped learning laboratory building and the open fields, woodlands, salt water marshes, and beaches of Sunken Meadow State Park have been available for year round day use by students and educators in New York's Suffolk and Nassau counties. Funded by the New York Office of Parks and Recreation and local Boards of Cooperative…

Long Island State Park and Recreation Commission, NY.


Weakly Supervised Learning for Attribute Localization in Outdoor Scenes Shuo Wang1,2  

E-print Network

. of Machine Perception (MoE), Sch'l of EECS, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China {shuowang, Yizhou nouns and adjectives corresponding to the objects and their appearance descriptions respectively. We, then train an appearance model for each noun+adjective attribute pair. (iii) Joint inference and learning

Zhu, Song Chun


Outdoor Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for an entire school system to implement an outdoor education program in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades are presented in this 1968 document. General and specific objectives are given, followed by concepts and suggested learning experiences for use in the areas of science (including living things, weather, and conservation), math, language…

Sweet Home Central School District 7, Buffalo, NY.


Outdoor Unified Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Escalante (Utah) High School's outdoor unified studies field trip is a learning experience to be remembered. The four-day camping experience begins with pre-trip plans, pretests, and lecture/introductions to the Anasazi culture and to geologic formations to be visited. Horses (and equipment-carrying trucks) take the students into the desert to set…

Liston, Louise


Outdoor Ecology School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

Cole, Anna Gahl



Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

Myers, Ray


Guidelines for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outdoor education program detailed in this document is envisaged as permeating the total elementary/secondary curriculum to study natural topics in natural settings and to promote respect for and appreciation of the natural environment, perception of total environment as a learning area, perception of the interrelationship of all living…

Leeds and Grenville County Board of Education, Brockville (Ontario).


Outdoor Experiences Teach Reality. Thoughts on Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education offers opportunities for learning in physical education and ecology that transfer to daily life. Brief impressions profile the author's perceptions and experiences during a high school canoe trip with 11 teenagers. (KS)

Brown, Leslie



Outdoor Learning Can Help Children Flourish in Science and across the Curriculum--The FSC Takes a Lead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent explosive growth of the Wild Network, which exists to champion and support connection with nature and wildness in children and young people, suggests that there is a groundswell of support for getting young people outdoors. Hannah Rose and Anneke Kempton of the Field Studies Council (FSC) explain why the outdoors is such an important…

Rose, Hannah; Kempton, Anneke



Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.



Participation in Non-Formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states. The paper also seeks to extend analysis of the training gap by pursuing the distinction between the supply and the demand for skills. We use aggregate data from the Adult Education Survey (Eurostat)…

Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu



Evaluation of the Competence Reform in Norway: Access to Higher Education Based on Non-Formal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the start of the 2001-2002 academic year, people who had not completed secondary school were able to enter higher education based on documented non-formal learning, realkompetanse. Based on interviews with key personnel at selected universities and university colleges, and on quantitative data from the applicant register, this article…

Opheim, Vibeke; Helland, Havard



Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

Murphy, Tony


Formal and Informal Context Factors as Contributors to Student Engagement in a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explored informal (after-school) and formal (elective course in-school) learning contexts as contributors to middle-school student attitudinal changes in a guided discovery-based and blended e-learning program in which students designed web games and used social media and information resources for a full school year. Formality of the…

Reynolds, Rebecca; Chiu, Ming Ming



Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills. The data indicated that there is not a significant difference between adolescents and post-adolescents (up to 16-years-old) ability to learn formal thinking skills. Both groups (adolescent and post-adolescent) showed improvement in their formal thinking skill ability after the intervention. The intervention also demonstrated evidence of improving students' intelligence scores.

Towne, Forrest S.


A Reformulation of the Theory of Experiential Learning Appropriate for Instruction in Formal Business Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the origins of experiential learning in the work of Erasmus, Rousseau, and Dewey. Points out problems in Dewey's theory of experience. Explains four learning strategies that define experiential learning as meaningful learning. (SK)

Ekpenyong, Lawrence E.



An examination of the impact of non-formal and informal learning on adult environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation in non-formal and informal education venues improved environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior models, providing evidence for the value and need for non-formal and informal environmental adult education venues.

Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett


Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.


Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

Lee, Connie L.


Learning Journeys: The Road from Informal to Formal Learning--The UK Open University's Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning is now achieving recognition as offering a way for learning to scale. However we need to learn from the experiences in distance learning institutions. The Open University was established over 40 years ago and offers a unique experience in building a distance learning organisation on innovative use of media, originally through…

Taylor, Josie



The Great Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your own classroom is rich with resources and activities, but there are some things that simply can't be done there. Therefore, well-planned field trips are a vital part of the total educational program. They play an important role in helping students relate basic concepts learned in the classroom to practical work and applications in the real-world. This chapter describes how to ensure a safe and productive learning experience that extends beyond the classroom walls and into the great outdoors or other convenient location.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry



Teacher Learning, Informal and Formal: Results of a Canadian Teachers' Federation Survey. NALL Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, as part of a larger national study examining informal learning practices across the general population, Canadian elementary and secondary teachers were surveyed regarding their practices and attitudes related to their own ongoing learning. The 753 respondents described any informal learning experiences in the past year within their…

Smaller, Harry; Clark, Rosemary; Hart, Doug; Livingstone, David; Noormohamed, Zahra


Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to…

Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis



Formalizing Dependency Directed Backtracking and Explanation Based Learning in Refinement Search  

E-print Network

-to been incomparable. My motivation in this paper is to put the different ideas and approaches related 85287, Abstract The ideas of dependency directed backtracking (DDB) and explanation based communities. In this paper, I formalize and unify these ideas under the task-independent frame- work

Kambhampati, Subbarao


Formal Adult Learning and Working in Europe: A New Typology of Participation Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how a typology of participating patterns is developed to deepen understanding of participation in formal adult education and the relationship between current workplace and educational programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of conceptual work based on a qualitative analysis…

Hefler, Gunter; Markowitsch, Jorg



The Impact of Formal and Informal Learning on Students' Improvisational Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, based on my PhD empirical study, was conducted in a qualitative and holistic approach. It had examined how students had used formal and informal strategies, styles and situations while improvising and composing for the research task. Eighteen research groups made up of a total of 40 males and nine females had participated in…

Augustyniak, Sylvana



Individualized Skill Assessment in Digital Learning Games: Basic Definitions and Mathematical Formalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a problem situation and its status at a certain

Thomas Augustin; Cord Hockemeyer; Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust; Dietrich Albert



The Role of Written Formative Feedback in Inducing Non-Formal Learning among Masters Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adds to the existing literature on nonformal learning in education in general and the role played by written feedback in providing the space for such learning in particular. The study was conducted in an English as a Foreign Language context in which the participating students received written feedback on their English writings.…

Mirzaee, Alireza; Hasrati, Mostafa



Teachers as Game Designers: Using a Game in Formal Learning in a Singapore Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have offered, in recent years, compelling reasons for considering the potential of digital games to support learning and in response policy-makers and educators around the world have demonstrated a commitment to exploring their practical use in school. There remain, however, many questions about how games can best support learning,…

Sandford, Richard



AGORA V: Identification, Evaluation and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning (Thessaloniki, Greece, March 15-16, 1999). CEDEFOP Panorama Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains papers from a 2-day meeting on identification, evaluation, and recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union. The following papers are included: "Identification, Assessment, and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning: European Tendencies" (Jens Bjornavold); "Why Measure Human Capital?" (Riel Miller); "Mobility and…

Guggenheim, Eric Fries, Ed.


Towards the Construction of a Personal Professional Pathway: An Experimental Project for the Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the University of Catania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Italy, accreditation of prior learning is a sensitive issue. Despite the lack of laws or qualification frameworks regulating the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, most Italian universities proceed with caution, allowing only a restricted number of credits in the university curriculum related to practical activities or to external…

Piazza, Roberta



Learning Languages Generated by Elementary Formal Systems and Its Application to SH Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Elementary Formal Systems (EFSs, for short) are originally introduced by Smullyan to develop his recursion theory. In a word, EFSs are a kind of logic programs\\u000a which use strings instead of terms in first order logic, and they are shown to be natural devices to define languages.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In defining languages of EFSs, many studies assume that substitutions are nonerasing.

Yasuhito Mukouchi; Masako Sato



Traffic, Outdoor Air Pollution, and Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that outdoor air pollution can affect the health of patients with asthma. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased levels of outdoor pollutants are associated with acute and chronic changes in lung function, increased risk for asthma exacerbations, increased risk for work or school absenteeism, and need for rescue bronchodilators. For- tunately, we have also learned that

Fernando Holguin



The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

Ettenger, Jim


A Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network: The role of formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education research has consistently shown that elementary teachers have a low self-efficacy and background knowledge to teach science. When they teach science, there is a lack of field experiences and inquiry-based instruction at the elementary level due to limited resources, both material and pedagogical. This study focused on an analysis of a professional development (PD) model designed by the author known as the Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network (CDLN). The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school teacher participants pedagogical content knowledge related to their experiences in a CDLN model. The CDLN model taught formal and informal instruction using a science coach and an informal educational institution. Another purpose for this research included a theoretical analysis of the CDLN model to see if its design enabled teachers to expand their resource knowledge of available science education materials. The four-month-long study used qualitative data obtained during an in-service professional development program facilitated by a science coach and educators from a large natural history museum. Using case study as the research design, four elementary school teachers were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of their science coach and museum educator workshop sessions. During the duration of this study, semi-structured individual/group interviews and open-ended pre/post PD questionnaires were used. Other data sources included researcher field notes from lesson observations, museum field trips, audio-recorded workshop sessions, email correspondence, and teacher-created artifacts. The data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged included increased self-efficacy; increased pedagogical content knowledge; increased knowledge of museum education resources and access; creation of a professional learning community; and increased knowledge of science notebooking. Implications for formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform are offered. It is suggested that researchers investigate collaborative coaching through the lenses of organizational learning network theory, and develop professional learning communities with formal and informal educators; and that professional developers in city school systems and informal science institutions work in concert to produce more effective elementary teachers who not only love science but love teaching it.

Cooke-Nieves, Natasha Anika


Case Studies of Non-Formal Education by Distance and Open Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains seven papers from a study of the role of distance learning approaches in enhancing the contribution of nonformal education to socioeconomic development in Africa. "Introduction" (Richard Siaciwena) presents an overview of the research project and defines key terms related to nonformal education. "Ghana: The Use of Radio in…

Siaciwena, Richard, Ed.


Cognitive profiling towards formal adaptive technologies in web-based learning communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

*Contact author Abstract: Virtual learning environments acquire learner profile for providing adaptivity features. Although sophisticated student modelling techniques are available in the literature for this purpose, they typically focus on performance of the learners. The individual cognitive attributes are largely ignored till now. This paper describes a complementary approach that considers cognitive traits of the learners which are in nature

Kinshuk; Taiyu Lin



Creating Personal Meaning through Technology-Supported Science Inquiry Learning across Formal and Informal Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a novel approach to engaging students in personal inquiry learning is described, whereby they carry out scientific investigations that are personally meaningful and relevant to their everyday lives. The learners are supported by software that guides the inquiry process, extending from the classroom into the school grounds, home, or…

Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Sharples, Mike; Ainsworth, Shaaron; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Wright, Michael



Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

Rillo, Thomas J.


Formalizing the Informal: From Informal to Organizational Learning in the PostIndustrial Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of current examples of reengineering, restructuring, mergers and acquisitions, some Canadian organizations in\\u000a the public, private and not-for-profit sectors provide an environment for individuals and teams to negotiate effectively the\\u000a kind of organizational change which has become endemic in today’s workplace. A focus on informal learning through basic social\\u000a processes contributes to employees’ collective ability to move

Marilyn Laiken; Karen Edge; Stephen Friedman; Karima West


"Is What You See What You Get?" The Production of Knowledge in-between the Indoors and the Outdoors in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many believe the "outdoors" is a key factor influencing student learning in "outdoor education" because it is so different from the "everyday" indoor contexts of students' lives. In much of the outdoor education literature the outdoors is construed as a neutral and simplified space which allows students to have more "real" and…

Zink, Robyn; Burrows, Lisette



Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.


Recognition and Validation of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Lifelong Learning and University in the Italian Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a reflection, on the basis of empirical research conducted in Italy, on theoretical, methodological and systemic-organisational aspects linked to the recognition and validation of the prior learning acquired by adult learners or workers who decide to enrol at university at a later stage in their lives. The interest in this research…

Di Rienzo, Paolo



Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs



Quality and satisfaction in an outdoor adventure education setting  

E-print Network

With formal beginnings in the 1960s, outdoor adventure education programs numbered over 300 after just two decades (Burton, 1981). Today, it is estimated that over 700 organizations offer wilderness programs for personal growth (Friese, 1996...

Hunt, Carter Allan



Fancy a Career Doing Therapy in the Outdoors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United Kingdom, no outdoor practitioner is working as a professional therapist and little formal training in outdoor therapy exists. Practice of this type requires supervision and professional accreditation. Interested undergraduates should check social work, probation, mental health, educational psychology, or occupational therapy…

Reed, Chris



"I Feel like I'm Being Hit from All Directions": Enduring the Bombardment as a Mature-Age Learner Returning to Formal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mature-age learner's re-engagement with a formal learning environment may be somewhat akin to the novice Paintball player who, unless well positioned and attuned to the rules of the combative game, is bombarded and worn down by constant "hits". For the mature-age learner, such "hits" may come in the form of tensions surrounding institutional…

Willans, Julie; Seary, Karen



Using Formal Embedded Formative Assessments Aligned with a Short-Term Learning Progression to Promote Conceptual Change and Achievement in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical…

Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.



Americans and the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A presidential panel was established in January, 1985 to examine the status of outdoor recreation in the United States. This publication briefly summarizes the full report of the President's Commission on Americans Outdoors. It discusses the essential need for providing every citizen with opportunity for outdoor experiences and suggest how it can…



Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

Weir, Phil



Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

Child Care Information Exchange, 2003



Schools Adapting Curriculum to the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily lessons at the Learning Gate Community School often tap the wonders of nature on the 27-acre campus, with its open fields and overgrown orange groves, and a treehouse overlooking an idyllic pond. Educators at Learning Gate say the outdoor classrooms and lessons are a balm for many of the ills that can hinder students' physical and mental…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy



Collaborative Creation of Knowledge Artifacts in an Outdoor Environment for Young Children  

E-print Network

Collaborative Creation of Knowledge Artifacts in an Outdoor Environment for Young Children Gene children's collaborative artifact creation in outdoor environments. Collaboration while creating a knowledge artifact is an important part of children's learning. Key aspects of supporting this process

Golbeck, Jennifer


Creativity Is Alive in outdoor Play! Children Solve Problems as They Invent Games on the Playground.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effect of children's outdoor play on their learning, the promotion of children's development by their playing of games which they have invented, and suggestions for adults to encourage children to invent outdoor games. (BC)

Castle, Kathryn; Wilson, Elaine



Hunting and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

Matthews, Bruce E.



Outdoor Recreation Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

Jubenville, Alan


Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.


Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.  


The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. PMID:24462995

Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne



Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set I contains 24 varied activities which make use of crafts, simulations, and basic investigative techniques to provide introductory learning experiences in outdoor biology for children aged 10 to 15. The individual water-resistant folio for each activity includes biological…

Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others


Saskatchewan's Trek School and the Greenall Outdoor School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trek School is an outdoor school program for any Grade 11 students in Regina, Saskatchewan. During the program, students engage in a series of classroom, outdoor, and experiential activities. The various courses are taught through these experiences. The program is designed to help students develop in the areas of independent learning, critical and…

Notenboom, Rob; Moore, Jeff



Motivations of Older Adults To Participate in Outdoor Adventure Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 782 older adults participating in "active outdoor" Elderhostel programs found the following important motivations for participating: being in a natural environment, being physically active, learning about outdoor skills and the environment, and being with people with similar interests. Recommendations are offered for program design and…

Sugerman, Deborah



Developing an Outdoor Education Program for Public Schools. Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education in, for, and about the outdoors is an effective way to develop students' knowledge and appreciation of their environment, to stimulate their curiosity, and to motivate them to learn. Steps involved in establishing an outdoor education program for public schools include: (1) gaining support of school teachers and administrators, parents,…

Euler, James S.


Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

Shortill, Rob



Exploring Small Climates--An Outdoor Science Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of climates in small areas as an outdoor science teaching technique is described in this paper. It is suggested that, while teachers are presenting a weather unit to their elementary school classes, they should not overlook the opportunity to make learning more meaningful through outdoor teaching techniques. Explorations of temperatures…

Rillo, Thomas J.


Outdoor education: Research topic or universal value? Part three  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the discussion in parts one and two there are two main points that emerge. The first is that it is difficult to identify from outdoor education literature a philosophical framework on which practice is based. Secondly, the body of outdoor education literature attaches more importance to learning outcomes relating to personal and social education than environmental education. The purpose

Robbie Nicol



Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others


Outdoor Education in the 80's--The Urban Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is a "process of education, a way of teaching which uses the outdoors as the major education facility and which actively involves students in the real world situations where learning takes place." Population shifts now place more than 85 per cent of the population in an urban society. If children from these environments are to…

Ezersky, Eugene M.


Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities in Government Organisations: Experiences of Public Sector Employees from Six Asian Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifelong learning and professional development have been the focus of government organisations after the 21st century was declared the "learning century", amidst the impact of globalisation and growth of knowledge-based economies. Although lifelong learning and professional development opportunities are available in most government organisations,…

Mokhtar, Intan A.



Introducing the Use of a Semi-Structured Video Diary Room to Investigate Students' Learning Experiences during an Outdoor Adventure Education Groupwork Skills Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…

Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.



Camping Out: An Outdoor Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camping Out is an outdoor education program designed to meet the needs of hearing-impaired, mentally retarded children. The program aims to help children overcome language deficits and restrictions of their limited environments while learning recreation skills which can enhance their motor, cognitive, and affective skills. The program covers seven…

Jenks, Mark


Ohio Sampler: Outdoor and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides practical suggestions and meaningful activities for implementing Ohio's model curriculum in science for instruction that emphasizes hands-on experience and diverse learning opportunities. It also includes a variety of nonscience activities that emphasize and utilize the outdoors. This Sampler lists activities by indoor or…

Ballbach, Joann, Ed.


Learning Physiotherapy: The Impact of Formal Education and Professional Experience. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 50.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether students of physiotherapy experienced the concepts "health,""movement,""function," and "interaction" differently during formal education and after some professional experience. Data were gathered by interviewing two groups of physiotherapy students at Linkoping University (Sweden) Faculty of Health Sciences, with…

Abrandt, Madeleine


Take Your Class Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers suggestions for designing outdoor activities to provide students with opportunities for exploring, observing, and discovering. Outlines several science activities for each of the following topics: trees, rocks, soil, insects, wild flowers, grasses, lichens, and clouds. (DS)

Shellenberger, Barbara R.



Healthy Air Outdoors  


... even threaten life itself. Protecting Your Health Outdoor air pollution threatens the lives and health of millions of ... complex challenges of global warming and energy use, air pollution remains a widespread problem. » More Fighting for Healthy ...


GameBuilder, an outdoor AR creation software  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the author designed and implemented GameBuilder, a desktop application targeted towards 11-14 year olds for creating Outdoor AR games. The software attempts to reduce its learning curve by limiting the ...

Zhang, Chuan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Resident Perceptions of Physical Environment Features that Influence Outdoor Usage at Assisted Living Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spending time outdoors has been found to have therapeutic potential, and to be highly valued by older adults, yet outdoor areas at residential care facilities are commonly reported as being underutilized. To learn what features of the physical environment were perceived by residents as either attracting or deterring outdoor usage, this study conducted focus groups and written surveys at fourteen

Susan Rodiek



Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

Greenstein, Doreen; And Others


The Missing Link to Connect Education and Employment: Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of learning outcomes is at the heart of many research programmes and policy responses. International surveys (from the International Adult Literacy Survey, back in the mid-nineties, to the forthcoming Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes two OECD surveys), National Qualifications Frameworks or the European Qualifications…

Werquin, Patrick



Teaching English through Open Non-Formal Education (ONFE) in Bangladesh with an Effective Integration of ICT to Support Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program entitled "English in Action (EIA)", 9 year period DFID funded project in Bangladesh, was launched in 2008, for the desire to bring a change in the learning of English language. EIA works to reach a total of 25 million primary and secondary students and adult learners through communicative language learning techniques and the use of…

Rahman, Md. Mizanoor; Panda, Santosh



Making formal software specification easy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even after so many years of research and development in building formal software specification languages, they are not yet popular in the industry for real-world applications. The number of reported success of using formal methods in industrial applications still remains very low. The reasons include: difficulty in learning new and complex mathematical notations, scarcity of experts in the field and

B. P. Arun; N. Murali; P. Swaminathan; K. C. Senthil



The Instructor and Experiential Education in the Outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiential education can be taught most effectively in the outdoors when linked to the psychological foundations of teaching and learning. These include communication, perception, arousal, and motivation. Differences are explained for both teaching and learning styles.Experiential education is distinguished from experiential learning, and salient educational strategies are integrated into the education cycle. These include focusing, feedback and support, self-responsibility, and

Maurice Phipps



Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages  

E-print Network

Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages Applications to Verification Learning A Tutorial P. Madhusudan Learning Algorithms and Formal Verification #12;Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages Applications to Verification Outline 1 Computational Learning Theory 2 Learning

Parthasarathy, Madhusudan


Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Science, Lawrence H.



Formal Music Education Not Only Enhances Musical Skills, but Also Conceptions of Teaching and Learning: A Study with Woodwind Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies conceptions of woodwind students regarding learning and teaching music, within the framework of implicit theories. It analyzes whether there are differences related to participants' instruction level, and whether it is possible to identify profiles according to their conceptions. Sixty-eight students from three different…

Marín, Cristina; Scheuer, Nora; Pérez-Echeverría, María-Puy



Beyond formalism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

Denning, Peter J.



[Science in the Outdoors].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

Sarage, Joe; And Others


Outdoor Water Conservation  

E-print Network

L-438 Outdoor Water Conservation The City of OKLAHOMA CITY UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Oklahoma.JustinQ.Moss 1 #12;2 SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING A WATER CONSERVING LANDSCAPE 1. GOOD LANDSCAPE PLANNING University Water Saving Design Ideas for Oklahoma Landscapes #12;About this guide: The

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"


Your Brain Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way technology influences a person's cognition is seldom recognized, but is of increasing interest among brain researchers. Outdoor educators tend to pay attention to the way different activities offer different perceptions of an environment. When natural spaces can no longer be accessed, they adapt and simulate natural activities in available…

MacEachren, Zabe



Outdoor PV degradation comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more

D. C. Jordan; R. M. Smith; C. R. Osterwald; E. Gelak; S. R. Kurtz



Outdoor Creative Play Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are given for the development of outdoor play areas on school sites to provide children with natural areas and simple facilities for creative play. Site selection, analysis, and development are discussed. Natural, topographical features of the environment and natural play equipment are suggested. Illustrations are also presented to aid…

Miller, Peggy L.


Infant and Toddler Outdoor Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is the time to take full advantage of the myriad wonders of nature--and all the outdoor play spaces--with children and toddlers. In this article, the author presents several outdoor summer activities for infants and toddlers.

Honig, Alice Sterling



Contemporary Perspectives in Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide the student of outdoor education with a synthesis of current literature in the field, this collection presents 26 articles which range from administrative to practical applications of outdoor education theory and philosophy. Articles include discussions of: (1) the philosophy of outdoor education; (2) a London school and its…

Lewis, Charles A., Jr., Ed.; Carlson, Marcia K., Ed.


The Role of Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written to assist those responsible for school programs in outdoor education, this book concerns itself with curriculum, resources, leadership, and activities and projects in outdoor education. Relying on current theories and practices, this work suggests areas in which research and testing need to be done. Major divisions of the book are Outdoor

Gabrielsen, M. Alexander; Holtzer, Charles


Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

Olson, Joann S.



Group Dynamics and Initiative Activities with Outdoor Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on group dynamics and introduces the use of initiative activities as a means of facilitating a more cohesive group experience in outdoor programs. Specific topics addressed and defined include: (1) curative factors of groups (universality, didactic learning, altruism, socialization, peer learning, group cohesiveness); (2) stages…

Zwaagstra, Lynn


Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

Carter, Candice C.



Outdoor Lighting Ordinances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A principal means to prevent poor exterior lighting practices is a lighting control ordinance. It is an enforceable legal restriction on specific lighting practices that are deemed unacceptable by the government body having jurisdiction. Outdoor lighting codes have proven to be effective at reducing polluting and trespassing light. A well written exterior lighting code will permit all forms of necessary illumination at reasonable intensities, but will demand shielding and other measures to prevent trespass and light pollution. A good code will also apply to all forms of outdoor lighting, including streets, highways, and exterior signs, as well as the lighting on dwellings, commercial and industrial buildings and building sites. A good code can make exceptions for special uses, provided it complies with an effective standard. The IDA Model Lighting Ordinance is a response to these requests. It is intended as an aid to communities that are seeking to take control of their outdoor lighting, to "take back the night" that is being lost to careless and excessive use of night lighting.

Davis, S.



Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics: a cross-sectional neighborhood observation study  

PubMed Central

Background Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children’s outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to identify quantitative as well as qualitative neighborhood characteristics related to outdoor play by means of neighborhood observations. Methods Questionnaires including questions on outdoor play behavior of the child were distributed among 3,651 parents of primary school children (aged 4–12?years). Furthermore, neighborhood observations were conducted in 33 Dutch neighborhoods to map neighborhood characteristics such as buildings, formal outdoor play facilities, public space, street pattern, traffic safety, social neighborhood characteristics, and general impression. Data of the questionnaires and the neighborhood observations were coupled via postal code of the respondents. Multilevel GEE analyses were performed to quantify the correlation between outdoor play and independently measured neighborhood characteristics. Results Parental education was negatively associated with outdoor play among children. Neither the presence nor the overall quality of formal outdoor play facilities were (positively) related to outdoor play among children in this study. Rather, informal play areas such as the presence of sidewalks were related to children’s outdoor play. Also, traffic safety was an important characteristic associated with outdoor play. Conclusions This study showed that, apart from individual factors such as parental education level, certain modifiable characteristics in the neighborhood environment (as measured by neighborhood observations) were associated with outdoor play among boys and girls of different age groups in The Netherlands. Local policy makers from different sectors can use these research findings in creating more activity-friendly neighborhoods for children. PMID:22901102



Gender Choreography and Micro-Structures--Early Childhood Professionals' Understanding of Gender Roles and Gender Patterns in Outdoor Play and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre-school professionals understand the notion of gender-equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre-school playground. The study draws on socio-cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre-schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on…

Arlemalm-Hagser, Eva



Outdoor recreational opportunities in Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What comes to mind when you think about outdoor recreational opportunities? Diagram of the recreational opportunities to enjoy First we will look at the forest services and recreational opportunities. Forest Services There is plenty of hunting opportunities in Alabama to enjoy. Hunting Opportunities Outdoor tips can be essential when enjoying the outdoors. Outdoor Tips What a better way to spend a weekend then going fishing with family and friends. Places to Fish A great way to spend a weekend could also consist of hiking. Hiking Now ...

Smith, Adam



Gender choreography and micro?structures – early childhood professionals' understanding of gender roles and gender patterns in outdoor play and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre?school professionals understand the notion of gender?equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre?school playground. The study draws on socio?cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre?schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on gender education. Video recording and focus group discussions



Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

Ford, Phyllis


Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin



OBIS: Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project began in 1972 to enable non-school youth groups (aged 10-15) to gain firsthand experiences in outdoor environments. This descriptive paper explains the program including its purpose and historical background. Specific objectives are to: (1) stimulate curiosity about local environments;…

Donovan, Edward P.; Richmond, Robert F.


Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.


Technology Works in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

Zita, Adam



View the Zoo! Evaluation of Visual Communication in an Outdoor Educational Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost all of what people learn from outdoor educational settings such as zoos and gardens stems from the exhibits themselves or signs about the exhibits. Evaluation of the various forms of visual communication in outdoor educational settings is necessary to determine the effectiveness of exhibitions, educational activities, and/or conservation…

Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others


The Double-Edged Sword: Critical Reflections on Traditional and Modern Technology in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outdoor education experience continues to be influenced by a proliferation of modern technological innovations, most of which have been accepted and even embraced by educators with little inquiry. Seldom do instructors of outdoor programmes consider the impact that modern techniques and equipment can have upon students' learning. This paper…

Cuthbertson, Brent; Socha, Teresa L.; Potter, Tom G.



Supporting Outdoor Play for Young Children: The Zone Model of Playground Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff at the Frank Porter Graham (FPG) Child Care Program developed the zone model of playground supervision (ZoMPS) to ensure a safe environment for outdoor play and enhance playground time for all children. In addition to the social and free-play elements of outdoor play, they wanted to provide activities that support learning and development.…

Kern, Petra; Wakeford, Linn



Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

Mullins, Philip M.



Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

Rosenow, Nancy



COEO's Landmark Research Summary: "Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past year, Andrea Foster reviewed a wide array of current and international research into the multiple, powerful and lasting outcomes produced through utilizing outdoor and experiential education (OEE) as a key learning methodology. As co-authors, Foster and Linney produced an 80-page document that reports the findings according to the…

Linney, Grant



The Mobile Educational Trailer Unit in Outdoor Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of achieving mobility for outdoor teaching using a small mobile educational unit and the techniques of facilitating the mobility of equipment and supplies are discussed in this article. A small trailer unit can be used to enrich the learning experiences of students. Since the mobile educational unit is adaptable, it can be used as a…

Rillo, Thomas J.


Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.


Old Time Apple Cider Makin': An Outdoor Education Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An illustrated, self-contained packet, the resource materials contained in this guide are designed for adaptation to K-8. The resources and ideas presented here are designed to encourage utilization of the outdoors as a learning resource. While intrinsically multidisciplinary, the activities are particularly adaptable to social studies, science,…

Matthews, Bruce E.; Oakes, David B.


Outdoor School: Creating A Passion for the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental education aids in creating deeper understanding, investigation, and decision-making skills among students. The goal of environmental education is to lead students to become effective environmental stewards. We created an ongoing service learning partnership that combines mentoring, environmental education, and community resources with elementary and college students in an Outdoor School program. This paper outlines the process and content of

Diana Flannery; Mary Portis; Alicia Eller; Mark Stemen



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Outdoor Science: A Practical Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available February 2010. Research shows that environment-centered education improves student achievement. Whatever your school's setting--urban, suburban, or rural--you can create stimulating outdoor classrooms for your students, with a litt

Rich, Steve



Outdoor air flow control for VAV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controls for variable air volume (VAV) systems must assure a minimum outdoor air flow rate for space pressurization. ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 places additional emphasis on the outdoor air flow to assure adequate ventilation. Economizer controls also vary outdoor air flow to maintain discharge air temperature. In VAV systems, meeting these multiple outdoor air flow-related requirements presents some significant control challenges.

G. J. Janu; J. D. Wenger; C. G. Nesler



Learners and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, constructivist, and neuroscience theories of learning are briefly described. In the training of outdoor activity instructors/teachers, the curriculum should contain modules on various learning styles so that participants have equal opportunities to digest outdoor experiences and interpret them in a manner that…

Grant, Frank



Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

fingerprints on the gun." p q r #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. DrReasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12

Löwe, Benedikt


Problematising "Education" and "Training" in the Scottish Sport and Fitness, Play and Outdoor Sectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sets out the issues peculiar to the Scottish workforce in sport and fitness, play and the outdoor sectors. Provides an exploration of the development of vocational education in the form of sector skills training for these sectors in opposition to that formal education provided at further and higher education level. Draws on empirical research…

Foley, M.; Frew, M.; McGillivray, D.; McIntosh, A.; McPherson, G.



Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim



Outdoor Recreation at Brock University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brock University offers both undergraduate and graduate programs and is host to approximately 17,000 students. It is the only Canadian university located in a World Biosphere Reserve--the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail passes through campus, and offers ample opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, nature interpretation and outdoor

Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Hutson, Garrett



Outdoor HV composite polymeric insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

HV composite polymeric insulators are being accepted increasingly for use in outdoor installations by the traditionally cautious electric power utilities worldwide. They currently represent ~60 to 70% of newly installed HV insulators in North America. The tremendous growth in the applications of non-ceramic composite insulators is due to their advantages over the traditional ceramic and glass insulators. These include light

R. Hackam



Pathways to the Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography is designed to assist educators in establishing an outdoor classroom for environmental education. A process is detailed by which school districts can effectively and efficiently develop a site on or near the school. The first step involves organizing a planning committee, enlisting administrative support, and developing a budget.…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.



E-print Network

. This is necessary in order to reduce light pollution, which has a negative effect on people, wildlife sky. This causes light pollution, also known as artificial sky glow. Glare Glare is any overlappingMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

California at Davis, University of


Solar options in outdoor lighting  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the use of solar powered outdoor lighting in ecologically sensitive areas or where power line extensions are not economical or are unsightly. The topics of the article include choosing lighting based on climate conditions and expected use, sizing batteries and photovoltaic panels, and operation and maintenance needed including expected bulb life.

Wiener, M. (Southwest Photovoltaic Systems, Inc., Carrollton, TX (United States))



Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer



Outdoor Recreation Activities at Cispus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the activities in this booklet have been developed around skills related to the outdoors and, in particular, to the logging industry and forest fire fighting. The activities attempt to develop muscles, coordination skills, and teamwork. They also give the students (junior high school or high school) and staff the opportunity to do…

Cispus Environmental Center, Randle, WA.


75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conserving our great outdoors. Moreover, as Americans, we are responsible for protecting our heritage, including the raw beauty of our lands and waters. Together, let us rise to meet that responsibility and safeguard our cherished outdoor spaces...



9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3...shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless such...




EPA Science Inventory

Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...


Designing Backpacks for High Fidelity Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality Wayne Piekarski, Ross Smith, and Bruce H. Thomas  

E-print Network

Designing Backpacks for High Fidelity Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality Wayne Piekarski, Ross Abstract This paper presents the design for our latest backpack to support mobile outdoor augmented reality, and how it evolved from lessons learned with our previous designs. We present a number of novel features

Thomas, Bruce


Instructional Program Planning for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide on instructional program planning for outdoor education, prepared for Oakland County (Michigan) teachers, contains suggestions for program planning and lists information sources on suitable outdoor activities. The purpose of outdoor education is defined as being: "to enrich, vitalize and complement content areas of the school curriculum by…

Garbutt, Barbara; And Others


CALIFORNIA ENERGY California Outdoor Lighting Baseline  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION California Outdoor Lighting Baseline Database California Outdoor Lighting Analysis Database (product 7.6.5) TECHNICALREPORT Octoberr 2003 500-03-082-A-33 Gray Davis;#12;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The products and outcomes presented in this report are part of the Outdoor Lighting Baseline


How Effective Are Outdoor Education Centres?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve classes of students in grades 4 through 6 studied beaver ecology, either at an outdoor-education center near Toronto or in the classroom. Results indicate that outdoor education was more effective in promoting students' cognitive achievement than classroom study, but did not confirm the popular belief that outdoor programs influence…

Eaton, Dennis



Outdoor Recreation Action: Federal, State, Local, Private.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reports on outdoor recreation actions taken at the federal, state, local, and private levels. The Land and Water Conservation Fund and the financing of outdoor recreation on all levels are discussed. New agencies, personnel, reorganizations, resolutions, and recommendations for the organization and administration of outdoor recreation…

Kyle, George M., Ed.


Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan



The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directed to the Multnomah County (Oregon) sixth grade students participating in the Outdoor School program, the handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Information is provided on the Outdoor School site and staff;…

Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.



E-print Network



Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The interconnections of these three concepts---the outdoor setting, the students' interest, the social interaction---worked to provide the mechanisms by which the students increased their understanding of the rock cycle.

Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid


Formalizing Resources for Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present a classification scheme which circumscribes a large class of resources found in the real world. Building on the work of others we also define key properties of resources that allow formal expression of the proposed classification. Furthermore, operations that change the state of a resource are formalized. Together, properties and operations go a long way in formalizing the representation and reasoning aspects of resources for planning.

Bedrax-Weiss, Tania; McGann, Conor; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh



Formality in Rhetorical Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formality in rhetorical delivery can be defined as a complex variable that represents the speaker's efforts to invoke sociocultural rules of audience control through the nonverbal components of the delivery. This document describes some of the aspects of formality, outlines its significance in rhetorical contexts, and evaluates the concept in…

Skopec, Eric Wm.


semantics for Formality, Flexibility  

E-print Network

Meta B A flexible semantics for Event B Reeves, Streader Overview Formality, Flexibility or Both stacks Comparisons Subset Morphism Divergence Z+B Example Meta B A flexible semantics for Event B S A flexible semantics for Event B Reeves, Streader Overview Formality, Flexibility or Both Testing Horizontal

Streader, David


Case studies of individualized professional development at an outdoor education center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the publishing of A Nation at Risk in 1983, educators across the country have directed attention and formal research studies towards discovering why American schools are not producing graduates who measure up to students in other countries. Research has been done which deals with children's responses to learning science while utilizing a variety of educational strategies. Factors such as gender, ethnicity, class size, length of the school day or school year, equipment availability and usage, have been studied and their impact analyzed. New assessment devices and testing instruments have been used to measure the amount and quality of their learning. Significant in its absence from most studies is the recognition of what classroom teachers believe about science, what they feel to be the best way(s) to teach science, and how they actually teach science. Related research on these factors laid the ground work for this study. Teaching is a profession characterized by a need for life-long learning. Some teachers study for advanced degrees. "Workshops" and "teacher institutes", either on-site at their own schools or through other enrichment situations provide learning opportunities for others. Informal educational institutions which have provided science enrichment field trip opportunities have recently begun to look at the curriculum goals and expectations of the state boards of education and regional school districts. As they become informed about these goals, their enrichment opportunities are found to serve the schools more fully. This study focuses on the Arlington Echo Outdoor Education Center, where the staff does not merely plan, prepare for, and present lessons on various age-appropriate science topics to schoolchildren which come to them. Instead, it is the policy of this center to prepare the individual classroom teachers so that the teacher assumes the responsibility to provide the preparation of the children for the experience, the facilitation of the various activities and lessons while at the center, and the assessment of the student's learning following the experience. The staff works with each teacher to prepare them to use transdisciplinary science lessons which were planned to satisfy and enrich state, district, and school expectations (Outdoor Education Guidebook, 1997). The staff members believe that if the teachers are prepared to do these things, not only will the current students learn more, but that the teacher will experience growth professionally and this will impact more children over time. The teachers gain science content knowledge and learn constructivist teaching strategies while learning how to use the facilities and equipment safely and confidently. Ideas for preparatory and follow-up activities are made available. This study looked closely at the individualization of the professional development provided by this informal science institution. Data from observations of professional development sessions as well as the on-site experiences with the children were used in the study. Teachers were asked to reflect on the degree to which the Arlington Echo approach to professional development was beneficial in building their confidence about providing science-based, interdisciplinary experiences for their students, with comparisons made between the responses of veteran teachers and those of teachers with fewer years of experience. Through the reflections of the participant teachers, it was possible to gather data about whether their beliefs about science and about how science is best taught were modified by this experience.

Pearsall, Marjorie


Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.



Cognitive System Formalism: Analysis of an Architecture for Human/Robot Interactions  

E-print Network

Formalism (CSF) in order to simplify, analyze, compare and predict in a formal way the behaviors focused on the learning dynamics. Second, we will show that this formal study of a specific architecture and simplification rules. The CSF may enable to simplify, analyze, compare and predict in a formal way the behaviors

Gaussier, Philippe


Formal Concept Analysis based on Hierarchical Class Analysis Yaohua Chen, Yiyu Yao  

E-print Network

} Abstract The study of concept formation and learning is a central topic in cognitive informatics. Formal study some basic data units for formal concept analysis based on hierarchical class analysis relation and order relation, but also constitute all formal concepts derived from the formal context

Yao, Yiyu


MERLIN vehicles for outdoor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the European Mars Rover development, prototype vehicles for wheeled, tracked and tumbling locomotion have been implemented and tested. As a spin-off the versatile tracked and wheeled MERLIN (Mobile Experimental Rover for Locomotion and Intelligent Navigation) rovers for outdoor applications resulted. In this paper the navigation sensors and the control system are addressed, supporting the locomotion devices to deal with rough terrain, including autonomous obstacle detection and avoidance strategies. In addition an advanced telematics infrastructure for remote sensor data acquisition and tele-operations has been realized for these vehicles.

Schilling, Klaus; Meng, Qinghao



Empowering out of School Youth through Non-Formal Education in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-formal education, defined as any organized educational activity outside the established formal system whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objective is of great importance to society. It emerged out of the feeling that formal

Mualuko, Ndiku Judah



Integrated formal operations plan  

SciTech Connect

The concept of formal operations (that is, a collection of business practices to assure effective, accountable operations) has vexed the Laboratory for many years. To date most attempts at developing such programs have been based upon rigid, compliance-based interpretations of a veritable mountain of Department of Energy (DOE) orders, directives, notices, and standards. These DOE dictates seldom take the broad view but focus on highly specialized programs isolated from the overall context of formal operations. The result is a confusing array of specific, and often contradictory, requirements that produce a patchwork of overlapping niche programs. This unnecessary duplication wastes precious resources, dramatically increases the complexity of our work processes, and communicates a sense of confusion to our customers and regulators. Coupled with the artificial divisions that have historically existed among the Laboratory`s formal operations organizations (quality assurance, configuration management, records management, training, etc.), this approach has produced layers of increasingly vague and complex formal operations plans, each of which interprets its parent and adds additional requirements of its own. Organizational gridlock ensues whenever an activity attempts to implement these bureaucratic monstrosities. The integrated formal operations plan presented is to establish a set of requirements that must be met by an integrated formal operations program, assign responsibilities for implementation and operation of the program, and specify criteria against which the performance of the program will be measured. The accountable line manager specifies the items, processes, and information (the controlled elements) to which the formal operations program specified applies. The formal operations program is implemented using a graded approach based on the level of importance of the various controlled elements and the scope of the activities in which they are involved.

Cort, G.; Dearholt, W.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Tyler, R.; Wrye, J.




E-print Network

of the brain functions. After a rapid overview of neural computing, the thermodynamic formalism of the learning learning and generalisation [22]. Therefore, a considerable effort has been made to understand the brain proce­ dure is introduced. Besides its use in introducing efficient stochas­ tic learning algorithms


Columbus Outdoor Pursuits: A Model Structure for Volunteer Based Outdoor Pursuits Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Columbus Outdoor Pursuits (COP) is a volunteer-based nonprofit organization in Ohio that has offered outdoor educational and recreational opportunities to its members for 63 years. COP day and trip programs focus on outdoor activities such as bicycling, kayaking, hiking, and rock climbing. In addition, COP offers classes in the skills required for…

Gerckens, Ann E.



E-print Network

44 EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition) An expected learning outcome is a formal statement of what students are expected to learn in a course. Expected learning outcome statements refer to specific knowledge, practical skills, areas of professional

Rock, Chris


Ethical Frameworks, Moral Practices and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insights from quantum physics and chaos theory help create new metaphors about ethical frameworks and moral practices in outdoor education. The seemingly straightforward concept of values is analogous to the initial simple nonlinear equation of a fractal. The value claims of outdoor education--trust, cooperation, environmental awareness,…

Fox, Karen M.; Lautt, Mick


Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.


Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others


Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-print Network

in this report labeled Duke Power Water System Water Quality Table. Water Source The Outdoor Laboratory Water = Nephelometric Turbidity Units #12;2 Duke Power Water System Water Quality Table Contaminant Date Tested Unit MCL1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 1999 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

Duchowski, Andrew T.


Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-print Network

in this report labeled Duke Power Water System Water Quality Table. Water Source The Outdoor Laboratory Water = Nephelometric Turbidity Units #12;2 Duke Power Water System Water Quality Table Contaminant Date Tested Unit MCL1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 2000 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

Duchowski, Andrew T.


Outdoor Radar Mapping Using Measurement Likelihood Estimation  

E-print Network

Outdoor Radar Mapping Using Measurement Likelihood Estimation John Mullane, Martin D. Adams measure- ment models can be estimated directly. FMCW radar sensors are typically applied to outdoor. This is due to the radar's ability to penetrate dust, fog, and rain [2]. 2 Related Work Signal processing

Boyer, Edmond


Changing Roles for Outdoor Education Centres.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been two traditions of outdoor education in Great Britain. Field studies focus on science, while outdoor pursuits focus on physical skills and technical knowledge or personal and social development through challenging situations. These two approaches have much in common and much to offer each other. Although both approaches use the…

Cooper, Geoff


Missouri Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan: Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a summary of the Missouri State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan, which was designed to provide guidelines for allocation of resources for needed recreation facilities. The plan identifies the present and future needs for outdoor recreation and recommends ways of meeting these needs. This 1967 document provides a brief history…

Missouri State Inter-Agency for Outdoor Recreation, Jefferson.


Mobility Modeling of Outdoor Scenarios for MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility of users significantly impacts performance of a mobile ad-hoc network. Most existing simulation tools offer only a few random mobility models, which poorly reflect user movements in outdoor scenarios. For example, they do not consider restrictions of a spatial environment. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and extensible approach to model mobility of users in outdoor scenarios. It

Illya Stepanov; Pedro Jose Marron; Kurt Rothermel



The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for those interested in the mechanics of establishing outdoor education programs, this text is basically a guide to program development and includes examples of procedures, forms, conceptualizations, etc. Chapters deal with: (1) the contemporary education scene (an overview); (2) the basic concepts of outdoor education (17 concept…

Lewis, Charles A., Jr.


The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directed to the Multnomah County, Oregon, sixth grade students who participate in the Outdoor School program, the reusable handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Each week, four sixth grade classes from different…

Gilfillan, Warren C., Comp.; Burgess, Robert A., Comp.


People, Adventure and Outdoor Education in  

E-print Network

) 1987 Army Adventurous Training Centre (AATC) 1989 Hamilton Skills Centre 1991 Auckland UniversityPeople, Adventure and Outdoor Education in New Zealand Andy Thompson PG Dip Outdoor Education:// departments/sport-and-adventure.html · Adventure Instructor / Guides · Tourism Guides · Independent

Northern British Columbia, University of


Suggested Bibliography for Outdoor Education and Camping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-seven books and articles published between 1939 and 1964 are listed in this bibliography for students and teachers of outdoor education. The entries are listed alphabetically under the following subject headings: outdoor education, conservation, administration, aquatics, archery, arts and crafts, Indian lore, nature study, riding, rifle,…

New Jersey State School of Conservation, Branchville.


Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

Bunting, Camille J.



E-print Network

Check one of the following: Variable Air Volume (VAV) - Check as appropriate: a. Sensor used to control outdoor air flow must have calibration certificate or be fieldSTATE OF CALIFORNIA OUTDOOR AIR ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-2A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION


Selection of standby batteries for outdoor systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the engineer responsible for selecting batteries for outdoor systems should be to minimize the cost of batteries over the life of the system. Due to the costs associated with battery replacement in decentralized outdoor sites, this objective is best achieved by selecting a battery which can deliver a long life. This is true even if there is

P. Shumard



Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.


Arnold Schwarzenegger INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR LEAKAGE  

E-print Network

quantifies the air flow through the building shell for a given indoor-outdoor pressure difference. A natural, the driving forces for air infiltration through the building envelope are wind, which exerts pressure on walls air, the denser outdoor air causes the vertical rate of change in pressure to be faster than


Outdoor Recreation Action. Report No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statements of several national and state leaders concerning the importance of outdoor recreation begin this report. Methods of financing outdoor recreation by State and Federal agencies, private foundations, and regional and intergovernmental departments are given and briefly discussed. The section on organization and administration is divided…

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.


Smithsonian American Art Museum SAVE OUTDOOR SCULPTURE!  

E-print Network

Smithsonian American Art Museum SAVE OUTDOOR SCULPTURE! CONSERVATION TREATMENT NOTIFICATION REPORT American Art Museum, nearly 32,000 outdoor sculptures were surveyed and condition assessments performed. SOS! data is now online as part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum's national Inventories

Mathis, Wayne N.


Does Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Really Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), using wilderness therapy and related outdoor programming, is an emerging treatment for adolescents with behavioral, psychological, and substance abuse disorders. A literature review examining OBH outcomes related to self-concept, interpersonal skills, substance abuse, criminal recidivism, and behavioral and…

Russell, Keith C.



Outdoor Education: A Book of Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 78 readings on outdoor education are presented, each reflecting the perceptions of many leaders concerning the interdisciplinary nature and value of this phase of education. This volume was intended to stimulate educational leaders in initiating and developing outdoor education programs in their schools. Chapters are entitled…

Hammerman, Donald R., Comp.; Hammerman, William M., Comp.


Outdoor air pollution and asthma.  


Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R



Megatrends in Outdoor Education: Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspired by John Naisbitt's "Megatrends," the article identifies the past, present, and future directions of outdoor education. The article notes the implications of these directions for outdoor education programing and forecasts changes in outdoor education. (SB)

Rillo, Thomas J.



Use of outdoor containments at Westinghouse Hanford Company  

SciTech Connect

This discussion describes the development and application of outdoor containments at Hanford Site Tank Farm facilities. Tank Farms is a huge facility, spread over the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company operates the Tank Farms for the US Department of Energy. The operation and maintenance of this facility require routine access to underground storage tanks and above ground support structures. In the past, workers often accessed tanks and structures in the open, without containment. In general this approach worked; however, it relied on the skill of our crafts and calm weather conditions. The current regulatory environment and our increased focus on safety demand use of more stringent and reliable containment techniques. Historically, the use of containments has been limited mostly to indoor activities which support radiological maintenance at facilities such as reactors and process facilities. Expanding the use of these containments to support work at the Tank Farms and other outdoor activities presents many challenges. Westinghouse Hanford is actively pursuing innovative solutions to issues of outdoor containments. The process of evaluating new containment solutions, and our lessons learned are described below.

Brown, R.L.; Sparks, D.L.



Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.



"Let's Throw That Big Stick in the River": An Exploration of Gender in the Construction of Shared Narratives around Outdoor Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will explore the role of gender in the construction of shared narratives around outdoor spaces. The paper draws on findings from a long-term project investigating young children's learning and the outdoor curriculum. The project is ongoing and involves children aged 3- to 4-years in a nursery school in England. The children are given…

Waller, Tim



Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.



Formal Verification of Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a model for web sites is presented. The model is well-suited for the formal veriflcation of dynamic as well as static properties of the system. A web site is deflned as a collection of web pages which are semantically connected in some way. External web pages (which are related pages not belonging to the web site) are

Sonia Flores; Salvador Lucas; Alicia Villanueva



Formalizing Spider Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geared to complement UML and to the specification of large software systems by non-mathematicians,spider di- agrams are a visual language that generalizes the popu- lar and intuitive Venn diagrams and Euler circles. The language design emphasized scalability and expressiveness while retaining intuitiveness. In this extended abstract we describe spider diagrams from a mathematical standpoint and show how their formal semantics

Joseph Gil; John Howse; Stuart Kent



Lessons from the Mud: Nurturing an Outdoor Classroom in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A muddy area between two new elementary schools was transformed into a school "wetlands"--an outdoor learning center used for nature study and various creative and sensory activities. The area encourages children's natural curiosity, provides many discoveries about nature, and promotes a sense of stewardship. (SV)

Bodner, Virginia; Sampson, Karla



Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio



Optimising skills transfer via outdoor management development : Part I : the provider's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite rapid expansion in provision of outdoor management development (OMD), there is a lack of empirical evidence to support the efficacy of the learning process and crucially, its transfer to the workplace. Prompted by the dearth of research into the linkage between programme aims, the methodologies utilised and outcomes that are purported to accrue, a new framework for analysing the

Veronica Burke; David Collins



Canoe Pedagogy and Colonial History: Exploring Contested Spaces of Outdoor Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I explore how histories of colonialism are integral to the Euro-Western idea of wilderness at the heart of much outdoor environmental education. In the context of canoe tripping, I speculate about why the politics of land rarely enters into teaching on the land. Finally, because learning from difficult knowledge often troubles the…

Newbery, Liz



Exploring Bi-Cultural Awareness through Outdoor Education in Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the use of outdoor-based experiential learning in an undergraduate physical education teacher preparation program to develop a culturally-sensitive pedagogy for work with children from different cultures. Applying the six-stage process for becoming a bi-cultural teacher (Klug & Whitfield, 2003), teacher preparation students…

Brawdy, Paul J.



Transient Attributes for High-Level Understanding and Editing of Outdoor Scenes  

E-print Network

Zhile Ren Xiaofeng Tao Chao Qian James Hays Brown University more "winter" more "night" more "warm" more with the desired attributes (right), by learning local color transforms from a large dataset of annotated outdoor processing and computer vision]: Scene analysis--Time-varying imagery Keywords: image database, attribute

Hays, James


The Use of Outdoor Education To Aid the Social Development of Pupils with Special Educational Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty pupils aged 13-15 from East Anglia (England) with special educational needs (moderate learning difficulties) participated in a 5-day residential outdoor education course. Student interviews before and after the course indicate that all students increased in self-esteem; they made more friends, developed greater trust in others, were…

Chapman, Lawrence



Freedom, Flow and Fairness: Exploring How Children Develop Socially at School through Outdoor Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report on a study that sought to discover micro-level social interactions in fluid outdoor learning spaces. Our methodology was centred around the children; our methods moved with them and captured their social interactions through mobile audio-recording. We argue that our methodological approach supported access to…

Waite, Sue; Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie



Music Therapy Engages Children with Autism in Outdoor Play. FPG Snapshot. Number 39, February 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unstructured space, running, climbing, sliding, and loud nature of playground time can be overwhelming for children with autism who thrive on predictable and structured routines. As a result, these preschoolers often do not experience the learning and social development benefits from outdoor play seen in their typically developing classmates.…

FPG Child Development Institute, 2007



Keep Food Safe When Cooking Outdoors  

E-print Network

Keep Food Safe When Cooking Outdoors E-144 11/08 Jenna Anding Extension Program Leader and Associate Professor for Nutrition and Food Science, The Texas A&M System O utdoor grilling is a fun way to cook food for family and friends. Although we... often regard grilling outdoors as a summertime activity, many people cook outdoors year-round. To keep your cookouts safe, follow these steps before, during, and after grilling to ensure a clean workspace and safe food preparation. Before you begin...

Anding, Jenna



Blended Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan



Reducing Indoor Residential Exposures to Outdoor Pollutants  

E-print Network

strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational.................................................................................................................... 7 Lead


Robotic Lander Completes Multiple Outdoor Flight  

NASA Video Gallery

NASAâ??s Robotic Lander Development Project in Huntsville, Ala., has successfully completed seven autonomous outdoor flight tests of a lander prototype, dubbed Mighty Eagle. On Oct. 14, Mighty Eagl...


9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits kept outdoors to protect themselves from the direct rays of the sun. When the atmospheric temperature exceeds 90 °F. artificial cooling shall be provided by a sprinkler system or other...



Typed Formal Concept Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) appears to be ideal for in- terpreting data in domains that are a-priori unstructured. In our re- search we focus on complex contexts with very large and rapidly changing numbers of real-world objects { for instance, data generated on-line and tracking real-time contexts in transport, enterprise warehousing, manu- facturing control or social networking activities on the

Ian D. Peake; Ian E. Thomas; Heinz W. Schmidt


Environmental Respect: A New Approach to Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most outdoor education programs do not include the teaching of correct outdoor behavior. The purpose of this manual is to assist educators and concerned lay persons in establishing an outdoor education program with an instructional strategy that will manipulate students into becoming responsible, ethical, respectful outdoor citizens. Both lay…

Huck, Albert R.; Decker, Eugene


Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

Huffman, Michael G.


Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.


Formalizing the concept of sound.  

SciTech Connect

The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.




E-print Network

LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS,LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS, AND SPECTATOR SAFETYAND SPECTATOR SAFETYWednesday, January 21stst , 2004, 2004 #12;LIGHTNING STORIES...LIGHTNING STORIES... #12;LIGHTNING STORIES...LIGHTNINGVirginia Tech What happened?What happened? Lightning struck the ground, 6/10Lightning struck the ground, 6

Colorado at Boulder, University of


An ethnography of the outdoor classroom – how teachers manage risk in the outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the approaches to risk that some teachers adopt when they are involved in facilitating outdoor activities. The research was carried out at a residential outdoor centre as part of a PhD study and a follow-up pilot project. The participants were primary school pupils, their teachers and the centre staff. For the purpose of this article, the term

Ina Stan; Barbara Humberstone



The MObile-Based Interactive Learning Environment (MOBILE) and A Case Study for Assisting Elementary School English Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research develops a mobile-based interactive learning environment (MOBILE) for aiding elementary school English learning. The MOBILE consists of a mobile learning server and mobile learning tools, which is able to support in- or outdoor learning activities. Several theme-based mobile learning activities including body parts learning and creation of species are conducted. Experimental results obtained from posttests and questionnaire indicate

Tan-hsu Tan; Tsung-yu Liu



Scenario based outdoor simulation in pre-hospital trauma care using a simple mannequin model  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a system of scenario-based training using simple mannequins under realistic circumstances for the training of pre-hospital care providers. Methods A simple intubatable mannequin or student volunteers are used together with a training version of the equipment used on a routine basis by the pre-hospital care team (doctor + paramedic). Training is conducted outdoors at the base location all year round. The scenarios are led by scenario facilitators who are predominantly senior physicians. Their role is to brief the training team and guide the scenario, results of patient assessment and the simulated responses to interventions and treatment. Pilots, fire-fighters and medical students are utilised in scenarios to enhance realism by taking up roles as bystanders, additional ambulance staff and police. These scenario participants are briefed and introduced to the scene in a realistic manner. After completion of the scenario, the training team would usually be invited to prepare and deliver a hospital handover as they would in a real mission. A formal structured debrief then takes place. Results This training method technique has been used for the training of all London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (London HEMS) doctors and paramedics over the last 24 months. Informal participant feedback suggests that this is a very useful teaching method, both for improving motor skills, critical decision-making, scene management and team interaction. Although formal assessment of this technique has not yet taken place we describe how this type of training is conducted in a busy operational pre-hospital trauma service. Discussion The teaching and maintenance of pre-hospital care skills is essential to an effective pre-hospital trauma care system. Simple mannequin based scenario training is feasible on a day-to-day basis and has the advantages of low cost, rapid set up and turn around. The scope of scenarios is limited only by the imagination of the trainers. Significant effort is made to put the participants into "the Zone" - the psychological mindset, where they believe they are in a realistic setting and treating a real patient, so that they gain the most from each teaching session. The method can be used for learning new skills, communication and leadership as well as maintaining existing skills. Conclusion The method described is a low technology, low cost alternative to high technology simulation which may provide a useful adjunct to delivering effective training when properly prepared and delivered. We find this useful for both induction and regular training of pre-hospital trauma care providers. PMID:20230636



Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan



Outdoor and laboratory testing of photovoltaic modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of outdoor and laboratory testing being applied to terrestrial photovoltaic modules is presented. Descriptions of the test procedures, examples of results, and discussion of the advantages and shortcomings of each approach are included. The test program consists of real-time outdoor testing of systems, modules and materials, and accelerated outdoor testing and laboratory testing of modules. The test results suggest that the various types of tests complement each other and contribute toward the objective of verifying the environmental suitability of the product. A description of representative photovoltaic systems operational in the U.S. in 1981 is presented, along with an identification, description, and physical inspection summary of JPL test module sites and a summary of degradation and failure data for the modules.

Hoffman, A.; Jaffe, P.; Griffith, J.



Contributions to reproducible CPV outdoor power ratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodologies that aim to obtain a reproducible power rating are still under discussion at the WG7 of the IEC and there is a need for feedback from real field application in order to validate or improve these methods. These procedures are evaluated through the outdoor rating of seven modules from four different CPV technologies, which have been measured at the CEA outdoor monitoring bench at the Institut National de l'Energie Solaire (INES) site. The benefit of introducing other procedural considerations is analyzed, namely the inclusion of spectrally-corrected irradiance, the utilization of lens temperature as a new parameter for regressions and the optimization of dataset filtering.

Besson, Pierre; Domínguez, César; Baudrit, Mathieu



Terra in K-16 formal education settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.



Deep first formal concept search.  


The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis. PMID:25254232

Zhang, Tao; Li, Hui; Hong, Wenxue; Yuan, Xiamei; Wei, Xinyu



Deep First Formal Concept Search  

PubMed Central

The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis.

Zhang, Tao; Li, Hui; Hong, Wenxue; Yuan, Xiamei; Wei, Xinyu



The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

Duvekot, Ruud



Cooperative learning: effective teamwork for engineering classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A definition of cooperative learning and a brief overview of types of cooperative learning groups-informal, formal, and base, are presented. Essential elements of a well-structured formal cooperative learning group are considered along with the professor's role in structuring a problem-based cooperative learning group. A summary of research support for cooperative learning is also presented

Karl A. Smith



Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

Collins, Di


Outdoor Management Development – Reality or Illusion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically examines the basis on which outdoor management development (OMD) is founded. Much of the available literature on the subject is anecdotal and serves only to perpetuate an illusion of management development through activities such as climbing and canoeing in beautiful scenery. Identifies six criteria which represent the necessary constituents of OMD; these are not exclusive to OMD and may

Dominic Irvine; John P. Wilson



The power of outdoor management development  

Microsoft Academic Search

States that outdoor management development (OMD) is on the increase. Based on personal experience, lists the characteristics of effective OMD programmes, and argues that this type of training can be very powerful. On the basis of a review of relevant literature and anecdotal evidence, discusses ten salient features of OMD that account for this power: emotional intensity; psychological safety; consequentiality;

Glenn M. McEvoy; Paul F. Buller



Beyond Networking: Connecting University Outdoor Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, the authors started a discussion about St. Cloud State University Outdoor Endeavors working together to run a trip in the Everglades National Park. The following summer they began the planning process through phone conversations, email and division of tasks. Despite the physical distance and separate university systems, each with their…

Bartha, Ivan; Morgan, Brett



Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Officially founded in 1972 (but existing in another form before that), the Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association (SOEEA) is steadily approaching its 40th birthday and still going strong. A year ago (2006), however, this was not the case. At that time both the past-president and administrative assistant (a married couple)…

White, Peta



The Crystal Lake Outdoor Education Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-year school-community outdoor education program in the elementary school district in Crystal Lake, Illinois, was funded in 1967 under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Success of the project was such that the board of education agreed to fund the program locally and enlarge its scope. As reported, the keynotes were…

Donaldson, George W.



E-print Network

Location or Area Served: 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Forms August 2009 NA7.7.1 Outdoor Motion Sensor. Motion Sensor Construction Inspection Motion sensor has been located to minimize false signals Sensor is not triggered by motion outside of adjacent area Desired motion sensor coverage is not blocked by obstruction


Equivalent outdoor temperature for district heating systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the influence of various climatic variables on the mass flow in district heating systems. The aim is to establish an equation of what is called the equivalent outdoor temperature. Two possible ways of doing this are considered. In both cases, dynamic models are needed of the mass flow with climatic variables as external inputs. The resulting equation for the equivalent outdoor temperature, which may be nonlinear, shows the equivalent value of each climatic variable in degrees Celsius. Thus, the equivalent temperature can be considered a variable that contains the effect of various weather factors on the mass flow. Measurements from the daily operation of a heating company in Iceland are used in a case study. It is also shown how the uncertainty in the parameters of the equivalent temperature equation can be estimated. The results indicate that, based on the present data, a linear relation between the outdoor temperature, the wind speed, and the number of sunshine hours is adequate for describing the equivalent outdoor temperature.

Jonsson, G.R.; Jonsson, V.K. [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering



Relighting Acquired Models of Outdoor Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a relighting algorithm for dif- fuse outdoor scenes that enables us to create geometrically correct and illumination consistent models from a series of range scans and a set of overlapping photographs that have been taken under different illumination conditions. To per- form the relighting we compute a set of mappings from the overlap region of

Alejandro Troccoli; Peter K. Allen



National Outdoor Leadership School: Spotlight on Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety management at the National Outdoor Leadership School. Describes safety responsibilities of staff and administrators, staff training and skills development courses, administration and paperwork, student responsibility for safety, field support services, evacuation support system, safety audits, and the safety review process. (SV)

Schimelpfenig, Tod



Princeton University Outdoor Action Sustainability Guide  

E-print Network

on 100% post-consumer recycled content paper. #12;Table of Contents Overview ·About this guide ·Sample No Trace and Sustainability ·LNT on and off the trail ·Outdoor Action's efforts ·Food sources ·Waste plan


Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others


Outdoor Education: Issues & Investigations, 5-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to familiarize Oklahoma students with their environment by providing opportunities for exploration, investigation, and evaluation, this outdoor education guide contains suggested activities to be used as a starting point to arouse the interest and curiosity of students through direct observation and investigation. As an additional…

Boules, Allen, Ed.


Educational Specifications for the Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to develop educational specifications for an outdoor school after determining curricular offerings and recognizing administrative problems. A review of literature provided a basis for the formulation of tentative criteria in the areas of curriculum, administration, site selection, and facilities development. Tentative…

Homan, Paul Barringer


Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

Aikman, John H.; And Others


Health and Safety in Outdoor Activity Centres.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

British legislation requires that Outdoor Activity Centres ensure the safety of employees and everyone who may be affected by their activities. Required risk assessments are more effective if they consider low-risk as well as high-risk activities and consider all incidents, including near misses, thus compiling a broader database from which to…

Wharton, Nick



Outdoor weathering performance of solar electric generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of outdoor exposure on the performance of commercially available photovoltaic terrestrial power systems and encapsulant materials. The experimental program involved one (1) year of continuous exposure (real time), preceded and followed by both spectral transmission and electrical output measurements on the cover materials and solar cell modules, respectively. Parameters considered were solar

C. R. Maag Jr.



Truman State University Intramurals Soccer (Outdoor)  

E-print Network

the ball last touched before going out of bounds. A drop ball is when the referee drops the soccer ballTruman State University Intramurals Soccer (Outdoor) Location: Intramural Field Entry Form: Must be completed online ( Competition: Greek/Org/Open Truman State University Intramural Soccer

Gering, Jon C.


Outdoor Recreation Action. Report No. 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Actions taken in the area of outdoor recreation on Federal, State, local, and private levels are reported in the document. Financing actions are listed according to states, government agencies, and names of private financers. The organization and administration section includes new agencies, personnel, reorganizations, and significant resolutions…

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.



EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...


by STEPHEN POLLOCK THE outdoor tennis court  

E-print Network

by STEPHEN POLLOCK THE outdoor tennis court at Perth Arena is slated to remain unused for 51 weeks recreation needs, I call on the Barnett government to open this tennis court for locals and to also population John Hyde wants locals to be able to use the tennis court at Perth Arena, but the managers say no


All the Images of an Outdoor Scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of an outdoor scene depends on a variety of factors such as viewing geometry, scene structure and reflectance (BRDF or BTF), illumination (sun, moon, stars, street lamps), atmospheric con- dition (clear air, fog, rain) and weathering (or aging) of materials. Over time, these factors change, altering the way a scene appears. A large set of images is required

Srinivasa G. Narasimhan; Chi Wang; Shree K. Nayar



Formal verification of AI software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan



Curriculum learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans and animals learn much better when the examples are not randomly presented but organized in a meaningful order which illustrates gradually more concepts, and gradually more complex ones. Here, we formalize such training strategies in the context of machine learning, and call them \\

Yoshua Bengio; Jérôme Louradour; Ronan Collobert; Jason Weston



Terrain sensing and estimation for dynamic outdoor mobile robots  

E-print Network

In many applications, mobile robots are required to travel on outdoor terrain at high speed. Compared to traditional low-speed, laboratory-based robots, outdoor scenarios pose increased perception and mobility challenges ...

Ward, Christopher Charles



Outdoor Science: A Practical Guide (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research shows that environment-centered education improves student achievement. Whatever your school's setting--urban, suburban, or rural--you can create stimulating outdoor classrooms for your students, with a little help from Outdoor Science . Au

Rich, Steve



Could Time Spent Outdoors Raise Cataract, Glaucoma Risk?  


... enable JavaScript. Could Time Spent Outdoors Raise Cataract, Glaucoma Risk? Sunlight reflected up into the eyes may ... Thursday, September 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cataract Glaucoma THURSDAY, Sept. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Outdoor activities ...


Multifractal formalisms of human behavior.  


With the mounting realization that variability is an inevitable part of human behavior comes the need to integrate this phenomenon in concomitant models and theories of motor control. Among other things, this has resulted in a debate throughout the last decades about the origin of variability in behavior, the outcome of which has important implications for motor control theories. To date, a monofractal formalism of variability has been used as the basis for arguing for component- versus interaction-oriented theories of motor control. However, monofractal formalism alone cannot decide between the opposing sides of the debate. The present theoretical overview introduces multifractal formalisms as a necessary extension of the conventional monofractal formalism. In multifractal formalisms, the scale invariance of behavior is numerically defined as a spectrum of scaling exponents, rather than a single average exponent as in the monofractal formalism. Several methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of scaling exponents - all within two multifractal formalisms called large deviation and Legendre formalism - are introduced and briefly discussed. Furthermore, the multifractal analyses within these two formalisms are applied to several performance tasks to illustrate how explanations of motor control vary with the methods used. The main section of the theoretical overview discusses the implications of multifractal extensions of the component- and interaction-oriented models for existing theories of motor control. PMID:24054900

Ihlen, Espen A F; Vereijken, Beatrix



Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

Bitbol, Michel


A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education centers such as museums, zoos and aquariums has stimulated studies of the relationship between learning in and outside of schools. Although many studies focus on the teachers, the contexts, and/or the students during the field trip, only a few look at the entire process of learning by including the classroom setting before and after the field trip. This study was designed to develop understandings of the student process of learning during and surrounding an environmental science field trip to an outdoor setting. John Dewey's extensive writings on the relationship between experience and learning informed the analysis, creating a focus on active and passive elements of the experience, continuity within and across contexts, the interactive nature of the experience and the importance of subject matter. An exploration of environmental education (EE), environmental science (ES), and nature study as content revealed the complexities of the subject matter of the field trip that make its presentation problematic. An urban school was chosen to contribute to the research literature about urban student learning in outdoor environments. During the field trip, the students' active engagement with each other and the environment supported meaningful remembrances of the field trip experiences during interviews after the field trip. The students accurately described plants and animals they had observed in different habitats during the field trip. They also made connections with their home life and prior experiences in the outdoors as they discussed the field trip and drew pictures that represented their experiences. One student integrated his outdoor experience with a language arts assignment as he reflected deeply on the field trip. One implication of this study is that educational experiences in outdoor natural environments are complex in ways that contribute to lack of continuity between science lessons in an elementary classroom and environmental science field trip. Long term relationships between schools and informal settings that recognize the strengths of both contexts in terms of student learning processes surrounding field trip experiences are needed to strengthen the educative process for field trip participants.

Preusch, Peggy L.


Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna



The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic training programs in the field of outdoor education and recreation have increased considerably in the past few decades, but their true costs are often hidden. A survey of 15 outdoor college programs in the United States and Canada examined special fees associated with outdoor courses. The cost of necessary personal equipment and clothing…

Bisson, Christian


Panhandle Outdoors -Special 1 Edition: Gulf Oil Spill  

E-print Network

Panhandle Outdoors - Special 1 Edition: Gulf Oil Spill Florida 4-H Congress 2 Establishing Numeric: Gulf Oil Spill Florida 4-H Congress 2 Establishing Numeric Nutrient 2 Standards for Florida New Retirement 3 Panhandle Outdoors - Special Edition: Gulf Oil Spill "Pahhandle Outdoors" is a districtwide

Jawitz, James W.


First Person Indoor/Outdoor Augmented Reality Application: ARQuake  

E-print Network

First Person Indoor/Outdoor Augmented Reality Application: ARQuake Bruce Thomas, Ben Close, John: This paper presents a first person outdoor/indoor augmented reality application ARQuake that we have to convert a desktop first person application into an outdoor/indoor mobile augmented reality application. We

Thomas, Bruce


Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared specifically for use in one-week outdoor summer camp programs for migrant children aged 10-15, the twenty bilingual (Spanish and English) educational and recreational activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps package have been revised to develop language skills as well as an awareness of the outdoor

California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.


Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

Hanna, Glenda


Learning the Ropes: A SpeyGrian Sailing Tale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen educators went Scottish island-hopping on a 100-year-old sailing boat to learn journal writing and new techniques in outdoor learning, gain confidence for teaching about controversial issues, and experience creative education in general. This narrative of their journey eloquently captures the essence and power of experiential, outdoor

McEwen, Christian



Developing Tools for Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal methods are based on rigorous mathematical notations, which aim to describe systems in the early stages of software development. Such formal descriptions are useful to precisely specify a system's data and\\/or control, and as a consequence to verify whether certain properties are true as well as to test whether the final product meets the initial description. All of these

P. Kefalas; G. Eleftherakis; A. Sotiriadou


Formal specification of Catalysis frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frameworks are increasingly recognised as very useful components in the emerging paradigm of component-based software development (CBD). They are widely accepted as better units of reuse than objects. The CBD methodol- ogy Catalysis, for instance, uses frameworks. However, at present, Catalysis frameworks are described only in- formally, which means we cannot reason formally about frameworks, in particular their composition, and

Juliana Küster Filipe; Kung-kiu Lau; Mario Ornaghi; Kenji Taguchi; Hirokazu Yatsu; Alan Wills



Formal methods in PLC programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed generic model of the control design process is introduced and discussed. It is used for surveying different formal approaches in the context of PLC programming. The survey focuses on formal methods for verification and validation (V&V). The varying works in this area are categorized using three criteria: the general approach (A) to the task (model based, constraint based

Georg Frey; Lothar Litz



Gravitational Instantons in Ashtekar's Formalism  

E-print Network

Gravitational instantons of Bianchi type IX space are constructed in Ashtekar's canonical formalism. Instead of solving the self-duality condition, we fully solve the constraint on the ``initial surface'' and ``Hamiltonian equations''. This formalism is applicable to the matter coupled system with cosmological constant.

H. Ishihara; H. Kubotani; T. Fukuyama



Seven Myths of Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven widely held conceptions about formal methods are challenged. These beliefs are variants of the following: formal methods can guarantee that software is perfect; they work by proving that the programs are correct; only highly critical systems benefit from their use; they involve complex mathematics; they increase the cost of development; they are incomprehensible to clients; and nobody uses them

Anthony Hall



Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi



Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

Hug, J. William



Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.  


Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

Huang, Yuh-Chin T



Medical services for outdoor rock music festivals.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the medical services provided at an outdoor rock music festival near Toronto and reviews similar services at other outdoor concerts as reported in the literature. Between 0.5% and 1.5% of concertgoers were reported to have used medical services, proportions that may be useful in planning for future festivals. Most of the medical problems encountered were minor, although life-threatening problems occasionally occurred. Alcohol and drug abuse were common but led to major medical problems in only small proportions of patients. Guidelines for planning are suggested that include recommendations about facilities, supplies and equipment, transportation and communications, staffing and procedures. The need for liaison with the concert promoters, the police, ambulance officials and local hospital personnel is noted, and the use of the nonmedical ancillary staff is encouraged. PMID:7074491

Chapman, K. R.; Carmichael, F. J.; Goode, J. E.



An Assessment of the Validity and Precision of the Intensive Time-Series Design Through Monitoring Learning Differences in Groups of Students with Formal and with Concrete Cognitive Tendencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether the intensive time-series design would yield data discriminating between concrete and formal operational students and whether achievement curves exhibited in previous studies would be found with students in this study. Daily measurement of variables is characteristic of the data collection procedure in the time-series…

Farnsworth, Carolyn H.; Mayer, Victor J.


Measuring Outdoor Airflow into HVAC Systems  

SciTech Connect

The rate of outdoor air (OA) supply affects building energy consumption, occupant health, and work performance; however, minimum ventilation rates are often poorly controlled. Real-time measurements of OA flow rates into HVAC systems would enable improved flow control. This article demonstrates that at least some of the available technologies for real-time measurement of OA air intake rate are reasonably accurate and provides guidance on how these technologies should be used.

Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.



The TAMU Outdoors Program: a case study  

E-print Network

up and participate in the activity. The cooperative style delivery system is similar to common adventure; however, the university sponsors the activity by providing advertising for the trips and volunteer trip coordinators. Participants share... to initiate an outdoor program at the University of Oregon. Through their efforts the common adventure method of offering trips was born. Announcements were posted in the student union concerning trips that individuals were initiating. If someone wanted...

Kott, Patsy L



Association tests and outdoor ecology education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the analysis of written associative responses in the context of a week-long outdoor ecology education\\u000a at a National Park (treatment). Firstly, 12–13 year old pupils were instructed to respond freely to two selected key words\\u000a (“Environment” and “Conservation”) by listing all words that they associate with them. All observed associations were categorized\\u000a into a preselected cluster

Franz X. Bogner; Michael Wiseman



On outdoor positioning with Wi-Fi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though GPS is the most popular positioning system at present it does not perform well in indoor environments and metropolitan city areas. Wi-Fi positioning has received much attention due to its advantages with respect to indoor positioning and the wide spread of the Wi-Fi access points (APs). Its performance in an outdoor environment is also of interest as a Wi-Fi

Binghao Li; Ishrat J. Quader; Andrew G. Dempster



Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.



Learning for Life Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

Varmecky, Jane Hyde



Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics  

E-print Network

The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the system was built and analyzed. This was followed by building a mock-up of the system and conducting experiments to validate the CFD model. It was found that some of the simplest cooling techniques like white oil paint on the outer surface can significantly reduce the impact of solar loads. Adding internal circulation fans can also be very effective. Using air-to-air heat exchangers was found to be the most effective solution although it is more complex and costly.

Mahendra Wankhede; V. Khaire; A. Goswami; S. D. Mahajan



Bridging the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal learning skills are enhanced throughout our daily lives through the public media, (television, newspapers, radio); while hiking our favorite park; or by visiting a museum or science center. Over the past few years the informal science community has started to bridge the gap with the formal education community. Although few informal education organizations have established set curriculum guidelines, many have adapted the use of the National Science Standards. In so doing, these organizations have raised their level of professionalism. Many formal school programs are now actively seeking collaborative science education programs to enhance and expand their hands-on, inquiry based curriculia through informal science organizations. This paper/presentation will address my current research within this field. I will discuss selected federal science agencies education and outreach efforts. Key points will include media useage, age of target audiences, credentials of interpretation staff, and level(s) of collaboration with formal schools.

Hamel, C.



Beyond Formal Learning: Informal Community eLearning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the study described in this paper was to gain an improved understanding of the social context of UK online centres and issues around the creation and exchange of knowledge within and between online community centres. Grounded theory and a pilot study were used to guide our research. The key findings of our research were (i) an…

Cook, John; Smith, Matt



Hospital Size, Complexity, and Formalization  

PubMed Central

Data on 704 United States short-term general hospitals are sorted into a set of dependent variables indicative of organizational formalism and a number of independent variables separately measuring hospital size (number of beds) and various types of complexity commonly associated with size. A series of regressions are performed on the data to determine whether size alone has significant influence on formal organization. The findings are discussed in terms of the probable relation between hospital complexity and professionalization and the possible relation between professionalization and formal bureaucratic mechanisms in organization control. PMID:5508523

Starkweather, David B.



Formal and Informal Mentoring: Complementary, Compensatory, or Consistent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informal mentors likely play a substantial role in novice teacher learning, yet we know little about them, especially in relation to formal mentoring, which is the cornerstone to most induction programs. This study analyzes survey and interview data from 57 first-year mathematics teachers from 11 districts to investigate differences in the…

Desimone, Laura M.; Hochberg, Eric D.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Schwartz, Robert; Johnson, L. Joy



Improving Project Management Using Formal Models and Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk discusses the advantages formal modeling and architecture brings to project management. These emerging technologies have both great potential and challenges for improving information available for decision-making. The presentation covers standards, tools and cultural issues needing consideration, and includes lessons learned from projects the presenters have worked on.

Kahn, Theodore; Sturken, Ian



Formalizing a Process for Identifying Urban PDS Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future and the Holmes Group suggest that the solution to improving student learning is through formal university-school collaborations, or Professional Development Schools (PDSs). As the research base on PDS partnerships grows, so does the evidence that PDSs improve the quality of teaching in…

Dubetz, Nancy; Lawrence, Alexandria; Gningue, Serigne



Coaches' Experiences of Formal Coach Education: A Critical Sociological Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to recent academic reviews, formal coach education courses are rarely considered important or useful events in a broader coach learning process. At present, there is insufficient research to define the nature and extent of this problem which is likely to become more important under the prevailing governing rationalities of modernisation…

Piggott, David



Fractals, neural networks, cellular automata, formal language and coding theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors unify fractal theory for: learning, computer graphics, and data compression; Hopfield neural networks for pattern recognition; cellular automata for parallel computation; formal language theory; and coding theory for fault tolerance, data compression, and cryptography. It is shown that each of these fields is a piece of a big `pie,' featuring storing information in stable configurations of dynamical systems.

Y. Liu



Framing the Adoption of Serious Games in Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays formal education systems are under increasing pressure to respond and adapt to rapid technological innovation and associated changes in the way we work and live. As well as accommodation of technology in its ever-diversifying forms, there is a fundamental need to enhance learning processes through evolution in pedagogical approaches, so…

Arnab, Sylvester; Berta, Riccardo; Earp, Jeffrey; de Freitas, Sara; Popescu, Maria; Romero, Margarida; Stanescu, Ioana; Usart, Mireia




NSDL National Science Digital Library

LEARN was created to increase middle school science teacher knowledge of and interest in the atmospheric sciences. The original project began in 1991 with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Much of the instructional and science content foundation for the LEARN workshops came from the teaching modules developed by LEARN teachers in collaboration with more than 60 National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists. The modules (Ozone in Our Atmosphere, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Cycles of the Earth and Atmosphere) enhance earth and physical science programs by incorporating atmospheric science concepts. The seven sections include introductions to the atmosphere, climate, ozone, stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone, the greenhouse effect and global climate change. Each section provides background information, general learning concepts, and a list of classroom activities.



NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

Butler, Ricky W. (compiler)



Is Formal Lifelong Learning a Profitable Investment for All of Life? How Age, Education Level, and Flexibility of Provision Affect Rates of Return to Adult Education in Colombia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3800  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifelong learning is increasingly being recognized as a primary factor for knowledge diffusion and productivity growth. However, little economic evidence exists on the economic value of lifelong learning for the individual, especially in developing countries. This paper contributes to remedy this shortfall. It investigates one aspect of lifelong…

Sohnesen, Thomas Pave; Blom, Andreas



Formalization of Continuous Probability Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to overcome the limitations of state-of-the-art simulation based probabilis- tic analysis, we propose to perform probabilistic analysis within the environment of a higher-order-logic theorem prover. The foremost requirement for conducting such analysis is the formalization of probability distributions. In this report, we present a methodology for the formalization of continuous probability distributions for which the inverse of the

Osman Hasan; Sofiène Tahar



Hilltop Geography for Young Children: Creating an Outdoor Learning Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a primary-level field geography program in which students explore the geography and archaeology of their rural community. Presents a set of mapping activities to help students understand cardinal directions and use locational skills. Concludes that the program has successfully involved students, parents, and community members in…

Gutierrez, Esta Diamond; Sanchez, Yvette



TOP Outdoors: Outdoor and Adventurous Activities for Every Teacher and Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Youth Sport Trust developed a package of activities to support the teaching of outdoor and adventurous activities, integrated into the British national curriculum through physical education programs for preschool through secondary school age. Activity categories are physical challenges, trails, and orienteering. Teaching resources and their…

Haskins, David; Perry, Frank



Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.



Ambient air cooling of electronics in an outdoor environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that define the outdoor environment include temperature, humidity, solar loading, UV, pollution and chemical exposures, salt, wind, rain, sleet and snow. The traditional method of ensuring a \\

Marvin P. Garcia; M. R. Cosley



The Formal Semantics of PVS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan



Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

Carlisle, A; Sharp, N



Health effects of outdoor air pollution  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.



Formalization of existing PLC Programs: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In recent years, the interest in the formal- ization of PLC programs increased. The paper pro- vides a classification scheme ,for the works done in this field. This scheme includes the sources used for formalization, the level of the formalization process (i.e. the complexity of structures that could be han- dled by the approach), the aim of the formalization

M. Bani Younis; G. Frey


Applying Formal Methods to Software Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines applying formal methods to software testing. Software testingis a critical phase of the software life-cycle which can be very effective if performedrigorously. Formal specifications offer the bases for rigorous testing practices. Notsurprisingly, the most immediate use of formal specifications in software testing isas sources of black-box test suites. However, formal specifications have more usesin software testing than

Philip Alan Stocks



Leslie Matrix I Formal Demography  

E-print Network

Leslie Matrix I Formal Demography Stanford Summer Short Course 2006 James Holland Jones Department and Eigenvectors Stanford Summer Short Course: Leslie Matrix I 2 #12;A Simple Example Assume 2 Age case? Stanford Summer Short Course: Leslie Matrix I 3 #12;Figuring Out Age Structure Imagine you start


John Jackman *First formal research  

E-print Network

;9/14/2012 8 15 * *Newton's First Law of Motion ­ *a body at rest will remain at rest unless an outside force9/14/2012 1 John Jackman 1 * 2 * *First formal research experience ­ NSF summer program at RPI

McCalley, James D.


Formal verification of PLC programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to the verification of programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs) using SMV, a software package for formal verification of state transition systems. Binary PLC programs are converted directly into SMV modules that retain the variable names and execution sequences of the original programs. The system being controlled is modeled by a C\\/E system block diagram

M. Rausch; B. H. Krogh



An Invitation to Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most challenging tasks in software system design is to assure reliability, especially as these systems are increasingly used in sensitive and often life-critical environments such as medical systems, air traffic control, and space applications. Many claim that formal methods not only provide assurance of reliability but also have the potential to reduce costs. Although the literature contains

Hossein Saiedian; Jonathan P. Bowen; Ricky W. Butler; David L. Dill; Robert L. Glass; David Gries; Anthony Hall; Michael G. Hinchey; C. Michael Holloway; Daniel Jackson; Cliff B. Jones; Michael J. Lutz; David Lorge Parnas; John M. Rushby; Jeannette M. Wing; Pamela Zave



Parallax Park - A bilingual, outdoor, interactive family exhibit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design for Parallax Park, an outdoor, interactive family exhibit for McDonald Observatory that will bring the quest for learning about extra-solar planets and the astronomical distance ladder down to Earth for the more than 100,000 visitors who come to the Observatory each year. The Park will teach visitors the basic principles of astrometry. It will concentrate on distance determination and extrasolar planet detection, and emphasize the advantages of space-based astrometric measurements. Visitors will experience parallax by traveling a path around a representation of the Sun, mimicking Earth's orbit, while viewing representations of stars at various distances and in various directions. Concepts include Cepheids as standard candles, the inverse square law, and motion around a center of mass. The exhibit includes interactive components suitable for children's use. Text labels and printed guides, in English and Spanish, will explain how to use the Park to explore the uses of astrometry in modern science. This program was made possible through funding from the Hubble Space Telescope Cycle 11 and 12 Education and Public Outreach Grant Programs. Support from the NASA/JPL Space Interferometry Mission (JPL contract #1227563) is also gratefully acknowledged.

Hemenway, M. K.; Benedict, G. F.; Preston, S. L.; Armosky, B. J.; Cianciolo, F. W., Jr.; Wetzel, M. N.; Freeman, R.; Ransenberg, A.



Jumping Deadfall: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Outdoor and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the common barriers confronting outdoor and experiential education teachers and presents strategies for surmounting them. The identified concerns and suggested solutions were obtained from in-depth open-ended interviews conducted with 10 outdoor education/environmental education consultants and teachers in Alberta…

Hanna, Glenda


A Teacher's Guide to Resource - Use Outdoor Education Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this guide are ideas on evaluation and conduct of outdoor education classes and unit guides and lesson plans. An interdisciplinary approach is emphasized and the unit guides and lesson plans present activities related to science, mathematics, social studies, art, and music relevant to outdoor education in general. Unit guides for soil,…

Taylor County Board of Public Instruction, Perry, FL.


Growth of Crop and Weeds in Growth Chambers and Outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early growth of spring barley (Hordeum ulgare L.), Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (DC.) Metzger, Stellaria media (L.) Vill. and Viola arvensis Murray in growth chambers and in shading cages outdoors at different irradiance levels was compared. Leaf area and shoot dry weight were lower outdoors than in growth chambers at similar irradiance and temperature. A simulation model with

Kirsten Semb Tørresen; Lambertus A. P. Lotz



Viewing the Landscape of Outdoor Education in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the variety of outdoor education programs and initiatives existing in Saskatchewan. Describes the Saskatchewan Outdoor Environmental Education Association conference, residential and day programs for elementary school students in Regina and Saskatoon, preservice teacher education, wilderness experiences for teachers,…

Forsberg, Nick



Managing Fear in the Outdoor Experiential Education Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines components of fear in outdoor adventure activities. Reports ratings by 311 Outward Bound students of 23 common fears in the outdoors. Discusses techniques of fear reduction therapy: systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling of coping methods by instructors, and rehearsal of adaptive behaviors. Contains 16 references. (SV)

Ewert, Alan



The New Politics of Outdoor Education in the New Toronto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since January 1998, when six former Metro Toronto (Ontario) school boards were consolidated into one board, Toronto's outdoor education centers have experienced restructuring, work stoppages, strikes, relocation, and threats of closure. Outdoor education advocates must form a new united group, preferably from the bottom up, to lobby for adequate…

Morris, Mike



Using the Outdoors to Enrich the Teaching of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers in elementary and middle schools and for personnel at outdoor education centers, this publication is the second in an ERIC/CRESS series on utilizing outdoor education methodologies to enhance the academic curriculum. The resource guide suggests ways of getting students interested in arithmetic and mathematics and how to make…

Payne, Milton R.


Sensing passive thermal objects in outdoor scenes for autonomous robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physics-based adaptive Bayesian pattern classification model that uses a thermal infrared imaging system to automatically sense passive thermal objects in unstructured outdoor environments for mobile robots is described. The usefulness of thermal infrared imaging as a mobile robot sensing modality is explored, and a set of thermal-physical features used to characterize passive thermal objects in outdoor environments is presented.

William L. Fehlman II; Mark K. Hinders



The Outdoor Performance of Plastic Materials Used as Cable Accessories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paaper shows how plastics materials may be affected by exposure to the outdoor environment. The possible effects of ultra violet light, atmospheric oxygen, moisture, gaseous and solid pollution are discussed in detail. Data obtained from extensive natural and accelerated weathering on a variety of materials demonstrates the practical significance of this information and shows that outdoor performance can vary

R. J. T. Clabbum; R. J. Penneck; C. J. Swinmurn



An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan



Establishing a State Outdoor Education Association: The New York Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the New York Outdoor Education Association (NYSOEA) has made significant contributions to the establishment and expansion of outdoor education programs in the state and throughout the world, this guide is directed toward those who want to strengthen their own state or regional association or to create one. The paper provides an analysis of…

Benjamin, Thomas P.


NIST Technical Note 1637 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline  

E-print Network

scenarios of a portable generator operated outdoors using the CONTAM indoor air quality model coupled distance; CONTAM; computational fluid dynamics; indoor air quality; health; multizone airflow modelNIST Technical Note 1637 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor

Bentz, Dale P.


NIST Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline  

E-print Network

. This report presents the second phase of the study using the CONTAM indoor air quality model coupled with twoNIST Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor Carbon Monoxide


Outdoor Education: Research Topic or Universal Value? Part Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deep ecology is suited to outdoor education because it depends on direct experience of the environment for self-realization to occur. Joining experiential, presentational, propositional, and practical ways of knowing with deep ecology creates an educational framework that will enable outdoor education to deliver outcomes relating to sustainability…

Nicol, Robbie



Outdoor education: Research topic or universal value? Part Two  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper follows the theme of part one in that it sets out to discover if the history of outdoor education provides its modern exponents with a legacy of prescribed conservatism or alternatively a form of education which embraces, or is capable of embracing, diversity of theory and practice. Focusing on local authority residential outdoor education centres it begins with

Robbie Nicol



Out, out, and Away! Collection Development: Outdoor Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is fast approaching, and it will soon be time to climb the mountains to get their good tidings, as naturalist John Muir put it. In other words, librarians must now prepare for the influx of patrons making weekend recreational and summer vacation plans by stocking up on books and other resources on the great outdoors. Outdoor recreational…

Helling, John



Outdoor Augmented Reality: State of the Art and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of an outdoor augmented reality system is to allow the human operator to move freely without restraint in its environment, to vie w and interact in real time with geo-referenced data via mobile wireless devices. This requires proposing new techniques for 3D localization, visualization and 3D interaction, adapted to working conditions in outdoor environment (brightness variation, features of



Conservation Plan, Seaman Outdoor Laboratory for Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide focuses on the conservation plan for an outdoor laboratory. Although the plan focuses specifically on Seaman Outdoor Education Laboratory, the concepts could be applied to any natural area including parks, farms, and school grounds. Along with an introduction and justification, the guide includes the conservation plan that serves as the…

Topeka Unified School District 345, KS.


Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda



Building a Backcountry Yurt: Ecological Design Intelligence within Outdoor Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student volunteers at Utah State University's outdoor program designed, built, and carried a yurt 4 miles into the backcountry. A yurt is a traditional Mongolian structure, circular, with a lattice wall covered by material. Rafters slope upward to a top ring, on which sits a skylight. The outdoor program wanted to expand its offerings, and to do…

Kobe, Kevin; Goltra, Norman


Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

Richards, Kaye



Wausau District Public Schools Outdoor Education Camp Director's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is a camp director's or teacher's guide to utilizing an outdoor education facility. Specifically, it details an area being studied in Wausau, Wisconsin; gives principles, objectives, and philosophy of that outdoor education program; and lists responsibilities of this program coordinator and committee. The remainder of the manual…

Curtis, Hugh


Augmented Viewport: Towards precise manipulation at a distance for outdoor  

E-print Network

1 Augmented Viewport: Towards precise manipulation at a distance for outdoor augmented reality and effective solution for precise manipulation at a distance for outdoor aug- mented reality using wearable of the technique, with the utilization of remote cameras from multiple users of wearable computer systems and mo

Thomas, Bruce


Bringing Outdoor Challenge Education Inside the Business Communication Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes present-day outdoor challenge education and briefly notes its history. Argues that it provides a framework for organizations to improve teamwork, problem solving, risk-taking, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication. Describes how advantages of outdoor education can be maintained when a program goes indoors. Notes advantages of…

DuFrene, Debbie D.; Sharbrough, William; Clipson, Tim; McCall, Miles



Outdoor Education in the Battle Creek Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting a brief overview of the historical development, philosophy, programs, and facilities of the Battle Creek Public Schools' year-round outdoor education center, this document also details four current programs as follows: (1) a 30-week resident outdoor school program for fifth and sixth grade students; (2) a 25-week farm-garden program for…

Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.



EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the formulation of the GEOMET Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution (GIOAP) model. The model estimates indoor air pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor pollutant levels, indoor pollutant generation sources rates, pollutant chemical decay rates, and air ex...



E-print Network

ANIMATION OF CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES IN OUTDOOR AUGMENTED REALITY Amir H. Behzadan 1 , Vineet R are animated with the passage of simulated project time in outdoor AR. KEY WORDS Augmented Reality, GPS, Position, Orientation, Transformation, Simulation, 4D CAD. INTRODUCTION Augmented Reality (AR

Kamat, Vineet R.


Experience and Medical Decision-Making in Outdoor Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor leaders function in naturalistic decision-making contexts and may be influenced by personal, social, and environmental factors in making critical decisions in the field. The experience level of the outdoor instructor is posited as a critical variable in the development of his/her decision-making and overall judgment. This research measures…

Galloway, Shayne



Teacher's Handbook: Environmental Education Outdoor School Program [with Supplement].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Santa Barbara County Environmental Education Outdoor School Program provides for conduct of programs and classes in outdoor science and conservation. The aim of the school is to increase the maturity and awareness of students to man's role in ecology and the world of nature around us. This handbook for teachers will assist in the preparation…

Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.


Outdoor Activities as a Basis for Environmental Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses experiences with outdoor activities involving 11- and 12-year-old pupils in Finland. Indicates that nature experiences develop pupils' self-confidence and feelings of safety, which in turn increases their willingness to participate in future outdoor activities. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

Palmberg, Irmeli E.; Kuru, Jari



An Analysis of Outdoor Leaders' Ethics: Guiding Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor leaders model their values, and their ethical frameworks and moral development help shape their influence on others. Outdoor leaders face many obstacles as they seek to define ethical standards, including the challenge of defining common ethics, lack of professional certifications, the limits of professional ethics, and issues of power and…

Mitten, Denise


Outdoor Leadership Considerations with Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the importance of leader awareness of the discomfort and need for emotional safety that may surface for women survivors of sexual abuse during an outdoor experience. Discusses survivor's self-perception and how this affects the outdoor experience; the impact of natural elements on survivors; and how to help survivors develop coping…

Mitten, Denise; Dutton, Rosalind



Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela



Preschool Children's Use and Perceptions of Outdoor Play Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty preschool children were observed in outdoor play areas and interviewed about their perceptions of the observed play. The children's teachers were also interviewed. It was found that a significant negative correlation existed between physical play and creative play and that the majority of children perceived that outdoor play was independent…

Cullen, Joy



Correlation of Indoor-Outdoor Air Quality in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor and outdoor air quality was investigated at 28 public locations with mostly mechanical ventilation systems. The locations were selected from various geographic categories representing different environments for indoor\\/outdoor air pollutant characterisation. The selected indoor locations included restaurants, recreation places, sport centres, schools, commercial kitchens, hotels, swimming pools and movie theatres. The concentrations of PM, CO, NO2 and selected priority

N. El-Hougeiri; M. El Fadel



Laboratory Experience in Outdoor Education. Senior Student Teaching Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the outdoor education practicum required of student teachers at Northern Illinois University (NIU). This 5-day residential experience is held at the Lorado Taft Field Campus (branch of NIU), established in 1951 to train teachers in outdoor education. Course objectives include: (1) to help student teachers gain knowledge about…

Northern Illinois Univ., Oregon. Lorado Taft Field Campus.


Outdoor exploration and SLAM using a compressed filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the use of automatic explo- ration for autonomous mapping of outdoor scenes. We describe a real-time SLAM implementation along with an autonomous explo- ration algorithm. We have implemented SLAM with a compressed extended Kalman filter (CEKF) on an outdoor robot. Our implemen- tation uses walls of buildings as features. The state predictions are made by

John Folkesson; Henrik I. Christensen



Methodology in Outdoor Research: Approaches from an Alternative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Powerful, dominant discourses surrounding neo-Hahnian theory (as discussed by Brookes in 2003) and effectiveness (as discussed by Hargreaves and Fullan in 1998, for example) have influenced both practice and research in outdoor adventure education. This has led to a concentration of research that focuses on the impact of outdoor programmes. It has…

Rea, Tony



Teaching and Learning outside the Classroom: Personal Values, Alternative Pedagogies and Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports on a recent survey of 334 settings in a county in the South West of England and five case studies exploring current practice and aspirations for learning outdoors for children between the ages of 2 to 11. Practitioners' aspirations for outdoor learning appear to go beyond providing fresh air and "letting off steam" and include…

Waite, Sue



Hierarchical loop detection for mobile outdoor robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loop closing is a fundamental part of 3D simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that can greatly enhance the quality of long-term mapping. It is essential for the creation of globally consistent maps. Conceptually, loop closing is divided into detection and optimization. Recent approaches depend on a single sensor to recognize previously visited places in the loop detection stage. In this study, we combine data of multiple sensors such as GPS, vision, and laser range data to enhance detection results in repetitively changing environments that are not sufficiently explained by a single sensor. We present a fast and robust hierarchical loop detection algorithm for outdoor robots to achieve a reliable environment representation even if one or more sensors fail.

Lang, Dagmar; Winkens, Christian; Häselich, Marcel; Paulus, Dietrich



University of Minnesota Center for Outdoor Adventure (COA) Health History Form  

E-print Network

1 University of Minnesota Center for Outdoor Adventure (COA) Health History Form Center for Outdoor between 10 and 60 pounds, endure drastically changing weather conditions, sleep outdoors in co-ed groups

Amin, S. Massoud


Outdoor and indoor UFP in primary schools across Barcelona.  


Indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time ultrafine particles (UFP; N10-700 in this study) number concentration and average diameter were collected twice at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. Simultaneous outdoor N concentration measurements at schools under different traffic exposures showed the important role of this source, with higher levels by 40% on average at schools near heavy traffic, highlighting thus the increased exposure of children due to urban planning decisions. A well-defined spatial pattern of outdoor UFP levels was observed. Midday increases in outdoor N levels mainly attributed to nucleation processes have been recorded both at high and low temperatures in several of the outdoor school sites (increasing levels by 15%-70%). The variation of these increases also followed a characteristic spatial pattern, pointing at schools' location as a key variable in terms of UFP load owing to the important contribution of traffic emissions. Indoor N concentrations were to some extent explained by outdoor N concentrations during school hours, together with average temperatures, related with natural ventilation. Outdoor midday increases were generally mimicked by indoor N concentrations, especially under warm temperatures. At specific cases, indoor concentrations during midday were 30%-40% higher than outdoor. The time scale of these observations evidenced the possible role of: a) secondary particle formation enhanced by indoor precursors or conditions, maybe related with surface chemistry reactions mediated by O3, and/or b) UFP from cooking activities. Significant indoor N increases were detected after school hours, probably associated with cleaning activities, resulting in indoor N concentrations up to 3 times higher than those in outdoor. A wide variability of indoor/outdoor ratios of N concentrations and mean UFP sizes was detected among schools and measurement periods, which seems to be partly associated with climatic conditions and O3 levels, although further research is required. PMID:25003584

Reche, C; Viana, M; Rivas, I; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X



The contribution of outdoor recreation and outdoor education to the economy of Scotland: Case studies and preliminary findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a tourism perspective Scotland's greatest natural resource is it's scenery. Recent studies have indicated that the contribution of outdoor recreation (which depend on this asset) to the Scottish economy have traditionally been underestimated. Published work from a range of sources are reviewed together with case studies of the additional contribution of Outdoor Education Centres, and other forms of provision.

Peter Higgins



OBSTACLE DETECTION IN MOBILE OUTDOOR ROBOTS A Short-term Memory for the Mobile Outdoor Platform RAVON  

E-print Network

around the robot. One possibility to overcome this limitation is mounting several devices of the same in a generic way such that additional sensor systems as e.g. stereo camera systems can easily be integratedOBSTACLE DETECTION IN MOBILE OUTDOOR ROBOTS A Short-term Memory for the Mobile Outdoor Platform

Berns, Karsten


An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Outdoor "Places" and Intentions for Teaching in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores pre-service teachers' past interactions with "place" in outdoor settings and how these experiences contribute to their current perceptions of the importance of taking their own students into the outdoors. Specifically, the researchers were interested in investigating if current pre-service teachers are part of…

Blatt, Erica; Patrick, Patricia



Syracuse University Outdoor Education in collaboration with Northern Arizona University Outdoors presents: San Juan River/Hiking Trip  

E-print Network

Syracuse University Outdoor Education in collaboration with Northern Arizona University Outdoors presents: San Juan River/Hiking Trip Trip Dates: May 27th ­ June 2nd This River Adventure begins at Sand Island, UT and traverses 27 miles of the famous San Juan River. During this adventure you'll run playful

Mather, Patrick T.


Learning Mathematics in the Mobile Phone Environment: Students' Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers point at the importance of emotions and its study in mathematics education. This research examines middle school students' emotions during learning mathematics outdoors using the mobile phone. The constant comparison method was used to analyze 30 middle school students' emotions while carrying out 15 outdoor activities using the mobile…

Daher, Wajeeh



Learning for Deep Language Understanding Smaranda Muresan  

E-print Network

Learning for Deep Language Understanding Smaranda Muresan School of Communication and Information. Building large treebanks annotated with complex representations needed to learn deep grammars is a very for deep linguistic formalisms. Propos- ing tractable learning algorithms for a deep linguistic formal- ism

Muresan, Smaranda


Formal Models for Embedded Commissioning  

E-print Network

Formal Models for Embedded Commissioning M. Tanyel Türkaslan-Bülbül, Ömer Ak?n School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University 1. Why Modeling? Building product models play a significant role for capturing the domain knowledge... and supporting interoperability in the AEC industry. Capturing the domain knowledge is important for standardization efforts in this domain. A data model describes the attributes of the domain entities as well as how these entities are related to each other. A...

Turkaslan-Bulbul, M. T.; Akin, O.



Cooperative Learning in Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others



Workplace Learning and Generation X.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the learning preferences of 197 Generation X workers found that they value incidental and action learning. They recognized the need for formal training, but suggested improvements. They preferred learning by doing, visual stimuli, and self-directed learning. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

Bova, Breda; Kroth, Michael



Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)

Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David



Indoor and outdoor concentrations of inorganic acidic aerosols and gases  

SciTech Connect

Annular denuder-filter pack sampling systems were used to make indoor and outdoor measurements of aerosol strong H{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and the gaseous pollutants SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, HONO and NH{sub 3} during summer and winter periods in Boston, Massachusetts. Outdoor levels of SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} exceeded their indoor concentrations during both seasons. Winter indoor/outdoor ratios were lower than during the summer, probably due to lower air exchange rates during the winter period. During both monitoring periods, indoor/outdoor ratios of aerosol strong H{sub +} were 40-50% of the indoor/outdoor SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratio. Since aerosol strong acidity is typically associated with SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, this finding is indicative of neutralization of the acidic aerosol by the higher indoor NH{sub 3} levels. Geometric mean indoor/outdoor NH{sub 3} ratios of 3.5 and 23 respectively were measured for the summer and winter sampling periods. For HONO, NH{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, indoor concentrations were significantly higher than ambient levels. Indoor levels of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were slightly less than outdoor concentrations.

Brauer, M.; Koutrakis, P.; Keeler, G.J.; Spengler, J.D. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA))



Indoor and Outdoor Mobility following Total Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor mobility capacity in older adults with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and, secondarily, to determine walking intensity in the same population and to compare all outcomes to a control group of older adults without knee pathology. Method: In this cross-sectional study, participants (TKA=16, mean 22.9 (SD 9.7) mo post TKA; control=22) completed indoor walking tests and a 580 m outdoor course that included varying terrain (e.g., curbs, grass, sidewalk) and frequent changes in direction. Walking capacity was assessed using stopwatches, global positioning system watches and accelerometers. Results: Outdoor walking time was moderately correlated (p<0.05) with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (r=0.65), stair-climb test (SCT) (r=0.67 ascending, r=0.79 descending), 10 m walk test (10 mWT) (r=0.73), and 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) (r=?0.75). Based on activity counts, walking intensity levels for participants in both groups were moderate (outdoor walk and 6 MWT). There was no significant difference in walking capacity between groups (TUG, SCT, 10 mWT, 6 MWT, outdoor walk). Conclusions: Common clinical walking tests are moderately correlated with outdoor mobility. Mobility capacity of individuals post TKA was similar to controls in both indoor and outdoor environments, and participants in both groups achieved moderate physical activity levels with walking. PMID:24403699

Storey, Ava S.T.; Myrah, Ainslie M.; Bauck, Robyn A.; Brinkman, Danielle M.; Friess, Shawn N.



An Ill-Structured PBL-Based Microprocessor Course without Formal Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a problem-based learning (PBL) microprocessor application course designed according to the following strategies: 1) hands-on training without having a formal laboratory, and 2) intense student-centered cooperative learning through an ill-structured problem. PBL was adopted as the core educational technique of the course to…

Kim, Jungkuk



Formal Theory of Creativity, Fun, and Intrinsic Motivation (1990-2010)  

E-print Network

such as avoiding hunger or heat, a baby has to learn how the initially unknown environ- ment responds to its drives, the baby does not run idle. Instead it actively conducts experiments: what sensory feedback do I learning, and is related to old but less formal ideas in aesthetics theory and developmental psychology

Schmidhuber, Juergen


Representation in incremental learning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.



47 CFR 8.12 - Formal Complaints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal Complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this...



47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this...



47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this...



Verifica Formale Generazione Automatica di Test  

E-print Network

Verifica Formale Testing Generazione Automatica di Test Analisi Sperimentale Conclusioni Generazione Automatica di Test per Analisi di Copertura di Software Safety Critical utilizzando Bounded Model maggio 2011 M.Narizzano #12;Verifica Formale Testing Generazione Automatica di Test Analisi Sperimentale

Robbiano, Lorenzo


Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich



Fate of permethrin in model outdoor ponds  

SciTech Connect

In 1979 and 1980, outdoor artificial ponds were treated with /sup 14/C-permethrin (labelled at either the cyclopropyl or methylene position) at 0.028 kg/ha (15 ug/L). Uptake of permethrin by duckweed and hydrosoil was monitored by direct combustion, TLC-autoradiography, HPLC, and liquid scintillation counting. Rapid loss of permethrin from the water coincided with the detection of five degradation products in the water at concentrations below 2.0 ug/L. The products were cis- and trans-cyclopropyl acid, phenoxybenzoic acid, and phenoxybenzyl alcohol, and an unknown non-cleaved product of permethrin. Permethrin was readily sorbed by duckweed but was not persistent. Permethrin residues in the hydrosoil, which was the major sink for permethrin added to the ponds, were persistent and were detected at 420 days post-treatment. Cis-permethrin was more persistent in the hydrosoil than the trans-permethrin. The results indicated that permethrin in water was short-lived at an application rate of 15 ug/L because of the rapid degradation of permethrin in the water and sorption of permethrin by the hydrosoil and vegetation. However, at one year post-treatment, permethrin residues were still detected in the hydrosoil at 1.0 ug/kg.

Rawn, G.P.; Webster, G.R.; Muir, D.C.



Vanadium concentrations in settled outdoor dust particles.  


Atmospheric dustfall is an important aspect of urban dust studies. Vanadium is considered as the marker element of air pollution emitted from residual oil and coal combustion. In this study, vanadium levels of outdoor dust particles are determined. The studied area covers the six sites located in Adapazarí (Turkey), which represents an earthquake-hit environment. The mass deposition rate was calculated for each sampling plate over the 30-days collection periods. The deposition rates for the six places in Adapazarí ranged from 20.5 to 84.9 microg/cm2/day. The arithmetic mean deposition rate for all places was 45.3 microg/cm2/day. Total dust deposition and vanadium loadings typically increased in magnitude according to the area order: Kampus > Serdivan > Cark C. > Ozanlar > Erenler > Ye?iltepe and Kampus > Serdivan > Cark C. > Ozanlar > Erenler > Ye?iltepe, respectively. The results suggested that vanadium may be useful for assessing the level of environmental pollution. PMID:16761173

Dundar, Mustafa S



Outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic ground target measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) system consists of a microphone and loudspeaker traveling along a 6.3-meter rail system. This is an extension from a prior indoor laboratory measurement system in which selected targets were insonified while suspended in air. Here, the loudspeaker and microphone are aimed perpendicular to their direction of travel along the rail. The area next to the rail is insonified and the microphone records the reflected acoustic signal, while the travel of the transceiver along the rail creates a synthetic aperture allowing imaging of the scene. Ground surfaces consisted of weathered asphalt and short grass. Several surface-laid objects were arranged on the ground for SAA imaging. These included rocks, concrete masonry blocks, grout covered foam blocks; foliage obscured objects and several spherical canonical targets such as a bowling ball, and plastic and metal spheres. The measured data are processed and ground targets are further analyzed for characteristics and features amenable for discrimination. This paper includes a description of the measurement system, target descriptions, synthetic aperture processing approach and preliminary findings with respect to ground surface and target characteristics.

Bishop, Steven; Ngaya, Therese-Ann; Vignola, Joe; Judge, John; Marble, Jay; Gugino, Peter; Soumekh, Mehrdad; Rosen, Erik



How Have Concepts of Informal Learning Developed over Time?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the current interest in informal learning seems recent, performance improvement professionals have long had an interest in informal learning-the ways that people learn outside of formal structures. The earliest forms of learning for work were informal, including de facto and formal apprenticeship programs and the "school of…

Carliner, Saul



Indoor and outdoor characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds in city centre and suburban elementary schools of Aveiro, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants inside school buildings may affect children's health and influence learning performance and attendance. This study investigated pollutant concentrations inside and outside school buildings at different locations (city centre and suburban) in Aveiro, Portugal, between April and June 2010. The aim was to evaluate simultaneously comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and CO) and indoor and outdoor concentrations of VOCs, NO2, PM10 and bioaerosols. PM10 samples were analysed and characterised, for the first time, for the water soluble inorganic ions (WSII), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbonates, and detailed organic speciation. The CO2 and bioaerosol levels were higher than the acceptable maximum values to the occupants' comfort. Concentrations of the traffic tracer NO2 were higher outdoors. The daily indoor PM10 levels were always higher than those outdoors, except on weekends, suggesting that the physical activity of pupils and class works highly contributed to the emission and resuspension of particles. Almost all identified VOCs showed I/O ratios higher than one, which denotes an important contribution from indoor sources at both schools. The suburban school was more exposed to industrial emissions than the institution located in the city centre. Especially at the city centre, infiltration of outdoor particulates leads to contamination of school indoor environment with vehicle emissions and biomass burning smoke likely coming from biofuel use in nearby restaurants and bakeries.

Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Silva, J. R.; Vieira, S. L. A.; Caseiro, A.; Pio, C. A.



Formal Analysis of Optical Systems  

E-print Network

Optical systems are becoming increasingly important by resolving many bottlenecks in today's communication, electronics, and biomedical systems. However, given the continuous nature of optics, the inability to efficiently analyze optical system models using traditional paper-and-pencil and computer simulation approaches sets limits especially in safety-critical applications. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to employ higher-order-logic theorem proving as a complement to computational and numerical approaches to improve optical model analysis in a comprehensive framework. The proposed framework allows formal analysis of optical systems at four abstraction levels, i.e., ray, wave, electromagnetic, and quantum.

Khan-Afshar, Sanaz; Mahmoud, Mohamed Yousri; Aravantinos, Vincent; Seddiki, Ons; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiene



Supporting Formal Reasoning for Safety Critical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal methods can significantly assist in the design and modelling of safety-critical systems.However, formal methods are frequently criticised as being unusable through being too complexand requiring expert knowledge to use. We assert that to make formal methods usable they mustbe able to be presented in a manner which is readily interpretable. However, we must ensurethat the inferences which may be

Corin A Gurr Human



Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis  

E-print Network

different from that of rough set theory [16], [17]. A comparative examination of rough set theory and formal is based on an equivalence relation on the set of objects. With respect to the formal context, a pair are then used to define a pair of lower and upper approximations of formal concepts. Saquer and Deogun studied

Yao, Yiyu


Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis  

E-print Network

[38]. A comparative examination of rough set analysis and formal con- cept analysis shows that each analysis is developed based on a formal context given by a binary relation between a set of objectsRough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis Yiyu Yao and Yaohua Chen Department of Computer

Yao, Yiyu


Formal Descriptions of Real Parameter Optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of effective operators is a matter of some interest in the evolutionary computing community, and Radcliffe's forma analysis is one notable approach to formally incorporate domain knowledge in operator design by manipulating the formal descriptions of problem domain. Since formal description is the key issue that affects the effectiveness of derived operator, this paper examines the concepts of

Tao Gong; Andrew Tuson



Formal Fault Tree Analysis - Practical Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety is an important requirement for many modern systems. To ensure safety of complex critical systems, well-known safety analysis methods have been formalized. This holds in particular for automation sytsems and transportation systems. In this paper we present the formalization of one of the most wide spread safety analysis methods: fault tree analysis (FTA). Formal FTA allows to rigorously reason

Frank Ortmeier; Gerhard Schellhorn



Seven More Myths of Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For whatever reason, formal methods remain one of the more contentious techniques inindustrial software engineering. Despite great increases in the number of organizations andprojects applying formal methods, it is still the case that the vast majority of potential usersof formal methods fail to become actual users. A paper by Hall in 1990 examined a number of`myths\\

Jonathan P. Bowen; Michael G. Hinchey



Case for usability : designing Outdoor Augmented Reality games  

E-print Network

Creating a successful Outdoor Augmented Reality (OAR) game can be a complicated process. With every new feature added to the OAR toolset, games gain more levels of complexity, grow in size of content, and become increasingly ...

Wang, Tiffany (Tiffany N.)



The distortion of cognitive distance in outdoor recreation travel decisions  

E-print Network

, hierarchical structures, and interaction of these factors on distortions of cognitive distance in the context of outdoor recreation travel decisions. It was proposed that the accuracy of distance estimates would be influenced by levels of information exposure...

Chang, Yu-Min



Using Digital Imaging in Classroom and Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to use digital cameras and related basic equipment during indoor and outdoor activities. Uses digital imaging in general botany class to identify unknown fungus samples. Explains how to select a digital camera and other necessary equipment. (YDS)

Thomasson, Joseph R.




EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...


Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.



American Samoa Territorial Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan 1980-1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of a comprehensive outdoor recreation plan is to organize and coordinate solutions to meet the needs of general public recreation within the Territory. The study area is the Territory of American Samoa excepting privately owned Swain's Island....



Variation of total serum cholesterol with monthly outdoor temperature  

E-print Network

VARIATION OF TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL WITH MONTHLY OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE A Thesis by KATHLEEN IRIS THORNTON Submitted to the Office of Cnaduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Epidemiology VARIATION OF TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL W1TH MONTHLY OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE A Thesis by KATHLEEN IRIS THORNTON Approved as to style and content by Leon H. Russell (Chair of Committee) Pete D. Teel...

Thornton, Kathleen Iris



Victory Media Network®: the world's largest outdoor digital gallery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique outdoor digital art gallery opened in March of 2007 in the heart of the new 75-acre Victory Park mixed-use urban development project in Dallas, Texas. The gallery and its associated display technologies, cumulatively referred to as Victory Media Network®, incorporate a total of eleven large-scale outdoor LED video screens as well as LCD screens encased in kiosks distributed

Kristin Gray; Don Richards; Jason Cox



Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq·m-3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq·m-3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can

H. Hötzl; R. Winkler



Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we

Neil E. Klepeis; Wayne R. Ott; Paul Switzer; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Guangming Zeng; Amit Chakma; Beidou Xi; John Gillies; Hampden Kuhns; Johann Engelbrecht; Sebastian Uppapalli; Vicken Etyemezian; George Nikolich; Yinchang Feng; Yonghua Xue; Xiaohua Chen; Jianhui Wu; Tan Zhu; Zhipeng Bai; Shengtang Fu; Changju Gu; Richard Corsi; Matthew Walker; Howard Liljestrand; Heidi Hubbard; Dustin Poppendieck; Jawad Touma; Vlad Isakov; Alan Cimorelli; Roger Brode; Bret Anderson; John Offenberg; Michael Lewandowski; Edward Edney; Tadeusz Kleindienst; Mohammed Jaoui; Shin-An Chen; Jun-Nan Nian; Chien-Cheng Tsai; Hsisheng Teng; Birnur Buzcu-Guven; Steven Brown; Anna Frankel; Hilary Hafner; Paul Roberts; Elizabeth Vega; Hugo Ruiz; Gerardo Marti´nez-Villa; Gustavo Gonza´lez-A´; Elizabeth Reyes; Jose´ Garci´a



Informal Learning from Error in Hospitals: What Do We Learn, How Do We Learn and How Can Informal Learning Be Enhanced? A Narrative Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning from error is not just an individual endeavour. Organisations also learn from error. Hospitals provide many learning opportunities, which can be formal or informal. Informal learning from error in hospitals has not been researched in much depth so this narrative review focuses on five learning opportunities: morbidity and mortality…

de Feijter, Jeantine M.; de Grave, Willem S.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.



Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,…

Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob



An Integrative Review of the Literature on Women in the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the research on women in the outdoors, 1978-97. Among the major findings are the following: women were underrepresented and underpaid in executive and management positions related to outdoor programs; women tended to lead outdoor groups differently than men; outdoor recreation patterns differed in that women were more likely to…

Henderson, Karla A.; Roberts, Nina S.


Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.  


Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal



Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality  

PubMed Central

Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal



Mesocosms in ecotoxicology (1): Outdoor aquatic systems.  


Mesocosms have been used in aquatic ecotoxicology for approximately 20 years and were sometimes claimed to be essential tools, especially for regulatory purposes. The term aquatic mesocosm currently describes indoor and outdoor artificial streams or experimental ponds and enclosures. The use of mesocosms refines the classical methods of ecotoxicological risk assessment because mesocosms provide conditions for a better understanding of environmentally relevant effects of chemicals. They make it possible to assess effects of contaminants by looking at the parts (individuals, populations, communities) and the whole (ecosystems) simultaneously. Ecotoxicological investigations in mesocosms will not entirely replace the use of laboratory animals. However, they allow tests to be performed on species that are not of major societal concern, but which play key roles in the structure and function of ecosystems. In this respect, mesocosms allow nondestructive measurements of integrated endpoints. They also appear as potent tools to predict changes at the highest levels of organization (population, community, and ecosystem) from measurements of individual endpoints. However, after a period of extensive use, regulatory studies using large-scale mesocosms were more or less abandoned at the beginning of the 1990s, mainly because their cost-effectiveness was questionable. This review covers key features of outdoor aquatic mesocosms that can be critical for their use in environmental risk assessment of chemicals and emphasizes the optimization of their use for such purpose. The originality of mesocosms is mainly based on the combination of ecological realism, achieved by introduction of the basic components of natural ecosystems, and facilitated access to a number of physicochemical, biological, and toxicological parameters that can be controlled to some extent. This characteristic determines various features of the systems such as the minimal size required, initial physicochemical and biological composition, or choice of model species for ecotoxicological investigations. Ecological maturity of mesocosms affects the degree of variability of both physicochemical and biological parameters used to investigate the impact of contaminants. Adequate time is required to establish a number of interacting functional groups. The choice of appropriate time scales must be considered in the selection of both study duration and sampling frequency. Whatever the system used, duration of experiments should be sufficient to identify both direct and indirect effects on populations and communities. The choice of the experimental design should be based on the objectives of the study rather than on theoretical considerations. In addition to classical parametric statistical methods, nonparametric approaches and multivariate analysis may significantly improve data processing. Realism, representativity, and replicability of mesocosms are critical for evaluating their usefulness in both risk and impact assessment procedures. Each natural ecosystem is unique because its structure and function mainly depend on local factors. Therefore, there is a conceptual opposition between realism and replicability when applied to mesocosms. Considering the objectives of most mesocosm studies, replicability should be preferred to realism. Replicability may be achieved, in part, by a relative simplification of the systems. Reconstituted systems do not need to exactly simulate natural conditions at all levels, but key features at both structural and functional levels should be preserved as they ensure ecological representativity. Reliability of information on ecotoxicological effects of chemicals tested in aquatic mesocosms closely depends on the representativity of biological processes or structures that are likely to be affected. Extrapolation from small experimental systems to the real world seems generally more problematic than the use of larger systems in which more complex interacti PMID:10761444

Caquet, T; Lagadic, L; Sheffield, S R



OceanGLOBE: an Outdoor Research and Environmental Education Program for K-12 Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OceanGLOBE is an outdoor environmental research and education program for upper elementary, middle and high school students, supplemented by online instructional materials that are available without charge to any educator. OceanGLOBE was piloted in 1995 with support from a National Science Foundation Teacher Enhancement project, "Leadership in Marine Science" (award no.ESI-9454413 to UCLA). Continuing support by a second NSF Teacher Enhancement project (award no. ESI-9819424 to UCLA) and by COSEE-West (NSF awards OCE-215506 to UCLA and OCE-0215497 to USC) has enabled OceanGLOBE to expand to a growing number of schools and to provide an increasingly robust collection of marine science instructional materials on its website, OceanGLOBE provides a mechanism for students to conduct inquiry-based, hands-on marine science research, providing experiences that anchor the national and state science content standards learned in the classroom. Students regularly collect environmental and biological data from a beach site over an extended period of time. In the classroom they organize, graph and analyze their data, which can lead to a variety of student-created science products. Beach research is supported by instructional marine science materials on the OceanGLOBE website. These online materials also can be used in the classroom independent of the field component. Annotated PowerPoint slide shows explain research protocols and provide marine science content. Field guides and photographs of marine organisms (with emphasis on the Southern California Bight) and a growing collection of classroom investigations (applicable to any ocean location) support the science content presented in the beach research program and slide shows. In summary, OceanGLOBE is a comprehensive learning package grounded in hands-on, outdoor marine science research project in which students are the principal investigators. By doing scientific work repetitively over an extended time period students learn about how science is done as much as they learn science content.

Perry, R. B.; Hamner, W. M.



Examining a Collaborative Assessment Processes in Networked Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines issues concerning collaborative assessment of adult learners' formal coursework in a networked learning context. Considers how to make assessment a learning event in the context of lifelong learning, especially in the field of continuing professional development. (LRW)

McConnell, D.



Formal Verification of PLC Programs  

E-print Network

This paper presents an approach to the verification of programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs) using SMV, a software package for formal verification of state transition systems. Binary PLC programs are converted directly into SMV modules that retain the variable names and execution sequences of the original programs. The system being controlled is modeled by a C/E system block diagram which is also transformed into a set of SMV modules, retaining the structure of the block diagram model. SMV allows the engineer to verify the behavior of the control program over all possible operating conditions. Mechanisms are discussed for representing correctly the concurrent execution of the PLC programs and the plant model using SMV primitives. The SMV approach to PLC program verification is illustrated with an example. 1 Introduction The objective of the work reported in this paper is to create an interface between the programming and modeling tools typically used by control engineers...

M. Rausch; B.H. Krogh



Formal analysis of electromagnetic optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical systems are increasingly being used in safety-critical applications. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification raises many challenges for engineers. Traditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about their correctness by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as a complementary approach to improve optical system analysis. This paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of electromagnetic optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our approach, we present the analysis of resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices.

Khan-Afshar, Sanaz; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiène