Sample records for formal outdoor learning

  1. Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

  2. Individualized Outdoor Learning Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hice, Ann K.

    1979-01-01

    Designed to instruct teachers in the construction and design of their own Learning Activity Packages (LAP), this article is itself an LAP, teaching LAP design through activities and instructional objectives. Journal availability: see RC 503 504. (SB)

  3. Outdoor learning in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    For understanding important concepts in hydrology often the most efficient way of learning are field experiments with student involvement. In this contribution, I look back on my personal experiences as a student, an assistant and a teacher and ask myself, with a long-term perspective, what worked and what didn't. Some of the experiments, which I find most useful, are described in more detail such as the estimation of hydraulic conductivities based on groundwater salt dilution and an experiment to demonstrate the difference between flood-wave velocity and water particle velocity. Furthermore, some general thoughts on challenges to generate a good learning environment out in the field are given.

  4. The Caboose Hike: Enhancing Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siers, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Describes techniques for enhancing the experiences of participants in nature hikes or other outdoor group learning activities. Presents three techniques: (1) "The Caboose Hike" that engages students in sharing information; (2) "The Five Tools" that emphasizes use of the five senses; and (3) "Nature Detectives" that engages participants in a search…

  5. Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2011-01-01

    Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced learning in…

  6. FORMAL VERIFICATION OF SAFETY BEHAVIOURS OF THE OUTDOOR ROBOT RAVON

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    More and more applications like unmanned space travelling, autonomous farming, civil protection for the fi- nal behaviour of the robot. In circuit design, formal verification has already become a standard

  7. Enhancing Children's Outdoor Learning Experiences with a Mobile Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikala, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how a mobile learning application can enhance children's outdoor learning experiences. The study draws upon empirical evidence gathered in one case study conducted in a Finnish primary school setting in the fall of 2012. The data were collected with student and teacher surveys. The case study indicated that the mobile…

  8. Planning an Outdoor Learning Environment for a Small School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Developed to provide an outdoor learning environment for a small school which had relatively undeveloped grounds, these plans are aimed toward providing: physical activity (climbing, running, jumping, and games); imaginative activity; social learning; environmental study; mathematics and science; exploring materials, e.g., water and soil; and the…

  9. Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina

    2004-01-01

    A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…

  10. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  11. Analysing Attempts to Support Outdoor Learning in Scottish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm; Allison, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The new "Curriculum for Excellence" in Scotland outlines a policy vision of a more integrated and holistic form of education; a commitment which offers considerable prospects for increased levels of outdoor learning in schools. With reference to Fullan's theorizing on achieving educational change, this study investigated four main…

  12. Outdoor Experiential Education: Learning through the Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Most people can recall a time when they learned a skill or came to understand an idea while participating in an experience: learning in such a way that the action being taken and the resulting learning outcomes were synonymous. Time spent in hands-on efforts tend to engage learners physically and emotionally in both the process of learning and the…

  13. Team Learning of Formal Languages Sanjay Jain

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Team Learning of Formal Languages Sanjay Jain Dept. of Info. Systems & Computer Science National been studied extensively. However, team learning of languages turns out to be a more suitable for this is that language learning can model both learning from positive data and learning from positive and negative data

  14. Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

  15. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

  16. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    2010-01-01

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

  17. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  18. Formal Requirements Engineering: Learning from the students

    E-print Network

    Gibson, J. Paul

    of teaching formal software engineering. This paper examines the requirement engineering issues, which were domain which is being modelled. When teaching a requirements engineering course there is always a riskFormal Requirements Engineering: Learning from the students J. Paul Gibson, Department of Computer

  19. Preparing Future Teachers to Design and Implement Outdoor Learning through a Community Education Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Blaine; David Lehmann

    Preparing undergraduate students for a career in earth and space science education (ESSE) involves years of education courses with corresponding classroom practicum. However, experiences preparing future teachers in outdoor learning are equally important. The benefits of outdoor learning are irreplaceable with any other form of teaching: students take an active part in their learning through experiencing and discovering for themselves

  20. Outdoor Learning Environments: Easing the Transition from the Foundation Stage to Key Stage One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the transition that children make from the outdoor area in the Foundation Stage to the school playground in Key Stage One. With the recent emphasis on outdoor learning in the Foundation Stage it looks at the way in which one school has attempted to overcome discontinuity in learning between key stages by making learning

  1. Cultivating Lived-Body Consciousness: Enhancing Cognition and Emotion through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm; Marshall, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Through using school-based outdoor learning as the research context, the paper analyses the connections between bodily experiences and the embodied mind. Recent theorizing in outdoor learning, in reflecting phenomenology and Deweyian influences, has teased out how the relationships between the self, others and nature (environment) can be extended…

  2. Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatiello, James

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

  3. Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

  4. The nature of udeskole: outdoor learning theory and practice in Danish schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bentsen; Frank Søndergaard Jensen

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of Danish teachers have started introducing school-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children—often called udeskole in Danish. Although at least 14% of Danish schools practise this form of outdoor teaching with some classes, it is not mentioned in the national curriculum and little is presently known about the nature of udeskole.

  5. Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors

  6. A Comparison of Children's Learning Under Different Program Structures in a Resident Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Michelle

    Hypothesizing that students who were given the opportunity to choose their learning activities in a residential outdoor education school (Stone Valley, Pennsylvania) would more readily attain the behavioral objectives of those activities, 68 fifth grade students participating in a four-day residential outdoor education program were divided into a…

  7. The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of…

  8. The outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens as pedagogical space for toddlers' play, learning and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Moser; Marianne T. Martinsen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of the institution and the pedagogical leaders in these institutions have completed questionnaires.

  9. The Place of Experience and the Experience of Place: Intersections between Sustainability Education and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Allen

    2013-01-01

    As social, economic and environmental issues have become more prominent in the 21st century, there has been increased critical scrutiny into the ways that outdoor learning interacts with sustainability issues and concepts. As a result, a number of discourses have emerged which interrogate human/nature relationships in traditional outdoor education…

  10. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning

  11. Learning through Outdoor Activities as Part of a P2000 Mental Health Branch Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Outdoor activities assist nursing students in developing self-awareness of communication, leadership, and coping abilities; learning communication, leadership, and problem-solving skills; and increasing assertiveness and initiative. (SK)

  12. Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Di Prodi, P

    2013-11-01

    We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model. PMID:23777520

  13. Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors. Workshop of the University of New Hampshire Outdoor Education Program (Durham, New Hampshire, March 5, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Michael A.

    A collection of information from the "Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors" workshop provides brief summaries of each workshop session along with lists of human, community, and bibliographical resources available to outdoor education practitioners, the workshop itinerary, and promotional brochures. The 18 workshop topics included: expedition…

  14. Lessons Learned in Applying Formal Concept Analysis to Reverse Engineering

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lessons Learned in Applying Formal Concept Analysis to Reverse Engineering Gabriela Ar´evalo, St in "International Conference on Formal Concept Analysis (ICFCA '05) (2005)" #12;Lessons Learned in Applying Formal artifacts. In this paper we describe our approach, outline three case studies, and draw various lessons from

  15. How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…

  16. The Interrelatedness of Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Evidence from Labour Market Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn; Harrison, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Definitions, differences and relationships between formal, non-formal and informal learning have long been contentious. There has been a significant change in language and reference from adult education to what amounts to forms of learning categorised by their modes of facilitation. Nonetheless, there is currently a renewed interest in the…

  17. Beyond the Physical--Spriritual Values and Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Ongoing discussions about spiritual awareness and values in British outdoor education address their role in helping adolescents develop a strong positive identity; definition of values and spirituality; and assessment of client needs, especially with respect to cultural differences. Collaboration with the fields of transpersonal psychology and…

  18. Recognising Non-Formal and Informal Learning: An Open Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perulli, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The social-institutional endorsement towards the perspective of recognising and enhancing learning acquired outside the formal education and training contexts (non-formal and informal learning), has been gaining strength and has entered policy agendas throughout Europe, but also in other major non-European countries. Nevertheless there are still…

  19. Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.

  20. Blending Student Technology Experiences in Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…

  1. A Celebration of Life--An Individualized Outdoor Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hice, Ann K.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This Learning Activity Packet (LAP) is designed to celebrate the life, events, and people of the past using a cemetery as a data source (includes a materials list, activity sheets, objectives, etc.). Journal availability: see RC 503 504. (SB)

  2. The Slow Death of Formal Learning: A Polemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, David; Gubbins, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, approaches to education and training have become more informal, situated, outcome focused and experiential. Within this context, formal learning now plays a greatly diminished role, being supplanted by activity-based and technologically-based learning. This article, structured in the form of a polemic challenges readers to…

  3. School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

  4. Enriching Formal Language Learning with an Informal Social Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Giuliana; Torsani, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an informal component that we added to an online formal language learning environment in order to help the learners reach relevant Internet pages they can freely use to complement their learning activity. Thanks to this facility, each lesson is enriched, at run time, with a number of links automatically retrieved from social…

  5. Sunship Earth: An Acclimatization Program for Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    This book describes a 5-day program of imaginative activities designed to help elementary school children learn how their world functions through seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and hearing. The book is designed to help children understand energy flow, the cycles of basic materials, the diversity of life, natural communities, change,…

  6. Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Paul

    The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

  7. Bridging In-school and Out-of-school Learning: Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haim Eshach

    2007-01-01

    The present paper thoroughly examines how one can effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning. The first part\\u000a discusses the difficulty in defining out-of-school learning. It proposes to distinguish three types of learning: formal, informal,\\u000a and non-formal. The second part raises the question of whether out-of-school learning should be dealt with in the in-school system, in view of the fact that

  8. Outdoor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

    2011-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

  9. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  10. Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

  11. Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

  12. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  13. New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

  14. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  15. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  16. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  17. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  18. Professional Development across the Teaching Career: Teachers' Uptake of Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Dirk; Kunter, Mareike; Klusmann, Uta; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined teachers' uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities across the career cycle. Analyses were based on data from 1939 German secondary teachers in 198 schools. Results showed that formal learning opportunities (in-service training) were used most frequently by mid-career teachers, whereas informal learning opportunities…

  19. Take a Class Outdoors. A Guidebook for Environmental Service Learning. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Linda; Mauney, Tammy; Falkner, Rebekah

    This guidebook focuses on the addition of environmental service learning in elementary, middle, or high school. Sections 1 and 2 describe an administrator's view of the success of service learning in her middle school and a student's opinion of her encounters with Mississippi's natural resources. Section 3 provides a rationale for environmental…

  20. Outdoor Learning in Aotearoa New Zealand: Voices Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgriff, Marg; Legge, Maureen; Brown, Mike; Boyes, Mike; Zink, Robyn; Irwin, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Many of the principles and practices that have influenced outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand find their genesis in the United Kingdom and North America. In recent times, many of these foundational assumptions have been called into question. This paper highlights how emerging "local" voices are questioning and reframing how outdoor education…

  1. Outdoor Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "Outdoor Training: Revolution or Fad?" (Wagner, Baldwin, Roland); "Getting the Most out of Outdoor Training" (Buller, Cragun, McEvoy); and "Outdoor Training Companies" (a directory of more than 100 firms). (JOW)

  2. Non-formal Education in the Philippines: A Fundamental Step towards Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Ma. Celeste T.; Pijano, Ma. Concepcion V.

    In order to significantly contribute to human resource development, the Philippines must develop an integrated educational system of lifelong learning, with a special emphasis on non-formal education. Despite the value that is placed on formal, or sequential academic schooling, it is non-formal schooling that makes accessible the acquisition of…

  3. The Values of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes outdoor play as a solid foundation and a central vehicle of knowledge about the real world. Outdoor play is important to all age levels, but particularly in early childhood and the elementary years. Children's outdoor play is not a luxury. It is critical in children's ability to learn about the world, others, and themselves.…

  4. Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Europe: Key Developments and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the gradual introduction of arrangements for validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe. While the debate on how to identify, assess and recognise learning achievements acquired outside formal education and training institutions has been going on for several decades, we can now observe that these approaches are…

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Activities in a Non-Formal Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.; Morrison, Dirk; Daniel, Ben K.

    2009-01-01

    This research considers how professional participants in a non-formal self-directed learning environment (NFSDL) made use of self-directed learning activities in a blended face-to-face and on line learning professional development course. The learning environment for the study was a professional development seminar on teaching in higher education…

  6. Outdoor Classroom Adventures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathy Jacobs Maher

    2010-02-01

    In this outdoor classroom adventure, students learn to work cooperatively when facing challenges during overnight camping trips. Perhaps most importantly, students gain direction and purpose in their lives. They also gain self-assurance, which in turn giv

  7. Architecture for environmental learning : a National Outdoor Leadership School in Baja, Mexico

    E-print Network

    Galyean, Taylor

    1994-01-01

    An understanding of people, program, and place establishes a foundation from which to make architectural decisions. The focus of this thesis is to understand the needs of those involved in an outdoor education school in ...

  8. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor

  9. Graduate Certificate in the Learning Sciences The Certificate in the Learning Sciences provides an advanced understanding of learning in formal and

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    in Design EDIT 5164: Design for Learning* EDIT 6334: Applied Theories of Learning* EDIT 5224: PrinciplesGraduate Certificate in the Learning Sciences The Certificate in the Learning Sciences provides an advanced understanding of learning in formal and informal environments, integrating perspectives from

  10. Lessons Learned from a Successful Implementation of Formal Methods in an

    E-print Network

    Lawford, Mark

    Lessons Learned from a Successful Implementation of Formal Methods in an Industrial Project Alan, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 Abstract. This paper describes the lessons we learned over a thirteen Generation Inc., Feb 1997--Dec 1998 c #2003 Springer­Verlag #12; 2 Lessons Learned from Successful

  11. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

    2012-01-01

    In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

  12. Traversability Classification using Unsupervised on-line Visual Learning for Outdoor Robot Navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongshin Kim; Jie Sun; Sang Min Oh; James M. Rehg; Aaron F. Bobick

    2006-01-01

    Estimating the traversability of terrain in an un- structured outdoor environment is a core functionality for au- tonomous robot navigation. While general-purpose sensing can be used to identify the existence of terrain features such as vegetation and sloping ground, the traversability of these regions is a complex function of the terrain characteristics and vehicle capabilities, which makes it extremely difficult

  13. Outdoor learning: curriculum imperatives and community relevance in a rural setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra Maposah-Kandemiri; Peter Higgins; Pat McLaughlin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum imperatives motivate the school, and increasingly, the community, to participate

  14. Nature and Well-Being in Outdoor Learning: Authenticity or Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we look at the ways in which the experience of the natural environment was made available to the pupils and the types of activities provided for specific engagement with the local natural environment. It draws upon research undertaken for the Well-being and Outdoor Pedagogies project and previous PhD research. These projects explored…

  15. The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wistoft, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

  16. Supporting Whole-Child Learning in Nature-Filled Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Susan; Rosenow, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    "Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts." This much-repeated quote speaks eloquently to the kinds of life-enhancing skills children develop when they interact with caring adults in thoughtfully designed nature-filled outdoor classrooms. As a network of these classrooms springs…

  17. Applying a Formal Requirements Method to Three NASA Systems: Lessons Learned

    E-print Network

    Applying a Formal Requirements Method to Three NASA Systems: Lessons Learned Constance L. Heitmeyer software requirements of mission-critical components of three NASA systems. The components included a fault

  18. Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Waelti; Anthony Dickinson; Wolfram Schultz

    2001-01-01

    According to contemporary learning theories, the discrepancy, or error, between the actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs when a stimulus is paired with a reward. The role of prediction errors is directly demonstrated by the observation that learning is blocked when the stimulus is paired with a fully predicted reward. By using this blocking procedure, we show that

  19. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  20. A Formal Analysis of Classifier System and Interface between Learning System and Environment

    E-print Network

    Kikuchi, Makoto

    A Formal Analysis of Classifier System and Interface between Learning System and Environment Ichiro-Machine Interface, Classifier Sys- tem, Situation Theory, Channel Theory 1 Introduction The word learning can cover system called classifier system (CFS)[3], by way of example, based on Situation Theory[4, 5] and Channel

  1. Informal/Formal Learning and Workload among Ontario Secondary School Teachers. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaller, Harry; Hart, Doug; Clark, Rosemary; Livingstone, David

    Following up on an earlier national survey study of Canadian teachers' formal and informal learning, this study had 13 Ontario secondary teachers keep detailed logs of their day and evening activities, along with notations about what they may have learned as a result of engaging in each activity, for 7 consecutive days in late 1999, and again in…

  2. Attitudes to Formal Business Training and Learning amongst Entrepreneurs in the Cultural Industries: Situated Business Learning through "Doing with Others."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Carlo; O'Connor, Justin; Lovatt, Andy; Banks, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Presents arguments supporting a social model of learning linked to situated learning and cultural capital. Critiques training methods used in cultural industries (arts, publishing, broadcasting, design, fashion, restaurants). Uses case study evidence to demonstrates inadequacies of formal training in this sector. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  3. Recognition, Accreditation and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Prospects for Lifelong Learning in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2009-01-01

    This study was an exploration on the various issues related to recognition, accreditation and validation of non-formal and informal learning to open up avenues for lifelong learning and continuing education in Nepal. The perceptions, experiences, and opinions of Nepalese Development Activists, Educational Administrators, Policy Actors and…

  4. THE MOLES AND MINI MOLES SOFTWARE SYSTEM: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR LEARNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Melzer; Lia Hadley; Marie Glasemann; Michael Herczeg

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present Moles and Mini Moles, a combination of learning software tools that serve in bridging the gap between inside and outside classroom learning experiences. Secondary school students use these tools for hypothesizing, transferring, and testing lessons learned in the classroom into their physical environment. In particular, students use Moles and Mini Moles to create interactive multimedia

  5. Becoming an Outdoors-Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christine L.; Peterson, Tammy A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program developed to address barriers that prevent women from participating in hunting and fishing, and to give participants opportunities to learn outdoor skills in a nonthreatening environment. Over 600 women participated in 6 outdoor skill clinics in Wisconsin, Nebraska, Oregon, and Texas. Overviews marketing strategies related to…

  6. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  7. Computational neural learning formalisms for manipulator inverse kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulati, Sandeep; Barhen, Jacob; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    1989-01-01

    An efficient, adaptive neural learning paradigm for addressing the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the infinite local stability of terminal attractors - a new class of mathematical constructs which provide unique information processing capabilities to artificial neural systems. For robotic applications, synaptic elements of such networks can rapidly acquire the kinematic invariances embedded within the presented samples. Subsequently, joint-space configurations, required to follow arbitrary end-effector trajectories, can readily be computed. In a significant departure from prior neuromorphic learning algorithms, this methodology provides mechanisms for incorporating an in-training skew to handle kinematics and environmental constraints.

  8. Outdoor Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    One of the most interesting developments in teaching has been the growing importance of the outdoor environment. Whether it be playground, garden or field, the outdoors offers a range of challenging experiences, especially in the delivery of early mathematics. Oral feedback to parents, together with photographic displays, can show them that…

  9. Outdoor Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Cooper

    1998-01-01

    Outdoor Education is a series of outdoor activities that include orienteering, soil and water conservation, forestry, minerals, wildlife, and basic first aid disciplines. This program was designed to enable learners to have hands-on contact with the natural world as well as experience various facets of their natural environment.

  10. Formal and Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Giancaspro, Maria Luisa; Morciano, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The radical economic, social and cultural changes experienced by the labour market within recent decades have helped to highlight the central role played by the learning process in individual career development and organizational success. In such fast-moving working contexts, skills and competencies rapidly become outdated and need to be…

  11. Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony

    Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

  12. Outdoor Unified Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Louise

    Escalante (Utah) High School's outdoor unified studies field trip is a learning experience to be remembered. The four-day camping experience begins with pre-trip plans, pretests, and lecture/introductions to the Anasazi culture and to geologic formations to be visited. Horses (and equipment-carrying trucks) take the students into the desert to set…

  13. Qualitative Parameters for Evaluation Procedures of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Kaminskiene, Lina

    2009-01-01

    The article introduces evaluation principles of non-formal and informal learning that determine the quality of evaluation, describes stages of the evaluation procedure, differentiates their qualitative parameters and defines their criteria and indicators. It also brings in the discussion that consideration of qualitative parameters for the…

  14. Oral Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Formal Instruction and Study Abroad Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Joan C.; Valls-Ferrer, Margalida

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the differential effects of two learning contexts, formal instruction (FI) at home and a study abroad period (SA), on the oral production skills of advanced-level Catalan-Spanish undergraduate learners of English. Speech samples elicited through an interview at three data collection times over a 2-year period were…

  15. Portfolio Method in Assessment of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fokiene, Ausra; Sajiene, Laima

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of portfolio method in the process of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (ANILA), with reference to the example of vocational teacher education. The purpose of the article is to explore the use of "portfolio" method as an opportunity to monitor the professional development of vocational (VET)…

  16. Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

  17. Online Social Networks as Formal Learning Environments: Learner Experiences and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Navarrete, Cesar C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential of social networking sites to contribute to educational endeavors is highlighted by researchers and practitioners alike, empirical evidence on the use of such sites for formal online learning is scant. To fill this gap in the literature, we present a case study of learners' perspectives and experiences in an online course…

  18. Formal Measures of Learning in a Secondary School Mobile Robotics Course

    E-print Network

    Nourbakhsh, Illah

    and Development Center planned a methodology for formally evaluating the educational efficacy of Robotic Autonomy and executing a new robotics course. First, we planned to explicitly evaluate the educational impact of robotics on secondary level students. We were interested in quantifying lessons learned in service of robotics

  19. Job Requirements and Workers' Learning: Formal Gaps, Informal Closure, Systemic Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that formal educational attainments increasingly exceed the educational job requirements of the employed labour force in many advanced market economies--a phenomenon variously termed "underemployment", "underutilisation", or "overqualification". Conversely, both experiential learning and workplace case studies suggest…

  20. Exploring salutogenic mechanisms of an outdoor experiential learning programme on youth care farms in the Netherlands: untapped potential?

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Ester; Rijnders, Mandy; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hassink, Jan; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how (learning) experiences offered through outdoor experiential programmes, particularly the youth care farm approach, may (or may not) enhance young peoples’ ability to recognise and then utilise available resources for personal growth, protection and health promotion. A total of 11 youngsters were asked to look back on their half-year stay on a care farm in the Netherlands, by using semi-structured interviews to elicit their experiences from a salutogenic perspective. Analysis revealed that several resources (and the interaction of these resources) on the youth care farm worked well for the youngsters; contributed to their personal development and to their sense of coherence: the feeling that the world is or can be meaningful, comprehensible and manageable, associated with positive outcome in endeavours linked to improving health and well-being. In general, the attitude of the farmer, working with animals, the informal atmosphere and being temporarily cut-off from the former environment were elements most positively highlighted by the youngsters. The farm environment was mentioned as calming, however, as structuring as well. The strength of the programme as an experiential learning opportunity appears to be the diversity and richness of resources (and stressors!) available to the participants. This creates various opportunities for learning: making sense, interpreting and giving meaning to resources and stressors. Further research into the impact of this kind of programmes, compared to more ‘traditional’ programmes, especially on the ability of youngsters to use resources to finish school, find employment and develop better relationships with their parents is recommended. PMID:24910490

  1. Outdoor Learning Can Help Children Flourish in Science and across the Curriculum--The FSC Takes a Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Hannah; Kempton, Anneke

    2014-01-01

    The recent explosive growth of the Wild Network, which exists to champion and support connection with nature and wildness in children and young people, suggests that there is a groundswell of support for getting young people outdoors. Hannah Rose and Anneke Kempton of the Field Studies Council (FSC) explain why the outdoors is such an important…

  2. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  3. Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

    2007-01-01

    A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

  4. Science Sampler: Inquiry Goes Outdoors--What Can We Learn at the Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication "What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide" (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing…

  5. Science Sampler: Inquiry goes outdoors--What can we learn at the pond?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary E. Arnold

    2008-09-01

    The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing science skills. Lessons in this publication are supported by the Inquiry in Action model (Bourdeau 2004b), which provides a framework for students to use all the steps needed for science inquiry. This article illustrates how this model can be used to engage students in an investigation about life in and around ponds.

  6. Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Connie L.

    Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

  7. Stop Making Sense: The Outdoors as Art. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Applied outdoor experiences may be seen as theater and, as such, can allow a more flexible, integrative approach to outdoor learning. Both the arts (particularly theater) and outdoor experiential learning contain nine common elements, including elements of working with groups, and personal and transpersonal components of experience. Three…

  8. Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project in which students create their own outdoor environments using a tri-wall frame--a triple-layered cardboard, which is very lightweight and strong. Then the students compose a few sentences describing the scene or place.

  9. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

  10. The Great Outdoors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliana Texley

    2002-01-01

    Your own classroom is rich with resources and activities, but there are some things that simply can't be done there. Therefore, well-planned field trips are a vital part of the total educational program. They play an important role in helping students relate basic concepts learned in the classroom to practical work and applications in the real-world. This chapter describes how to ensure a safe and productive learning experience that extends beyond the classroom walls and into the great outdoors or other convenient location.

  11. Outdoor Mapping and Navigation Using Stereo Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Konolige; Motilal Agrawal; Robert C. Bolles; Cregg Cowan; Martin A. Fischler; Brian P. Gerkey

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of autonomous navigation in an unstructured outdoor envi-ronment. The goal is for a small outdoor robot to come into a new area, learn about and map its environment, and move to a given goal at modest speeds (1 m\\/s). This problem is especially difficult in outdoor, off-road environments, where tall grass, shadows, deadfall, and other obstacles

  12. New Trade and Industrial Teachers' Perceptions of Formal Learning versus Informal Learning and Teaching Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Janet Z.; Schaefer, Karen; Hayden, Jessie M.

    2005-01-01

    Trade and industrial (T&I) teachers enter the classroom as content level experts who may have acquired their content expertise through a combination of formal industry training and informal on-the-job experiences. When they make the career transition from industry to teaching, they must acquire professional teaching competencies. Like the content…

  13. Formalization of a Knowledge-based Approach for Representing and Learning Spatial Structure of a Large-scale Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gharani; M. R. Delavar

    2008-01-01

    This paper has outlined the formalization of learning and representing human movement in a street network as a large scale space. The proposed approach is based on development of a DSS for spatial commonsense knowledge management. Learning the large-scale structure, the traveler must necessarily build a cognitive map of the environment by integrating observations over extended periods of time, inferring

  14. Do theory and pedagogy have an impact on provisions for outdoor learning? A comparison of approaches in Australia and Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter; Helen Little; Shirley Wyver

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we contrast the early childhood education and care aims and curriculum in Norway and Australia and the theoretical underpinnings of Norwegian and Australian pedagogy in an attempt to partially explain the different approaches to (risky) outdoor play in these two countries. We argue that Norwegian pedagogical approaches may allow teachers to theorize more about, and place greater

  15. Outdoor Cooking. 

    E-print Network

    Douglas, Jenoyce; Reasonover, Frances

    1967-01-01

    -style service, set the table with plates, glassware and silverware. Place food on the table and pass to each person for self-service. Plastic or paper dishes, cups and glasses and paper napkins are handy for serving an outdoor meal. Good manners... A good lh pound bu 1 cup vinegc 1 cup water 1 harpoon c I) tablespoon onion Mix ini move garlic sauce may b Yield: 1 c edients in stew pan. Cover and sim- Keep in covered container in refrigera- needed. Yield: 1% cups. N BARBECUE SAUCE...

  16. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  17. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  18. "Is What You See What You Get?" The Production of Knowledge in-between the Indoors and the Outdoors in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Robyn; Burrows, Lisette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many believe the "outdoors" is a key factor influencing student learning in "outdoor education" because it is so different from the "everyday" indoor contexts of students' lives. In much of the outdoor education literature the outdoors is construed as a neutral and simplified space which allows students to have more "real" and…

  19. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  20. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  1. (Psycho)Analysis of Benchmark Experiments A Formal Framework for Investigating the Relationship between Data Sets and Learning Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel J. A. Eugster; Friedrich Leisch; Carolin Strobl

    It is common knowledge that certain characteristics of data sets - such as linear separability or sample size - determine the performance of learning algorithms. In this paper we propose a formal framework for investi- gations on this relationship. The framework combines three, in their respective scientific discipline well-established, methods. Bench- mark experiments are the method of choice in machine

  2. Formal and Informal Context Factors as Contributors to Student Engagement in a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Rebecca; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper explored informal (after-school) and formal (elective course in-school) learning contexts as contributors to middle-school student attitudinal changes in a guided discovery-based and blended e-learning program in which students designed web games and used social media and information resources for a full school year. Formality of the…

  3. Fancy a Career Doing Therapy in the Outdoors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, no outdoor practitioner is working as a professional therapist and little formal training in outdoor therapy exists. Practice of this type requires supervision and professional accreditation. Interested undergraduates should check social work, probation, mental health, educational psychology, or occupational therapy…

  4. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  5. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills. The data indicated that there is not a significant difference between adolescents and post-adolescents (up to 16-years-old) ability to learn formal thinking skills. Both groups (adolescent and post-adolescent) showed improvement in their formal thinking skill ability after the intervention. The intervention also demonstrated evidence of improving students' intelligence scores.

  6. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

  7. Your Outdoor Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

  8. Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Phil

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

  9. Camping and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Charles A.

    Outdoor education has become an integral part of the curriculum in a number of schools across the nation. Outdoor education activities can be readily integrated into physical education, recreation, and adult education programs, as well as science, mathematics, and related fields. Camping and outdoor education should become a part of each child's…

  10. Learning Journeys: The Road from Informal to Formal Learning--The UK Open University's Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Josie

    2013-01-01

    Online learning is now achieving recognition as offering a way for learning to scale. However we need to learn from the experiences in distance learning institutions. The Open University was established over 40 years ago and offers a unique experience in building a distance learning organisation on innovative use of media, originally through…

  11. Young Students Learning Formal Algebraic Notation and Solving Linear Equations: Are Commonly Experienced Difficulties Avoidable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at a mixed ability group of 21 Year 5 primary students (aged 9-10 years old) who had previously never had formal instruction using letters to stand for unknowns or variables in a mathematics context; nor had they been introduced to formal algebraic notation. Three lessons were taught using the computer software "Grid Algebra"…

  12. A Evaluation of a Learning Cycle Intervention Method in Introductory Physical Science Laboratories in Order to Promote Formal Operational thought Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadburn, Randy Glen

    Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition, future studies should attempt to use vigorous measures of formal reasoning ability to pinpoint exactly when the transition occurs in students.

  13. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  14. Teacher Learning, Informal and Formal: Results of a Canadian Teachers' Federation Survey. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaller, Harry; Clark, Rosemary; Hart, Doug; Livingstone, David; Noormohamed, Zahra

    In 1998, as part of a larger national study examining informal learning practices across the general population, Canadian elementary and secondary teachers were surveyed regarding their practices and attitudes related to their own ongoing learning. The 753 respondents described any informal learning experiences in the past year within their…

  15. Exploring Small Climates--An Outdoor Science Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    The study of climates in small areas as an outdoor science teaching technique is described in this paper. It is suggested that, while teachers are presenting a weather unit to their elementary school classes, they should not overlook the opportunity to make learning more meaningful through outdoor teaching techniques. Explorations of temperatures…

  16. In the Field: Mansfield: An Enduring Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berti, Bob

    2000-01-01

    The Mansfield Outdoor Centre (Ontario) is a privately operated outdoor education center delivering school programs for grades 5-8. The philosophy that humans and the environment are interdependent and all life has inherent value is delivered via residential programs that immerse students in situations where living and learning are inseparable.…

  17. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set I contains 24 varied activities which make use of crafts, simulations, and basic investigative techniques to provide introductory learning experiences in outdoor biology for children aged 10 to 15. The individual water-resistant folio for each activity includes biological…

  18. Journal Assignments for Student Reflections on Outdoor Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Recreation professionals use outdoor programs in rustic settings to promote the intellectual, physical, emotional, and professional development of their students. One important aspect of personal growth is to develop the ability to think critically about one's own learning, and journaling is one approach for achieving this goal. Outdoor programs…

  19. Developing an Outdoor Education Program for Public Schools. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, James S.

    Education in, for, and about the outdoors is an effective way to develop students' knowledge and appreciation of their environment, to stimulate their curiosity, and to motivate them to learn. Steps involved in establishing an outdoor education program for public schools include: (1) gaining support of school teachers and administrators, parents,…

  20. Saskatchewan's Trek School and the Greenall Outdoor School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notenboom, Rob; Moore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Trek School is an outdoor school program for any Grade 11 students in Regina, Saskatchewan. During the program, students engage in a series of classroom, outdoor, and experiential activities. The various courses are taught through these experiences. The program is designed to help students develop in the areas of independent learning, critical and…

  1. The Outdoor Classroom. Experiencing Nature in the Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    Through direct experience within natural settings, outdoor education allows students to learn about environmental concerns such as migration of birds, weather systems, wildlife habitats, watersheds, soil erosion, geological formations, food chains, and community resources. All subject areas in the present curriculum can be enriched through outdoor

  2. AGORA V: Identification, Evaluation and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning (Thessaloniki, Greece, March 15-16, 1999). CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guggenheim, Eric Fries, Ed.

    This document contains papers from a 2-day meeting on identification, evaluation, and recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union. The following papers are included: "Identification, Assessment, and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning: European Tendencies" (Jens Bjornavold); "Why Measure Human Capital?" (Riel Miller); "Mobility and…

  3. Outdoor Classroom Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

  4. Queering Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Connie; Sarick, Tema; Kennelly, Jackie

    2003-01-01

    Queer pedagogy is rife with possibilities for outdoor educators to challenge the status quo of heterosexism and sexism. From recognizing and addressing the heteronormative assumptions that influence the outdoor classroom, to subverting oppressive gender norms, to noticing the cultural constructs through which we view nature, queer pedagogy can…

  5. Selected Outdoor Recreation Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In this recreational information report, 96 tables are compiled from Bureau of Outdoor Recreation programs and surveys, other governmental agencies, and private sources. Eight sections comprise the document: (1) The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, (2) Federal Assistance to Recreation, (3) Recreation Surveys for Planning, (4) Selected Statistics of…

  6. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  7. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  8. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the environment,…

  9. Ohio Sampler: Outdoor and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballbach, Joann, Ed.

    This document provides practical suggestions and meaningful activities for implementing Ohio's model curriculum in science for instruction that emphasizes hands-on experience and diverse learning opportunities. It also includes a variety of nonscience activities that emphasize and utilize the outdoors. This Sampler lists activities by indoor or…

  10. School Access, Resources, and Learning Outcomes: Evidence from a Non-formal School Program in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Anh Dang; Leopold Sarr; Niaz Asadullah

    2011-01-01

    This study reports evidence from an unusual policy intervention ? The Reaching Out of School Children (ROSC) project ? in Bangladesh where school grants and education allowances are offered to attract hard-to-reach children to schools comprised of a single teacher and a classroom. The operating unit cost of these schools is a fraction of that of formal primary schools. We

  11. Formal Adult Learning and Working in Europe: A New Typology of Participation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefler, Gunter; Markowitsch, Jorg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how a typology of participating patterns is developed to deepen understanding of participation in formal adult education and the relationship between current workplace and educational programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of conceptual work based on a qualitative analysis…

  12. Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis

    2013-01-01

    Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to…

  13. Individualized Skill Assessment in Digital Learning Games: Basic Definitions and Mathematical Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, T.; Hockemeyer, C.; Kickmeier-Rust, M.; Albert, D.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a…

  14. CHAT-IT: Toward Conceptualizing Learning in the Context of Formal Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Rodney T.; Crain, Rhiannon; Loomis, Molly; Ball, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    This article is intended to spark a discussion between two research communities--scholars who study learning and scholars who study educational organizations. A secondary purpose is to encourage researchers to look beyond schools to examine learning in other types of educational organizations. The authors outline a framework to guide research on…

  15. Identification, Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning in Greece. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline

    This report describes a study to provide a picture of the stage of development, level, and nature of the debate on nonformal learning in Greece. It describes the national debate on questions of identification, assessment, and recognition of nonformal learning, including means, motives, and areas of agreement and conflict. Then, it describes…

  16. Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Education and the Economy of Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Interviews and a literature review found that outdoor recreation contributes significantly to Scotland's tourist income, particularly in rural areas; outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas; the provision of outdoor education by secondary schools has decreased in the last 20 years; and therapeutic outdoor

  17. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-01-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces. PMID:21622290

  18. Creating Personal Meaning through Technology-Supported Science Inquiry Learning across Formal and Informal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Sharples, Mike; Ainsworth, Shaaron; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Wright, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to engaging students in personal inquiry learning is described, whereby they carry out scientific investigations that are personally meaningful and relevant to their everyday lives. The learners are supported by software that guides the inquiry process, extending from the classroom into the school grounds, home, or…

  19. Biographical Learning and Non-Formal Education: Questing, Threads and Choosing How to Be Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an initial inductive analysis of eight semi-structured interviews with English adult learners conducted as part of the European Union (EU) BeLL project. It uses the theoretical lens of biographical learning (with its key concepts of agency and narrative) to explore what these interviews can tell us about the ways adults express…

  20. Case Studies of Non-Formal Education by Distance and Open Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaciwena, Richard, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from a study of the role of distance learning approaches in enhancing the contribution of nonformal education to socioeconomic development in Africa. "Introduction" (Richard Siaciwena) presents an overview of the research project and defines key terms related to nonformal education. "Ghana: The Use of Radio in…

  1. Recognition and Validation of Non Formal and Informal Learning: Lifelong Learning and University in the Italian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Rienzo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a reflection, on the basis of empirical research conducted in Italy, on theoretical, methodological and systemic-organisational aspects linked to the recognition and validation of the prior learning acquired by adult learners or workers who decide to enrol at university at a later stage in their lives. The interest in this research…

  2. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education, media, and free-choice learning. Though a statistically significant positive correlation was found between an individual's NES and their level of environmental knowledge as an adult, the relationship was weak (r= .112). One-on-one interviews also were conducted with 15 individuals selected from a random sample of the 382 participants. A post-survey focus group comprised of experts from the fields of environmental science and environmental education was also conducted to discuss results from the quantitative portion of the study and provide face validity to the questionnaire.

  3. Knowledge Contribution in a Non-Formal Virtual Setting through a Social Constructionist Approach: A Case Study of an Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Myra Gail

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an online learning community in a non-formal educational setting and the process participants used in order to share, create, and construct knowledge through their interactions in the online community. Participants in the study were college interns who were part of a grant that focused on providing professional development for…

  4. "I Feel like I'm Being Hit from All Directions": Enduring the Bombardment as a Mature-Age Learner Returning to Formal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willans, Julie; Seary, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The mature-age learner's re-engagement with a formal learning environment may be somewhat akin to the novice Paintball player who, unless well positioned and attuned to the rules of the combative game, is bombarded and worn down by constant "hits". For the mature-age learner, such "hits" may come in the form of tensions surrounding institutional…

  5. Using Formal Embedded Formative Assessments Aligned with a Short-Term Learning Progression to Promote Conceptual Change and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical…

  6. Results of Formal Evaluation of a Data and Modeling Driven Hydrology Learning Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Sanchez, C. A.; Schiesser, R.; Merwade, V.

    2014-12-01

    New hydrologists should not only develop a well-defined knowledgebase of basic hydrological concepts, but also synthesize this factual learning with more authentic 'real-world' knowledge gained from the interpretation and analysis of data from hydrological models (Merwade and Ruddell, 2012, Wagener et al., 2007). However, hydrological instruction is often implemented using a traditional teacher-centered approach (e.g., lectures) (Wagener, 2007). The emergence of rich and dynamic computer simulation techniques which allow students the opportunity for more authentic application of knowledge (Merwade & Ruddell, 2012). This study evaluates the efficacy of using such data-driven simulations to increase the understanding of the field of hydrology in the lower-division undergraduate geoscience classroom. In this study, 88 students at a local community college who were enrolled in an Introductory Earth Science class were evaluated on their learning performance in a unit on applying the Rational Method to estimate hydrographs and flooding for urban areas. Students were either presented with a data and visualization rich computer module (n=52), or with paper and pencil calculation activities (n=36). All conceptual material presented in lecture was consistent across these two conditions. Students were evaluated for not only changes in their knowledge and application of the concepts within the unit (e.g., effects of urbanization and impervious cover, discharge rates), but also for their broad "T-shaped" profile of professional knowledge and skills. While results showed significant (p<.05) increases from pre to post assessments in all learning areas for both groups, there is a significantly larger benefit for the data module group when it came to (1) understanding the effects of urbanization and impervious cover on flooding, (2) applying consistent vocabulary appropriately within context, and (3) explaining the roles and responsibilities of hydrologists and flood managers.

  7. Developing Competence: A Qualitative Inquiry of College Student Leadership in University Outdoor Orientation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbuck, J. David.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-nine formal research studies have been conducted on participants of college outdoor orientation programs. Although many variables have been examined for the incoming students, only one study has focused on the impact on the student leaders. The goal of this study was to understand how student leaders in outdoor orientation programs…

  8. A Rationale for Outdoor Activity as Experiential Education: The Reason for Freezin'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselheim, A. Donn

    John Dewey said, "Learning is thinking about experience". This dictum accurately reflects the rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education. The term "outdoor learning" refers to a set of activities which have the following characteristics in common: environmental contrast (a sharp environmental change for the participant); physical…

  9. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  10. Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard

    SciTech Connect

    K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

    2006-05-10

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

  11. "The Trampoline Tree and the Swamp Monster with 18 Heads": Outdoor Play in the Foundation Stage and Foundation Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers pedagogy and outdoor play in the early years. The particular focus is on the specific features and benefits of outdoor play in the Foundation Stage (England) and Foundation Phase (Wales). The paper will draw on current international literature and evidence from outdoor learning constructed in an ongoing research project in two…

  12. ‘The Trampoline Tree and the Swamp Monster with 18 heads’: outdoor play in the Foundation Stage and Foundation Phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Waller

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers pedagogy and outdoor play in the early years. The particular focus is on the specific features and benefits of outdoor play in the Foundation Stage (England) and Foundation Phase (Wales). The paper will draw on current international literature and evidence from outdoor learning constructed in an ongoing research project in two settings. In the project, children aged

  13. Feminist Perspectives on Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla

    Feminist perspectives provide a basis for examining the nature of participation in outdoor experiences, the goals of outdoor leadership, and the meanings associated with the outdoors. Feminism is concerned with the correction of both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to social change and removal of social…

  14. "Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellnes, Atle

    1992-01-01

    Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

  15. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  16. Outdoor Water Conservation

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    L-438 Outdoor Water Conservation The City of OKLAHOMA CITY UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Oklahoma.JustinQ.Moss 1 #12;2 SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING A WATER CONSERVING LANDSCAPE 1. GOOD LANDSCAPE PLANNING Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State

  17. Outdoor Education Counselor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others

    An outdoor education counselor manual was developed as a sample guide to aid Oakland County (Michigan) student camp counselors in preparing for their camp experience, so they will understand their role in the total program. A welcome to student counselors briefly lists their responsibilities. A section on the purpose of the manual notes…

  18. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  19. [Science in the Outdoors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarage, Joe; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

  20. Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages

    E-print Network

    Parthasarathy, Madhusudan

    Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages Applications to Verification Learning A Tutorial P. Madhusudan Learning Algorithms and Formal Verification #12;Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages Applications to Verification Outline 1 Computational Learning Theory 2 Learning

  1. Outdoors and Nature Calendar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). Each month contains several simple math-related activities that can be easily integrated into a learner's day. For example, the May calendar shows seven activities that mix math with outdoors and nature. Learners make a leaf pattern, measure the longest shadow they can find, and count how many seeds an apple has. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Also available in Spanish.

  2. Mobile learning in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkan Güllüoü?lu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  3. Life-Long Learning in Voluntary Association. A Study of Non-Formal Education in Atlantic Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    A participatory research study analyzed adult lifelong learning in voluntary association. Examined in the study were the associational environment for learning, learning leadership, learning goals and objectives, program content, and skill development. To obtain these data, researchers administered a mail questionnaire to a stratified random…

  4. Outdoor recreational opportunities in Alabama

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    adam smith

    2012-04-04

    What comes to mind when you think about outdoor recreational opportunities? Diagram of the recreational opportunities to enjoy First we will look at the forest services and recreational opportunities. Forest Services There is plenty of hunting opportunities in Alabama to enjoy. Hunting Opportunities Outdoor tips can be essential when enjoying the outdoors. Outdoor Tips What a better way to spend a weekend then going fishing with family and friends. Places to Fish A great way to spend a weekend could also consist of hiking. Hiking Now ...

  5. Improving Robot Navigation in Structured Outdoor Environments by Identifying Vegetation from Laser Data

    E-print Network

    Stachniss, Cyrill

    Improving Robot Navigation in Structured Outdoor Environments by Identifying Vegetation from Laser for robots operating outdoors, since it enables a robot to navigate more efficiently and safely furthermore illustrate how the learned classifier can improve the autonomous navigation capabilities of mobile

  6. The School Ground Classroom: A Curriculum to Teach K-6 Subjects Outdoors. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dan; And Others

    Suggesting that outdoor activities can be positive learning experiences, lesson plans and activities were designed to demonstrate that the outdoors is an interdisciplinary classroom, to be used on virtually any school site, and to teach subject matter taught as part of the standard curriculum. Seventeen interdisciplinary ideas with correlated…

  7. Inglemoor High School Curriculum Guide for Outdoor Recreation & Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Jim

    Descriptions of 12-week courses in hunting and fishing and in outdoor activities for male and female students at Inglemoor High School in Bothell, Washington, are presented in this curriculum guide for outdoor education and recreation. Offering both classroom and field experience, each of the two courses meets 55 minutes daily; recommended class…

  8. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A.; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

  9. Smithsonian American Art Museum SAVE OUTDOOR SCULPTURE!

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Smithsonian American Art Museum SAVE OUTDOOR SCULPTURE! CONSERVATION TREATMENT NOTIFICATION REPORT Through Save Outdoor Sculpture! (SOS!), a joint project of Heritage Preservation and the Smithsonian American Art Museum, nearly 32,000 outdoor sculptures were surveyed and condition assessments performed

  10. Issues of Interaction in Pure-Online English Learning Environment through Perspectives of Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism: A Case Study for Non-formal Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhui Han

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Most previous studies on the use of Internet technology and computers for second language learning have been conducted in\\u000a blended learning environments. Although much research has been undertaken into interactions in online learning, little work\\u000a has focused on online English learning, let alone the pure-online (ie non-blended) English learning environment with no face-to-face\\u000a element. This paper investigates the English-language learning

  11. Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.

    PubMed

    Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. PMID:24462995

  12. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  13. Technology Works in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zita, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

  14. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  15. Adult Learners' Learning Environment Perceptions and Satisfaction in Formal Education--Case Study of Four East-European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovan, Marko; Makovec, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes towards learning and perceptions of the learning environment. Our theoretical examination is based on the social-cognitive theory of motivation and research that emphasizes the connections between an individual's perceptions of the learning environment and his/her motivation, interest, attitudes…

  16. Fostering Experiential Self-Regulation through Outdoor Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…

  17. Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

    The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

  18. Designing Backpacks for High Fidelity Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Piekarski; Ross Smith; Bruce H. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the design for our latest backpack to support mobile outdoor augmented reality, and how it evolved from lessons learned with our previous designs. We present a number of novel features which help to re- duce size and weight, improve reliability and ease of con- figuration, and reduce CPU usage on laptop computers.

  19. Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

  20. The Mobile Educational Trailer Unit in Outdoor Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    The concept of achieving mobility for outdoor teaching using a small mobile educational unit and the techniques of facilitating the mobility of equipment and supplies are discussed in this article. A small trailer unit can be used to enrich the learning experiences of students. Since the mobile educational unit is adaptable, it can be used as a…

  1. Children's Outdoor Environment in Icelandic Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate what characterizes the discourse on the role of the outdoor environment in young children's learning in educational policy documents in Iceland. Policy documents, laws and regulations, national curriculum guides for pre- and compulsory school levels, and documents from municipalities were analyzed. A…

  2. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  3. Mechanisms Influencing Student Understanding on an Outdoor Guided Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the…

  4. 3 CFR 8687 - Proclamation 8687 of May 31, 2011. Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the foresight to protect our most precious natural and...the foundation for smarter, more community-driven action to...initiative encourages youth to enjoy what our outdoors have to...can read the report and learn more at...

  5. 3 CFR 8528 - Proclamation 8528 of May 28, 2010. Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...to learn more. In these difficult economic times, renewing our commitment to our natural places will foster jobs in the tourism and recreation industries while conserving our great outdoors. Moreover, as Americans, we are responsible for...

  6. An Evidence Repository of Formal Methods for Industry

    E-print Network

    Southampton, University of

    of formal and proven artefacts The capability to phase the learning of a formal method in an organisation Training Scope and Resourcing Training people with no FM background SAP Control Impact of Formalism of progression when learning a new formalism (depending on whether one has previous experience with formal

  7. Feminists Challenging Assumptions about Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martha

    In this essay, women outdoor leaders discuss how gender influences their work, and explore and challenge some assumptions underlying outdoor leadership that continue to privilege the impartial, disembodied practices typified by the masculine outdoor leader. Four feminist, and three other feminist outdoor leaders participated in personal interviews…

  8. Resident Program Guide: Hillside Outdoor Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Bonnie

    Founded in 1972 as part of the private, non-profit Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Centers, the Hillside Outdoor Education Center offers services to various educational groups by providing residential experiences for students and faculty, day-visit programs, school-site outdoor education programs, teacher workshops, college courses in outdoor

  9. Outdoor Experiences for Young Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…

  10. Unpacking (In)formal Learning in an Academic Development Programme: A Mixed-Method Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Hosein, Anesa

    2015-01-01

    How and with whom academics develop and maintain formal and informal networks for reflecting on their teaching practice has received limited attention even though academic development (AD) programmes have become an almost ubiquitous feature of higher education. The primary goal of this mixed-method study is to unpack how 114 academics in an AD…

  11. Outdoor Science: A Practical Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steve Rich

    2010-02-01

    Available February 2010. Research shows that environment-centered education improves student achievement. Whatever your school's setting--urban, suburban, or rural--you can create stimulating outdoor classrooms for your students, with a litt

  12. Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fresh water (e.g., lake, river, stream) or soil, the disease can live there for weeks to ... into close contact with fresh water or damp soil when they participate in outdoor activities. For example, ...

  13. Lifelong Learning and Lifewide Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agency for Education, Stockholm.

    Lifelong learning and lifewide learning describes the concept of learning in which individuals learn throughout the life-span from formal, non-formal, and informal sources. It is an issue for educational policy, labor market policy, and the workplace, as well as for civil society. Key issues in lifelong learning include the following: (1) lifelong…

  14. The Development of Computer-aided Distance Learning Courses: An application of formal methods and object-oriented approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Victor LEE; Sunny SUEN

    One approach to the development of a distance learning course is to base the study of the course on a number of books within a subject area readily available in the market, and then develop a study guide which consists of a series of study units to help students to understand the course objectives and assimilate the subject matters elaborated

  15. Participating in Non-Formal Learning: Patterns of Inequality in EU-15 and the New EU-8 Member Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2010-01-01

    We concentrate on the following research questions: (1) Do the structure of the educational system and its interaction with the labour market affect the training gap between low-skilled blue collar workers and high-skilled white collar workers? and (2) Do the ways that institutional systems shape opportunities for lifelong learning differ between…

  16. Hard/Soft, Formal/Informal, Work/Learning: Tenuous/Persistent Binaries in the Knowledge-Based Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela; Butterwick, Shauna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses insights from a study of women working, or seeking or preparing for work, in the information technology (IT) field. At issue is how and whether alternative career pathways and informally acquired skills and knowledge, as well as the operation of gender in learning and work, are acknowledged by employers, colleagues…

  17. RESIDUAL GAIN IN LEARNING AS A CORRELATE OF DEGREE AND DIRECTION OF EFFORT IN FORMAL ADULT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DANNENMAIER, WILLIAN DEAL

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF STUDY BEHAVIOR AND THREE KINDS OF LEARNING--KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION, AND APPLICATION. TWO STUDY BEHAVIOR SCALES WERE DEVELOPED BY HOMOGENEITY ANALYSIS, BEHAVIOR ONE REFLECTING DEMONSTRATED ACCEPTANCE OF THE ESTABLISHED COURSE CONTENT AND GOALS AND BEHAVIOR TWO REFLECTING THE TENDENCY OF…

  18. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE) (14th, Oxford, Ohio, November 7-12, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidline, Mark, Ed.; Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Moore, Tim, Ed.; Versteeg, Julie, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 15 conference papers and presentation summaries from the 14th annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE). Titles are: "The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training" (Christian Bisson); "The Service Learning Concept: Service Learning in the National Parks" (Tom…

  19. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...consideration, shall be provided for all marine mammals kept outdoors to afford them protection from the weather or from direct sunlight. (c) Perimeter fence. On and after May 17, 2000, all outdoor housing facilities (i.e.,...

  20. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...127 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort...animals kept outdoors to protect themselves from direct sunlight. (b) Shelter from inclement...

  1. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...127 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort...animals kept outdoors to protect themselves from direct sunlight. (b) Shelter from inclement...

  2. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...consideration, shall be provided for all marine mammals kept outdoors to afford them protection from the weather or from direct sunlight. (c) Perimeter fence. On and after May 17, 2000, all outdoor housing facilities (i.e.,...

  3. Outdoor Education and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alistair

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the importance of increasing effective communication in outdoor education programs. Examines sensory preferences and how they affect vocabulary, voice tone, and body language. Describes ways that outdoor educators can use this information to improve their communication skills. (LP)

  4. OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

  5. Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

  6. Outdoor Program Office Assistant Employment Application Information

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    in sharing it with others. The best applicants are not those who possess immense technical ability, but those-to-day operations in the Outdoor Program office. Duties include checking in/out outdoor equipment rentals, equipment

  7. Environmental/Outdoor Education -- A Major Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Samuel B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Several timely factors which were considered in the development of the Outdoor Education and Farm Demonstration Center (Green Chimneys School, Brewster, New York) and the nearby Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Center are discussed. (Author/KM)

  8. Usability of Outdoor Spaces in Children's Hospitals 

    E-print Network

    Pasha, Samira

    2012-07-16

    Researchers have studied the positive effect of healing outdoor environments on hospitalized children, their family members and staff's health and mood. Consequently many modern hospitals dedicate portions of their space to healing outdoor...

  9. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  10. How Effective Are Outdoor Education Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Twelve classes of students in grades 4 through 6 studied beaver ecology, either at an outdoor-education center near Toronto or in the classroom. Results indicate that outdoor education was more effective in promoting students' cognitive achievement than classroom study, but did not confirm the popular belief that outdoor programs influence…

  11. Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

  12. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

    Directed to the Multnomah County (Oregon) sixth grade students participating in the Outdoor School program, the handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Information is provided on the Outdoor School site and staff;…

  13. Integrated Outdoor Education/Adventure. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The 12 brief articles in this "feature" or theme issue describe successful approaches to development of outdoor education programs which successfully integrate individuals with and without disabilities. Titles and authors are: "Outdoor Education and Adventure: Challenges and Rewards for All" (Stuart J. Schleien); "Benefits of Integrated Outdoor

  14. Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Curtis; William Rea; Patricia Smith-Willis; Ervin Fenyves; Yaqin Pan

    2006-01-01

    Much research on the health effects of outdoor air pollution has been published in the last decade. The goal of this review is to concisely summarize a wide range of the recent research on health effects of many types of outdoor air pollution. A review of the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur and

  15. MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    . This is necessary in order to reduce light pollution, which has a negative effect on people, wildlife sky. This causes light pollution, also known as artificial sky glow. Glare Glare is any overlappingMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

  16. MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    to reduce light pollution, which has a negative effect on wildlife and the surrounding environments pollution, also known as artificial sky glow. Glare Glare is any overlapping light between the uplightMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

  17. MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    , and high-angle brightness. This is necessary in order to reduce light pollution, which has a negative as excess lighting directed into the night sky. This causes light pollution, also known as artificial skyMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

  18. Pathways to the Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

    This bibliography is designed to assist educators in establishing an outdoor classroom for environmental education. A process is detailed by which school districts can effectively and efficiently develop a site on or near the school. The first step involves organizing a planning committee, enlisting administrative support, and developing a budget.…

  19. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  20. Outdoor HV composite polymeric insulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hackam

    1999-01-01

    HV composite polymeric insulators are being accepted increasingly for use in outdoor installations by the traditionally cautious electric power utilities worldwide. They currently represent ~60 to 70% of newly installed HV insulators in North America. The tremendous growth in the applications of non-ceramic composite insulators is due to their advantages over the traditional ceramic and glass insulators. These include light

  1. The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin; McCall, Herman J.

    2007-01-01

    Starr Commonwealth has served troubled children and youth and their families for nearly a century. Starr's Montcalm Schools operate from campuses in Michigan and Ohio, enrolling students referred by families and educational consultants. The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program is a key part of Starr's network of nonprofit alternative education and…

  2. Outdoor Recreation at Brock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Hutson, Garrett

    2007-01-01

    Brock University offers both undergraduate and graduate programs and is host to approximately 17,000 students. It is the only Canadian university located in a World Biosphere Reserve--the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail passes through campus, and offers ample opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, nature interpretation and outdoor

  3. Counselling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Michelle; Chase, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Outdoor leaders need counseling skills to deal with interpersonal conflicts that arise within a group and to facilitate participant growth and change. Person-centered counseling, reality therapy counseling, and behavioral counseling are discussed, as well as how various techniques from each can be used to the benefit of the leader and the group.…

  4. Outdoor Education as Wilderness Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Presents outline for introductory course designed to allow student exploration of outdoor opportunities and instill interest and basic knowledge. Includes nature trail development, edible wild plants, Adirondack/St. Lawrence geology, mountain climbing, fall camping, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, winter camping, ice fishing, knots,…

  5. Development of Outdoor Service Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nishida; Yuji Takemura; Yasuhiro Fuchikawa; Shuichi Kurogil; Shuji Ito; Masayuki Obata; Norio Hiratsuka; Hidekazu Miyagawa; Yasuhiro Watanabe; Fumitaka Koga; Toshinori Suehiro; Yoshinori Kawamura; Yoshimitsu Kihara; Takashi Kondo; Fujio Ohkawa

    2006-01-01

    The outdoor service robots which we call OSR-01 and OSR-02 are presently under development intended for cleaning up urban areas by means of collecting discarded trash such as plastic bottles, cans, plastic bags and so on. In this paper, we mainly describe the architecture of OSR-02 which consists of hardware such as sensors, a manipulator, crawler structure, etc. for searching

  6. Beyond formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  7. Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

    This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

  8. Outdoor Education for Behavior Disordered Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Edward

    Outdoor education programs ranging from simple, near-school activities to lengthy wilderness camping experiences can benefit behavior disorderd students. Studies of outdoor education programs for these students have shown positive effects including improvements in self-concept, social adjustment, academic achievement, and group cohesion. Many…

  9. Color Models for Outdoor Machine Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shashi D. Buluswar; Bruce A. Draper

    2002-01-01

    This study develops models for illumination and surface reflectance for use in out- door color vision, and in particular for predicting the color of surfaces under outdoor conditions. Existing daylight and reflectance models have limitations that reduce their applicability in outdoor contexts. This work makes three specific contributions: (i) an explanation of why the current standard CIE daylight model cannot

  10. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Barbier; C. V. Chester

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is

  11. The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles A., Jr.

    Designed for those interested in the mechanics of establishing outdoor education programs, this text is basically a guide to program development and includes examples of procedures, forms, conceptualizations, etc. Chapters deal with: (1) the contemporary education scene (an overview); (2) the basic concepts of outdoor education (17 concept…

  12. Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Camille J.

    Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

  13. Fast Outdoor Robot Localization Using Integral Invariants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Weiss; Andreas Masselli; Hashem Tamimi; Andreas Zell

    2007-01-01

    Global Integral Invariant Features have shown to be useful for robot localization in indoor environments. In this paper, we present a method that uses integral invariants for outdoor environments. To make the integral invariant features more distinctive for outdoor images, we split the image into a grid of subimages and calculate integral invariants for each grid cell individually. We then

  14. Therapeutic Uses of Outdoor Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    This digest examines the positive effects on emotional well-being of several types of outdoor education programs. Although many outdoor education and experiential programs enhance emotional growth, such "therapeutic" outcomes may be considered incidental to program goals. In contrast, programs aimed primarily at "therapy" usually involve a process…

  15. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  16. Developing Outdoor Leaders: Paul Petzoldt's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Cashel, Christine

    Paul Petzoldt, an early pioneer in outdoor education, saw the need for trained outdoor leaders. This paper presents material from unpublished papers retrieved after his death that clarify and expand on his philosophy of leadership development. Key ideas such as: judgment, 20-20 vision, and use of wilderness expeditions, are expanded upon and…

  17. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  18. Outdoor Education in Secondary Schools: What Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ian

    1999-01-01

    A survey of all secondary schools in a southern English county found that 4.6% offered outdoor education courses, 15% had discontinued such courses in the last 5 years, 46% included outdoor/adventure activities in physical-education curricula, and 88% ran short residential trips temporarily replacing the school curriculum. Discusses obstacles and…

  19. Planning and Design of Outdoor Sports Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    Information required for the planning and design of outdoor sports facilities is provided in the format of an outline text and design criteria placed opposite an accompanying page of definitive drawings. Scope of the manual covers those outdoor sports and games most commonly played for competition and/or recreation by military and civilian…

  20. A Guide for Conducting Outdoor Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; And Others

    Since research indicates teachers generally lack confidence in their ability to conduct lessons in the outdoors and feel inadequate regarding knowledge of the natural world, this guide has been developed to build teacher confidence in utilizing the outdoors. Designed to be used in conjunction with a practicum workshop, this guide presents…

  1. Outdoor Education Units. Pull Out Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Briefly presents 15 outdoor education units covering orienteering, map reading, safety, rescue, rope skills, first aid, camping, kayaking, rock and wall climbing, caving, survival skills, sailing, hiking, and outdoor equipment. Each unit has a brief description, including the knowledge and skills that students should be able to demonstrate. (TD)

  2. Changing Roles for Outdoor Education Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Geoff

    There have been two traditions of outdoor education in Great Britain. Field studies focus on science, while outdoor pursuits focus on physical skills and technical knowledge or personal and social development through challenging situations. These two approaches have much in common and much to offer each other. Although both approaches use the…

  3. Arnold Schwarzenegger INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR LEAKAGE

    E-print Network

    -outdoor temperature difference. Driving Forces for Air Infiltration With mechanical ventilation systems off, the driving forces for air infiltration through the building envelope are wind, which exerts pressure on walls Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR LEAKAGE OF APARTMENTS AND COMMERCIAL

  4. Mississippi Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, W. Hugh; And Others

    Objectives of the official comprehensive outdoor recreation plan for the State of Mississippi are (1) to guide recreational development in Mississippi in an orderly fashion on a statewide level; (2) to survey public, semipublic, commercial, and private outdoor recreational opportunities; (3) to determine recreational needs for meeting present and…

  5. ?N formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Futamase, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Precise understanding of nonlinear evolution of cosmological perturbations during inflation is necessary for the correct interpretation of measurements of non-Gaussian correlations in the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale structure of the Universe. The “?N formalism” is a popular and powerful technique for computing nonlinear evolution of cosmological perturbations on large scales. In particular, it enables us to compute the curvature perturbation ? on large scales without actually solving perturbed field equations. However, people often wonder why this is the case. In order for this approach to be valid, the perturbed Hamiltonian constraint and matter-field equations on large scales must, with a suitable choice of coordinates, take on the same forms as the corresponding unperturbed equations. We find that this is possible when (1) the unperturbed metric is given by a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric; and (2) on large scales and with a suitable choice of coordinates, one can ignore the shift vector (g0i) as well as time dependence of tensor perturbations to gij/a2(t) of the perturbed metric. While the first condition has to be assumed a priori, the second condition can be met when (3) the anisotropic stress becomes negligible on large scales. However, in order to explicitly show that the second condition follows from the third condition, one has to use gravitational field equations, and thus this statement may depend on the details of the theory of gravitation. Finally, as the ?N formalism uses only the Hamiltonian constraint and matter-field equations, it does not a priori respect the momentum constraint. We show that the error in the momentum constraint only yields a decaying mode solution for ?, and the error vanishes when the slow-roll conditions are satisfied.

  6. Outdoor air pollution and children's health.

    PubMed

    Suwanwaiphatthana, Wiparat; Ruangdej, Kannika; Turner-Henson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Children spend almost 90% of their time indoors, though outside air can be a significant source of potential and actual exposure to outdoor air pollutants. Children are vulnerable to pollutants and toxins because of their size and developing organ systems. Young children have increased respiratory rates and inhale more toxins, and young children often ignore respiratory symptoms and continue play. Outdoor play and recreational activities expose children to outdoor air pollution from sources such as automobiles, power plants, industry, and other combustion sources, which can impact children. Outdoor air pollution has been linked to respiratory illness exacerbations, infant mortality, the development of asthma, and atopy and reduction in lung development in children. This article will examine outdoor air pollution and its impact on children's health, as well as implications for pediatric nursing clinical practice. PMID:20361442

  7. Exploring Bi-Cultural Awareness through Outdoor Education in Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawdy, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of outdoor-based experiential learning in an undergraduate physical education teacher preparation program to develop a culturally-sensitive pedagogy for work with children from different cultures. Applying the six-stage process for becoming a bi-cultural teacher (Klug & Whitfield, 2003), teacher preparation students…

  8. The Role of Outdoor Adventure Education in Facilitating Groupwork in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam J.; Burns, Victoria E.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Groupwork is an increasingly popular method of learning in higher education and the ability to work effectively with others is important for academic success and employability. This systematic review investigated the use of outdoor adventure education (OAE) in facilitating the development of transferable groupwork skills in higher education. The…

  9. Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio

    2007-01-01

    A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

  10. Lessons from the Mud: Nurturing an Outdoor Classroom in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Virginia; Sampson, Karla

    1999-01-01

    A muddy area between two new elementary schools was transformed into a school "wetlands"--an outdoor learning center used for nature study and various creative and sensory activities. The area encourages children's natural curiosity, provides many discoveries about nature, and promotes a sense of stewardship. (SV)

  11. New Perspectives for Teaching Physical Education: Preservice Teachers' Reflections on Outdoor and Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timken, Gay L.; McNamee, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers' perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the…

  12. Life in Early California: A New Approach to the Outdoor Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an outdoor educational program at the University of California Botanical Garden in which children are encouraged to handle the plants and are provided with a taped commentary. By the use of an inquiry method, children learn how the Californian Indians used many of the native plants. (JR)

  13. A REAL-TIME ROBUST SLAM for LARGE-SCALE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Blackwellized Particle Filter (RBPF) proposed by Murphy (11) is an effective approach for learning grid maps by decoupling pose state and the map. Based on the RBPF framework, FastSLAM (12), (13) uses particle filtering1 A REAL-TIME ROBUST SLAM for LARGE-SCALE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS Jianping Xie, Fawzi Nashashibi

  14. The Conscious Use (or Avoidance) of Metaphor in Outdoor Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Facilitated discussion before, during and after experiences is widely accepted practice in the field of outdoor adventure education. Much of the literature appears to house the assumption that individual learning may be considerably restricted if participants' experiences are not processed with the help of an external facilitator, as they may not…

  15. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUPPLEMENTAL TO AND RELATED TO THE ART PROGRAM AT DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE DEALING WITH VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS WAS PREPARED FOR POSSIBLE STUDY ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD USE THE LEARNING RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER IN GARY, INDIANA. ACTIVITIES GUIDES ARE PRESENTED FOR (1) ART ACTITIVIES RELATED TO DESIGN, COLOR, LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION, PAPER CONSTRUCTION, DRAWING, PRINT…

  16. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  17. A Teachers' Guide for the Outdoor School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

    The general aim of this guide is to aid the teachers of the fifth and sixth grade boys and girls who participate in the Outdoor School program at the Battle Creek Outdoor Center. Another major aim of this guide is to aid the outdoor school teachers who bear the major responsibility in implementing the outdoor school program. An historical overview…

  18. Cooperative Programs in Residential Outdoor Environmental Education: Teacher's Materials Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin County Superintendent of Schools, Corte Madera, CA.

    Serving as teacher orientation materials for the cooperative programs in residential outdoor education located in Marin County, California, this guide includes the following: (1) "This I Believe" (a philosophical statement on outdoor environmental education); (2) "Outdoor Science and Conservation Education Report" (a brief history of outdoor

  19. Outdoor Virtual Reality Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Bruce

    Outdoor Virtual Reality Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski Wearable Computer Laboratory University This paper presents our novel concept Outdoor Virtual Reality. By using outdoor augmented reality techniques we propose to build very wide area virtual reality systems, outdoor virtual reality. The concept

  20. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

  1. Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Michael G.

    In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

  2. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in "normal" science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p < 10(-4)), and that the outdoor-teaching has generally been perceived as more practical than teaching at the normal school context (p < 10(-4)), irrespective of gender or school culture. We are going to provide in-depth analyses of all quantitative findings with our qualitative data and thus explain the findings logically, with respect to the direction of the statistical interpretation, and substantially, with respect to the meaning of the discoveries. We conclude that outdoor programming appears to be a suitable tool to trigger interest in science in youngsters, especially for less motivated pupils. PMID:25741301

  3. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Transportation of Rabbits Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.52 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits...

  4. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Transportation of Rabbits Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.52 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits...

  5. The TAMU Outdoors Program: a case study

    E-print Network

    Kott, Patsy L

    1990-01-01

    (Chairman, Advisory Committee) Dr. Louis Hodges (Committee Member) Dr. Camille Bun ing (Committe ember) May, 1990 ABSTRACT 111 The TANU Outdoors Program: A Case Study (Nay 1990) Patsy L. Kott, B. S. , Southwest Texas State University Chairman...

  6. EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition)

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    44 EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMESEXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Expected Learning Outcome (definition) An expected learning outcome is a formal statement of what students are expected to learn in a course. Expected learning outcome statements refer to specific knowledge, practical skills, areas of professional

  7. Outdoor Distributed Computing with Split Smart Messages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishkam Ravi; Liviu Iftode

    In this paper, we exemplify outdoor distributed computing and point out the key challenges. We present Split Smart Messages,\\u000a a lightweight, portable, network failure resilient and relatively secure middleware that enables a large subset of outdoor\\u000a distributed computing applications. We also present a Service Discovery, Interaction and Payment Protocol (SDIPP) tailored\\u000a for mobile phones. We evaluate our middleware and protocol

  8. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  9. Aeromycological profile of indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena; Delgado, José Luís; Abreu, Ilda

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the differences between indoor and outdoor aeromicological composition. The aerobiological study was performed, from 15 January to 14 April 2008, using two volumetric spore traps, one placed indoors and another positioned outdoors on the roof of the Faculdade de Ciências building. A total of 23 000 spores were sampled outdoors and 15 500 spores were identified indoors. In both environments, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Aspergillus/Penicillium, Agaricus, Rusts, Agrocybe and Lepthosphaeria. Moreover, Alternaria, Botrytis, Coprinus, Fusarium and Ganoderma spores were also detected in the outdoor air. The outdoor maximum (858 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was registered on the 9 February whereas the indoor peak (614 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was reached two days later. Qualitative similarities were found between the indoor and outdoor aeromicological content however quantitatively spore concentrations differed, suggesting the existence of airflows between the two environments due to ventilation, inefficient isolation or passive transport of spores. The majority of the selected fungal types were night sporulators, the exceptions were Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium, with daily maximum values during the morning and the afternoon, respectively. Several of the identified spores have been proved as causal agents of respiratory problems. Therefore, it is important to know the microbial composition of indoor air in order to take measures to improve air quality helping to reduce health problems related to respiratory allergic diseases in sensitized patients. PMID:20449225

  10. The MObile-Based Interactive Learning Environment (MOBILE) and A Case Study for Assisting Elementary School English Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tan-hsu Tan; Tsung-yu Liu

    2004-01-01

    This research develops a mobile-based interactive learning environment (MOBILE) for aiding elementary school English learning. The MOBILE consists of a mobile learning server and mobile learning tools, which is able to support in- or outdoor learning activities. Several theme-based mobile learning activities including body parts learning and creation of species are conducted. Experimental results obtained from posttests and questionnaire indicate

  11. A Week in the Wilderness of the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont: An Outdoor Science Education Course for Graduate and Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; Walker, R. M.; Anthony, K. V.

    2014-12-01

    Graduate and undergraduate students with an interest in science education complete an intensive three-week "Maymester" course at Mississippi State University that includes one week of field experience teaching science in outdoor environments. The focus of the course includes the history and rationales for interdisciplinary outdoor education and informal learning environments while promoting successful pedagogical practices to enhance science instruction. Students gain valuable outdoor education field experience through a week of full emersion at a residential environmental learning center at the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont, TN (www.gsmit.org) that challenges perceptions of what many believe are "good teaching" practices. Tremont offers multiple overnight educational options for K-12 schools, teacher professional development programs, master naturalists trainings, and citizen science opportunities to the public. Being fully immersed in the outdoors teaching and learning about Earth Science interdisciplinary topics creates a paradigm shift in what is considered to be effective teaching by the graduate and undergraduate participants. Prior to the week at Tremont, students select a Tremont created outdoor educational activity to teach their fellow the graduate and undergraduate students while at Tremont. All activities promote inquiry and hands-on exploration utilizing authentic science process skills in outdoor field research settings that can also be adapted for local school environments. At Tremont the students reside in platform tents located at the center to allow complete immersion in the culture of informal learning unique to outdoor education. In addition to gaining personal experiences leading outdoor science activities, the college students get to actively observe experts in the field of outdoor ecological education model exemplary pedagogical practices of guided inquiry and effective questioning strategies. The impact of the full emersion field experience gained by class participants will be one that they can implement into a variety of science education settings to enrich understanding of the Geosciences to diverse audiences.

  12. Informal Conversations about Teaching and Their Relationship to a Formal Development Program: Learning Opportunities for Novice and Mid-Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in informal activities, like conversations with colleagues, is one way that professionals can learn within workplace contexts. Informal conversations present opportunities for academics to learn about teaching. The current study investigated academics' experience of informal conversations, and their experience of the relations between…

  13. Closing the chasm: reconciling contemporary understandings of learning with the need to formally assess and accredit learners through the assessment of performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie Watson; Jonathan Robbins

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that whilst there have been substantial advancements in the ways in which learning is conceptualised, theoretical understandings of assessment, and practices that contribute to meaningful statements of learners’ achievements, have not mirrored these changes in certain learning contexts. The authors challenge contemporary methods of educational assessment, particularly for marginalized groups of learners, specifically young people and adults

  14. Applying learning theories to develop teaching strategies for the critical care nurse. Don't limit yourself to the formal classroom lecture.

    PubMed

    Dobbin, K R

    2001-03-01

    Learning, as defined by Alspach, is "a change in cognitive, psychomotor, and/or affective behaviors." The teaching strategies reviewed in this article have focused on ones that can affect all three learner behaviors if carefully planned and executed by the instructor. It is also key to provide the content in a manner that will appeal to the autonomy and self-direction of the adult learner, keeping in mind the importance of relating new information to previously learned material. Realizing that learners have different learning styles, the instructor also should assess learning styles and vary teaching methods accordingly. Incorporating some of the learner assessments and teaching strategies discussed here can be a change for both the learner and instructor, but it is consistent with modern learning theory where the focus is on the learner. PMID:11863132

  15. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments. PMID:22294782

  16. Secret Ninja Formal Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Kiniry; Daniel M. Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    The use of formal methods can signicantly improve software quality. However, many instructors and students consider formal meth- ods to be too dicult, impractical, and esoteric for use in undergraduate classes. This paper describes a method, used successfully at several uni- versities, that combines ninja stealth with the latest advances in formal methods tools and technologies to integrate applied formal

  17. Natural and Formal Infinities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2001-01-01

    The construction of both natural and formal infinities are products of human thought and may be considered in terms of embodied cognition. Forwards the viewpoint that formal deduction focuses as far as possible on formal logic in preference to perceptual imagery, developing a network of formal properties that do not depend on specific embodiments.…

  18. Outdoor environments and human pathogens in air

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Are pathogens in outdoor air a health issue at present or will they become a problem in the future? A working group called AirPath - Outdoor Environments and Human Pathogens in Air was set up in 2007 at University College London, UK with the aim of opening new discussion and creating a research network to investigate the science and impacts of outdoor pathogens. Our objective in this paper is to review and discuss the following areas: What is the source of human pathogens in outdoor air? What current, developing and future techniques do we need? Can we identify at-risk groups in relation to their activities and environments? How do we prepare for the anticipated challenges of environmental change and new and emerging diseases? And how can we control for and prevent pathogens in outdoor environments? We think that this work can benefit the wider research community and policy makers by providing a concise overview of various research aspects and considerations which may be important to their work. PMID:20102582

  19. Outdoor environments and human pathogens in air.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ka man; Emberlin, Jean; Colbeck, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Are pathogens in outdoor air a health issue at present or will they become a problem in the future? A working group called AirPath - Outdoor Environments and Human Pathogens in Air was set up in 2007 at University College London, UK with the aim of opening new discussion and creating a research network to investigate the science and impacts of outdoor pathogens. Our objective in this paper is to review and discuss the following areas: What is the source of human pathogens in outdoor air? What current, developing and future techniques do we need? Can we identify at-risk groups in relation to their activities and environments? How do we prepare for the anticipated challenges of environmental change and new and emerging diseases? And how can we control for and prevent pathogens in outdoor environments? We think that this work can benefit the wider research community and policy makers by providing a concise overview of various research aspects and considerations which may be important to their work. PMID:20102582

  20. Learning in Parallel Universes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Berthold; Bernd Wiswedel

    2007-01-01

    This abstract summarizes a brief, preliminary formalization of learning in parallel universes. It also attempts to highlight a few neigh- boring learning paradigms to illustrate how parallel learning ts into the greater picture.

  1. Scenario based outdoor simulation in pre-hospital trauma care using a simple mannequin model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We describe a system of scenario-based training using simple mannequins under realistic circumstances for the training of pre-hospital care providers. Methods A simple intubatable mannequin or student volunteers are used together with a training version of the equipment used on a routine basis by the pre-hospital care team (doctor + paramedic). Training is conducted outdoors at the base location all year round. The scenarios are led by scenario facilitators who are predominantly senior physicians. Their role is to brief the training team and guide the scenario, results of patient assessment and the simulated responses to interventions and treatment. Pilots, fire-fighters and medical students are utilised in scenarios to enhance realism by taking up roles as bystanders, additional ambulance staff and police. These scenario participants are briefed and introduced to the scene in a realistic manner. After completion of the scenario, the training team would usually be invited to prepare and deliver a hospital handover as they would in a real mission. A formal structured debrief then takes place. Results This training method technique has been used for the training of all London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (London HEMS) doctors and paramedics over the last 24 months. Informal participant feedback suggests that this is a very useful teaching method, both for improving motor skills, critical decision-making, scene management and team interaction. Although formal assessment of this technique has not yet taken place we describe how this type of training is conducted in a busy operational pre-hospital trauma service. Discussion The teaching and maintenance of pre-hospital care skills is essential to an effective pre-hospital trauma care system. Simple mannequin based scenario training is feasible on a day-to-day basis and has the advantages of low cost, rapid set up and turn around. The scope of scenarios is limited only by the imagination of the trainers. Significant effort is made to put the participants into "the Zone" - the psychological mindset, where they believe they are in a realistic setting and treating a real patient, so that they gain the most from each teaching session. The method can be used for learning new skills, communication and leadership as well as maintaining existing skills. Conclusion The method described is a low technology, low cost alternative to high technology simulation which may provide a useful adjunct to delivering effective training when properly prepared and delivered. We find this useful for both induction and regular training of pre-hospital trauma care providers. PMID:20230636

  2. Terrain sensing and estimation for dynamic outdoor mobile robots

    E-print Network

    Ward, Christopher Charles

    2007-01-01

    In many applications, mobile robots are required to travel on outdoor terrain at high speed. Compared to traditional low-speed, laboratory-based robots, outdoor scenarios pose increased perception and mobility challenges ...

  3. Reconstruction of Outdoor Sculptures from Silhouettes under Approximate Circular Motion

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Reconstruction of Outdoor Sculptures from Silhouettes under Approximate Circular Motion presents a novel technique for reconstructing an outdoor sculpture from an uncalibrated image sequence of the sculpture for both motion estimation and model reconstruction, and no corner detection nor matching

  4. A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusch, Peggy L.

    2009-12-01

    Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education centers such as museums, zoos and aquariums has stimulated studies of the relationship between learning in and outside of schools. Although many studies focus on the teachers, the contexts, and/or the students during the field trip, only a few look at the entire process of learning by including the classroom setting before and after the field trip. This study was designed to develop understandings of the student process of learning during and surrounding an environmental science field trip to an outdoor setting. John Dewey's extensive writings on the relationship between experience and learning informed the analysis, creating a focus on active and passive elements of the experience, continuity within and across contexts, the interactive nature of the experience and the importance of subject matter. An exploration of environmental education (EE), environmental science (ES), and nature study as content revealed the complexities of the subject matter of the field trip that make its presentation problematic. An urban school was chosen to contribute to the research literature about urban student learning in outdoor environments. During the field trip, the students' active engagement with each other and the environment supported meaningful remembrances of the field trip experiences during interviews after the field trip. The students accurately described plants and animals they had observed in different habitats during the field trip. They also made connections with their home life and prior experiences in the outdoors as they discussed the field trip and drew pictures that represented their experiences. One student integrated his outdoor experience with a language arts assignment as he reflected deeply on the field trip. One implication of this study is that educational experiences in outdoor natural environments are complex in ways that contribute to lack of continuity between science lessons in an elementary classroom and environmental science field trip. Long term relationships between schools and informal settings that recognize the strengths of both contexts in terms of student learning processes surrounding field trip experiences are needed to strengthen the educative process for field trip participants.

  5. The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisson, Christian

    Academic training programs in the field of outdoor education and recreation have increased considerably in the past few decades, but their true costs are often hidden. A survey of 15 outdoor college programs in the United States and Canada examined special fees associated with outdoor courses. The cost of necessary personal equipment and clothing…

  6. "One Looks with Pride." 50 Years of Resident Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Commemorating the 59th anniversary of resident outdoor education were publication of "Fifty Years of Resident Outdoor Education: 1930-1980" (William M. Hammerman, editor) and events and programs developed by over 60 universities, associations, centers, and organizations, including a contest at White Pines Ranch Outdoor Education Center (Illinois).…

  7. Differentiating outdoor recreation: evidence drawn from national surveys in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Curry; Katrina Brown

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor recreation participation can be seen to fall into four identifiably different groups. Countryside outdoor recreation has been in decline for at least 25 years because of changing lifestyles and cultures, and targeted policy – which focuses heavily on the supply side – appears to have had little influence over consumption levels. Localised outdoor recreation is on the increase, accommodating

  8. Outdoor Education and the Peel Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Describes efforts of an advocacy group of parents, outdoor educators, and classroom teachers to preserve outdoor education in Peel in the face of budget cuts. Despite efforts, a task force recommended the elimination of numerous teaching positions, resulting in reduced programming at outdoor education centers. (LP)

  9. Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: understanding the human parameter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marialena Nikolopoulou; Nick Baker; Koen Steemers

    2001-01-01

    The research being undertaken seeks to achieve a better understanding of the richness of microclimatic characteristics in outdoor urban spaces, and the comfort implications for the people using them. The underlying hypothesis is that these conditions influence people’s behaviour and usage of outdoor spaces. The initial results demonstrate that a purely physiological approach is inadequate in characterising comfort conditions outdoors,

  10. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  11. Leadership and Administration of Outdoor Pursuits. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis; Blanchard, Jim

    Outdoor leadership aims to assist outdoor participants in making logical and safe transitions from the routine of everyday life to a positive interaction with the natural world. Designed for outdoor leaders and administrators of recreational, educational, and adventure programs, this book provides an overview of current professional practices in…

  12. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: complementary but discrete disciplines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Martin; John McCullagh

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical Education. This in turn has mandated that OE teachers

  13. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  14. Outdoor Education Expands Small School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, James; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes how the Violet Hill, Arkansas K-12 school district developed a new curriculum through outdoor education. Describes how the district's alternative energy agricultural complex (including a windmill, solar greenhouse, and farm plots, and gardens) will be incorporated into the curriculum via math, business, science, agriculture, economics,…

  15. A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Ruth W.

    More than 700 areas in Ohio, useful as sites for environmental and outdoor studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include national forests; state parks; forest and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; metropolitan, country, and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties; conservancy district lands and…

  16. Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinnamon, Jerry

    This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…

  17. Distributed Heterogeneous Outdoor Multi-robot Localization

    E-print Network

    Parker, Lynne E.

    . The proposed algorithms are implemented using field data obtained from a team of ATRV-Mini robots traversingDistributed Heterogeneous Outdoor Multi-robot Localization Raj Madhavan, Kingsley Fregene and Lynne-based algorithm for the localization of a team of robots is described in this paper. The distributed EKF

  18. Combined Indoor\\/Outdoor Red Drum Aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade L. Griffin; Sayra G. Thacker

    1994-01-01

    Stochastic sensitivity analysis was used to examine a combined indoor fingerling and outdoor grow-out red drum aquaculture facility. Three important biological and three important economic factors were varied individually to determine the chance of survival (farm does not go bankrupt), and chance of economic success (net present value greater than zero). Because individuals have a different preference for risk, an

  19. Outdoor Radar Mapping Using Measurement Likelihood Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Mullane; Martin David Adams; Wijerupage Sardha Wijesoma

    2007-01-01

    Summary. This paper fuses target detection and occupancy mapping theory to develop an improved method for outdoor mapping with a radar sensor. It is shown that the occupancy mapping problem is directly coupled with the signal detection processing which occurs in a range sensor, and that the required measurement like- lihoods are those commonly encountered in both the target detection

  20. Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, John H.; And Others

    Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

  1. Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

    Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

  2. Transforming the Outdoor Environment. Spotlight: Physical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagnini, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one Montessori school transformed its outdoor environment. Details six segments of the new environment: hill, labyrinth, swings, world map, balance beam, and woods. Notes that the changes have resulted in a place of true discovery of physical strength, balance, patience, and sharing, as well as a place to discover the worlds of…

  3. Thermal development of modular outdoor cabinets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Cosley; M. P. Garcia; L. K. Grzesik; J. Webster; M. J. Marongiu

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the design, development, testing and evaluation of the thermal management system for modular outdoor telecommunication power supply equipment cabinets. A dual cooling unit option allows the cabinet to support variable internal design temperatures. Moreover, battery compartments were also designed to be modular, and their thermal management achieved by designing small compact heat exchangers. The modular

  4. STATE OF CALIFORNIA OUTDOOR LIGHTING INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE

    E-print Network

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA OUTDOOR LIGHTING INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CEC-OLG-INST (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Forms August 2009 INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE (Part an Installation Certificate document applicable to the portion of construction for which they are responsible

  5. Visual odometry for an outdoor mobile robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Fernandez; Andrew Price

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution to the problem of estimating the motion of an outdoor mobile robot through odometry. The solution consists of the use of vision and pseudo-optical flow techniques to make motion estimates of a camera attached to the robot chassis. The use of vision makes the system independent of locomotion (for example, the differences between a

  6. Reducing Indoor Residential Exposures to Outdoor Pollutants

    E-print Network

    guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies

  7. The Crystal Lake Outdoor Education Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, George W.

    A 3-year school-community outdoor education program in the elementary school district in Crystal Lake, Illinois, was funded in 1967 under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Success of the project was such that the board of education agreed to fund the program locally and enlarge its scope. As reported, the keynotes were…

  8. OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

  9. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  10. Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

    An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

  11. Truman State University Intramurals Soccer (Outdoor)

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    Truman State University Intramurals Soccer (Outdoor) Location: Intramural Field Entry Form: Must be completed online (imleagues.com) Competition: Greek/Org/Open Truman State University Intramural Soccer the ball last touched before going out of bounds. A drop ball is when the referee drops the soccer ball

  12. A Partnership in Outdoor Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.

    1977-01-01

    A Maryland school district and the Smithsonian Institution have become partners in outdoor science education. Working together, they have developed a series of activities for students in grades 1-8 that are an integrated part of a total unified science curriculum, meeting the need of teachers and students alike. (MA)

  13. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  14. Non-Formal Education for a Culturally Isolated Student in a Remote Area: The Case of a Thai Student Who Received Learning Assistance via the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how a language minority student developed through flexible online learning assistance for the entrance examination of a Japanese public high school. The simple camera function of a digital tablet helped the isolated Thai student attain success in developing academic skills and self-esteem. The case also shows the insight…

  15. Time outdoors and the prevention of myopia.

    PubMed

    French, Amanda N; Ashby, Regan S; Morgan, Ian G; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to be, or to become myopic, irrespective of how much near work they do, or whether their parents are myopic. It is currently uncertain if time outdoors also blocks progression of myopia. It has been suggested that the mechanism of the protective effect of time outdoors involves light-stimulated release of dopamine from the retina, since increased dopamine release appears to inhibit increased axial elongation, which is the structural basis of myopia. This hypothesis has been supported by animal experiments which have replicated the protective effects of bright light against the development of myopia under laboratory conditions, and have shown that the effect is, at least in part, mediated by dopamine, since the D2-dopamine antagonist spiperone reduces the protective effect. There are some inconsistencies in the evidence, most notably the limited inhibition by bright light under laboratory conditions of lens-induced myopia in monkeys, but other proposed mechanisms possibly associated with time outdoors such as relaxed accommodation, more uniform dioptric space, increased pupil constriction, exposure to UV light, changes in the spectral composition of visible light, or increased physical activity have little epidemiological or experimental support. Irrespective of the mechanisms involved, clinical trials are now underway to reduce the development of myopia in children by increasing the amount of time they spend outdoors. These trials would benefit from more precise definition of thresholds for protection in terms of intensity and duration of light exposures. These can be investigated in animal experiments in appropriate models, and can also be determined in epidemiological studies, although more precise measurement of exposures than those currently provided by questionnaires is desirable. PMID:23644222

  16. Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

  17. A field study of thermal comfort in outdoor and semi-outdoor environments in subtropical Sydney Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Spagnolo; Richard de Dear

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of empirical outdoor thermal comfort studies it has been widely assumed that indoor thermal comfort theory generalises to outdoor settings without modification. Many indoor models were developed to describe thermal discomfort, not stress, therefore their relevance to conditions that vary greatly from neutrality, as many outdoor climatic conditions do, has not been critically validated in the field

  18. Formalizing UML; Mission Impossible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emde Boas van P

    Formalizing UML; Mission Impossible? Peter van Emde Boas Formalizing UML will lead to problems much larger than those encountered in formalizing ordinary computer related languages. These problems concern not primarily the syntax. In fact that part is most likely to be formalizable at all. Instead I expect major problems with specifying a semantics as long as its purpose is undecided.

  19. Reasoning and Formal Modelling

    E-print Network

    Löwe, Benedikt

    and grade (1). Averaging of components. #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 2 component is replaced with the new grade. #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 2Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 2 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe What

  20. Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, J. William

    1998-09-01

    This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

  1. Learning \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Des Casey

    1998-01-01

    Much of our human learning involves some form of face to face communication between those that learn and those that teach. The World Wide Web has become a medium of education in recent times and a number of models of learning have been used in teaching via the Web. It is argued that any models so used need to include

  2. A large outdoor radial maze for comparative studies in birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Lipp, H P; Pleskacheva, M G; Gossweiler, H; Ricceri, L; Smirnova, A A; Garin, N N; Perepiolkina, O P; Voronkov, D N; Kuptsov, P A; Dell'Omo, G

    2001-01-01

    For a comparative neurobiological analysis of spatial learning and memory, a large outdoor eight-arm radial maze was constructed which permits behavioral assessment of many avian and mammalian species both from the laboratory or the wild, using the same metric space and session schedules. It consists of a central part of 250cm diameter, and has arms of 650cm length, 170cm height and 80cm width. In order to determine appropriate training schedules for comparison of different species, we tested four mammalian and two avian species during 9-15 sessions: 18 albino rats (Rattus norvegicus), nine outdoors and nine in a conventional small indoor maze; six guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus); six rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus); five hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus); seven hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) and six chickens (Gallus domesticus). Rats learned fast in both mazes yet significantly better in the large one. Good-to-excellent learning was also observed in juvenile rabbits and wild-caught crows, although the latter tended to avoid arms in the vicinity of the observer. Hedgehogs and chickens did not show significant learning as a group, but some individuals appeared to learn the task. Guinea pigs remained continuously passive and could not be trained. Thus, in spite of species-specific demands for reward, adaptation and pre-training, this type of radial maze permits to directly compare a wide variety of species. Such comparability is essential for an analysis of underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:11166080

  3. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

    2011-07-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  4. Characteristics of nighttime respiration in outdoor mesocosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiko Fukushima; Kazuo Matsushige; R. S. J. Weisburd

    2000-01-01

    To better understand the patterns and regulation of nighttime community respiration, dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were simultaneously\\u000a measured at 5-min intervals for 37 days in each of three outdoor mesocosms with different fish stocking levels. Nighttime\\u000a decreases in community respiration rates were estimated fairly well by an exponential function of time and slightly worse\\u000a by a linear one, irrespective

  5. Aging in EPDM used for outdoor insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Xu; Y. He; F. Zeng; R. Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The effect of accelerated weather aging on ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber used for outdoor insulation was studied by surface roughness measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface roughness of EFDM rubber changed with aging time. The surface oxygen and aluminum content were found to increase and that of carbon, silicon and nitrogen to decrease with time. The detailed XPS

  6. Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Diane, Comp.

    A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

  7. Adventure Based Therapy and Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare

    E-print Network

    Swaim, Tara; Petr, Chris

    2003-05-01

    ,000 people annually, in addition to its residential youth. These people from the community include youth groups, church groups, corporate groups foster care families, school groups, and groups from CMHCs. Wildwood Outdoor Education Center in La...Cyne, Kansas was also contacted. Wildwood has been in existence since 1980 and has both low and high ropes courses. While none of the responding CMHCs indicated use of this facility, it was reported by Robin Cooper- Cornejo, Executive Director of Wildwood...

  8. Necessity of integral formalism

    E-print Network

    Yong Tao

    2011-10-06

    To describe the physical reality, there are two ways of constructing the dynamical equation of field, differential formalism and integral formalism. The importance of this fact is firstly emphasized by Yang in case of gauge field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 445], where the fact has given rise to a deeper understanding for Aharonov-Bohm phase and magnetic monopole [Phys. Rev. D. 12 (1975) 3845]. In this paper we shall point out that such a fact also holds in general wave function of matter, it may give rise to a deeper understanding for Berry phase. Most importantly, we shall prove a point that, for general wave function of matter, in the adiabatic limit, there is an intrinsic difference between its integral formalism and differential formalism. It is neglect of this difference that leads to an inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 160408]. It has been widely accepted that there is no physical difference of using differential operator or integral operator to construct the dynamical equation of field. Nevertheless, our study shows that the Schrodinger differential equation (i.e., differential formalism for wave function) shall lead to vanishing Berry phase and that the Schrodinger integral equation (i.e., integral formalism for wave function), in the adiabatic limit, can satisfactorily give the Berry phase. Therefore, we reach a conclusion: There are two ways of describing physical reality, differential formalism and integral formalism; but the integral formalism is a unique way of complete description.

  9. Design of Software Security Verification with Formal Method Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Ju Jang; Jungwoo Ryoo; ChangYeol Lee

    2006-01-01

    Summary Formal methods ensure the stability and reliability of soft-ware systems by using mathematical principles and proving conformance to a given set of requirements. The stable and reliable operation of software is especially important for system applications dealing with security. Although very effective in identifying a non-conformance in security requirements, formal methods typically involve a steep learning curve before full

  10. Toward the Characterization of Non-Formal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman-Keller, Diana

    This study examined characteristic attributes of non-formal education and the non-formal pedagogy directing its teaching and learning processes. Data were collected on organizational and pedagogical characteristics in several out-of-school organizations (youth movements, youth organizations, community centers, bypass educational systems, local…

  11. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  12. More than Formal Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gila

    1989-01-01

    The origins of the emphasis on formal proof are discussed as well as more recent views. Factors in acceptance of a proof and the social process of acceptance by mathematicians are included. The impact of formal proof on the curriculum and implications for teaching are given. (DC)

  13. Teaching and Learning outside the Classroom: Personal Values, Alternative Pedagogies and Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue

    2011-01-01

    The article reports on a recent survey of 334 settings in a county in the South West of England and five case studies exploring current practice and aspirations for learning outdoors for children between the ages of 2 to 11. Practitioners' aspirations for outdoor learning appear to go beyond providing fresh air and "letting off steam" and include…

  14. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  15. Exploring Together Outdoors: A Family Therapy Approach Based in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Robyn; Williams, Antony

    The Exploring Together Outdoors Program is an Australian program that integrates family therapy interventions with adventure therapy, providing an opportunity for mother/child dyads that have conflictual relationships to develop more positive connections. This paper focuses on a group of four mothers and their four daughters who participated in 2…

  16. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section... Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor...designed to energize heating and/or air conditioning equipment located outside the...

  17. Last Updated: 9/12/2012 9v9 OUTDOOR SOCCER

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Last Updated: 9/12/2012 9v9 OUTDOOR SOCCER *The following rules provided by Purdue Intramural. A regulation outdoor soccer ball will be provided for play. B. Players may use their own outdoor balls if both

  18. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

  19. Bringing the Great Outdoors to Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Program Development.

    This guide suggests ways to study the environment in the classroom. It provides information for setting up a classroom learning center including learning outcomes, activity suggestions, and resources and equipment for the learning center. Guidelines for a recycling program, a bird-feeding program, and terrarium-making are given. A bibliography of…

  20. Growth of Crop and Weeds in Growth Chambers and Outdoors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten Semb Tørresen; Lambertus A. P. Lotz

    2000-01-01

    The early growth of spring barley (Hordeum ulgare L.), Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (DC.) Metzger, Stellaria media (L.) Vill. and Viola arvensis Murray in growth chambers and in shading cages outdoors at different irradiance levels was compared. Leaf area and shoot dry weight were lower outdoors than in growth chambers at similar irradiance and temperature. A simulation model with

  1. The Social Climate and Peer Interaction on Outdoor Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirkin, Benjamin J.; Middleton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This two-study report investigates achievement goal theory in the social domain to gain greater understanding of how the social climate of outdoor courses relates to peer interactions. In Study 1, we used mixed methods to examine how adolescents experienced the social climate of weeklong outdoor courses and how those perceptions related to peer…

  2. Rice University Rice Outdoor Programs and Education (ROPE) Internship

    E-print Network

    Rice University Rice Outdoor Programs and Education (ROPE) Internship Fall and Spring Semester 2012-2013 Position: Internship - Paid Location: Rice University, Houston, Texas Start Date: August 13th, 2012 End-lead students on outdoor adventure trips, aid in the teaching of a college course, and assist with supervision

  3. Application of CFD Tools for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Design

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1970s, due to the development in computer programming and turbulence models. CFD solves fluid flow1 Application of CFD Tools for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Design Qingyan Chen and Jelena@mit.edu Abstract Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become a useful tool for the study of indoor and outdoor

  4. Building a Backcountry Yurt: Ecological Design Intelligence within Outdoor Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobe, Kevin; Goltra, Norman

    Student volunteers at Utah State University's outdoor program designed, built, and carried a yurt 4 miles into the backcountry. A yurt is a traditional Mongolian structure, circular, with a lattice wall covered by material. Rafters slope upward to a top ring, on which sits a skylight. The outdoor program wanted to expand its offerings, and to do…

  5. Cultivating personality development through outdoor education programme: the Malaysia experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Taib Harun; Norlena Salamuddin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this quasi experimental study is to identify the elements which may influenced personality development among participants in an outdoor education programme. The elements studied were gender, and the module used based on different sequence of outdoor activities conducted. This study also tries to prove that personality changes remain in the participants for a certain length of time.

  6. Teacher's Handbook: Environmental Education Outdoor School Program [with Supplement].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

    The Santa Barbara County Environmental Education Outdoor School Program provides for conduct of programs and classes in outdoor science and conservation. The aim of the school is to increase the maturity and awareness of students to man's role in ecology and the world of nature around us. This handbook for teachers will assist in the preparation…

  7. An Investigation of the Status of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Rhonda

    2004-01-01

    This study discusses the extent to which children in the USA today participate in active, outdoor play, compared with the previous generation. Eight hundred and thirty mothers nationwide were surveyed regarding their active, outdoor play experiences as children, as well as their children's play experiences today. The mother's play…

  8. The Role of Outdoor Recreation in Family Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Patti A.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.

    2002-01-01

    Two studies collected quantitative and qualitative data from 24 families participating in an 8-hour outdoor adventure program and from 11 families in a residential family camping program. Findings demonstrate a strong positive relationship between structured outdoor family programming and family strength, and suggest that adventure activities…

  9. Leadership Competences for Outdoor Adventure: From Recreation to Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringer, Martin

    This paper describes the competencies in the domain of human interaction that are required of leaders in various outdoor adventure programs. These programs may be grouped on a continuum from recreational outdoor adventure to primary (adventure) therapy. In the middle of the continuum, educational, enrichment, and adjunctive (adventure) therapy…

  10. Outdoor Recreation on Government Lands in Texas, An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, David J.; Reid, Leslie M.

    This study represents an inventory of major government, non-urban outdoor recreation programs and facilities in Texas, as well as an indication of visitor use reported by individual agencies. The purpose of the analysis is to illustrate the importance of outdoor recreation in Texas and the contribution of various agencies, rather than to determine…

  11. The Development of the Outdoor Leadership Training Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan; Hollenhorst, Steven

    A leadership simulation model, patterned after the avalanche simulator used by the United States Forest Service and applicable within a variety of field situations (outdoor camps, church groups, commercial enterprises) can augment the development and observation of outdoor leaders. The model includes both a broad base of practitioner inputs and an…

  12. Different aspects of assessing indoor and outdoor thermal comfort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Höppe

    2002-01-01

    As people spend most of their time indoors, steady state models may be appropriate for thermal comfort assessments there, while, for the relatively short times spent outdoors (mostly less than 1h), those models tend to overestimate discomfort. This discrepancy is larger for cool outdoor conditions than for warm ones. For example, for a person leaving a room in thermal comfort

  13. Wondering Outdoors. Adventures and Experiences in Earth's Oldest Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, David M.; And Others

    An aid for planning outdoor education for elementary and high school students in the Freeport Public Schools, Freeport, Illinois, this guide is designed to help teachers expand the existing curriculum by integrating outdoor activities in all areas of study. Activities for grades K-6 are organized by location (school ground, neighborhood,…

  14. Conservation Plan, Seaman Outdoor Laboratory for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Unified School District 345, KS.

    This guide focuses on the conservation plan for an outdoor laboratory. Although the plan focuses specifically on Seaman Outdoor Education Laboratory, the concepts could be applied to any natural area including parks, farms, and school grounds. Along with an introduction and justification, the guide includes the conservation plan that serves as the…

  15. Using the Outdoors to Enrich the Teaching of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Milton R.

    Written for teachers in elementary and middle schools and for personnel at outdoor education centers, this publication is the second in an ERIC/CRESS series on utilizing outdoor education methodologies to enhance the academic curriculum. The resource guide suggests ways of getting students interested in arithmetic and mathematics and how to make…

  16. An Analysis of Outdoor Leaders' Ethics: Guiding Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, Denise

    Outdoor leaders model their values, and their ethical frameworks and moral development help shape their influence on others. Outdoor leaders face many obstacles as they seek to define ethical standards, including the challenge of defining common ethics, lack of professional certifications, the limits of professional ethics, and issues of power and…

  17. First Person Indoor\\/Outdoor Augmented Reality Application: ARQuake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce H. Thomas; Benjamin Close; John Donoghue; John Squires; Phillip De Bondi; Wayne Piekarski

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a first person outdoor\\/indoor augmented reality application ARQuake that we have developed. ARQuake is an extension of the desktop game Quake, and as such we are investigating how to convert a desktop first person application into an outdoor\\/indoor mobile augmented reality application. We present an architecture for a low cost, moderately accurate six degrees of freedom tracking

  18. Outdoor Activities as a Basis for Environmental Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Irmeli E.; Kuru, Jari

    2000-01-01

    Discusses experiences with outdoor activities involving 11- and 12-year-old pupils in Finland. Indicates that nature experiences develop pupils' self-confidence and feelings of safety, which in turn increases their willingness to participate in future outdoor activities. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

  19. Native American Hunting Traditions as a Basis for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Native American hunting practices and beliefs applicable to an outdoor education curriculum, focusing on respect and reverence for the earth, animals, and the natural world. Suggests that Native hunting rationales could form a philosophical foundation for environmental education and outdoor education programs. (LP)

  20. An automatic monitoring approach for unsupervised parking lots in outdoors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Hsing Lee; Ming-Gang Wen; Chin-Chuan Han; Da-Cheng Kou

    2005-01-01

    A video-based monitoring approach for outdoor parking lots has been developed in this paper. Since parking lots located in outdoor were the open and widespread spaces, moving objects in grabbed images were too small to obtain the detail and recognized image for the object, identification, object behavior analysis, or illegal event alarming. A dual-camera device was designed and calibrated manually.

  1. Block Bootstrap Estimation of the Distribution of Cumulative Outdoor Degradation

    E-print Network

    Block Bootstrap Estimation of the Distribution of Cumulative Outdoor Degradation Victor Chan University Ames, IA 50011 October 28, 2003 Abstract An interesting prediction problem involving degradation of materials exposed to outdoor environments (weathering) is the estimation of the distribution of future

  2. Foucault on Camp: What Does His Work Offer Outdoor Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Robyn; Burrows, Lisette

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine aspects of French social theorist, Michel Foucault's work and the contributions these can make to understanding practices in outdoor education. We look specifically at his notions of practice, discourse, power and the self and the lines of questioning that these concepts make possible in relation to outdoor education. We…

  3. Indoor and outdoor measurements of performance of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the techniques and methodology for making outdoor I-V measurements of solar cells is given. Temperature and irradiance measurement, experimental arrangement, data acquisition system and I-V data transformations are discussed. Data are presented comparing outdoor measurements to indoor measurements using a pulsed solar simulator.

  4. Out, out, and Away! Collection Development: Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, John

    2009-01-01

    Summer is fast approaching, and it will soon be time to climb the mountains to get their good tidings, as naturalist John Muir put it. In other words, librarians must now prepare for the influx of patrons making weekend recreational and summer vacation plans by stocking up on books and other resources on the great outdoors. Outdoor recreational…

  5. Outdoor–indoor corrosion of metals in tropical coastal atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Corvo; T. Perez; L. R. Dzib; Y. Martin; A. Castañeda; E. Gonzalez; J. Perez

    2008-01-01

    Results of indoor and outdoor atmospheric corrosion tests conducted during a long period of time at Cuba and Campeche (Mexico) indicated very high corrosion rates at both sites which have humid-tropical marine climate. We found that the outdoor corrosivity ranges from C3 to >C5 according to ISO 9223 nevertheless metals exposed to sheltered conditions presented higher corrosion rates compared to

  6. A Teacher's Guide to Resource - Use Outdoor Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor County Board of Public Instruction, Perry, FL.

    Included in this guide are ideas on evaluation and conduct of outdoor education classes and unit guides and lesson plans. An interdisciplinary approach is emphasized and the unit guides and lesson plans present activities related to science, mathematics, social studies, art, and music relevant to outdoor education in general. Unit guides for soil,…

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  8. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  9. Passive cooling of outdoor urban spaces. The role of materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Doulos; M Santamouris; I Livada

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study aiming to investigate the suitability of materials used in outdoor urban spaces in order to contribute to lower ambient temperatures and fight heat island effect. The study involved in total 93 commonly used pavement materials outdoors and was performed during the whole summer period of 2001. The thermal performance of the

  10. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  11. Developing an App-Titude for Learning in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Over a quarter of British households now own at least one tablet device, an increase of 63% in the 12 months from February 2013 (Internet Advertising Bureau UK, 2014). This trend has expanded into the classroom, with more schools either providing their pupils with an individual tablet device or encouraging parents to purchase them outright or via…

  12. Supporting Professional Learning in a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Professional learning, combining formal and on the job learning, is important for the development and maintenance of expertise in the modern workplace. To integrate formal and informal learning, professionals have to have good self-regulatory ability. Formal learning opportunities are opening up through massive open online courses (MOOCs),…

  13. An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Outdoor "Places" and Intentions for Teaching in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica; Patrick, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study explores pre-service teachers' past interactions with "place" in outdoor settings and how these experiences contribute to their current perceptions of the importance of taking their own students into the outdoors. Specifically, the researchers were interested in investigating if current pre-service teachers are part of…

  14. Formal and Integrated Strategies for Competence Development in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Henrik; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the relationships among the workplace as a learning environment, strategies for competence development used by SMEs and learning outcomes. Specifically, there is a focus on a distinction between formal and integrated strategies for competence development, the conditions under which…

  15. Informal and Formal Computer Training in a Corporate Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Karen Rosenkrantz

    Experiences with computer education at the Bank of America suggest that, when educating nontechnical people to use computers, formal learning environments are not as effective as informal learning environments. It has become increasingly necessary to use informal training to educate the approximately 4,000 people who need the training because of…

  16. Monostatic microwave sensor for outdoor perimeter protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cheal, J.

    1986-01-01

    A monostatic microwave sensor has been developed which can compliment or provide dual technology with microwave bistatic sensors used in many nuclear facilities. The monostatic sensor provides target signatures and detection patterns uniquely different form bistatic sensors. Although the microwave transceiver has been used for indoor applications for over 20 years, outdoor use has been limited because of inability to discriminate against small targets close to the antenna such as rain on the radome and large targets beyond the range of the protected area. A monostatic sensor recently developed has a modulation technique along with appropriate signal processing in the receiver that rejects targets beyond a predetermined range and also attenuates the reflections of small close in targets.

  17. Hierarchical loop detection for mobile outdoor robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dagmar; Winkens, Christian; Häselich, Marcel; Paulus, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Loop closing is a fundamental part of 3D simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that can greatly enhance the quality of long-term mapping. It is essential for the creation of globally consistent maps. Conceptually, loop closing is divided into detection and optimization. Recent approaches depend on a single sensor to recognize previously visited places in the loop detection stage. In this study, we combine data of multiple sensors such as GPS, vision, and laser range data to enhance detection results in repetitively changing environments that are not sufficiently explained by a single sensor. We present a fast and robust hierarchical loop detection algorithm for outdoor robots to achieve a reliable environment representation even if one or more sensors fail.

  18. Indoor and outdoor characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds in city centre and suburban elementary schools of Aveiro, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Silva, J. R.; Vieira, S. L. A.; Caseiro, A.; Pio, C. A.

    2012-08-01

    Pollutants inside school buildings may affect children's health and influence learning performance and attendance. This study investigated pollutant concentrations inside and outside school buildings at different locations (city centre and suburban) in Aveiro, Portugal, between April and June 2010. The aim was to evaluate simultaneously comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and CO) and indoor and outdoor concentrations of VOCs, NO2, PM10 and bioaerosols. PM10 samples were analysed and characterised, for the first time, for the water soluble inorganic ions (WSII), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbonates, and detailed organic speciation. The CO2 and bioaerosol levels were higher than the acceptable maximum values to the occupants' comfort. Concentrations of the traffic tracer NO2 were higher outdoors. The daily indoor PM10 levels were always higher than those outdoors, except on weekends, suggesting that the physical activity of pupils and class works highly contributed to the emission and resuspension of particles. Almost all identified VOCs showed I/O ratios higher than one, which denotes an important contribution from indoor sources at both schools. The suburban school was more exposed to industrial emissions than the institution located in the city centre. Especially at the city centre, infiltration of outdoor particulates leads to contamination of school indoor environment with vehicle emissions and biomass burning smoke likely coming from biofuel use in nearby restaurants and bakeries.

  19. Indoor and Outdoor Mobility following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Ava S.T.; Myrah, Ainslie M.; Bauck, Robyn A.; Brinkman, Danielle M.; Friess, Shawn N.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor mobility capacity in older adults with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and, secondarily, to determine walking intensity in the same population and to compare all outcomes to a control group of older adults without knee pathology. Method: In this cross-sectional study, participants (TKA=16, mean 22.9 (SD 9.7) mo post TKA; control=22) completed indoor walking tests and a 580 m outdoor course that included varying terrain (e.g., curbs, grass, sidewalk) and frequent changes in direction. Walking capacity was assessed using stopwatches, global positioning system watches and accelerometers. Results: Outdoor walking time was moderately correlated (p<0.05) with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (r=0.65), stair-climb test (SCT) (r=0.67 ascending, r=0.79 descending), 10 m walk test (10 mWT) (r=0.73), and 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) (r=?0.75). Based on activity counts, walking intensity levels for participants in both groups were moderate (outdoor walk and 6 MWT). There was no significant difference in walking capacity between groups (TUG, SCT, 10 mWT, 6 MWT, outdoor walk). Conclusions: Common clinical walking tests are moderately correlated with outdoor mobility. Mobility capacity of individuals post TKA was similar to controls in both indoor and outdoor environments, and participants in both groups achieved moderate physical activity levels with walking. PMID:24403699

  20. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  1. Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

  2. Outdoor, Experiential, and Environmental Education: Converging or Diverging Approaches? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Carol; Simmons, Bora

    This digest examines the definitions of outdoor, experiential, and environmental education and clarifies the boundaries and essential elements of each tradition. Early in its history, outdoor education was influenced by advocates of camping education and nature study. Today outdoor education includes outdoor experiences designed to meet objectives…

  3. Study of Relation between Indoor Radon in Multi-storey Building and Outdoor Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Muellerova, Monika; Holy, Karol [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina F1, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-01-05

    A continuous radon monitoring in indoor and outdoor air was carried out for the period of one year. The relation between indoor radon and indoor-outdoor temperature difference, as well as between indoor radon and outdoor radon was investigated. The best correlation was obtained between indoor and outdoor radon concentrations.

  4. A User-Centric Adaptive Learning System for E-Learning 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shiu-Li; Shiu, Jung-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The success of Web 2.0 inspires e-learning to evolve into e-learning 2.0, which exploits collective intelligence to achieve user-centric learning. However, searching for suitable learning paths and content for achieving a learning goal is time consuming and troublesome on e-learning 2.0 platforms. Therefore, introducing formal learning in these…

  5. Beyond ?N formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruko, Atsushi; Takamizu, Yu-ichi; Sasaki, Misao

    2013-04-01

    We develop a theory of nonlinear cosmological perturbations on superhorizon scales for a multi-component scalar field with a general kinetic term and a general form of the potential in the context of inflationary cosmology. We employ the ADM formalism and the spatial gradient expansion approach, characterized by O(? ^2), where ? = 1/(HL) is a small parameter representing the ratio of the Hubble radius to the characteristic length scale L of perturbations. We provide a formalism to obtain the solution in the multi-field case. This formalism can be applied to the superhorizon evolution of a primordial non-Gaussianity beyond the so-called ?N formalism which is equivalent to O(? ^0) of the gradient expansion. In doing so, we also derive fully nonlinear gauge transformation rules valid through {O}(? ^2). These fully nonlinear gauge transformation rules can be used to derive the solution in a desired gauge from the one in a gauge where computations are much simpler. As a demonstration, we consider an analytically solvable model and construct the solution explicitly.

  6. Formalizing information security knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Fenz; Andreas Ekelhart

    2009-01-01

    Unied and formal knowledge models of the information se- curity domain are fundamental requirements for supporting and enhancing existing risk management approaches. This paper describes a security ontology which provides an on- tological structure for information security domain knowl- edge. Besides existing best-practice guidelines such as the German IT Grundschutz Manual also concrete knowledge of the considered organization is incorporated.

  7. Reasoning and Formal Modelling

    E-print Network

    Löwe, Benedikt

    . "Correct!" "But we cannot find his fingerprints, so he's not the murderer...!" #12;Reasoning and Formal or p q r. "Correct!" "But we cannot find his fingerprints, so he's not the murderer...!" ¬r ¬p. #12 on the gun." p q r or p q r. "Correct!" "But we cannot find his fingerprints, so he's not the murderer

  8. Formality and Star Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto S. Cattaneo; Davide Indelicato

    2004-01-01

    These notes, based on the mini-course given at the PQR2003 Euroschool held in Brussels in 2003, aim to review Kontsevich's formality theorem together with his formula for the star product on a given Poisson manifold. A brief introduction to the employed mathematical tools and physical motivations is also given.

  9. Correlates of Formal Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven

    This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…

  10. Formalizing architectural connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Allen; David Garlan

    1994-01-01

    As software systems become more complex the overall system structure – or software architecture – becomes a central design problem. An important step towards an engineering discipline of sofware is a formal basis for describing and analyzing these designs. In this paper we present a theory for one aspect of architectural description: the interactions between components. The key idea is

  11. An adaptive localization system for outdoor/indoor navigation for autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacis, E. B.; Sights, B.; Ahuja, G.; Kogut, G.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    Many envisioned applications of mobile robotic systems require the robot to navigate in complex urban environments. This need is particularly critical if the robot is to perform as part of a synergistic team with human forces in military operations. Historically, the development of autonomous navigation for mobile robots has targeted either outdoor or indoor scenarios, but not both, which is not how humans operate. This paper describes efforts to fuse component technologies into a complete navigation system, allowing a robot to seamlessly transition between outdoor and indoor environments. Under the Joint Robotics Program's Technology Transfer project, empirical evaluations of various localization approaches were conducted to assess their maturity levels and performance metrics in different exterior/interior settings. The methodologies compared include Markov localization, global positioning system, Kalman filtering, and fuzzy-logic. Characterization of these technologies highlighted their best features, which were then fused into an adaptive solution. A description of the final integrated system is discussed, including a presentation of the design, experimental results, and a formal demonstration to attendees of the Unmanned Systems Capabilities Conference II in San Diego in December 2005.

  12. SPECIFICATION OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN LANGUAGES DEDICATED TO LEARNING MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Laforcade, Pierre

    SPECIFICATION OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN LANGUAGES DEDICATED TO LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS a learning situation is still a complex task. Visual Instructional Design Languages (VIDL: Educational Modeling Languages (EML) facilitating the specification of learning situations as formal learning

  13. Using Digital Imaging in Classroom and Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomasson, Joseph R.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to use digital cameras and related basic equipment during indoor and outdoor activities. Uses digital imaging in general botany class to identify unknown fungus samples. Explains how to select a digital camera and other necessary equipment. (YDS)

  14. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01

    Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  15. THE CONTRIBUTION OF OUTDOOR-BASED RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES TO LOCAL

    E-print Network

    strategy for outdoor-recreation based tourism development. Despite its reputation as a leading rock development are provided. Keywords: economic impact analysis; tourism development; recreation-based tourism; rock climbing; visitor monitoring Subject Terms: Leisure -- Economic aspects; Tourism -- Economic

  16. Spellbound : an activity-based outdoor mobile multiplayer game

    E-print Network

    Sra, Misha

    2013-01-01

    Traditional outdoor recreation is physically and emotionally rewarding from goal directed social activities and encourages a connection with the real world but can be logistically difficult. Online gaming allows people to ...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL PM DIFFERENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that a correlation exists between daily ambient particle concentrations and health effects.' One major area of concern with respect to particulate matter (PM) is the relationship between indoor and outdoor particle concentr...

  18. Case for usability : designing Outdoor Augmented Reality games

    E-print Network

    Wang, Tiffany (Tiffany N.)

    2008-01-01

    Creating a successful Outdoor Augmented Reality (OAR) game can be a complicated process. With every new feature added to the OAR toolset, games gain more levels of complexity, grow in size of content, and become increasingly ...

  19. Variation of total serum cholesterol with monthly outdoor temperature

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Kathleen Iris

    1990-01-01

    VARIATION OF TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL WITH MONTHLY OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE A Thesis by KATHLEEN IRIS THORNTON Submitted to the Office of Cnaduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Epidemiology VARIATION OF TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL W1TH MONTHLY OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE A Thesis by KATHLEEN IRIS THORNTON Approved as to style and content by Leon H. Russell (Chair of Committee) Pete D. Teel...

  20. Enhancing the benefits of outdoor walking with cognitive engagement strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Duvall

    2011-01-01

    Being physically active in natural environments has been associated with improvements to physical health and mental well-being. Unfortunately, gaining access to outdoor settings that are supportive of both psychological well-being and year-round physical activity poses major challenges. Might altering how one engages in and interacts with the outdoor environment encouraging greater physical activity and enhance well-being? In order to investigate

  1. ARQuake: An Outdoor\\/Indoor Augmented Reality First Person Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce H. Thomas; Benjamin Close; John Donoghue; John Squires; Phillip De Bondi; Michael Morris; Wayne Piekarski

    2000-01-01

    This pap er presents an outdoor\\/indoor augmented re-ality first person applic ationAR(2uake we have developal.ARQuake is an extension of the desktop gameQuake, and as such we are investigating how to converta desktop first person application into an outdoor\\/indoormobile augmented reality application. We present an archirecture for a low cost, moderately accurate six degreesof freedom tracking system based on GP$, digital

  2. Case studies of individualized professional development at an outdoor education center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie Pearsall

    1999-01-01

    Since the publishing of A Nation at Risk in 1983, educators across the country have directed attention and formal research studies towards discovering why American schools are not producing graduates who measure up to students in other countries. Research has been done which deals with children's responses to learning science while utilizing a variety of educational strategies. Factors such as

  3. Adaptive information design for outdoor augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Neuhöfer, Jan A; Govaers, Felix; El Mokni, Hichem; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Augmented Reality focuses on the enrichment of the user's natural field of view by consistent integration of text, symbols and interactive three-dimensional objects in real time. Placing virtual objects directly into the user's view in a natural context empowers highly dynamic applications. On the other hand, this necessitates deliberate choice of information design and density, in particular for deployment in hazardous environments like military combat scenarios. As the amount of information needed is not foreseeable and strongly depends on the individual mission, an appropriate system must offer adequate adaptation capabilities. The paper presents a prototypical, vehicle-mountable Augmented Reality vision system, designed for enhancing situation awareness in stressful urban warfare scenarios. Tracking, as one of the most crucial challenges for outdoor Augmented Reality, is accomplished by means of a Differential-GPS approach while the type of display to attach can be modified, ranging from ocular displays to standard LCD mini-screens. The overall concept also includes envisioning of own troops (blue forces), for which a multi-sensor tracking approach has been chosen. As a main feature, the system allows switching between different information categories, focusing on friendly, hostile, unidentified or neutral data. Results of an empirical study on the superiority of an in-view navigation cue approach conclude the paper. PMID:22317040

  4. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  5. Online Learning in Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Stirling

    2008-01-01

    This chapter will explore the implications of courseware design and use in online learning environments for not only individual learner expectations but also expectations of the learning community as a whole. The concept of context density and its importance in formal online learning environments will be stressed. It will be argued that the lack of adumbrations in online communication necessitates

  6. Mathai-Quillen Formalism

    E-print Network

    Siye Wu

    2005-04-30

    We begin with the construction of Mathai-Quillen's Thom form. We also study the case with group actions, with a review of equivariant cohomology and then Mathai-Quillen's construction in this setting. Next, we show that much of the above can be formulated as a "field theory" on a superspace of one fermionic dimension. Finally, we present the interpretation of topological field theories using the Mathai-Quillen formalism.

  7. Developing the MTO Formalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. K. Andersen; T. Saha-Dasgupta; R. W. Tank; C. Arcangeli; O. Jepsen; G. Krier

    2000-01-01

    The TB-LMTO-ASA method is reviewed and generalized to an accurate and robust TB-NMTO minimal-basis method, which solves Schrödinger's\\u000a equation to Nth order in the energy expansion for an overlapping MT-potential, and which may include any degree of downfolding.\\u000a For N = 1, the simple TB-LMTO-ASA formalism is preserved.For a discrete energy mesh, the NMTO basis set may be given as:

  8. On pure spinor superfield formalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Alexandrov; Vyacheslav Lysovdef; P. N. Lebedev; B. Cheremushkinskaya; L. D. Landau

    We show that a certain superfield formalism can be used to find an off-shell supersymmetric description for some supersymmetric field theories where conventional su- perfield formalism does not work. This \\

  9. Tracking targets through occlusions in outdoor videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hongwei; Yang, Chenhui; Abousleman, Glen P.; Si, Jennie

    2011-05-01

    In real-world outdoor video, moving targets such as vehicles and people may be partially or fully occluded by background objects such as buildings and trees, which makes tracking them continuously a very challenging task. In the present work, we present a system to address the problem of tracking targets through occlusions in a motion-based target detection and tracking framework. For an existing track that is fully occluded, a Kalman filter is applied to predict the target's current position based upon its previous locations. However, the prediction may drift from the target's true trajectory due to accumulated prediction errors, especially when the occlusion is of long duration. To address this problem, tracks that have disappeared are checked with an extra data association procedure that evaluates the potential association between the track and the new detections, which could be a previously tracked target that is just coming out of occlusion. Another issue that arises with motion-based tracking is that the algorithm may consider the visible part of a partially occluded target as the entire target region. This is problematic because an inaccurate target motion trajectory model will be built, causing the Kalman filter to generate inaccurate target position predictions, which can yield a divergence between the track and the true target trajectory. Accordingly, we present a method that provides reasonable estimates of the partially-occluded target centers. Experimental results conducted on real-world unmanned air vehicle (UAV) video sequences demonstrate that the proposed system significantly improves the track continuity in various occlusion scenarios.

  10. Experiential Learning as a Constraint-Led Process: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present key ideas for an ecological dynamics approach to learning that reveal the importance of learner-environment interactions to frame outdoor experiential learning. We propose that ecological dynamics provides a useful framework for understanding the interacting constraints of the learning process and for designing learning

  11. Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)

  12. Workplace Learning and Generation X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bova, Breda; Kroth, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A survey of the learning preferences of 197 Generation X workers found that they value incidental and action learning. They recognized the need for formal training, but suggested improvements. They preferred learning by doing, visual stimuli, and self-directed learning. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  13. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  14. Learning for Deep Language Understanding Smaranda Muresan

    E-print Network

    Muresan, Smaranda

    Learning for Deep Language Understanding Smaranda Muresan School of Communication and Information. Building large treebanks annotated with complex representations needed to learn deep grammars is a very for deep linguistic formalisms. Propos- ing tractable learning algorithms for a deep linguistic formal- ism

  15. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables ?, ? and ?, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  16. Vision-based semi-autonomous outdoor robot system to reduce soldier workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Al; Rodgers, Michael H.

    2001-09-01

    Sensors and computational capability have not reached the point to enable small robots to navigate autonomously in unconstrained outdoor environments at tactically useful speeds. This problem is greatly reduced, however, if a soldier can lead the robot through terrain that he knows it can traverse. An application of this concept is a small pack-mule robot that follows a foot soldier over outdoor terrain. The solder would be responsible to avoid situations beyond the robot's limitations when encountered. Having learned the route, the robot could autonomously retrace the path carrying supplies and munitions. This would greatly reduce the soldier's workload under normal conditions. This paper presents a description of a developmental robot sensor system using low-cost commercial 3D vision and inertial sensors to address this application. The robot moves at fast walking speed and requires only short-range perception to accomplish its task. 3D-feature information is recorded on a composite route map that the robot uses to negotiate its local environment and retrace the path taught by the soldier leader.

  17. Cooperative Learning in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

  18. Representation in incremental learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...limited permits, and outdoor household article documents. 301.45-5 Section 301...limited permits, and outdoor household article documents. (a) A certificate may...inspector for the movement of a regulated article or an outdoor household article...

  20. 7 CFR 301.45-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...limited permits, and outdoor household article documents. 301.45-5 Section 301...limited permits, and outdoor household article documents. (a) A certificate may...inspector for the movement of a regulated article or an outdoor household article...

  1. 7 CFR 301.45-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...limited permits, and outdoor household article documents. 301.45-5 Section 301...limited permits, and outdoor household article documents. (a) A certificate may...inspector for the movement of a regulated article or an outdoor household article...

  2. Outdoor performance of CIGS modules in different climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivola, Kristopher; Robusto, Paul F.; Saproo, Ajay; Kessler, Bill

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor product reliability testing of MiaSolé Glass-Glass CIGS Modules in different external environments is an important aspect of determining the overall product durability and quality. The multi-year performance of MiaSolé modules in several different test regions will be presented. MiaSolé has implemented outdoor testing in Dry and Hot region (Phoenix, Arizona); Hot and Humid (Miami, Florida); Seasonally Cold with Snowfall (Medina, Ohio) and at MiaSolé Headquarters in Santa Clara, CA. MiaSolé used a second party to perform the outdoor testing in Arizona, Florida, and Ohio. We will review the details of the test site setup, installation, on-site implementation, data transfer and analysis methodology.

  3. DAVID: A new video motion sensor for outdoor perimeter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    To be effective, a perimeter intrusion detection system must comprise both sensor and rapid assessment components. The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) to provide the rapid assessment capability, makes possible the use of video motion detection (VMD) processing as a system sensor component. Despite it's conceptual appeal, video motion detection has not been widely used in outdoor perimeter systems because of an inability to discriminate between genuine intrusions and numerous environmental effects such as cloud shadows, wind motion, reflections, precipitation, etc. The result has been an unacceptably high false alarm rate and operator work-load. DAVID (Digital Automatic Video Intrusion Detector) utilizes new digital signal processing techniques to achieve a dramatic improvement in discrimination performance thereby making video motion detection practical for outdoor applications. This paper begins with a discussion of the key considerations in implementing an outdoor video intrusion detection system, followed by a description of the DAVID design in light of these considerations.

  4. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  5. Visualising Environmental Corrosion in Outdoor Augmented Reality James A. Walsh and Bruce H. Thomas

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Bruce

    Visualising Environmental Corrosion in Outdoor Augmented Reality James A. Walsh and Bruce H. Thomas This paper provides a description of outdoor visualisation of environmental corrosion data. This system: Visualisation, Augmented Reality, Corrosion, Wireless Sensor, Environment Visualisation. 1 Introduction

  6. Framing the Adoption of Serious Games in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnab, Sylvester; Berta, Riccardo; Earp, Jeffrey; de Freitas, Sara; Popescu, Maria; Romero, Margarida; Stanescu, Ioana; Usart, Mireia

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays formal education systems are under increasing pressure to respond and adapt to rapid technological innovation and associated changes in the way we work and live. As well as accommodation of technology in its ever-diversifying forms, there is a fundamental need to enhance learning processes through evolution in pedagogical approaches, so…

  7. Proportional Reasoning Tasks as a Measure of Formal Reasoning Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemesh, Michal

    A nonequivalent control group design study, with a math unit on ratio and proportion as the treatment, was conducted to examine the validity of some written tasks as a measure of formal reasoning. Subjects in the study were 68 fifth grade students who enrolled in two classes in a small urban school. The experimental group learned a 12-lesson math…

  8. Deep first formal concept search.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Hui; Hong, Wenxue; Yuan, Xiamei; Wei, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis. PMID:25254232

  9. Deep First Formal Concept Search

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Hui; Hong, Wenxue; Yuan, Xiamei; Wei, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis. PMID:25254232

  10. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  11. The Purposes Outdoor Education Does, Could and Should Serve in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the purposes that outdoor education does, could and should serve in Singapore. Gert Biesta's conceptualisation of three functions of education is adapted to frame deliberations on the purposes of outdoor education in Singapore's socio-political and educational milieu. The author suggests that outdoor education in…

  12. Pay Rate: starting $7.25 per hour Supervisor: Intern, Outdoor Programs

    E-print Network

    Adventure Center (OAC) Supervisors are responsible for the overall supervision over outdoor equipment and cleanliness of the OAC. 4. Rent equipment to Rice University students, faculty and staff and follow all clinics/outdoor trips. 8. Register Rice University students, faculty/staff, and guests for outdoor trips

  13. Outdoor and Adventure Programs: Complementing Individual Education Programs and Treatment Plan Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witman, Jeff; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Model programs are briefly described which use outdoor education to carry out individualized education programs for handicapped students. Sample objectives for individuals and their corresponding activities are listed for such areas as outdoor cookery, wilderness camping, and participation in local outdoor recreational facilities or areas.…

  14. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5111.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…

  15. Restorative qualities of indoor and outdoor exercise settings as predictors of exercise frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella-Maria Hug; Terry Hartig; Ralf Hansmann; Klaus Seeland; Rainer Hornung

    2009-01-01

    Positive environmental determinants of exercise frequency remain poorly understood. Knowing that people often value exercise for psychological restoration, we investigated the restorative quality of indoor and outdoor exercise settings as predictors of exercise frequency. We surveyed 319 members of fitness centers in Zurich that offer indoor and outdoor exercise alternatives. Outdoor settings were rated as more restorative. For each type

  16. A Baseline Study of Ontario Teachers' Views of Environmental and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedretti, Erminia; Nazir, Joanne; Tan, Michael; Bellomo, Katherine; Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research that came about as a result of several converging factors in Ontario: a resurgence of interest in environmental and outdoor education (including outdoor education (OE) centres); recent publications supporting environmental and outdoor education; and curriculum revisions across subject areas that include…

  17. A Computerized Cataloging System for an Outdoor Program Library or Resource Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ron

    The Outdoor Resource Library Cataloging System is a computer software program designed primarily for outdoor programs with small to medium-sized resource centers. The software is free to nonprofit organizations and is available from the Idaho State University Outdoor Program. The software is used to construct a database of library materials, which…

  18. On Combining SemiFormal and Formal Object Specification Techniques

    E-print Network

    Gogolla, Martin - Fachbereich 3

    phases of software development it seems prof­ itable to freely mix semi­formal and formal design with respect to implementa­ tion in the design phase. In the implementation phase the design is translated to concrete code, and in the maintenance phase the software is adjusted to evolving user needs. In all phases

  19. Characterizing WiFi link performance in open outdoor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Utpal Paul; Riccardo Crepaldi; Jeongkeun Lee; Sung-Ju Lee; Raul Etkin

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental performance evaluation study of WiFi links in an open-space outdoor environment. We consider a large scale wireless sensor network scenario of seismic data collection from sensors that are buried in ground and as et of access points (APs) form the hierarchical aggregation layer and the backbone of the network. We conduct two different link characterization studies.

  20. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition, Set IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Throgmorton, Larry, Ed.; And Others

    Eight games are included in the 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set IV. There are also simulations, crafts, biological techniques, and organism investigations focusing on animal and plant life in the forest, desert, and snow. Designed for small groups of children ages 10 to 15 from schools and…

  1. Passages: Helping College Students Matriculate through Outdoor Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremba, Bob

    Since 1985, freshman entering the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington, have embarked on a 3-day outdoor adventure program as part of their orientation experience prior to their first semester. Most of the 700-800 freshmen entering the university participate in the program titled "Passages." While half of the group is on Passages, the…

  2. Outdoor Adventure Activities for New Student Orientation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiola, Ed

    A college student orientation program is described which incorporates outdoor adventure activities. The purpose of the program is to challenge the participants and encourage cooperation between individuals. The two general categories of adventure activities used in this program are low risk (initiative games, nature walks, camping, and nature…

  3. Meta-Analytic Research on the Outcomes of Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, James T.

    This paper compares and summarizes empirical research on the outcomes of outdoor education (OE) and related programs. Most frequently, OE outcomes have been researched using post-program surveys of staff and participant attitudes. Such reports are vulnerable to many potential distortions. A second major approach to examining OE effectiveness…

  4. Outdoor ESTER test facility for advanced technologies PV modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Spena; Cristina Cornaro; Stefano Serafini

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the new outdoor test facility ESTER (Solar Energy TEst and Research) for PV modules of various technologies is presented. The facility has been partially funded by the Regione Lazio, Italy, in the framework of the Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy (CHOSE). This structure is intended to give support to the improvement of reliable and durable

  5. A Realistic Outdoor Urban Pedestrian Mobility Model Ryan Vogta,

    E-print Network

    Gburzynski, Pawel

    A Realistic Outdoor Urban Pedestrian Mobility Model Ryan Vogta, , Ioanis Nikolaidisa , Pawel Wycliffe Street Ottawa, Ontario Canada K2G 5L9 Abstract Existing generative mobility models, used to produce mobility data for simulated agents in, e.g., wireless network simulations, suffer from a number

  6. Millimetre Wave RADAR Spectra Simulation and Interpretation for Outdoor SLAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebi Jose; Martin David Adams

    2004-01-01

    Millimetre Wave RADARs are more robust than most other sensors used in outdoor autonomous navigation in that their performance is less affected by dust, fog, moderate rain or snow and ambient lighting conditions. This paper describes a method to accurately simulate the range spectra using the RADAR range equation. This is very important in robot navigation (eg. SLAM) for generating

  7. Play--The Making of Deep Outdoor Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnussen, Leif Inge

    2012-01-01

    To be outdoors and involved in adventures concerns the movement between safety and risk, the familiar and the unfamiliar. Deep involvement in activities and the seriousness found in play are essential in "Bildung." Findings in this paper stem from ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a kayak community, between late autumn 2006 until the fall of…

  8. Microclimate in the Outdoor Classroom 1. CONTRIBUTOR'S NAME: TJ FONTAINE

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Carol

    predictions and test them. Communication: Students must present their findings to the class. e. Grade Level: 4th and 8th f. Duration/Time Required: Prep time: 5min Implementing Exercise During Class: 10 min intro and 30-40min outdoors Assessment: follow up is 30-50min 4. ECOLOGICAL AND SCIENCE CONTEXT: a

  9. Outdoor fungi and child asthma health service attendances.

    PubMed

    Tham, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Taylor, Philip E; Katelaris, Constance H; Vicendese, Don; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan

    2014-08-01

    Asthma is a significant global public health issue. Severe asthma exacerbations can be triggered by environmental factors and require medical care from health services. Although it is known that fungal exposure may lead to allergic sensitization, little is understood about its impact on asthma exacerbations. This review aims to examine whether outdoor fungi play a significant role in child asthma exacerbations. Systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand searching for peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to 31 August 2013. Inclusion criteria were study population aged <18 yr, diagnosis of asthma, attended a health service; outdoor fungi exposure was reported. Quality and risk of bias assessments were conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. Of the 1896 articles found, 15 were eligible. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to methodological variations in exposure classifications, statistical methods and inclusion of confounders. Cross-sectional studies found no or weak associations. All but one time series studies indicated an association that varied between fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that asthmatic children are susceptible to asthma exacerbations when exposed to outdoor fungal spores. There is limited understanding of the contributions of different fungal species. Research is needed to investigate interactions of outdoor fungi with pollen, air pollutants and respiratory viruses. PMID:24902620

  10. A Teacher's Guide To: Indians and the Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, C. M.

    As a basic teacher's guide to the study of plants in their environment, this document serves primarily as a starting point for outdoor education with an American Indian emphasis in the State of South Dakota. The State is divided into three broad environmental categories or "biotic communities" (Prairie and Plains, Woodlands, and Wet Places); lists…

  11. Near Time-optimal Constrained Trajectory Planning on Outdoor Terrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marin B. Kobilarov; Gaurav S. Sukhatme

    2005-01-01

    We present an outdoor terrain planner that finds near optimal trajectories under dynamic and kinematic constraints. The planner can find solutions in close to real time by relaxing some of the assumptions associated with costly rigid body simulation and complex terrain surface interactions. Our system is based on control-driven Proba- bilistic Roadmaps and can efficiently find and optimize a near

  12. An outdoor navigation system using GPS and inertial platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Panzieri; F. Pascucci; G. Ulivi

    2001-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in outdoor localization is a quite common solution in large environments where no other references are available and positioning requirements are not so pressing. Of course, fine motion without the use of an expensive differential device is not an easy task even now that available precision has been greatly improved as the

  13. An outdoor navigation system using GPS and inertial platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Panzieri; Federica Pascucci; Giovanni Ulivi

    2002-01-01

    The use of global positioning system (GPS) in outdoor localization is quite a common solution in large environments where no other reference is available and there are not so demanding positioning requirements. Of course, fine motion without the use of an expensive differential device is not an easy task, even now that available precision has been greatly improved as the

  14. Outdoor Adventure Education for Children in Scotland: Quantifying the Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrutton, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education (OAE) is widely recognised for its ability to elicit personal and social development for its participants. However, quantitative evidence on which this recognition is based is frequently questioned, and is virtually absent in Scotland. To provide some of the first statistically determined evidence from Scotland that OAE…

  15. Recognizing and developing adaptive expertise within outdoor and expedition leaders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Tozer; Ioan Fazey; John Fazey

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive expertise, an individual's ability to perform flexibly and innovatively in novel and unstructured situations, could have particular relevance for expedition and outdoor leaders. This element may be recognized in leadership practitioners who are able to act more effectively when problem-solving in complex, ambiguous and unpredictable environments. The authors present a number of perspectives intended to assist individuals in making

  16. CTA ``L'' train outdoor noise propagation in Wrigley-ville

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew McDuffee

    2003-01-01

    It is well known to those who reside in Chicago that the elevated mass transit trains, known as the L, are the largest culprit of outdoor noise pollution in most neighborhoods throughout the city. Many potential residents and buyers will make their choice of where to live in the city simply based upon the building's relationship to the L. For

  17. Research on the Effectiveness of Outdoor Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard J.

    A 6-year study of outdoor-based management training (OMT) programs used traditional evaluation methods and new methods designed specifically for these unique programs. A survey of 1,000 training directors indicated that this type of training was very controversial. The next step was to use traditional training and organizational behavior…

  18. AMMONIA EFFECTS ON MICROINVERTEBRATES AND FISH IN OUTDOOR EXPERIMENTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory data on ammonia effects, the US EPA national water quality criteria for ammonia, and ammonia site-specific criteria were evaluated in four outdoor experimental streams (one control and three treatment streams) over a 76-week period. Calculated un-ionized ammonia concen...

  19. Memories as Useful Outcomes of Residential Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Residential outdoor environmental education (ROEE) programs for youth have been shown to yield lasting autobiographical episodic memories. This article explores how past program participants have used such memories, and draws on the memory psychology literature to offer a new perspective on the long-term impacts of environmental education.…

  20. Risk and Hazard Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Joel

    The dilemma in adventure education is to eliminate unreasonable risks to participants without reducing the levels of excitement, challenge, and stress that are inherent in adventure programming. Most accidents in outdoor pursuits are caused by a combination of unsafe conditions; unsafe acts (usually on the part of the student); and error judgments…

  1. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    The predominant focus of the 24 Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set III activities is on animal behavior, and the adaptations and diversity of both plants and animals. Night time activities, games, investigation, experimentation, and crafts are used to study ants, birds, clams, water snails, water striders, spiders,…

  2. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper in outdoor freshwater microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tham C. Hoang; Rachel L. Pryor; Gary M. Rand; Robert A. Frakes

    2011-01-01

    This study characterizes the effects of copper (Cu) on Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) and mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) using a replicated outdoor microcosm design. Soils used in this study were collected from two Cu-enriched citrus agricultural sites in South Florida (Agler property (AGLR) in St. Lucie County and Sunrise Boys property (SRB) in Palm Beach County) and a reference

  3. Integrating virtual and augmented realities in an outdoor application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Piekarski; Bernard Gunther; Bruce Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores interconnecting outdoor AR systems with a VR system to achieve collaboration in both domains simultaneously. We envisage multiple mobile users of wearable AR systems interacting with a stationary VR facility via a wireless network. An application in simulated combat training is described, where the AR users are soldiers with wearable computers, and the VR system is located

  4. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  5. Teacher's Guide for Students Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

    To be used by sixth grade teachers in preparing their classes for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School Program, the guide to the Student Preparation Workbook provides general information, descriptions, game materials, and answers to exercises and puzzles. The guide is divided into four resource areas: soil, water, plants, and animals. Each…

  6. Site Inventory for Outdoor Education Facilities and Recreational Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Once the function of an outdoor educational facility has been determined, a site inventory should examine the site's physical characteristics, soil types, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Provides suggestions on maximizing usage of the site while minimizing detrimental effects of site development and long-term environmental damage. (LP)

  7. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    The 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set II use living organisms such as crabs, birds, crayfish, lichens, and insects to investigate biological interrelationships, organism behavior, and species density to promote greater environmental and sensory awareness. The activities, designed primarily for…

  8. Emergency Manual. Resident Outdoor Environmental Education School 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    The emergency manual for the Orange County Outdoor School provides phone numbers, procedures, safety rules, and plans in case of an emergency. Phone numbers are listed for fire and medical emergencies, police, and highway department. General emergency procedures are outlined in case of fire, vandalism, accidents, illness, power failure, animal…

  9. Campground Cookery. Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jan

    Designed to help instructors lead a group cooking experience at a base camp, the module provides information on food safety, planning a camping trip, building fires, constructing and using outdoor cooking equipment, campground cookery, and positive camping ethics. An extensive section offers 93 recipes to serve 12 people for breakfast (clam…

  10. Entrepreneurship--Its Role in the Private Sector. Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syme, John H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Small outdoor recreation businesses can benefit from implementing the entrepreneurial or strategic management philosophy. A discussion of the behavior and characteristics of these firms includes research findings. Strategy formulation and implementation, and an analysis of five relevant business environments are included. (IAH)

  11. Robust crop and weed segmentation under uncontrolled outdoor illumination.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Y; Tian, Lei F; Zhu, Heping

    2011-01-01

    An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA). PMID:22163954

  12. High Accuracy Navigation Using Laser Range Sensors in Outdoor Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José E. Guivant; Eduardo Mario Nebot; Stefan Baiker

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a high accuracy outdoor navigation system based on standard dead reckoning sensors and laser range and bearing information. The data validation problem is addressed using laser intensity information. Beacon design aspect and location of landmarks are also discussed in relation to desired accuracy and required area of operation. The results are important for simultaneous

  13. Government Centres for Training Outdoor Instructors: A British Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Contrasts the theory-based model of training for outdoor instructors in North America with the activity-based approach used in the United Kingdom (UK). Describes the national water sports center and the national mountain center in the UK. Stresses the superior quality of the facilities, equipment, and instructors. (KS)

  14. Social Stories for Reducing Fear in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Lawrence; Trowbridge, Marion

    2000-01-01

    Pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) fear the unknown and changes to their routine. Their fears may be unexpected, such as what is for breakfast. "Social stories" can alleviate such fears by giving a detailed account of each day's activities. A case study shows how a social story in diary form helped a boy with ASD cope with an outdoor

  15. Experiments on High Resolution Images Towards Outdoor Scene Classification

    E-print Network

    Mirmehdi, Majid

    Experiments on High Resolution Images Towards Outdoor Scene Classification A. Monadjemi, B. T resolution images to increase texture classification accuracy when used in combination with lower frequency to establish if high resolution images would provide a sufficient increase in texture information to justify

  16. The Social System in Outdoor Adventure Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibthorp, Jim; Jostad, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the social system interact with one another to produce group-level behavior that determines the functionality of the small group in outdoor adventure education (OAE). This article synthesizes the contemporary literature and theory regarding eight aspects of the OAE social system: (a) Macro Contextual Factors, (b) Student…

  17. A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Ruth W.

    To this new and updated second edition, over 160 new sites and their description have been added. The first major section, outdoor education areas, includes state Parks, forests, and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; Wayne National Forest; metropolitan county and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties;…

  18. I am the antenna: accurate outdoor AP location using smartphones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zengbin Zhang; Xia Zhou; Weile Zhang; Yuanyang Zhang; Gang Wang; Ben Y. Zhao; Haitao Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Today's WiFi access points (APs) are ubiquitous, and provide critical connectivity for a wide range of mobile networking devices. Many management tasks, e.g. optimizing AP placement and detecting rogue APs, require a user to efficiently determine the location of wireless APs. Unlike prior localization techniques that require either specialized equipment or extensive outdoor measurements, we propose a way to locate

  19. Assessment of Noise Exposure for Indoor and Outdoor Firing Ranges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Murphy; Randy L. Tubbs

    2007-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received an employee request for a health hazard evaluation of a Special Weapons Assault Team (SWAT) in January 2002. The department was concerned about noise exposures and potential hearing damage from weapons training on their indoor and outdoor firing ranges. NIOSH investigators conducted noise sampling with an acoustic mannequin head and

  20. Writing Activities: A Primer for Outdoor Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Alan

    In outdoor education, reflection transforms experience into knowledge. Writing activities facilitate reflection. In designing writing activities, instructors should ask themselves why they are asking their students to write, what type of writing is appropriate for their purpose, when and in what context the activity should take place, how they…