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1

Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

Black, Rosemary

2013-01-01

2

Vision + Community = Outdoor Learning Stations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor learning areas are becoming more popular as a means for community-based, cross-curricular learning where children study issues of local relevance (Sobel 2004). Outdoor learning areas, any place outside of the school building where children can observe and interact with the natural world around them, include outdoor structures for seating…

Eick, Charles; Tatarchuk, Shawna; Anderson, Amy

2013-01-01

3

Potential for Excellence: Interdisciplinary Learning Outdoors as a Moral Enterprise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is concerned with the place and status of outdoor learning within formal schooling. In light of recent British outdoor educational trends, it considers the general educational significance of outdoor learning in the context of the recent Scottish "Curriculum for Excellence". The article begins with an overview of some key educational…

Allison, Pete; Carr, David; Meldrum, George

2012-01-01

4

Universal Design and Outdoor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

Harte, Helene Arbouet

2013-01-01

5

The Outdoor Education Umbrella: A Metaphoric Model To Conceptualize Outdoor Experiential Learning Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explaining what outdoor experiential education is can be problematic, as a variety of terms are being used to identify a wide range of outdoor experiential learning methods. This paper proposes the metaphoric model of an umbrella to explain the relationships existing among these terms and their respective outdoor experiential learning methods. The…

Bisson, Christian

6

Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

Plano Independent School District, TX.

7

Outdoor Education and Environmental (Make that Nature) Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education cannot "not" be about nature learning. Just as David Orr (1992) says that all education is environmental education, so too all outdoor education teaches something about the natural world--either that it matters or that it doesn't. According to the Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario (COEO), "outdoor education directly exposes…

Johnston, Julie

2007-01-01

8

Student Learning in Outdoor Education: A Case Study from the National Outdoor Leadership School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much attention has been paid to what students learn in outdoor education settings, little has been paid to the process through which that learning occurs. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which students report learning one of six targeted objectives on courses offered by the National Outdoor Leadership School.…

Paisley, Karen; Furman, Nathan; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

2008-01-01

9

Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and posttests, progressive self-assessments, and ethnographic observations. Since I argue that the idea of learning from experience is underspecified, I present empirical findings to show that experience per se is not enough. I discuss tools and other artifacts that help learners notice key dimensions of their experiences, and demonstrate how they link these to other aspects of their culture and lives. Findings indicate that a mediated approach does in fact help students outperform participants who only received the experience. A time for telling was also advantageous for students to improve learning and using technology to reduce cognitive load was instrumental in further improving their learning. Future plans are discussed to follow up on these findings and to implement new tests as the dams are removed and the natural habitat is restored.

O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

10

Teacher Education: Learning to Use the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After an attempt to initiate a viable Outdoor Education program in the early 1960s was abandoned, during the early 1970s the Faculty of Education at the University of Western Ontario created an optional, 20-hour credit course in Outdoor Education for teacher education majors, which now attracts about 200 students per year. Objectives for the…

Bain, Rodney

11

Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2010-01-01

12

Planning an Outdoor Learning Environment for a Small School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to provide an outdoor learning environment for a small school which had relatively undeveloped grounds, these plans are aimed toward providing: physical activity (climbing, running, jumping, and games); imaginative activity; social learning; environmental study; mathematics and science; exploring materials, e.g., water and soil; and the…

Keats, C.; And Others

1981-01-01

13

Does (In)Formal Learning Enhance Employability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not much is known about the actual contribution of informal learning to employability over and above formal learning activities. This paper presents findings of a research project among university staff members and is aimed to determine the contribution of formal and informal learning activities in the light of future career potential. Findings…

van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Meys, Ely

2008-01-01

14

Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

2009-01-01

15

Learning-Centered Planning Strategies in "Outdoor Education Programs": Enhancing Participation and Self-Directed Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education (OE) takes place within a range of program settings and contexts (e.g., recreational, educational, developmental, or therapeutic). Experiential learning is central to OE and focuses these programs around elements of inquiry, active learning and reflection in the outdoor classroom. The personal, social and environmental benefits…

Hubball, Harry; West, Darren

2009-01-01

16

Analysing Attempts to Support Outdoor Learning in Scottish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new "Curriculum for Excellence" in Scotland outlines a policy vision of a more integrated and holistic form of education; a commitment which offers considerable prospects for increased levels of outdoor learning in schools. With reference to Fullan's theorizing on achieving educational change, this study investigated four main…

Thorburn, Malcolm; Allison, Peter

2013-01-01

17

Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

2010-01-01

18

Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

2005-01-01

19

Maternal Knowledge: Beyond Formal Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with first-time mothers indicate the importance of informal, incidental, and experiential learning with peers and mentors such as their mothers. Although not always recognized as such, material knowledge is a crucial learning resource. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

Fowler, Cathrine

2002-01-01

20

Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

2014-01-01

21

Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

2014-01-01

22

The Nature of "Udeskole": Outdoor Learning Theory and Practice in Danish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing number of Danish teachers have started introducing school-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day for school children--often called "udeskole" in Danish. Although at least 14% of Danish schools practise this form of outdoor teaching with some classes, it is not mentioned in the national curriculum and…

Bentsen, Peter; Jensen, Frank Sondergaard

2012-01-01

23

The Outdoor Classroom Ages 3-7: Using Ideas from Forest Schools to Enrich Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outdoor area is now an integral part of many early years settings and schools, but is it being used to its full potential? This book clearly explains the learning potential of the outdoor environment and practically demonstrates how the "Outdoor Classroom" can be developed in early years settings and schools. Drawing on the Forest School…

Constable, Karen

2012-01-01

24

Learning Conditions for Non-Formal and Informal Workplace Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…

Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne

2009-01-01

25

Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning

Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

2011-01-01

26

Development and Evaluation of an RFID-based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification (RFID), the Internet, ubiquitous computing, embedded systems and database technologies to resolve such

Tan-Hsu Tan; Tsung-Yu Liu; Chi-Cheng Chang

2007-01-01

27

Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

2007-01-01

28

The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of…

Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.

2010-01-01

29

Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors

Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas

2013-01-01

30

The Hidden Turmoil: Females Achieving Longevity in the Outdoor Learning Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being a woman in the outdoor learning profession can bring distinctive challenges and roadblocks. Even more difficult is sustaining a life-long career, flourishing into a woman's 50s or 60s. Based on this premise, career longevity seems elusive for some women who aspire to work in the outdoors. This paper analyses the autobiographies of three…

Wright, Michelle; Gray, Tonia

2013-01-01

31

Connecting outdoor field experiences to classroom learning: A qualitative study of the participation of students and teachers in learning science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation focuses on improving the teaching and learning of science for teachers and students participating in outdoor field trips. Participants in this research included three classroom teachers, their students, and me as a teacher-researcher. The research was situated in the science classroom of three teachers representing schools with diverse socioeconomic factors and diverse student populations and The Outdoor Classroom,

Kimberly Lebak

2005-01-01

32

Interpair Acoustic and Formal Similarity in Verbal Discrimination Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpair acoustic and formal similarity are detrimental to verbal discrimination learning when manipulated individually; even larger performance decrements result when they are allowed to covary. (Authors)

Schulz, Lynn S.; Lovelace, Eugene A.

1972-01-01

33

Ambient Wood: Designing New Forms of Digital Augmentation for Learning Outdoors  

E-print Network

as an extension of this: "it's eLearning through mobile computational devices like PDAs or mobile phones" [19Ambient Wood: Designing New Forms of Digital Augmentation for Learning Outdoors Y. Rogers, 1 S, UK 4 Mixed Reality Lab, Nottingham University, UK 5 Dept of Electronics and Computer Science

Rogers, Yvonne

34

Young Children and Educators Engagement and Learning Outdoors: A Basis for Rights-Based Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This article reports on a study undertaken with 4 early childhood programs in a medium-size city in Canada investigating young children's and educators' perspectives on engagement and learning possibilities outdoors. A rights-based methodology including participant observations and interactive activities with children as well as focus groups and discussion groups with educators reveals the diversity and richness of young

Natasha Blanchet-Cohen; Enid Elliot

2011-01-01

35

A case study of an outdoor environmental learning center at an elementary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

How and to what extent has an outdoor Environmental Learning Center (ELC) at an elementary school effected the teaching of science, and the professional development of two elementary teachers? The ELC in this case study is at an elementary school in central Indiana, which includes approximately 65 teachers, 1100+ students (K-5). Two teachers and their classrooms were selected for in

Scott Matthew Page

1997-01-01

36

Losing Our Way? The Downward Path for Outdoor Learning for Children Aged 2-11 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on three related empirical studies in the South West of England: a survey of outdoor experiential learning opportunities, examining attitudes, practice and aspirations of practitioners and children in educational and care settings for children between 2-11 years within a rural county; a follow-up series of five case studies; and…

Waite, Sue

2010-01-01

37

Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing the Learning Environment of Outdoor Science Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of the Science Outdoor Learning Environment Inventory which includes seven scales. The instrument was used by high school students (N=643) and the results indicate that the instrument is a sensitive measure that differentiates between different types of field trips. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

Orion, Nir; And Others

1997-01-01

38

Greening the Net Generation: Outdoor Adult Learning in the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning today takes place primarily within walled classrooms or in other indoor settings, and often in front of various types of digital screens. As adults have adopted the digital technologies and indoor lifestyle attributed to the so-called "Net Generation," we have become detached from contact with the natural world outdoors.…

Walter, Pierre

2013-01-01

39

"Did You Enjoy Your Holiday?" Can Residential Outdoor Learning Benefit Mainstream Schooling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United Kingdom there is a long tradition of residential outdoor learning provision, but to date there is limited research evidence for the direct educational benefits of such experiences, and to both critics and supporters the distinction between such visits and "holidays in school time" is not always apparent. This paper…

Christie, Beth; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

2014-01-01

40

The Slow Death of Formal Learning: A Polemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over recent years, approaches to education and training have become more informal, situated, outcome focused and experiential. Within this context, formal learning now plays a greatly diminished role, being supplanted by activity-based and technologically-based learning. This article, structured in the form of a polemic challenges readers to…

McGuire, David; Gubbins, Claire

2010-01-01

41

Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

Gibson, J. Paul

42

The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

Thompson, Carol C.

2012-01-01

43

Other Ways of Learning: Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning in School and Youth Work. Proceedings of the European Congress for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning (4th, Rimforsa, Sweden, September 9-13, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A European conference convened 90 participants from 14 countries to consider "other ways of learning," such as experiential methods and aesthetic-sensual perception, which have been marginalized by the overemphasis on instrumental rationality in our societies and schools. This proceedings presents 18 papers and paper abstracts on outdoor

2001

44

Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the self-determination theory, therefore, we used a group-based, hands-on learning environment. To address this questions, we used a treatment—control design (BACI) with different treatments and a control group. Pre-, post- and retention tests were applied. All treatments led to a substantial increase of learning and retention knowledge compared to the control group. Immediately after the zoo visit, the zoo-guide tour provided the highest scores, while after a delay of 6 weeks, the learner-centered environment combined with a teacher-guided summarizing scored best. We suggest incorporating the zoo as an out-of-school environment into formal school learning, and we propose different methods to improve learning in zoo settings.

Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

2012-06-01

45

A Resident Outdoor Education Primer. Learning to Live Within an Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In resident outdoor education programs, students and their teachers attend an outdoor facility for two days or longer and use the outdoor environment as their primary classroom, focusing on natural sciences, outdoor recreation, social skills, and attitudinal and cognitive development. A resident program should have significant impact on social…

Nolen-Parkhouse, Andrew

46

How Teachers Learn: The Roles of Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study of math and science teachers at two middle schools identifies how their system for learning to integrate technology into their teaching goes beyond what school leaders typically consider when planning for teachers' learning. In addition to (a) the district-initiated, or formal, system of professional development (PD) and…

Jones, W. Monty; Dexter, Sara

2014-01-01

47

Outdoor Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

Cotter, Kathy

48

Outdoor Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

2011-01-01

49

Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

2012-01-01

50

New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

2010-01-01

51

Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2011-01-01

52

Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

2013-01-01

53

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview  

PubMed Central

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

2012-01-01

54

Authenticity in Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Bridging the Formal and the Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper attempts to bridge informal and formal learning by leveraging on affordance structures associated with informal environments to help learners develop social, cognitive, and metacognitive dispositions that can be applied to learning in classrooms. Most studies focus on either learning in formal or informal contexts, but this study seeks…

Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

2012-01-01

55

Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

2014-01-01

56

Social Learning, Social Control, and Strain Theories: A Formalization of Micro-level Criminological Theories.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are… (more)

Proctor, Kristopher Ryan

2010-01-01

57

Take a Class Outdoors. A Guidebook for Environmental Service Learning. Linking Learning with Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook focuses on the addition of environmental service learning in elementary, middle, or high school. Sections 1 and 2 describe an administrator's view of the success of service learning in her middle school and a student's opinion of her encounters with Mississippi's natural resources. Section 3 provides a rationale for environmental…

Clifton, Linda; Mauney, Tammy; Falkner, Rebekah

58

Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

Ernst, Julie

2014-01-01

59

Non-formal Education in the Philippines: A Fundamental Step towards Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to significantly contribute to human resource development, the Philippines must develop an integrated educational system of lifelong learning, with a special emphasis on non-formal education. Despite the value that is placed on formal, or sequential academic schooling, it is non-formal schooling that makes accessible the acquisition of…

Gonzales, Ma. Celeste T.; Pijano, Ma. Concepcion V.

60

Motivation Formal Model Known Type Distribution Unknown Type Distribution Summary Learning About The Future and Dynamic  

E-print Network

Motivation Formal Model Known Type Distribution Unknown Type Distribution Summary Learning About The Future and Dynamic Efficiency #12;Motivation Formal Model Known Type Distribution Unknown Type Distribution Summary Outline 1 Motivation 2 Formal Model 3 Known Type Distribution 4 Unknown Type Distribution

Chen, Yiling

61

Outdoor Education and Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

2014-01-01

62

Where Learning Comes Naturally: A Review of MNR's Contribution to Outdoor and Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the evolution of Canada's Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) from an agency focused on promotion of resource development and protection of the natural environment to a major player in outdoor and environmental education. Focuses on contributions of the Leslie M. Frost Natural Resources Centre, under MNR direction, in providing outdoor

Martin, Barrie

1997-01-01

63

Enough of Ronald and Mickey: Focusing on Learning in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen years ago Loynes expressed concern that market-place values were detrimentally impacting on the provision of outdoor education experiences. As tertiary educators with an interest in the impact of globalization on outdoor education, we have sought to extend Loynes' use of McDonaldization by drawing on Bryman's conceptual framework…

Beames, Simon; Brown, Mike

2014-01-01

64

Architecture for environmental learning : a National Outdoor Leadership School in Baja, Mexico  

E-print Network

An understanding of people, program, and place establishes a foundation from which to make architectural decisions. The focus of this thesis is to understand the needs of those involved in an outdoor education school in ...

Galyean, Taylor

1994-01-01

65

Outdoor Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Outdoor Training: Revolution or Fad?" (Wagner, Baldwin, Roland); "Getting the Most out of Outdoor Training" (Buller, Cragun, McEvoy); and "Outdoor Training Companies" (a directory of more than 100 firms). (JOW)

Wagner, Richard J.; And Others

1991-01-01

66

The Lifelong Learning Iceberg of Information Systems Academics--A Study of On-Going Formal and Informal Learning by Academics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a study that examined the lifelong learning of information systems academics in relation to their normal work. It begins by considering the concept of lifelong learning, its relationship to real-life learning and that lifelong learning should encompass the whole spectrum of formal, non-formal and informal learning. Most…

Davey, Bill; Tatnall, Arthur

2007-01-01

67

Learning Compact 3d Models of Indoor and Outdoor Environments with a Mobile Robot  

E-print Network

estimation with an algorithm for approximating environments using flat surfaces. On top of that, our approach reconstruction of indoor and outdoor environments with mobile robots. Data is acquired with laser range finders equipped with laser range finders. To estimate the pose of the robot while collecting the data

Burgard, Wolfram

68

Outdoor learning: curriculum imperatives and community relevance in a rural setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum imperatives motivate the school, and increasingly, the community, to participate

Myra Maposah-Kandemiri; Peter Higgins; Pat McLaughlin

2009-01-01

69

Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

2012-01-01

70

The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

Wistoft, Karen

2013-01-01

71

Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

2009-01-01

72

Facilitating Place-Based Learning in Outdoor Informal Environments with Mobile Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper advocates for place-based education to guide research and design for mobile computers used in outdoor informal environments (e.g., backyards, nature centers and parks). By bringing together research on place-based education with research on location awareness, we developed three design guidelines to support learners to develop robust…

Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Land, Susan M.

2014-01-01

73

A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

74

American Studies Assessment Plan 1. Learning goals: what formal learning outcomes are students expected to achieve in the major?  

E-print Network

American Studies Assessment Plan 1. Learning goals: what formal learning outcomes are students expected to achieve in the major? The American Studies major provides an interdisciplinary, cross-cultural approach to the study of the United States within a hemispheric context. We ask majors to draw

Royer, Dana

75

Educational Incongruence: An Exploration of the Disconnection between Formal Schooling and the Natural Learning of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational incongruence exists in classrooms today. Formal schooling is often incongruent and disconnected with the natural learning of children. This can result in educational experiences that fail to meet personal and societal needs. I believe we need greater congruence between learning and teaching in order to improve current and future social…

Layman, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

76

Active Learning Facilitates Success of Formal Methods in Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development does not consist only of technical ac- tivities, as it usually regarded. It also involves social and cognitive ac- tivities that are particularly important in complex projects. To make a software development project successful the staff involved should possess the necessary social and cognitive skills. The significance of such skills increases if some novel, advanced techniques, including formal

Victor V. Kuliamin; Vitaliy A. Omelchenko; Olga L. Petrenko

2005-01-01

77

The Substance Beneath the Labels of Experiential Learning: The Importance of John Dewey for Outdoor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recommends a reconceptualisation of "experience learning". It is premised on a belief that the simplistic learning cycle is problematic and moreover is an oversimplified interpretation of Kolb's original model of experiential learning. We argue that to understand experiential learning fully a return to the original theoretical…

Ord, Jon; Leather, Mark

2011-01-01

78

Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor

Forsey, Katherine

2014-01-01

79

Computational neural learning formalisms for manipulator inverse kinematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient, adaptive neural learning paradigm for addressing the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the infinite local stability of terminal attractors - a new class of mathematical constructs which provide unique information processing capabilities to artificial neural systems. For robotic applications, synaptic elements of such networks can rapidly acquire the kinematic invariances embedded within the presented samples. Subsequently, joint-space configurations, required to follow arbitrary end-effector trajectories, can readily be computed. In a significant departure from prior neuromorphic learning algorithms, this methodology provides mechanisms for incorporating an in-training skew to handle kinematics and environmental constraints.

Gulati, Sandeep; Barhen, Jacob; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

1989-01-01

80

What Would You Like? Identifying the Required Characteristics of an Industry-Wide Incident Reporting and Learning System for the Led Outdoor Activity Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics that led outdoor activity providers agree are necessary for the development of a new industry-wide incident reporting and learning system (UPLOADS). The study involved: 1) a literature review to identify a set of characteristics that are considered to be hallmarks of successful reporting…

Goode, Natassia; Finch, Caroline F.; Cassell, Erin; Lenne, Michael G.; Salmon, Paul M.

2014-01-01

81

College Learning with and without Formal Classroom Instruction - A Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the relationship between student learning and teacher pedagogy by focusing on two discrete instructional methods: traditional teacher-directed versus student self-directed study. An experiment was administered to two groups of college students enrolled in a psychology course, and the control group having class meetings and…

Himmel, Clark E.

82

Going the Extra Mile: Formal Diagnosis in the Learning Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annotated list of tests for assessing students' learning abilities is provided in this document. Each annotation contains information that helps the educator gauge the negative and positive aspects of the tests. Information useful in understanding intelligence quotient (IQ) subscores and their implications is included. The tests described are…

Laskey, Marcia L.; Totoraitis, Ann

83

Learning in the Second Half of the Career: Stimulating and Prohibiting Reasons for Participation in Formal Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that, as workers age, their participation in education and training declines, which is a problem in our fast changing society and economy. This study focuses on the stimulating and prohibiting reasons for participation in formal learning activities. It investigates whether employees in the second half of their career differ…

Kyndt, Eva; Michielsen, Maya; Van Nooten, Leen; Nijs, Sanne; Baert, Herman

2011-01-01

84

Job Requirements and Workers' Learning: Formal Gaps, Informal Closure, Systemic Limits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is substantial evidence that formal educational attainments increasingly exceed the educational job requirements of the employed labour force in many advanced market economies--a phenomenon variously termed "underemployment", "underutilisation", or "overqualification". Conversely, both experiential learning and workplace case studies suggest…

Livingstone, D. W.

2010-01-01

85

Qualitative Parameters for Evaluation Procedures of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article introduces evaluation principles of non-formal and informal learning that determine the quality of evaluation, describes stages of the evaluation procedure, differentiates their qualitative parameters and defines their criteria and indicators. It also brings in the discussion that consideration of qualitative parameters for the…

Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Kaminskiene, Lina

2009-01-01

86

Recognizing non Formal Learning Experiences Top-down or bottom-up approaches for skills alignment?  

E-print Network

Recognizing non Formal Learning Experiences Top-down or bottom-up approaches for skills alignment approach, they tend to limit the scope of their potentialities; (ii) thanks to reflexivity using a bottom-up in syllabus and associated proficiency levels, several approaches could be conducted. A top-down approach

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Assessing, Recognising and Certifying Informal and Non-Formal Learning (ARCNIL): Evolution and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certifying non-formal and informal knowledge may be a consequence of separating education and training from other social and economic activities. Specialisation and formalisation of education and training both aim to increase learning efficiency. In the emerging knowledge society, this has attracted particular attention among researchers and…

Svetlik, Ivan

2009-01-01

88

Mobile City and Language Guides--New Links between Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major challenges in second and foreign language education, is to create links between formal and informal learning environments. Mobile City and Language Guides present examples of theoretical and practical reflections on such links. This paper presents and discusses the first considerations of Mobile City and Language Guides in…

Bo-Kristensen, Mads; Ankerstjerne, Niels Ole; Neutzsky-Wulff, Chresteria; Schelde, Herluf

2009-01-01

89

Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

2012-01-01

90

Exploring salutogenic mechanisms of an outdoor experiential learning programme on youth care farms in the Netherlands: untapped potential?  

PubMed Central

This study explored how (learning) experiences offered through outdoor experiential programmes, particularly the youth care farm approach, may (or may not) enhance young peoples’ ability to recognise and then utilise available resources for personal growth, protection and health promotion. A total of 11 youngsters were asked to look back on their half-year stay on a care farm in the Netherlands, by using semi-structured interviews to elicit their experiences from a salutogenic perspective. Analysis revealed that several resources (and the interaction of these resources) on the youth care farm worked well for the youngsters; contributed to their personal development and to their sense of coherence: the feeling that the world is or can be meaningful, comprehensible and manageable, associated with positive outcome in endeavours linked to improving health and well-being. In general, the attitude of the farmer, working with animals, the informal atmosphere and being temporarily cut-off from the former environment were elements most positively highlighted by the youngsters. The farm environment was mentioned as calming, however, as structuring as well. The strength of the programme as an experiential learning opportunity appears to be the diversity and richness of resources (and stressors!) available to the participants. This creates various opportunities for learning: making sense, interpreting and giving meaning to resources and stressors. Further research into the impact of this kind of programmes, compared to more ‘traditional’ programmes, especially on the ability of youngsters to use resources to finish school, find employment and develop better relationships with their parents is recommended. PMID:24910490

Schreuder, Ester; Rijnders, Mandy; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hassink, Jan; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Kennedy, Lynne

2014-01-01

91

Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests and questions raised during visits to informal settings. Consequently teachers noted their students were better able to connect to traditional elements of school as a result of their informal experiences. Personal growth of students was also a major area of change. Increases in self-esteem, fieldtrip and classroom participation, as well as improved classroom behavior were reported and observed and improved the way the classroom functioned.

Schneider, Barbara P.

92

Handbook for Students, Teachers and Parents. BOCES/SCOPE Outdoor Learning Laboratory at Sunken Meadow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1971 a fully equipped learning laboratory building and the open fields, woodlands, salt water marshes, and beaches of Sunken Meadow State Park have been available for year round day use by students and educators in New York's Suffolk and Nassau counties. Funded by the New York Office of Parks and Recreation and local Boards of Cooperative…

Long Island State Park and Recreation Commission, NY.

93

Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

2012-01-01

94

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

2012-01-01

95

Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

2007-01-01

96

Science Sampler: Inquiry Goes Outdoors--What Can We Learn at the Pond?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication "What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide" (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing…

Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary E.

2008-01-01

97

Take Math Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scavenger hunts, collecting bottle caps, observing shadows, and other outdoor activities can be developed into a mathematics unit that motivates students to acquire basic mathematical skills. A variety of natural ways to collect data are offered to help foster learning. (DF)

Schall, William E.

1984-01-01

98

Outdoor Ecology School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

Cole, Anna Gahl

2004-01-01

99

Outdoor Classrooms--Planning Makes Perfect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however, the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum…

Haines, Sarah

2006-01-01

100

Financial literacy among Turkish college students: the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental teaching.  

PubMed

This study assessed financial literacy and its correlates among Turkish college students, with special emphasis on the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental influences. Financial literacy was measured by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey, which assesses knowledge in four areas: general financial management, saving and borrowing, insurance, and investing. 853 Turkish university students were administered the survey (416 men, 437 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 0.6). The mean percentage of correct responses was 45% (SD = 12.8%). Regression results showed that formal finance education in college, a deep approach to learning, and direct financial teaching by parents were significantly associated with higher financial literacy scores. PMID:25153844

Akben-Selcuk, Elif; Altiok-Yilmaz, Ayse

2014-10-01

101

Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

2009-01-01

102

Outdoor Learning Can Help Children Flourish in Science and across the Curriculum--The FSC Takes a Lead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent explosive growth of the Wild Network, which exists to champion and support connection with nature and wildness in children and young people, suggests that there is a groundswell of support for getting young people outdoors. Hannah Rose and Anneke Kempton of the Field Studies Council (FSC) explain why the outdoors is such an important…

Rose, Hannah; Kempton, Anneke

2014-01-01

103

Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

Choi, Woojae

2010-01-01

104

Affordances and Form: Applying Lessons from Informal Learning to Formal Learning on the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of us, learning online is performed with a web browser and a search engine. With experience, we develop and hone skills at finding, filtering, and assessing resources made available on the World Wide Web. This kind of informal learning is entirely self-directed. We regulate our goals and time allotted in reaction to what we find as our inquiries

L. Howard; J. Johnson; G. Pap; K. Pence; L. Jurácz

105

New Trade and Industrial Teachers' Perceptions of Formal Learning versus Informal Learning and Teaching Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trade and industrial (T&I) teachers enter the classroom as content level experts who may have acquired their content expertise through a combination of formal industry training and informal on-the-job experiences. When they make the career transition from industry to teaching, they must acquire professional teaching competencies. Like the content…

Burns, Janet Z.; Schaefer, Karen; Hayden, Jessie M.

2005-01-01

106

Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

Lee, Connie L.

107

Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

108

Sustainable Graduates: Linking Formal, Informal and Campus Curricula to Embed Education for Sustainable Development in the Student Learning Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper hypothesises that student learning about sustainable development (SD) might usefully be configured within a broad framework combining formal, informal and campus curriculum. Student learning about sustainable development is a form of education for sustainable development (ESD), a term which has many definitions and interpretations. In…

Hopkinson, Peter; Hughes, Peter; Layer, Geoff

2008-01-01

109

Outdoor Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes an art project in which students create their own outdoor environments using a tri-wall frame--a triple-layered cardboard, which is very lightweight and strong. Then the students compose a few sentences describing the scene or place.

Tomascoff, Rocky

2009-01-01

110

Bridging the Gap Between Formal and Informal Learning: Evaluating the Seatrek Distance Learning Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the SeaTrek Distance Learning Project, housed at Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida. The educational goal of the SeaTrek project is to spark student interest in science and communicate information about real-world research and conservation work at Mote to students and teachers in Florida. To accomplish this goal, the…

Ba, Harouna; Keisch, Deborah

2004-01-01

111

Do Theory and Pedagogy Have an Impact on Provisions for Outdoor Learning? A Comparison of Approaches in Australia and Norway  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we contrast the early childhood education and care aims and curriculum in Norway and Australia and the theoretical underpinnings of Norwegian and Australian pedagogy in an attempt to partially explain the different approaches to (risky) outdoor play in these two countries. We argue that Norwegian pedagogical approaches may allow…

Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

2012-01-01

112

Learning to Lead at 5,267 Feet: An Empirical Study of Outdoor Management Training and MBA Students' Leadership Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the leadership development of MBA students enrolled in an Organizational Behavior course. Students enrolled in either an in-class section or a section that included an intensive, outdoor training component called Leadership on the Edge. Results from Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practices Inventory (2003) showed that students…

Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

2011-01-01

113

Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

2014-01-01

114

Outdoor Education: Opening and Closing Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Opening activites (to create an atmosphere of cooperation and a desire to work, explore, and learn together) and closing activities (to summarize what has happened or been learned) for outdoor education programs are described. All activities are intended to incite enthusiasm to learn and make the learning activity a desired, joyful experience.…

Mingie, Walter, Comp.

115

The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

Ettenger, Jim

116

Traffic, Outdoor Air Pollution, and Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that outdoor air pollution can affect the health of patients with asthma. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased levels of outdoor pollutants are associated with acute and chronic changes in lung function, increased risk for asthma exacerbations, increased risk for work or school absenteeism, and need for rescue bronchodilators. For- tunately, we have also learned that

Fernando Holguin

2008-01-01

117

Participation in Non-Formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states. The paper also seeks to extend analysis of the training gap by pursuing the distinction between the supply and the demand for skills. We use aggregate data from the Adult Education Survey (Eurostat)…

Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

2012-01-01

118

Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

2014-01-01

119

Models of Transformative Learning for Social Justice: Comparative Case Studies of Non-Formal Development Education in Britain and Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents comparative case studies of non-formal development education by non-profit organisations in two European countries. The study aimed to explore the extent to which such activities provide opportunities for transformative learning. The research was qualitative and began with interviews with educators across 14 organisations in…

Brown, Eleanor J.

2015-01-01

120

Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

Knapp, Clifford E.

121

Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills. The data indicated that there is not a significant difference between adolescents and post-adolescents (up to 16-years-old) ability to learn formal thinking skills. Both groups (adolescent and post-adolescent) showed improvement in their formal thinking skill ability after the intervention. The intervention also demonstrated evidence of improving students' intelligence scores.

Towne, Forrest S.

122

Learning Journeys: The Road from Informal to Formal Learning--The UK Open University's Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning is now achieving recognition as offering a way for learning to scale. However we need to learn from the experiences in distance learning institutions. The Open University was established over 40 years ago and offers a unique experience in building a distance learning organisation on innovative use of media, originally through…

Taylor, Josie

2013-01-01

123

Looking for Learning in All the Wrong Places: Urban Native Youths' Cultured Response to Western-Oriented Place-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For Indigenous youth growing up in today's Canadian cities, summer, non-formal learning programs developed around outdoor and/or environmental education themes offer the chance for reconnecting with ancestral territories. While tenable, few interpretive studies focus on youths' engagement with such learning. This paper offers an analysis of the…

Friedel, Tracy L.

2011-01-01

124

Recognising Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Participant Insights and Perspectives. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of the skills acquired through non-formal or informal learning is important for a number of reasons. Individuals gain a feeling of worth and self-confidence, which encourages them to continue to upgrade their skills and knowledge, often leading to formal qualifications and improved employment outcomes. The process of recognition of…

Smith, Larry; Clayton, Berwyn

2009-01-01

125

A Evaluation of a Learning Cycle Intervention Method in Introductory Physical Science Laboratories in Order to Promote Formal Operational thought Process.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition, future studies should attempt to use vigorous measures of formal reasoning ability to pinpoint exactly when the transition occurs in students.

Shadburn, Randy Glen

126

Your Outdoor Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

Hinman, Laurie

2005-01-01

127

Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

2003-01-01

128

Expanding "Within Context" to "Across Contexts" Learning: A Case Study of Informal and Formal Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning happens not only in schools, but also in every context that affords new experiences and opportunities for metacognition. We aim to maximize the different activity-milieux in which learners are engaged in developing their life-long learning dispositions to learn within and across contexts. This paper is a follow up of an earlier published…

Kim, Mi Song; Hung, Wei Loong David; Jamaludin, Azilawati Bte; Lim, Seo Hong

2014-01-01

129

CHAT-IT: Toward Conceptualizing Learning in the Context of Formal Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to spark a discussion between two research communities—scholars who study learning and scholars who study educational organizations. A secondary purpose is to encourage researchers to look beyond schools to examine learning in other types of educational organizations. The authors outline a framework to guide research on the relationship between learning and the social contexts afforded by

Rodney T. Ogawa; Rhiannon Crain; Molly Loomis; Tamara Ball

2008-01-01

130

Schools Adapting Curriculum to the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily lessons at the Learning Gate Community School often tap the wonders of nature on the 27-acre campus, with its open fields and overgrown orange groves, and a treehouse overlooking an idyllic pond. Educators at Learning Gate say the outdoor classrooms and lessons are a balm for many of the ills that can hinder students' physical and mental…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2008-01-01

131

Towards the Construction of a Personal Professional Pathway: An Experimental Project for the Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the University of Catania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Italy, accreditation of prior learning is a sensitive issue. Despite the lack of laws or qualification frameworks regulating the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, most Italian universities proceed with caution, allowing only a restricted number of credits in the university curriculum related to practical activities or to external…

Piazza, Roberta

2013-01-01

132

Individualized Skill Assessment in Digital Learning Games: Basic Definitions and Mathematical Formalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a…

Augustin, T.; Hockemeyer, C.; Kickmeier-Rust, M.; Albert, D.

2011-01-01

133

The Impact of Formal and Informal Learning on Students' Improvisational Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, based on my PhD empirical study, was conducted in a qualitative and holistic approach. It had examined how students had used formal and informal strategies, styles and situations while improvising and composing for the research task. Eighteen research groups made up of a total of 40 males and nine females had participated in…

Augustyniak, Sylvana

2014-01-01

134

The Wicehtowak Partnership: Improving Student Learning by Formalizing the Family-Community-School Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which formalization of the family-community-school partnership through the Wicehtowak Partnership influenced educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in one urban school district. It finds that the community engagement process employed by the school district for creating the partnership…

Tunison, Scott

2013-01-01

135

Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to…

Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis

2013-01-01

136

Formal Adult Learning and Working in Europe: A New Typology of Participation Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how a typology of participating patterns is developed to deepen understanding of participation in formal adult education and the relationship between current workplace and educational programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of conceptual work based on a qualitative analysis…

Hefler, Gunter; Markowitsch, Jorg

2010-01-01

137

Non-Formal Adult Learning Programs at Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: Trends, Issues, and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of recent policy reports have suggested that Canadian universities and community colleges should play a more significant role in response to the adult education and training needs of Canada's workforce. This article discusses the results of a study that examined investment trends and the characteristics of non-formal adult learner…

Kirby, Dale; Curran, Vernon; Hollett, Ann

2009-01-01

138

Mathematics before Formal Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is concerned with the learning of mathematics before the commencement of formal schooling. Describes the experiences of two students from four main sets of data: formal and informal measures of mathematics achievement, the learning environment in the home, and observations during teacher-led sessions concerned with mathematical…

Leder, Gilah C.

1992-01-01

139

Teaching Agricultural Outdoor Programs in an Urban Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural education can make a substantial contribution to the quality of the facilities and activities available for outdoor recreation. A teacher relates the course content, objectives, and learning activities of the soils portion of the curriculum of an urban nature center utilized as an outdoor laboratory. (Author/AJ)

Tillman, Charles J. D.

1975-01-01

140

Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set I contains 24 varied activities which make use of crafts, simulations, and basic investigative techniques to provide introductory learning experiences in outdoor biology for children aged 10 to 15. The individual water-resistant folio for each activity includes biological…

Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

141

Saskatchewan's Trek School and the Greenall Outdoor School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trek School is an outdoor school program for any Grade 11 students in Regina, Saskatchewan. During the program, students engage in a series of classroom, outdoor, and experiential activities. The various courses are taught through these experiences. The program is designed to help students develop in the areas of independent learning, critical and…

Notenboom, Rob; Moore, Jeff

2011-01-01

142

Exploring Small Climates--An Outdoor Science Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of climates in small areas as an outdoor science teaching technique is described in this paper. It is suggested that, while teachers are presenting a weather unit to their elementary school classes, they should not overlook the opportunity to make learning more meaningful through outdoor teaching techniques. Explorations of temperatures…

Rillo, Thomas J.

143

The Outdoor Classroom. Experiencing Nature in the Elementary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through direct experience within natural settings, outdoor education allows students to learn about environmental concerns such as migration of birds, weather systems, wildlife habitats, watersheds, soil erosion, geological formations, food chains, and community resources. All subject areas in the present curriculum can be enriched through outdoor

Alexander, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

144

Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

145

Effective Thinking Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

Hyde, Rod

1997-01-01

146

Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

147

Outdoor Classroom Coordinator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

Keeler, Rusty

2010-01-01

148

Hunting and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

Matthews, Bruce E.

1991-01-01

149

Outdoor Recreation Space Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increased concern in recent years for the quality of our cultural and physical environment, there has been a corresponding increase in the need for information on standards used for planning playgrounds and parks, sports facilities, and outdoor areas for camping and hiking. Standards for various types of outdoor recreational facilities as…

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

150

Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

151

Television Goes to School: The Impact of Video on Student Learning in Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on key questions concerning the relationship of television to learning, and provides examples drawn from current television research to demonstrate television's positive effect on student achievement. A set of practical recommendations are also provided so that broadcasters and educators can maximize the effectiveness of video…

Education Development Center, Inc, 2004

2004-01-01

152

Outdoor Classrooms: The Learning Links.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides suggestions on how schoolyard greening can enhance curriculum and engage students in creative ways to integrate a naturalized area into their studies. Subject areas covered include language arts, math, science, social studies, health, physical education, art and music. (AIM)

Reading, Jeff; Taven, George

1996-01-01

153

Introducing the Use of a Semi-Structured Video Diary Room to Investigate Students' Learning Experiences during an Outdoor Adventure Education Groupwork Skills Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…

Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.

2014-01-01

154

Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

Folta, Elizabeth Eason

2010-01-01

155

GameBuilder, an outdoor AR creation software  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the author designed and implemented GameBuilder, a desktop application targeted towards 11-14 year olds for creating Outdoor AR games. The software attempts to reduce its learning curve by limiting the ...

Zhang, Chuan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

156

Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

157

Outdoor Leadership Competencies: A Research Study Surveying Outdoor Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified land-based outdoor leadership competencies deemed necessary by outdoor leaders in the western United States. Using resources such as outdoor leadership literature, competency-based teacher education manuals, consultation with outdoor leadership specialists in educational, private, and governmental agencies, and personal…

Swiderski, Michael J.

158

Outdoor Education Directory: Organizations Involved in Outdoor Experiential Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists organizations actively involved in outdoor experiential education. Outdoor experiential education includes some or all of the following elements: (1) active involvement in solving outdoor problems; (2) verbal reflection following the experience; (3) introduction of a level of stress or challenge in completing the outdoor

ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.

159

Using Formal Embedded Formative Assessments Aligned with a Short-Term Learning Progression to Promote Conceptual Change and Achievement in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical…

Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

2014-01-01

160

"I Feel like I'm Being Hit from All Directions": Enduring the Bombardment as a Mature-Age Learner Returning to Formal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mature-age learner's re-engagement with a formal learning environment may be somewhat akin to the novice Paintball player who, unless well positioned and attuned to the rules of the combative game, is bombarded and worn down by constant "hits". For the mature-age learner, such "hits" may come in the form of tensions surrounding institutional…

Willans, Julie; Seary, Karen

2011-01-01

161

Recent Participation in Formal Learning among Working-Age Adults with Different Levels of Education. Issue Brief. NCES 2008-041  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults who have low levels of education often lack the skills needed to succeed in the labor market (OECD and Statistics Canada 2000). One way for adults to overcome this skill disadvantage is to participate in learning activities offered through the formal education system, at the workplace, or by other organizations. This Issue Brief uses data…

Kienzl, Gregory

2008-01-01

162

Healthy Air Outdoors  

MedlinePLUS

... even threaten life itself. Protecting Your Health Outdoor air pollution threatens the lives and health of millions of ... complex challenges of global warming and energy use, air pollution remains a widespread problem. » More Fighting for Healthy ...

163

Merging Social Networking Environments and Formal Learning Environments to Support and Facilitate Interprofessional Instruction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the redesign of an interprofessional team development course for health science students. A theoretical model is hypothesized as a framework for the redesign process, consisting of two themes: 1) the increasing trend among post-secondary students to participate in social networking (e.g., Facebook, Second Life) and 2) the need for healthcare educators to provide interprofessional training that results in effective communities of practice and better patient care. The redesign focused on increasing the relevance of the course through the integration of custom-designed technology to facilitate social networking during their interprofessional education. Results suggest that students in an educationally structured social networking environment can be guided to join learning communities quickly and access course materials. More research and implementation work is required to effectively develop interprofessional health sciences communities in a combined face-to-face and on-line social networking context. PMID:20165519

King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Michael; Drummond, Jane; Patterson, Steven

2009-01-01

164

Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison  

SciTech Connect

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-02-01

165

Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

166

E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care  

PubMed Central

Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point. PMID:24742168

2014-01-01

167

A Rationale for Outdoor Activity as Experiential Education: The Reason for Freezin'.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Dewey said, "Learning is thinking about experience". This dictum accurately reflects the rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education. The term "outdoor learning" refers to a set of activities which have the following characteristics in common: environmental contrast (a sharp environmental change for the participant); physical…

Kesselheim, A. Donn

168

[Science in the Outdoors].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

Sarage, Joe; And Others

169

Eden Community Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an outdoor adventure and environmental program for young people in Cumbria (England) that aims to raise social and environmental awareness through ecological, artistic, and adventurous activities. Non-hierarchical, learner-centered residential and nonresidential projects empower young people to become interested in their local…

Horizons, 2000

2000-01-01

170

Hunting and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research and other literature on hunters' values, ethics, motivations, connection to the land, environmental attitudes, and wildlife knowledge and attitudes. Suggests that hunting in its best and most ethical sense shares and supports the goals of outdoor education. Contains 32 references. (SV)

Matthews, Bruce E.

1992-01-01

171

[Outdoor Ethics Information Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains information about outdoor ethics issues. The information was compiled by the Izaak Walton League of America, established in 1922 as a national nonprofit organization whose members educate the public about emerging natural resource threats and promote citizen involvement in environmental protection efforts. The league…

Izaak Walton League of America, Arlington, VA.

172

Issues of Interaction in Pure-Online English Learning Environment through Perspectives of Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism: A Case Study for Non-formal Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most previous studies on the use of Internet technology and computers for second language learning have been conducted in\\u000a blended learning environments. Although much research has been undertaken into interactions in online learning, little work\\u000a has focused on online English learning, let alone the pure-online (ie non-blended) English learning environment with no face-to-face\\u000a element. This paper investigates the English-language learning

Yanhui Han

2010-01-01

173

Outdoor Lighting Ordinances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A principal means to prevent poor exterior lighting practices is a lighting control ordinance. It is an enforceable legal restriction on specific lighting practices that are deemed unacceptable by the government body having jurisdiction. Outdoor lighting codes have proven to be effective at reducing polluting and trespassing light. A well written exterior lighting code will permit all forms of necessary illumination at reasonable intensities, but will demand shielding and other measures to prevent trespass and light pollution. A good code will also apply to all forms of outdoor lighting, including streets, highways, and exterior signs, as well as the lighting on dwellings, commercial and industrial buildings and building sites. A good code can make exceptions for special uses, provided it complies with an effective standard. The IDA Model Lighting Ordinance is a response to these requests. It is intended as an aid to communities that are seeking to take control of their outdoor lighting, to "take back the night" that is being lost to careless and excessive use of night lighting.

Davis, S.

2004-05-01

174

Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. PMID:24462995

Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

2014-05-01

175

Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities in Government Organisations: Experiences of Public Sector Employees from Six Asian Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifelong learning and professional development have been the focus of government organisations after the 21st century was declared the "learning century", amidst the impact of globalisation and growth of knowledge-based economies. Although lifelong learning and professional development opportunities are available in most government organisations,…

Mokhtar, Intan A.

2010-01-01

176

Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineers at Pennsylvania State University have devised an air conditioning system that is more efficient than current standards and is highly resistant to dangerous airborne microbes such as anthrax. Because the Dedicated Outdoor Air System (DOAS) does not use recirculated air, a letter contaminated with anthrax would not spread throughout the building. A detailed technical overview of the concept is given on the DOAS home page, as well as an assessment of its benefits over traditional air conditioning. A collection of over twenty research papers and five presentations related to the system's development is also provided.

2001-01-01

177

Gender Choreography and Micro-Structures--Early Childhood Professionals' Understanding of Gender Roles and Gender Patterns in Outdoor Play and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre-school professionals understand the notion of gender-equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre-school playground. The study draws on socio-cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre-schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on…

Arlemalm-Hagser, Eva

2010-01-01

178

Outdoor recreational opportunities in Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What comes to mind when you think about outdoor recreational opportunities? Diagram of the recreational opportunities to enjoy First we will look at the forest services and recreational opportunities. Forest Services There is plenty of hunting opportunities in Alabama to enjoy. Hunting Opportunities Outdoor tips can be essential when enjoying the outdoors. Outdoor Tips What a better way to spend a weekend then going fishing with family and friends. Places to Fish A great way to spend a weekend could also consist of hiking. Hiking Now ...

Smith, Adam

2012-04-04

179

The Missing Link to Connect Education and Employment: Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of learning outcomes is at the heart of many research programmes and policy responses. International surveys (from the International Adult Literacy Survey, back in the mid-nineties, to the forthcoming Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes two OECD surveys), National Qualifications Frameworks or the European Qualifications…

Werquin, Patrick

2012-01-01

180

BoomTown Music Education - A co-creating way to learn music within formal music education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general purpose of this presentation is to discuss how alternative forms of learning strategies in exclu- sively designed contexts may strengthen the develop- ment of musical, social and personal competences. Research in music education has confirmed that how knowledge in music is created is highly correlated with context qualities, as for example the organization of musical learning and social

D. Anna-Karin Gullberg

2006-01-01

181

Outdoor Education on Your School Grounds: An Action Approach to Better Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of school grounds as an outdoor learning area is the main emphasis of this manual for elementary and junior high school teachers. Detailed plannin g steps, site plots, directions for planting, and other related planning information are given, along with guidelines concerning the use of an outdoor classroom by teachers of various subjects.…

Marsh, Norman F.

182

Reflective Practice as a Means for Preparing to Teach Outdoors in an Ecological Garden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers are engaged in many field-trips, they seldom have the pedagogical knowledge and experience to enact them. This article presents an effort to support reflective practice of teachers in the outdoors. The teaching experience of five pre- and in-service teachers included preparation for teaching in the outdoors, designing learning

Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

2009-01-01

183

Training College Outdoor Program Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a training program for college outdoor program leaders developed by the Outdoor Action Program at Princeton University (New Jersey). The training program includes a leader training course, a safety management seminar, a wilderness first aid course, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and group skills workshop. This paper describes…

Curtis, Rick

184

Technology Works in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

Zita, Adam

2008-01-01

185

OBIS: Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project began in 1972 to enable non-school youth groups (aged 10-15) to gain firsthand experiences in outdoor environments. This descriptive paper explains the program including its purpose and historical background. Specific objectives are to: (1) stimulate curiosity about local environments;…

Donovan, Edward P.; Richmond, Robert F.

186

Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

Matthews, Bruce E.

1978-01-01

187

Systems-based accident analysis in the led outdoor activity domain: application and evaluation of a risk management framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety-compromising accidents occur regularly in the led outdoor activity domain. Formal accident analysis is an accepted means of understanding such events and improving safety. Despite this, there remains no universally accepted framework for collecting and analysing accident data in the led outdoor activity domain. This article presents an application of Rasmussen's risk management framework to the analysis of the Lyme

P. Salmon; A. Williamson; M. Lenné; E. Mitsopoulos-Rubens; C. M. Rudin-Brown

2010-01-01

188

Outdoor Play: Does Avoiding the Risks Reduce the Benefits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the term "risk-taking" often has negative connotations, the reality is that the willingness to engage in some risky activities provides opportunities to learn new skills, try new behaviours and ultimately reach our potential. Challenge and risk, in particular during outdoor play, allows children to test the limits of their physical,…

Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

2008-01-01

189

Mechanisms Influencing Student Understanding on an Outdoor Guided Field Trip  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the…

Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

2009-01-01

190

Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

Rosenow, Nancy

2011-01-01

191

Children's Outdoor Environment in Icelandic Educational Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate what characterizes the discourse on the role of the outdoor environment in young children's learning in educational policy documents in Iceland. Policy documents, laws and regulations, national curriculum guides for pre- and compulsory school levels, and documents from municipalities were analyzed. A…

Norðdahl, Kristín; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

2015-01-01

192

Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

193

Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

Mullins, Philip M.

2011-01-01

194

Planting a Seed: An Examination of Nature Perception, Program Processes, and Outdoor Experience  

E-print Network

educational experience upon fifth grade children's perceptions of nature. The quasi-experimental mixed-method design provided valuable insights into outcomes associated with students’ participation in a four day, three night outdoor learning education program...

Aaron, Rachel Faith

2011-02-22

195

Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities  

MedlinePLUS

... safe outdoors. Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacteria. These bacteria are carried in the urine of infected animals. ... the water or soil was contaminated with leptospirosis bacteria, that person could be at risk for developing ...

196

Outdoor Science: A Practical Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available February 2010. Research shows that environment-centered education improves student achievement. Whatever your school's setting--urban, suburban, or rural--you can create stimulating outdoor classrooms for your students, with a litt

Rich, Steve

2010-02-01

197

The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

Cashel, Chris

198

Resident Program Guide: Hillside Outdoor Education Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1972 as part of the private, non-profit Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Centers, the Hillside Outdoor Education Center offers services to various educational groups by providing residential experiences for students and faculty, day-visit programs, school-site outdoor education programs, teacher workshops, college courses in outdoor

Sommer, Bonnie

199

Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

Olson, Joann S.

2014-01-01

200

Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

Carter, Candice C.

2013-01-01

201

Learning Outdoors: The Forest School Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the role that Forest School can play in children's development. With over 100 Forest Schools in England, 20 in Scotland and 20 in Wales, this concept is growing across Britain. Forest School involves children having regular contact with woodland over an extended period of time; it allows them to become familiar, and have…

O'Brien, Liz

2009-01-01

202

Outdoor Education. The Classroom Teacher Series in Health Education, Physical Education, and Recreation, No. 3. Revised Edition, 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this pamphlet is to promote a better understanding of outdoor education and its value in schools. Five reasons are given for the inclusion of outdoor education in the elementary school program: (1) learning takes place most effectively through direct experience--beginning with concrete activities and letting useful…

Smith, Julian W.

203

Environmental/Outdoor Education -- A Major Priority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several timely factors which were considered in the development of the Outdoor Education and Farm Demonstration Center (Green Chimneys School, Brewster, New York) and the nearby Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Center are discussed. (Author/KM)

Ross, Samuel B., Jr.

1974-01-01

204

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Operating Standards § 3.52 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits kept outdoors to protect themselves from the...

2010-01-01

205

9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3...shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless such...

2010-01-01

206

Outdoor HV composite polymeric insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

HV composite polymeric insulators are being accepted increasingly for use in outdoor installations by the traditionally cautious electric power utilities worldwide. They currently represent ~60 to 70% of newly installed HV insulators in North America. The tremendous growth in the applications of non-ceramic composite insulators is due to their advantages over the traditional ceramic and glass insulators. These include light

R. Hackam

1999-01-01

207

A Model for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and future of outdoor education in the elementary schools of Joint School District Number 1, Port Washington, Wisconsin, from the 1971-72 school year to the present. A questionnaire was distributed to all elementary teachers in grades K-6, with the exception of physical education teachers. The…

Gatzke, Ned S.; Starkey, John D.

208

Pathways to the Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography is designed to assist educators in establishing an outdoor classroom for environmental education. A process is detailed by which school districts can effectively and efficiently develop a site on or near the school. The first step involves organizing a planning committee, enlisting administrative support, and developing a budget.…

Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

209

MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS  

E-print Network

, and high-angle brightness. This is necessary in order to reduce light pollution, which has a negative as excess lighting directed into the night sky. This causes light pollution, also known as artificial skyMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

California at Davis, University of

210

MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS  

E-print Network

to reduce light pollution, which has a negative effect on wildlife and the surrounding environments pollution, also known as artificial sky glow. Glare Glare is any overlapping light between the uplightMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

California at Davis, University of

211

MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS  

E-print Network

. This is necessary in order to reduce light pollution, which has a negative effect on people, wildlife sky. This causes light pollution, also known as artificial sky glow. Glare Glare is any overlappingMANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION

California at Davis, University of

212

Outdoor Adventure and Legal Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines ways in which outdoor adventure programs can guard against charges of negligence and the possibility of lawsuits without diluting challenge or participant satisfaction. Discusses risk management, insurance, safety guidelines to use in the development of program-specific standards, and accident prevention. Contains 19 references. (SV)

Helesic, Terri; Priest, Simon

1991-01-01

213

Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

2005-01-01

214

Outdoor Recreation at Brock University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brock University offers both undergraduate and graduate programs and is host to approximately 17,000 students. It is the only Canadian university located in a World Biosphere Reserve--the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail passes through campus, and offers ample opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, nature interpretation and outdoor

Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Hutson, Garrett

2007-01-01

215

Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

Kennedy, Carolyn L.

216

Outdoor Education as Wilderness Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents outline for introductory course designed to allow student exploration of outdoor opportunities and instill interest and basic knowledge. Includes nature trail development, edible wild plants, Adirondack/St. Lawrence geology, mountain climbing, fall camping, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, winter camping, ice fishing, knots,…

Clark, Glenn

1987-01-01

217

Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

2010-01-01

218

STATE OF CALIFORNIA OUTDOOR LIGHTING WORKSHEET  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA OUTDOOR LIGHTING WORKSHEET CEC-OLTG-2C (Revised 03/10) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Forms March 2010 OUTDOOR LIGHTING WORKSHEET (Page 1 of 3) OLTG-2C Application Wattage Allowance for Ornamental Lighting #12;STATE OF CALIFORNIA OUTDOOR LIGHTING WORKSHEET CEC

219

Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

2006-01-01

220

Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

2009-01-01

221

Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The interconnections of these three concepts---the outdoor setting, the students' interest, the social interaction---worked to provide the mechanisms by which the students increased their understanding of the rock cycle.

Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

222

Problematising "Education" and "Training" in the Scottish Sport and Fitness, Play and Outdoor Sectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sets out the issues peculiar to the Scottish workforce in sport and fitness, play and the outdoor sectors. Provides an exploration of the development of vocational education in the form of sector skills training for these sectors in opposition to that formal education provided at further and higher education level. Draws on empirical research…

Foley, M.; Frew, M.; McGillivray, D.; McIntosh, A.; McPherson, G.

2004-01-01

223

Outdoor sports and skin cancer.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen. PMID:18280899

Moehrle, Matthias

2008-01-01

224

?N formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise understanding of nonlinear evolution of cosmological perturbations during inflation is necessary for the correct interpretation of measurements of non-Gaussian correlations in the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale structure of the Universe. The “?N formalism” is a popular and powerful technique for computing nonlinear evolution of cosmological perturbations on large scales. In particular, it enables us to compute the curvature perturbation ? on large scales without actually solving perturbed field equations. However, people often wonder why this is the case. In order for this approach to be valid, the perturbed Hamiltonian constraint and matter-field equations on large scales must, with a suitable choice of coordinates, take on the same forms as the corresponding unperturbed equations. We find that this is possible when (1) the unperturbed metric is given by a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric; and (2) on large scales and with a suitable choice of coordinates, one can ignore the shift vector (g0i) as well as time dependence of tensor perturbations to gij/a2(t) of the perturbed metric. While the first condition has to be assumed a priori, the second condition can be met when (3) the anisotropic stress becomes negligible on large scales. However, in order to explicitly show that the second condition follows from the third condition, one has to use gravitational field equations, and thus this statement may depend on the details of the theory of gravitation. Finally, as the ?N formalism uses only the Hamiltonian constraint and matter-field equations, it does not a priori respect the momentum constraint. We show that the error in the momentum constraint only yields a decaying mode solution for ?, and the error vanishes when the slow-roll conditions are satisfied.

Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Futamase, Toshifumi

2013-01-01

225

Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

2003-07-01

226

Outdoor Leadership Education: The Past, Present and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines academic degree programs that train outdoor leaders. A review of previous studies of outdoor leadership noted 12 critical core competencies of an effective outdoor leader. A survey of college outdoor programs identified 15 four-year academic degree programs in outdoor leadership at U.S. colleges and universities. The programs…

Sugerman, Deborah

227

Columbus Outdoor Pursuits: A Model Structure for Volunteer Based Outdoor Pursuits Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Columbus Outdoor Pursuits (COP) is a volunteer-based nonprofit organization in Ohio that has offered outdoor educational and recreational opportunities to its members for 63 years. COP day and trip programs focus on outdoor activities such as bicycling, kayaking, hiking, and rock climbing. In addition, COP offers classes in the skills required for…

Gerckens, Ann E.

228

The Bradford Papers. Volume II, Proceedings from the 1981 Institute on Innovations in Camping and Outdoor Education With Persons Who Are Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Learning by doing" was the theme at the 1981 Institute on Innovations in Camping and Outdoor Education with Persons Who Are Disabled and was represented in the eleven papers presented. The papers describe the use of various outdoor-oriented media for involving persons with disabilities in participatory activities. Topics consisted of improvement…

Robb, Gary M., Ed.

229

The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directed to the Multnomah County, Oregon, sixth grade students who participate in the Outdoor School program, the reusable handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Each week, four sixth grade classes from different…

Gilfillan, Warren C., Comp.; Burgess, Robert A., Comp.

230

A Guide for Conducting Outdoor Field Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since research indicates teachers generally lack confidence in their ability to conduct lessons in the outdoors and feel inadequate regarding knowledge of the natural world, this guide has been developed to build teacher confidence in utilizing the outdoors. Designed to be used in conjunction with a practicum workshop, this guide presents…

Matthews, Bruce; And Others

231

Outdoor Program Office Assistant Employment Application Information  

E-print Network

Center. We are looking for employees with a passion for outdoor adventure activities and an interest of your application. Job Summary Outdoor Program Office Assistants are responsible for the day-to-day First Aid, Adult CPR and AED certification (can be completed after hiring) #12;Application

Stephens, Graeme L.

232

Outdoor Adventure Leadership Program at Laurentian University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laurentian University (Ontario) offers a 4-year holistic outdoor adventure leadership program that promotes personal growth, develops leadership skills, and trains individuals to be safety-minded in various outdoor settings. A strong environmental ethic is promoted through courses in biology and Canadian Native culture. Practicums, internships,…

Couture, Roger T.

2001-01-01

233

Smithsonian American Art Museum SAVE OUTDOOR SCULPTURE!  

E-print Network

Smithsonian American Art Museum SAVE OUTDOOR SCULPTURE! CONSERVATION TREATMENT NOTIFICATION REPORT American Art Museum, nearly 32,000 outdoor sculptures were surveyed and condition assessments performed. SOS! data is now online as part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum's national Inventories

Mathis, Wayne N.

234

Outdoor Education for Sustainability: Making Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education should broaden its scope beyond outdoor activities to include education for sustainability. Provides practical ideas for incorporating holistic environmental awareness into programs by exploring the concepts of connection and consequence with such basic elements as water, air, food, shelter, darkness, solitude, time, and nature.…

Higgins, Peter

1997-01-01

235

The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for those interested in the mechanics of establishing outdoor education programs, this text is basically a guide to program development and includes examples of procedures, forms, conceptualizations, etc. Chapters deal with: (1) the contemporary education scene (an overview); (2) the basic concepts of outdoor education (17 concept…

Lewis, Charles A., Jr.

236

Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

237

Teaching Conservation Through Outdoor Education Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is for teachers (K-12) interested in developing and using outdoor education areas. Student participation is presented as the key to a successful program. A discussion of what can be done by outdoor education programs is presented. The guide suggests sites to be chosen in terms of accessability, size, attractiveness, safety, drinking…

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

238

People, Adventure and Outdoor Education in  

E-print Network

) 1987 Army Adventurous Training Centre (AATC) 1989 Hamilton Skills Centre 1991 Auckland UniversityPeople, Adventure and Outdoor Education in New Zealand Andy Thompson PG Dip Outdoor Education://www.otagopolytechnic.ac.nz/schools- departments/sport-and-adventure.html · Adventure Instructor / Guides · Tourism Guides · Independent

Northern British Columbia, University of

239

Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is

M. M. Barbier; C. V. Chester

1980-01-01

240

Therapeutic Uses of Outdoor Education. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest examines the positive effects on emotional well-being of several types of outdoor education programs. Although many outdoor education and experiential programs enhance emotional growth, such "therapeutic" outcomes may be considered incidental to program goals. In contrast, programs aimed primarily at "therapy" usually involve a process…

Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

241

Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

Bunting, Camille J.

242

Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

243

Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

244

UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

Maher, Pat

2007-01-01

245

Early Beginnings in Outdoor Education: Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education has roots in the Nature Study Movement of the late 1800s; organized camping, which was started by groups such as the Young Men's and Women's Christian Association and the Boy and Girl Scouts; progressive education; and environmental education. Several doctoral dissertations in 1930 mark the beginning of outdoor education as a…

Carlson, Julie A.

2000-01-01

246

Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-print Network

1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 1999 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University water. We test our water using sophisticated equipment and advanced procedures. The water supplied by Outdoor Laboratory Water System meets state and federal standards for both appearance and safety

Duchowski, Andrew T.

247

Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-print Network

1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 2000 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University water. We test our water using sophisticated equipment and advanced procedures. The water supplied by the Outdoor Laboratory Water System meets state and federal standards for both appearance and safety

Duchowski, Andrew T.

248

Outdoor Education Units. Pull Out Feature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly presents 15 outdoor education units covering orienteering, map reading, safety, rescue, rope skills, first aid, camping, kayaking, rock and wall climbing, caving, survival skills, sailing, hiking, and outdoor equipment. Each unit has a brief description, including the knowledge and skills that students should be able to demonstrate. (TD)

Levi, Jan

2001-01-01

249

Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

Whitcombe, Mark

1989-01-01

250

Outdoor Education for Behavior Disordered Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education programs ranging from simple, near-school activities to lengthy wilderness camping experiences can benefit behavior disorderd students. Studies of outdoor education programs for these students have shown positive effects including improvements in self-concept, social adjustment, academic achievement, and group cohesion. Many…

Lappin, Edward

251

Megatrends in Outdoor Education: Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspired by John Naisbitt's "Megatrends," the article identifies the past, present, and future directions of outdoor education. The article notes the implications of these directions for outdoor education programing and forecasts changes in outdoor education. (SB)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1984-01-01

252

Career Opportunities Outdoors and Underwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. In this episode of ATETV, marine technology and environmental technology are discussed. A student competition of remotely operated underwater vehicle technology is shown in the video. Employees with training and experience in this technology are in high demand in the workforce, and industry is using such competitions as scouting opportunities. In technological programs like the ones shown here, students gain hands-on experience that prepares them for the workplace. The episode can be watched in full or through the two segments: âÂÂDiving into A Marine-Based Career,â and âÂÂEnvironmental Technology Takes to the Great Outdoors.â Running time for the full episode of this streaming video is 7:01.

2010-07-27

253

Exploring Bi-Cultural Awareness through Outdoor Education in Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the use of outdoor-based experiential learning in an undergraduate physical education teacher preparation program to develop a culturally-sensitive pedagogy for work with children from different cultures. Applying the six-stage process for becoming a bi-cultural teacher (Klug & Whitfield, 2003), teacher preparation students…

Brawdy, Paul J.

2004-01-01

254

Life in Early California: A New Approach to the Outdoor Field Trip  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an outdoor educational program at the University of California Botanical Garden in which children are encouraged to handle the plants and are provided with a taped commentary. By the use of an inquiry method, children learn how the Californian Indians used many of the native plants. (JR)

Falk, John H.

1973-01-01

255

Wilderness U.: Opportunities for Outdoor Education in the U.S. & Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1980s saw a dramatic change in the use of leisure as millions of Americans turned to vacations that emphasized exploration, learning, and renewed awareness of the natural world. The first part of this three-part sourcebook lists approximately 270 institutions, organizations, and businesses offering programs in outdoor education, environmental…

McMillon, Bill

256

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUPPLEMENTAL TO AND RELATED TO THE ART PROGRAM AT DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A CURRICULUM GUIDE DEALING WITH VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS WAS PREPARED FOR POSSIBLE STUDY ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD USE THE LEARNING RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER IN GARY, INDIANA. ACTIVITIES GUIDES ARE PRESENTED FOR (1) ART ACTITIVIES RELATED TO DESIGN, COLOR, LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION, PAPER CONSTRUCTION, DRAWING, PRINT…

Gary City Public School System, IN.

257

Strategies to Affect Student Awareness of Natural and Social Environments in Outdoor Education: A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several instructional strategies have been developed and employed to affect student awareness of natural and social environmental settings. Three instructional strategy orientations have been structured for affecting student conceptual learning and values acquisition-clarification: affective, cognitive, and affective-cognitive. Outdoor education…

Peters, Richard O.

258

Lessons from the Mud: Nurturing an Outdoor Classroom in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A muddy area between two new elementary schools was transformed into a school "wetlands"--an outdoor learning center used for nature study and various creative and sensory activities. The area encourages children's natural curiosity, provides many discoveries about nature, and promotes a sense of stewardship. (SV)

Bodner, Virginia; Sampson, Karla

1999-01-01

259

The Formal and Situated Learning of Beginning Teacher Educators in England: Identifying Characteristics for Successful Induction in the Transition from Workplace in Schools to Workplace in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present interview data from the early stages of a longitudinal study on the emerging professional, academic identities of five beginning teacher educators. We identify the main facilitators and barriers which support different types of professional learning. Barriers in the early stages include: a reliance on trial and error learning,…

Harrison, Jennifer; McKeon, Frankie

2008-01-01

260

Parkinson's disease and history of outdoor occupation  

PubMed Central

Background Human and animal studies, albeit not fully consistent, suggest that vitamin D may reduce risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ultraviolet radiation converts vitamin D precursor to the active form. This study examined the hypothesis that working outdoors is associated with a decreased risk of PD. Methods PD cases were enrolled from Group Health Cooperative, a health maintenance organization in the Puget Sound region in western Washington State, and the University of Washington Neurology Clinic in Seattle. Participants included 447 non-Hispanic Caucasian newly diagnosed PD cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2008 and 578 unrelated neurologically normal controls enrolled in Group Health Cooperative, frequency matched by race/ethnicity, age and gender. Subjects' amount of outdoor work was estimated from self-reported occupational histories. Jobs were categorized by degree of time spent working outdoors. A ten-year lag interval was included to account for disease latency. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression, with adjustment for age, gender, and smoking. Results Outdoor work was inversely associated with risk of PD (outdoor only compared to indoor only): OR= 0.74, 95% CI 0.44-1.25. However, there was no trend in relation to portion of the workday spent laboring outdoors and PD risk. Conclusion Occupational sunlight exposure and other correlates of outdoor work is not likely to have a substantial role in the etiology of PD. PMID:24044947

Kwon, Elena; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Nielsen, Susan Searles; Franklin, Gary M.; Littell, Christopher T.; Longstreth, W.T.; Swanson, Phillip D.; Checkoway, Harvey

2013-01-01

261

Synchronization Primitives for a Multiprocessor: A Formal Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal specifications of operating system interfaces can be a useful part of theirdocumentation. We illustrate this by documenting the Threads synchronizationprimitives of the Taos operating system. We start with an informal description,present a way to formally specify interfaces in concurrent systems, and then givea formal specification of the synchronization primitives. We briefly discuss boththe implementation and what we have learned

Andrew Birrell; John V. Guttag; James J. Horning; Roy Levin

1987-01-01

262

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sprinkler system or other means. (b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be...

2012-01-01

263

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sprinkler system or other means. (b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be...

2014-01-01

264

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sprinkler system or other means. (b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow. (c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be...

2013-01-01

265

75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...generations. Our lands and waters provide countless opportunities for exploration, recreation, and reflection, whether in solitude or with family and friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew our enduring commitment to protect our natural...

2010-06-07

266

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits kept outdoors to protect themselves from the direct rays of the sun. When the atmospheric temperature exceeds 90 °F. artificial cooling shall be provided by a sprinkler system or other...

2011-01-01

267

Cooperative Programs in Residential Outdoor Environmental Education: Teacher's Materials Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as teacher orientation materials for the cooperative programs in residential outdoor education located in Marin County, California, this guide includes the following: (1) "This I Believe" (a philosophical statement on outdoor environmental education); (2) "Outdoor Science and Conservation Education Report" (a brief history of outdoor

Marin County Superintendent of Schools, Corte Madera, CA.

268

A Teachers' Guide for the Outdoor School Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general aim of this guide is to aid the teachers of the fifth and sixth grade boys and girls who participate in the Outdoor School program at the Battle Creek Outdoor Center. Another major aim of this guide is to aid the outdoor school teachers who bear the major responsibility in implementing the outdoor school program. An historical overview…

Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

269

Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

Huffman, Michael G.

270

Environmental Respect: A New Approach to Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most outdoor education programs do not include the teaching of correct outdoor behavior. The purpose of this manual is to assist educators and concerned lay persons in establishing an outdoor education program with an instructional strategy that will manipulate students into becoming responsible, ethical, respectful outdoor citizens. Both lay…

Huck, Albert R.; Decker, Eugene

271

Outdoor Virtual Reality Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski  

E-print Network

Outdoor Virtual Reality Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski Wearable Computer Laboratory University This paper presents our novel concept Outdoor Virtual Reality. By using outdoor augmented reality techniques we propose to build very wide area virtual reality systems, outdoor virtual reality. The concept

Thomas, Bruce

272

Outdoor performance of fluid dielectric CPV modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of several experimental tests performed to analyze the potential of CPV modules based on a single reflective stage and a fluid dielectric are summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is put on analyzing outdoor performance. The improved thermal design maintains the temperature difference between the solar cell and the ambient below 37°C during outdoor operation. In addition, the system performance under different spectra is analyzed experimentally determining the limiting subcell within the multijunction solar cell under variable spectral conditions.

Victoria, M.; Askins, S.; Domínguez, C.; Antón, I.; Sala, G.

2012-10-01

273

Blended Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

2013-01-01

274

LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS,LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS, AND SPECTATOR SAFETYAND SPECTATOR SAFETY  

E-print Network

LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS,LIGHTNING, OUTDOOR STADIUMS, AND SPECTATOR SAFETYAND SPECTATOR SAFETYWednesday, January 21stst , 2004, 2004 #12;LIGHTNING STORIES...LIGHTNING STORIES... #12;LIGHTNING STORIES...LIGHTNINGVirginia Tech What happened?What happened? Lightning struck the ground, 6/10Lightning struck the ground, 6

Colorado at Boulder, University of

275

The Outdoor World: An Outdoor Science and Culture Program for Seneca Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an outdoor summer science program for Seneca Indian children in grades 5-7 that featured weekly outdoor topics integrating science, traditional Native American/Seneca culture, and skills in reading and language arts. Daily activities included field trips, community guests, storytelling, and individual and group projects. (LP)

Dobey, Daniel C.

1994-01-01

276

SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this  

E-print Network

certified under Section 153.048, Natural Resources Code, and meet the standards of Section 153.047, NaturalSUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this section or funds as necessary to aid the Texas Forest Service in carrying out this section. (c) The commissioners

277

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 10 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 10 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 10 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe A reminder from

Löwe, Benedikt

278

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 6 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 6 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 6 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reminder: Controlled

Löwe, Benedikt

279

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 5 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 5 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 5 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reminder: Controlled

Löwe, Benedikt

280

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 12 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 12 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 12 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Plan for today. #12

Löwe, Benedikt

281

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 9 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 9 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 9 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Argumentation Schemes

Löwe, Benedikt

282

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 4 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Where are we right

Löwe, Benedikt

283

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 7 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 7 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 7 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reminder: logica

Löwe, Benedikt

284

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 3 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 3 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe 2nd Semester 2010/11 #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 3 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe Binary connectives

Löwe, Benedikt

285

Learning \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of our human learning involves some form of face to face communication between those that learn and those that teach. The World Wide Web has become a medium of education in recent times and a number of models of learning have been used in teaching via the Web. It is argued that any models so used need to include

Des Casey

1998-01-01

286

Contributions to reproducible CPV outdoor power ratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodologies that aim to obtain a reproducible power rating are still under discussion at the WG7 of the IEC and there is a need for feedback from real field application in order to validate or improve these methods. These procedures are evaluated through the outdoor rating of seven modules from four different CPV technologies, which have been measured at the CEA outdoor monitoring bench at the Institut National de l'Energie Solaire (INES) site. The benefit of introducing other procedural considerations is analyzed, namely the inclusion of spectrally-corrected irradiance, the utilization of lens temperature as a new parameter for regressions and the optimization of dataset filtering.

Besson, Pierre; Domínguez, César; Baudrit, Mathieu

2014-09-01

287

Learning the Ropes: A SpeyGrian Sailing Tale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen educators went Scottish island-hopping on a 100-year-old sailing boat to learn journal writing and new techniques in outdoor learning, gain confidence for teaching about controversial issues, and experience creative education in general. This narrative of their journey eloquently captures the essence and power of experiential, outdoor

McEwen, Christian

2003-01-01

288

A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education centers such as museums, zoos and aquariums has stimulated studies of the relationship between learning in and outside of schools. Although many studies focus on the teachers, the contexts, and/or the students during the field trip, only a few look at the entire process of learning by including the classroom setting before and after the field trip. This study was designed to develop understandings of the student process of learning during and surrounding an environmental science field trip to an outdoor setting. John Dewey's extensive writings on the relationship between experience and learning informed the analysis, creating a focus on active and passive elements of the experience, continuity within and across contexts, the interactive nature of the experience and the importance of subject matter. An exploration of environmental education (EE), environmental science (ES), and nature study as content revealed the complexities of the subject matter of the field trip that make its presentation problematic. An urban school was chosen to contribute to the research literature about urban student learning in outdoor environments. During the field trip, the students' active engagement with each other and the environment supported meaningful remembrances of the field trip experiences during interviews after the field trip. The students accurately described plants and animals they had observed in different habitats during the field trip. They also made connections with their home life and prior experiences in the outdoors as they discussed the field trip and drew pictures that represented their experiences. One student integrated his outdoor experience with a language arts assignment as he reflected deeply on the field trip. One implication of this study is that educational experiences in outdoor natural environments are complex in ways that contribute to lack of continuity between science lessons in an elementary classroom and environmental science field trip. Long term relationships between schools and informal settings that recognize the strengths of both contexts in terms of student learning processes surrounding field trip experiences are needed to strengthen the educative process for field trip participants.

Preusch, Peggy L.

2009-12-01

289

Nature, Nurture, Knowledge: The Promise of Experiential Learning for Students with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that many students learn best when teaching practices are outdoors, nature-based, and experiential. Meaningful outdoor experiences increase students' social and academic achievement and contribute to the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills Experiential and nature-based instruction in the outdoors has been…

Peterson, Kara Marie

2011-01-01

290

Outdoor Science: A Practical Guide (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research shows that environment-centered education improves student achievement. Whatever your school's setting--urban, suburban, or rural--you can create stimulating outdoor classrooms for your students, with a little help from Outdoor Science . Au

Rich, Steve

2010-06-03

291

Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

292

Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

293

OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

294

Respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Outdoor air pollution adversely affects human health and the quality of the environment. However, epidemiologic studies of these effects are difficult to control because of confounding variables such as age and cigarette smoking and the difficulty in estimating doses of pollutants. Drs Griffith and Levin discuss the relationship between major types of pollutants and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory disease.35 references.

Griffith, D.E.; Levin, J.L. (Univ. of Texas Health Center, Tyler (USA))

1989-10-01

295

Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

Collins, Di

296

Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

Aikman, John H.; And Others

297

Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Officially founded in 1972 (but existing in another form before that), the Saskatchewan Outdoor and Environmental Education Association (SOEEA) is steadily approaching its 40th birthday and still going strong. A year ago (2006), however, this was not the case. At that time both the past-president and administrative assistant (a married couple)…

White, Peta

2007-01-01

298

A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 700 areas in Ohio, useful as sites for environmental and outdoor studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include national forests; state parks; forest and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; metropolitan, country, and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties; conservancy district lands and…

Melvin, Ruth W.

299

Recreation and Outdoor Life Directory. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 4,800 recreational organizations, agencies, associations, publications, institutions, governmental efforts, and other programs, services, and facilities are included in this directory on recreation and outdoor life. The basic slant is not on sports and games, but rather upon opportunities and features of the American scene dealing with…

Wasserman, Paul, Ed.; Wasserman, Steven R., Ed.

300

Depth estimation from a monocular outdoor image  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm to estimate 3D depth from a single monocular outdoor image based on the multi- resolution analysis of the various cues including edge, hue, saturation, vertical depth prior, and dark channel prior. Our experimental results show a huge amount of computational savings over literature work while keeping our depth map close to the ground truth.

Tien-Ying Kuo; Yi-Chung Lo; Yun-Yang Lai

2011-01-01

301

Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

302

Equivalent outdoor temperature for district heating systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the influence of various climatic variables on the mass flow in district heating systems. The aim is to establish an equation of what is called the equivalent outdoor temperature. Two possible ways of doing this are considered. In both cases, dynamic models are needed of the mass flow with climatic variables as external inputs. The resulting equation for the equivalent outdoor temperature, which may be nonlinear, shows the equivalent value of each climatic variable in degrees Celsius. Thus, the equivalent temperature can be considered a variable that contains the effect of various weather factors on the mass flow. Measurements from the daily operation of a heating company in Iceland are used in a case study. It is also shown how the uncertainty in the parameters of the equivalent temperature equation can be estimated. The results indicate that, based on the present data, a linear relation between the outdoor temperature, the wind speed, and the number of sunshine hours is adequate for describing the equivalent outdoor temperature.

Jonsson, G.R.; Jonsson, V.K. [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-08-01

303

Beyond Networking: Connecting University Outdoor Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, the authors started a discussion about St. Cloud State University Outdoor Endeavors working together to run a trip in the Everglades National Park. The following summer they began the planning process through phone conversations, email and division of tasks. Despite the physical distance and separate university systems, each with their…

Bartha, Ivan; Morgan, Brett

2008-01-01

304

Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

305

9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or warm water dwelling species of pinnipeds or cetaceans shall be housed...

2011-01-01

306

9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or warm water dwelling species of pinnipeds or cetaceans shall be housed...

2010-01-01

307

9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or warm water dwelling species of pinnipeds or cetaceans shall be housed...

2014-01-01

308

9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or warm water dwelling species of pinnipeds or cetaceans shall be housed...

2012-01-01

309

9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for entry and exit of the animals. (2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice. (3) No sirenian or warm water dwelling species of pinnipeds or cetaceans shall be housed...

2013-01-01

310

Outdoor and Environmental Education Manual, Grades K-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to help elementary teachers see how the out-of-doors can be utilized in everyday teaching, this manual lists possible outdoor activities that can be included in the school curriculum. Introductory information defines objectives of outdoor education, suggestions for evaluation of outdoor education experiences, and techniques for…

Roller, Elizabeth

311

Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

2011-01-01

312

Physical Education & Outdoor Education: complementary but discrete disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical Education. This in turn has mandated that OE teachers

Peter Martin; John McCullagh

2011-01-01

313

The Content of a College-Level Outdoor Leadership Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study used the Delphi technique to determine the ideal content of a college-level outdoor leadership course for land-based outdoor pursuits in the Pacific Northwest. Topics were generated and value-rated by 61 Pacific Northwest outdoor leaders using a Likert-type scale in three separate questionnaires. Thirty-five topics were…

Green, Paul

314

Differentiating outdoor recreation: evidence drawn from national surveys in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor recreation participation can be seen to fall into four identifiably different groups. Countryside outdoor recreation has been in decline for at least 25 years because of changing lifestyles and cultures, and targeted policy – which focuses heavily on the supply side – appears to have had little influence over consumption levels. Localised outdoor recreation is on the increase, accommodating

Nigel Curry; Katrina Brown

2010-01-01

315

Formal Models of Analogical Proportions Nicolas Stroppa  

E-print Network

such analogical relationships is often recognized to lie at the core of human cognition (Indurkhya, 1992; Gentner of proportions have been extensively studied in Artificial Intelligence, mostly in the context of Analogical exploitation, in a symbolic machine learning apparatus, of formal proportionality relationships that exist

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

11 Years of Geoscience Outreach through the Windows to the Universe Project: Lessons Learned for On-Line Education in Formal and Informal Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Windows to the Universe project was initiated in February 1995 with support from NASA to bring the geosciences and integrated interdisciplinary content to the public through a web site (http://www.windows.ucar.edu) designed to be engaging and appealing to the general public in informal settings. Since that time, the project has continued to develop content and associated educational resources, including interactives and games, and standards-based classroom activities and demonstrations. Most resources on the website are provided at three levels of sophistication ' beginner, intermediate, and advanced' approximating upper elementary, middle, and high school students. In 1996, we initiated an annual professional development program that includes training opportunities on these materials through workshops offered at local, state, national, and international meetings; we now regularly reach over 800 teachers per year through our professional development efforts. Most recently, in 2004 we initiated an effort to translate the entire website into Spanish and keep the translation up to date as content is added and updated. The website is now composed of over 7000 pages, with a comparable number of images, animations, and interactives. The website now hosts over 9.6 million visits per year (corresponding to nearly 80 million page views) from around the world, including over 2.2 million on the Spanish version of the website; ~35,000 visits per day are hosted on our servers during a typical day in the academic year. User surveys, comments from users, and interactions with educators document that we website is extremely popular with their students, that it successfully reaches students across the age groups indicated above, that it is used by educators to provide background content information for themselves as well as their students, in addition to using our educational activities (our 'Teacher Resources' section of the website is hosts ~3500 visits per day during the academic year). Content on the website is developed by a team of scientist/educators (all with degrees in the Earth or space sciences), and is reviewed for accuracy within the team. If needed because the topic of a page falls outside the expertise of the development team, additional review is requested from scientific colleagues. Content development is guided by the needs of sponsors as well as requests from our users. Our experience overall demonstrates that websites designed to be engaging and interactive are effective, not only for informal education, but also for formal education, and that careful consideration for design and dissemination encourages this crossover use.

Johnson, R.; Bergman, J.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Lagrave, M.; Mastie, D.; Metcalfe, T.; Russell, R.

2005-12-01

317

Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants  

E-print Network

for regular turfgrass and buffalo grass (developed by UC Davis as a water efficient alternative to turfgrassOutdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use, the front lawn is one of the greatest consumers of outdoor water use. Because of population growth, water

Pasternack, Gregory B.

318

The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

Duvekot, Ruud

2009-01-01

319

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 2 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe What for Forensic Science Lecture 2 Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe What is logic anyway? The Wason task Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics Assessment and grade (1). #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Lecture 2 Prof

Löwe, Benedikt

320

Software Formal Inspections Guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

1993-01-01

321

Reasoning and Formal Modelling  

E-print Network

). Aristotle #12;Reasoning and Formal Modelling for Forensic Science Prof. Dr. Benedikt L¨owe A quick overview). Aristotle Logica vetus. Aristotle, Categories. Aristotle, De Interpretatione. Porphyry, Isagoge. Liber sex" perspective Course formalities Origins of Logic (1). Aristotle Logica vetus. Aristotle, Categories. Aristotle

Löwe, Benedikt

322

Formality in Rhetorical Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formality in rhetorical delivery can be defined as a complex variable that represents the speaker's efforts to invoke sociocultural rules of audience control through the nonverbal components of the delivery. This document describes some of the aspects of formality, outlines its significance in rhetorical contexts, and evaluates the concept in…

Skopec, Eric Wm.

323

Formal specification: a roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal specifications have been a focus of software engi- neering research for many years and have been applied in a wide variety of settings. Their industrial use is still limited but has been steadily growing. After recalling the essence, role, usage, and pitfalls of formal specification, the paper reviews the main specification paradigms to date and dis- cuss their evaluation

Axel van Lamsweerde

2000-01-01

324

Formal Concept Analysis based on Artificial Intelligence and an Ontology Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) system for Learning Object Repositories (LORs) in order to help extracting concepts of learning objects. In our approach, a LOR is a system that stores learning objects on the Web and\\/or their metadata and a mediator is a system that collects metadata of learning objects and classifies learning objects by concepts and

S. NIWATTANAKUL; M. EBOUEYA

325

Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

Hug, J. William

1998-09-01

326

Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.  

PubMed

Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

Huang, Yuh-Chin T

2014-10-01

327

Medical services for outdoor rock music festivals.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the medical services provided at an outdoor rock music festival near Toronto and reviews similar services at other outdoor concerts as reported in the literature. Between 0.5% and 1.5% of concertgoers were reported to have used medical services, proportions that may be useful in planning for future festivals. Most of the medical problems encountered were minor, although life-threatening problems occasionally occurred. Alcohol and drug abuse were common but led to major medical problems in only small proportions of patients. Guidelines for planning are suggested that include recommendations about facilities, supplies and equipment, transportation and communications, staffing and procedures. The need for liaison with the concert promoters, the police, ambulance officials and local hospital personnel is noted, and the use of the nonmedical ancillary staff is encouraged. PMID:7074491

Chapman, K. R.; Carmichael, F. J.; Goode, J. E.

1982-01-01

328

Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This presentation documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

Muller, M.

2011-04-01

329

Surface reconstruction from outdoor image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study aimed at inferring the surface structure of outdoor scenes from video data acquired by a vehicle-mounted TV camera. The method is based on a decomposition of each frame of the video sequence into a dense set of feature points. Through the application of a Structure-from-Motion algorithm, the 3D locations of the time-consistent

Debra Charnley; Rod Blissett

1989-01-01

330

Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

2011-07-01

331

Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

Wood, Diane, Comp.

332

Headline Based Text Extraction from Outdoor Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of this article is to design an effective scheme for extraction of Bangla\\/Devnagari text from outdoor images. We\\u000a first segment a color image using fuzzy c-means algorithm. In Bangla\\/Devnagari script, text may be attached\\/unattached to\\u000a the headlines. Hence, after segmentation, headlines are detected from each connected components using morphology. Now, the\\u000a components attached or close to the detected

Ranjit Ghoshal; Anandarup Roy; Tapan Kumar Bhowmik; Swapan K. Parui

333

On Combining SemiFormal and Formal Object Specification Techniques  

E-print Network

On Combining Semi­Formal and Formal Object Specification Techniques Martin Gogolla, Mark Richters how constructs of the formal specification language TROLL light are related to the graphical elements of and the relationships between semi­formal and formal specifications, let us start with a very simple software process

Gogolla, Martin - Fachbereich 3

334

Research on outdoor testing of solar modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of globe solar photovoltaic industry, performance testing and evaluation of solar modules have been largely concerned, while the primary basis of evaluations is the electrical performance of modules, namely the voltage - current characteristic curve. Nearly module's conversion efficiency which defined as its maximum electrical power (Pmax) divided by the total incident photon power (Pin) became more and more valued, because higher efficiency means lower cost. Generally, electrical performance parameters of the modules need to test under standard test conditions (STC), but STC can only be simulated in laboratory-controlled environment while solar modules actually work under natural sunlight outdoors, To solve this problem we propose researches on outdoor testing of solar modules to investigate the electrical performance parameters of solar modules in a variety of environmental conditions. Also, according to the results, we will analysis the impact of various environmental factors on the performance of solar modules, including radiation spectrum, Incident angle, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. In addition, we can analyze the difference between the performance parameters result of outdoor and indoor test and its main reason.

Liu, Dingpu; Xiong, Limin; Meng, Haifeng; He, Yingwei; Zhang, Jieyu

2012-10-01

335

Learning for Life Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

Varmecky, Jane Hyde

2012-01-01

336

Supporting Professional Learning in a Massive Open Online Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional learning, combining formal and on the job learning, is important for the development and maintenance of expertise in the modern workplace. To integrate formal and informal learning, professionals have to have good self-regulatory ability. Formal learning opportunities are opening up through massive open online courses (MOOCs),…

Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison

2014-01-01

337

On Formalism in Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critique of a natural-language specification, followed by presentation of a mathematical alternative, demonstrates the weakness of natural language and the strength of formalism in requirements specifications.

Bertrand Meyer

1985-01-01

338

Developing an App-Titude for Learning in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a quarter of British households now own at least one tablet device, an increase of 63% in the 12 months from February 2013 (Internet Advertising Bureau UK, 2014). This trend has expanded into the classroom, with more schools either providing their pupils with an individual tablet device or encouraging parents to purchase them outright or via…

Baker, Emily

2014-01-01

339

Hilltop Geography for Young Children: Creating an Outdoor Learning Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a primary-level field geography program in which students explore the geography and archaeology of their rural community. Presents a set of mapping activities to help students understand cardinal directions and use locational skills. Concludes that the program has successfully involved students, parents, and community members in…

Gutierrez, Esta Diamond; Sanchez, Yvette

1993-01-01

340

Peer Learning in Higher Education: Learning from & with Each Other.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection explore how educators can formalize the use of peer learning to encourage more effective learning in higher education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: Making the Move to Peer Learning" (David Boud); (2) "Designing Peer Learning" (Jane Sampson and Ruth Cohen); (3) "Strategies for Peer Learning: Some Examples"…

Boud, David, Ed.; Cohen, Ruth, Ed.; Sampson, Jane, Ed.

341

Formal and Integrated Strategies for Competence Development in SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the relationships among the workplace as a learning environment, strategies for competence development used by SMEs and learning outcomes. Specifically, there is a focus on a distinction between formal and integrated strategies for competence development, the conditions under which…

Kock, Henrik; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

2011-01-01

342

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

2011-07-01

343

Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse isolation, outdoor data recorded on cloud days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

Miller, D. R.

1976-01-01

344

Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

345

Understanding the use of video games in non-formal education in Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video games, as with any other cultural resource, are basic tools in social and cultural learning, tools for socialising that provide players with instrumental and social competences and skills. We have just completed a pilot project entitled ELLAD, (Esplai de Lleure i Aprenentatge Digital - Digital Learning and non-formal education classroom), looking at the use of video games in non-formal

Daniel Aranda; Jordi Sánchez-navarro

2008-01-01

346

Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

2007-01-01

347

Interpreting network formalisms  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper, Reiter and Criscuolo (1980) remark that (semantic) networks are notational variants of logical formulae is by now a truism in artificial intelligence circles. Shamelessly exploiting the foregoing quote as a pretext, the author attempts to sketch adequate semantic accounts for at least two (kinds of) semantic network formalisms: one, based on the notion of inheritance, one, not. A crucial condition of adequacy to be satisfied is fidelity to some of the intuitions of the creators of the formalisms. 34 references.

Israel, D.J.

1983-01-01

348

Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

1993-01-01

349

Learning Mathematics in the Mobile Phone Environment: Students' Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers point at the importance of emotions and its study in mathematics education. This research examines middle school students' emotions during learning mathematics outdoors using the mobile phone. The constant comparison method was used to analyze 30 middle school students' emotions while carrying out 15 outdoor activities using the mobile…

Daher, Wajeeh

2011-01-01

350

A User-Centric Adaptive Learning System for E-Learning 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The success of Web 2.0 inspires e-learning to evolve into e-learning 2.0, which exploits collective intelligence to achieve user-centric learning. However, searching for suitable learning paths and content for achieving a learning goal is time consuming and troublesome on e-learning 2.0 platforms. Therefore, introducing formal learning in these…

Huang, Shiu-Li; Shiu, Jung-Hung

2012-01-01

351

Safety Management at the National Outdoor Leadership School, July 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) is an internationally recognized outdoor school with five branch schools located in Wyoming, Alaska, Kenya, Mexico, and Washington. The philosophy of NOLS is to develop judgment and leadership skills in its students. Three priorities guide this school: (1) safety and care of the individual; (2) safety…

National Outdoor Leadership School, Lander, WY.

352

Outdoor Education: Research Topic or Universal Value? Part Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development of school-based outdoor and adventure education in Scotland, 1970s-90s, focusing on changes in terminology, shifting objectives and increased practitioner training in response to safety concerns, the growth of residential outdoor education centers, and financial and curricular issues related to national changes. Points out…

Nicol, Robbie

2002-01-01

353

Conservation Plan, Seaman Outdoor Laboratory for Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide focuses on the conservation plan for an outdoor laboratory. Although the plan focuses specifically on Seaman Outdoor Education Laboratory, the concepts could be applied to any natural area including parks, farms, and school grounds. Along with an introduction and justification, the guide includes the conservation plan that serves as the…

Topeka Unified School District 345, KS.

354

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

355

Viewing the Landscape of Outdoor Education in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the variety of outdoor education programs and initiatives existing in Saskatchewan. Describes the Saskatchewan Outdoor Environmental Education Association conference, residential and day programs for elementary school students in Regina and Saskatoon, preservice teacher education, wilderness experiences for teachers,…

Forsberg, Nick

1997-01-01

356

Outdoor exploration and SLAM using a compressed filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the use of automatic explo- ration for autonomous mapping of outdoor scenes. We describe a real-time SLAM implementation along with an autonomous explo- ration algorithm. We have implemented SLAM with a compressed extended Kalman filter (CEKF) on an outdoor robot. Our implemen- tation uses walls of buildings as features. The state predictions are made by

John Folkesson; Henrik I. Christensen

2003-01-01

357

Vision-based handling tasks for an autonomous outdoor forklift  

E-print Network

Vision-based handling tasks for an autonomous outdoor forklift C´edric Pradalier CSIRO ICT Centre, Autonomous Systems Laboratory, Brisbane, Australia Summary. In the aluminium industry, Hot Metal Carriers of robust outdoor crucible handling capacities, relying on the autonomous tracking of especially designed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Native American Hunting Traditions as a Basis for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Native American hunting practices and beliefs applicable to an outdoor education curriculum, focusing on respect and reverence for the earth, animals, and the natural world. Suggests that Native hunting rationales could form a philosophical foundation for environmental education and outdoor education programs. (LP)

Quinn, William J.

1993-01-01

359

Out, out, and Away! Collection Development: Outdoor Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is fast approaching, and it will soon be time to climb the mountains to get their good tidings, as naturalist John Muir put it. In other words, librarians must now prepare for the influx of patrons making weekend recreational and summer vacation plans by stocking up on books and other resources on the great outdoors. Outdoor recreational…

Helling, John

2009-01-01

360

Growth of Crop and Weeds in Growth Chambers and Outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early growth of spring barley (Hordeum ulgare L.), Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera (DC.) Metzger, Stellaria media (L.) Vill. and Viola arvensis Murray in growth chambers and in shading cages outdoors at different irradiance levels was compared. Leaf area and shoot dry weight were lower outdoors than in growth chambers at similar irradiance and temperature. A simulation model with

Kirsten Semb Tørresen; Lambertus A. P. Lotz

2000-01-01

361

The Development of the Outdoor Leadership Training Simulator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A leadership simulation model, patterned after the avalanche simulator used by the United States Forest Service and applicable within a variety of field situations (outdoor camps, church groups, commercial enterprises) can augment the development and observation of outdoor leaders. The model includes both a broad base of practitioner inputs and an…

Ewert, Alan; Hollenhorst, Steven

362

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

363

An IBM Compatible Participant Data Base System for Outdoor Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of maintaining mailing lists and other informational files on outdoor program participants is, plainly and simply, a pain in the neck. Mailing list maintenance is particularly difficult for programs that deal with university students, due to their frequent moves. This paper describes a new software program, the Outdoor Program Data…

Watters, Ron

364

What proportion of household dust is derived from outdoor soil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report estimated the amount of outdoor soil in indoor dust in the Calabrese et al. (1989) children soil ingestion study via the use of statistical modelling. The estimate used data on outdoor soil and indoor dust in the homes of 60 children with eight tracer elements (Al, Ba, Mn, Si, Ti, V, Y, and Zr). The model estimated that

Edward J. Calabrese; Edward J. Stanek

1992-01-01

365

Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

2011-01-01

366

Exploring Our World: Outdoor Classes for Parents and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the outdoor adult education classes conducted by a community college in California designed for parents and their children ages 5 through 8 years. Classes include parenting topics, music, movement, crafts, stories, hiking, and nature awareness, focusing on sensual outdoor experiences for children. Describes what children gain from…

Desrochers, Joyce

2001-01-01

367

Indoor and outdoor measurements of performance of photovoltaic arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the techniques and methodology for making outdoor I-V measurements of solar cells is given. Temperature and irradiance measurement, experimental arrangement, data acquisition system and I-V data transformations are discussed. Data are presented comparing outdoor measurements to indoor measurements using a pulsed solar simulator.

Curtis, H. B.

1976-01-01

368

Outdoor Augmented Reality: State of the Art and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of an outdoor augmented reality system is to allow the human operator to move freely without restraint in its environment, to vie w and interact in real time with geo-referenced data via mobile wireless devices. This requires proposing new techniques for 3D localization, visualization and 3D interaction, adapted to working conditions in outdoor environment (brightness variation, features of

CNRS FRE

369

Correlation of Indoor-Outdoor Air Quality in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor and outdoor air quality was investigated at 28 public locations with mostly mechanical ventilation systems. The locations were selected from various geographic categories representing different environments for indoor\\/outdoor air pollutant characterisation. The selected indoor locations included restaurants, recreation places, sport centres, schools, commercial kitchens, hotels, swimming pools and movie theatres. The concentrations of PM, CO, NO2 and selected priority

N. El-Hougeiri; M. El Fadel

2004-01-01

370

Outdoor Recreation on Government Lands in Texas, An Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study represents an inventory of major government, non-urban outdoor recreation programs and facilities in Texas, as well as an indication of visitor use reported by individual agencies. The purpose of the analysis is to illustrate the importance of outdoor recreation in Texas and the contribution of various agencies, rather than to determine…

Reed, David J.; Reid, Leslie M.

371

Building a Backcountry Yurt: Ecological Design Intelligence within Outdoor Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student volunteers at Utah State University's outdoor program designed, built, and carried a yurt 4 miles into the backcountry. A yurt is a traditional Mongolian structure, circular, with a lattice wall covered by material. Rafters slope upward to a top ring, on which sits a skylight. The outdoor program wanted to expand its offerings, and to do…

Kobe, Kevin; Goltra, Norman

372

Collaborative Creation of Knowledge Artifacts in an Outdoor Environment for Young Children  

E-print Network

Collaborative Creation of Knowledge Artifacts in an Outdoor Environment for Young Children Gene children's collaborative artifact creation in outdoor environments. Collaboration while creating outdoors are discussed. An approach is outlined that uses mobile computers for artifact creation

Golbeck, Jennifer

373

24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section... Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor...designed to energize heating and/or air conditioning equipment located outside the...

2010-04-01

374

Correlates of Formal Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…

Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven

375

On visual formalisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higraph, a general kind of diagramming object, forms a visual formalism of topological nature. Higraphs are suited for a wide array of applications to databases, knowledge representation, and, most notably, the behavioral specification of complex concurrent systems using the higraph-based language of statecharts.

David Harel

1988-01-01

376

Outdoor Science Experiment Classes; Raising the Next Generation for Researchers and Teachers of Natural Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of the outdoor science experiment classes are; for a few tens of young students and pupils as trainees to develop large-scale natural science experiments and to demonstrate them for the approximately 3,000 visitors in the venue of the EXPO park at Osaka. This method, though hardly realisable in the framework of school education, is proposed with recent successful examples, as a new means of active learning for the motivated next generation who wishes to enter the field of natural science as researchers and/or teachers.

Shida, Masakazu; Danjo, Shinji; Takahashi, Noriaki

377

Sensor selection for outdoor air quality monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas chemical monitoring for next-generation robotics applications such as fire fighting, explosive gas detection, ubiquitous urban monitoring, and mine safety require high performance, reliable sensors. In this work, we discuss the performance requirements of fixed-location, mobile vehicle, and personal sensor nodes for outdoor air quality sensing. We characterize and compare the performance of a miniature commercial electrochemical and a metal oxide gas sensor and discuss their suitability for environmental monitoring applications. Metal oxide sensors are highly cross-sensitive to factors that affect chemical adsorption (e.g., air speed, pressure) and require careful enclosure design or compensation methods. In contrast, electrochemical sensors are less susceptible to environmental variations, have very low power consumption, and are well matched for mobile air quality monitoring.

Dorsey, K. L.; Herr, John R.; Pisano, A. P.

2014-06-01

378

An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Outdoor "Places" and Intentions for Teaching in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores pre-service teachers' past interactions with "place" in outdoor settings and how these experiences contribute to their current perceptions of the importance of taking their own students into the outdoors. Specifically, the researchers were interested in investigating if current pre-service teachers are part of…

Blatt, Erica; Patrick, Patricia

2014-01-01

379

Syracuse University Outdoor Education in collaboration with Northern Arizona University Outdoors presents: San Juan River/Hiking Trip  

E-print Network

Syracuse University Outdoor Education in collaboration with Northern Arizona University Outdoors presents: San Juan River/Hiking Trip Trip Dates: May 27th ­ June 2nd This River Adventure begins at Sand Island, UT and traverses 27 miles of the famous San Juan River. During this adventure you'll run playful

Mather, Patrick T.

380

Outdoor propagation analysis of ultrawideband signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra wide band (UWB) signal is defined as any radiation in which the 3-dB bandwidth is greater than 25% of the center frequency. UWB signals are characterized by extreme low powers and large bandwidths, which can be used for data, voice and video communication. Since UWB waveforms have very short time duration, they are relatively immune to multi-path cancellation effects. In this paper we test the performance of a simulation to model the propagation of an UWB signal in outdoor forested environment. The simulation uses a combination of Finite Difference Time Domain and ray tracing methods to simulate the UWB wave propagation. The model takes into consideration the dielectric constants of the materials of the trees and measures the signal strength for vertical and horizontal polarizations of the UWB antennas placed at various heights and distances from each other. The results of the simulation are compared to measurements obtained from tests conducted at a wooded area in Seneca Creek State Park, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was observed that upto 150 ft distance between the transmitter and receiver, the horizontally polarized antenna system gave better signal-to-noise ratio, but at greater distances the vertically polarized antenna system gave a better signal-to-noise ration performance. Three dimensional plots of the signal strengths and the signal-to-noise ratio for various transmitter and receiver distances are plotted for the system. These are compared with experimental results and the simulation closely matched the experimental data. The results of the simulation and measurements will be used for further developing an UWB location and tracking system for outdoor environments.

Schiavone, Guy A.; Wahid, Parveen; Palaniappan, Ravi; Tracy, Judd; Van Doorn, Eric; Lonske, Benjamin

2003-08-01

381

Mathai-Quillen Formalism  

E-print Network

We begin with the construction of Mathai-Quillen's Thom form. We also study the case with group actions, with a review of equivariant cohomology and then Mathai-Quillen's construction in this setting. Next, we show that much of the above can be formulated as a "field theory" on a superspace of one fermionic dimension. Finally, we present the interpretation of topological field theories using the Mathai-Quillen formalism.

Siye Wu

2005-04-30

382

Indoor and outdoor concentrations of inorganic acidic aerosols and gases  

SciTech Connect

Annular denuder-filter pack sampling systems were used to make indoor and outdoor measurements of aerosol strong H{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and the gaseous pollutants SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, HONO and NH{sub 3} during summer and winter periods in Boston, Massachusetts. Outdoor levels of SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} exceeded their indoor concentrations during both seasons. Winter indoor/outdoor ratios were lower than during the summer, probably due to lower air exchange rates during the winter period. During both monitoring periods, indoor/outdoor ratios of aerosol strong H{sub +} were 40-50% of the indoor/outdoor SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratio. Since aerosol strong acidity is typically associated with SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, this finding is indicative of neutralization of the acidic aerosol by the higher indoor NH{sub 3} levels. Geometric mean indoor/outdoor NH{sub 3} ratios of 3.5 and 23 respectively were measured for the summer and winter sampling periods. For HONO, NH{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, indoor concentrations were significantly higher than ambient levels. Indoor levels of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were slightly less than outdoor concentrations.

Brauer, M.; Koutrakis, P.; Keeler, G.J.; Spengler, J.D. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA))

1991-02-01

383

Indoor and Outdoor Mobility following Total Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor mobility capacity in older adults with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and, secondarily, to determine walking intensity in the same population and to compare all outcomes to a control group of older adults without knee pathology. Method: In this cross-sectional study, participants (TKA=16, mean 22.9 (SD 9.7) mo post TKA; control=22) completed indoor walking tests and a 580 m outdoor course that included varying terrain (e.g., curbs, grass, sidewalk) and frequent changes in direction. Walking capacity was assessed using stopwatches, global positioning system watches and accelerometers. Results: Outdoor walking time was moderately correlated (p<0.05) with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (r=0.65), stair-climb test (SCT) (r=0.67 ascending, r=0.79 descending), 10 m walk test (10 mWT) (r=0.73), and 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) (r=?0.75). Based on activity counts, walking intensity levels for participants in both groups were moderate (outdoor walk and 6 MWT). There was no significant difference in walking capacity between groups (TUG, SCT, 10 mWT, 6 MWT, outdoor walk). Conclusions: Common clinical walking tests are moderately correlated with outdoor mobility. Mobility capacity of individuals post TKA was similar to controls in both indoor and outdoor environments, and participants in both groups achieved moderate physical activity levels with walking. PMID:24403699

Storey, Ava S.T.; Myrah, Ainslie M.; Bauck, Robyn A.; Brinkman, Danielle M.; Friess, Shawn N.

2013-01-01

384

Physiological and psychological responses to outdoor vs. laboratory cycling.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological and psychological responses to laboratory vs. outdoor cycling. Twelve recreationally trained male cyclists participated in an initial descriptive testing session and 2 experimental trials consisting of 1 laboratory and 1 outdoor session, in a randomized order. Participants were given a standardized statement instructing them to give the same perceived effort for both the laboratory and outdoor 40-km trials. Variables measured include power output, heart rate (HR), core temperature, skin temperature, body weight, urine specific gravity (USG), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), attentional focus, and environmental conditions. Wind speed was higher in the outdoor trial than in the laboratory trial (2.5 ± 0.6 vs. 0.0 ± 0.0 m·s-1, p = 0.02) whereas all other environmental conditions were similar. Power output (208.1 ± 10.2 vs. 163.4 ± 11.8 W, respectively, p < 0.001) and HR (152 ± 4 and 143 ± 6 b·min-1, respectively, p = 0.04) were higher in the outdoor trial than in the laboratory trial. Core temperature was similar, whereas skin temperature was cooler during the outdoor trial than during the laboratory trial (31.4 ± 0.3 vs. 33.0 ± 0.2° C, respectively, p < 0.001), thus creating a larger thermal gradient between the core and skin outdoors. No significant differences in body weight, USG, RPE, or attentional focus were observed between trials. These data indicate that outdoor cycling allows cyclists to exercise at a higher intensity than in laboratory cycling, despite similar environmental conditions and perceived exertion. In light of this, cyclists may want to ride at a higher perceived exertion in indoor settings to acquire the same benefit as they would from an outdoor ride. PMID:24476776

Mieras, Molly E; Heesch, Matthew W S; Slivka, Dustin R

2014-08-01

385

Formalizing the concept of sound.  

SciTech Connect

The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-08-03

386

Outdoor navigation of a mobile robot with multiple sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor navigation poses a challenge since uneven road surface, sunshine, clutter background will cause problems for odometry, laser, and vision sensors. To improve position accuracy, single strip retroreflective beacons have been used in the localization process. But to match observed beacons during the motion of the robot is a problem since all beacons are identical. Also strong reflective objects in outdoors may cause false reading.In this paper, we describe how we use the extended Kalman filter algorithm to integrate data scanned from the laser scanner rotating at 2Hz and readings from other sensors. The results obtained from outdoor navigation are presented.

Hu, Huosheng; Gu, Dongbing; Brady, J. Michael

1998-01-01

387

Indoor and outdoor characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds in city centre and suburban elementary schools of Aveiro, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants inside school buildings may affect children's health and influence learning performance and attendance. This study investigated pollutant concentrations inside and outside school buildings at different locations (city centre and suburban) in Aveiro, Portugal, between April and June 2010. The aim was to evaluate simultaneously comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and CO) and indoor and outdoor concentrations of VOCs, NO2, PM10 and bioaerosols. PM10 samples were analysed and characterised, for the first time, for the water soluble inorganic ions (WSII), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbonates, and detailed organic speciation. The CO2 and bioaerosol levels were higher than the acceptable maximum values to the occupants' comfort. Concentrations of the traffic tracer NO2 were higher outdoors. The daily indoor PM10 levels were always higher than those outdoors, except on weekends, suggesting that the physical activity of pupils and class works highly contributed to the emission and resuspension of particles. Almost all identified VOCs showed I/O ratios higher than one, which denotes an important contribution from indoor sources at both schools. The suburban school was more exposed to industrial emissions than the institution located in the city centre. Especially at the city centre, infiltration of outdoor particulates leads to contamination of school indoor environment with vehicle emissions and biomass burning smoke likely coming from biofuel use in nearby restaurants and bakeries.

Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Silva, J. R.; Vieira, S. L. A.; Caseiro, A.; Pio, C. A.

2012-08-01

388

Teachers' perceptions of value and effects of outdoor education during an age of accountability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of teachers' perceptions of the value and effects of a residential Outdoor Education experience during an age of accountability, which was defined as the era which commenced with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Focus group interviews were conducted with four groups of teachers who participated in a residential Outdoor Education experience with their students during the 2004-2005 school year. The major findings of this study were: (1) Teachers perceive value in the OE experience because of the multi-faceted effects upon their students and classes; (2) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' learning through providing hands-on and authentic experiences, development of thinking skills, and enhancing the school's curriculum; (3) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' social and emotional development as evidenced by an increase in self esteem, independence, maturity, personal responsibility, and an expanded worldview; (4) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' sense of community as evidenced by an increase in team building and cohesiveness, more productive staff-student relationships, the emergence of different "star" students, and greater inclusion of special needs students; (5) Teachers perceived students' appreciation of the environment increased; and (6) Teachers did not perceive any imminent changes to their school's Outdoor Education programming due to the accountability provisions of No Child Left behind (2001). This study's findings suggested implications for school administrators, which were that they should: articulate desired effects to stakeholders; communicate connections to learning standards; and expand the OE experience to foster greater environmental issue focus.

Schmitt, Thomas R.

389

Workplace Learning and Generation X.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the learning preferences of 197 Generation X workers found that they value incidental and action learning. They recognized the need for formal training, but suggested improvements. They preferred learning by doing, visual stimuli, and self-directed learning. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

Bova, Breda; Kroth, Michael

2001-01-01

390

Formal Definition of Measures for BPMN Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business process models are currently attaining more relevance, and more attention is therefore being paid to their quality. This situation led us to define a set of measures for the understandability of BPMN models, which is shown in a previous work. We focus on understandability since a model must be well understood before any changes are made to it. These measures were originally informally defined in natural language. As is well known, natural language is ambiguous and may lead to misunderstandings and a misinterpretation of the concepts captured by a measure and the way in which the measure value is obtained. This has motivated us to provide the formal definition of the proposed measures using OCL (Object Constraint Language) upon the BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) metamodel presented in this paper. The main advantages and lessons learned (which were obtained both from the current work and from previous works carried out in relation to the formal definition of other measures) are also summarized.

Reynoso, Luis; Rolón, Elvira; Genero, Marcela; García, Félix; Ruiz, Francisco; Piattini, Mario

391

The Influence of Music Learning Cultures on the Construction of Teaching-Learning Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research in music education tends to put the emphasis on learning processes outside formal academic contexts, both to rethink and to renew academic educational formats. Our aim is to observe and describe three music learning cultures simultaneously, including formal, non-formal and informal settings: Classical, Jazz and Flamenco,…

Casas-Mas, Amalia; Pozo, Juan Ignacio; Montero, Ignacio

2014-01-01

392

Representation in incremental learning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.

1993-01-01

393

Adaptive information design for outdoor augmented reality.  

PubMed

Augmented Reality focuses on the enrichment of the user's natural field of view by consistent integration of text, symbols and interactive three-dimensional objects in real time. Placing virtual objects directly into the user's view in a natural context empowers highly dynamic applications. On the other hand, this necessitates deliberate choice of information design and density, in particular for deployment in hazardous environments like military combat scenarios. As the amount of information needed is not foreseeable and strongly depends on the individual mission, an appropriate system must offer adequate adaptation capabilities. The paper presents a prototypical, vehicle-mountable Augmented Reality vision system, designed for enhancing situation awareness in stressful urban warfare scenarios. Tracking, as one of the most crucial challenges for outdoor Augmented Reality, is accomplished by means of a Differential-GPS approach while the type of display to attach can be modified, ranging from ocular displays to standard LCD mini-screens. The overall concept also includes envisioning of own troops (blue forces), for which a multi-sensor tracking approach has been chosen. As a main feature, the system allows switching between different information categories, focusing on friendly, hostile, unidentified or neutral data. Results of an empirical study on the superiority of an in-view navigation cue approach conclude the paper. PMID:22317040

Neuhöfer, Jan A; Govaers, Felix; El Mokni, Hichem; Alexander, Thomas

2012-01-01

394

THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicity Abstract Mutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

395

Case for usability : designing Outdoor Augmented Reality games  

E-print Network

Creating a successful Outdoor Augmented Reality (OAR) game can be a complicated process. With every new feature added to the OAR toolset, games gain more levels of complexity, grow in size of content, and become increasingly ...

Wang, Tiffany (Tiffany N.)

2008-01-01

396

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.

2011-04-01

397

Spellbound : an activity-based outdoor mobile multiplayer game  

E-print Network

Traditional outdoor recreation is physically and emotionally rewarding from goal directed social activities and encourages a connection with the real world but can be logistically difficult. Online gaming allows people to ...

Sra, Misha

2013-01-01

398

Using Digital Imaging in Classroom and Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to use digital cameras and related basic equipment during indoor and outdoor activities. Uses digital imaging in general botany class to identify unknown fungus samples. Explains how to select a digital camera and other necessary equipment. (YDS)

Thomasson, Joseph R.

2002-01-01

399

Robotic Lander Completes Multiple Outdoor Flight - Duration: 2:14.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASAâ??s Robotic Lander Development Project in Huntsville, Ala., has successfully completed seven autonomous outdoor flight tests of a lander prototype, dubbed Mighty Eagle. On Oct. 14, Mighty Eagl...

400

An Integrative Review of the Literature on Women in the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the research on women in the outdoors, 1978-97. Among the major findings are the following: women were underrepresented and underpaid in executive and management positions related to outdoor programs; women tended to lead outdoor groups differently than men; outdoor recreation patterns differed in that women were more likely to…

Henderson, Karla A.; Roberts, Nina S.

401

Study of Relation between Indoor Radon in Multi-storey Building and Outdoor Factors  

SciTech Connect

A continuous radon monitoring in indoor and outdoor air was carried out for the period of one year. The relation between indoor radon and indoor-outdoor temperature difference, as well as between indoor radon and outdoor radon was investigated. The best correlation was obtained between indoor and outdoor radon concentrations.

Muellerova, Monika; Holy, Karol [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina F1, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

2010-01-05

402

Fall Programs @ Fox and Penn Park OUTDOOR BOOTCAMP  

E-print Network

CALORIES GAIN STAMINA BUILD CONFIDENCE REDUCE STRESS HAVE FUN!!! OUTDOOR YOGA Rise and Shine Yoga offers??? FALL 2013 8/26-12/20 Monday­Circuit 7:30am, 12:15pm, 5:30pm Tuesday­YOGA + BOOTCAMP YOGA - 7:30am (9 machines, bodyweight activities, and more. With regular attendance to Outdoor BootCamp, Rise and Shine Yoga

Sharp, Kim

403

Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a major threat to older people’s health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people’s experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. Methods We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Results Forty-four adults aged 65 – 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. Conclusions This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people. PMID:24245830

2013-01-01

404

Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we

Neil E. Klepeis; Wayne R. Ott; Paul Switzer; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Guangming Zeng; Amit Chakma; Beidou Xi; John Gillies; Hampden Kuhns; Johann Engelbrecht; Sebastian Uppapalli; Vicken Etyemezian; George Nikolich; Yinchang Feng; Yonghua Xue; Xiaohua Chen; Jianhui Wu; Tan Zhu; Zhipeng Bai; Shengtang Fu; Changju Gu; Richard Corsi; Matthew Walker; Howard Liljestrand; Heidi Hubbard; Dustin Poppendieck; Jawad Touma; Vlad Isakov; Alan Cimorelli; Roger Brode; Bret Anderson; John Offenberg; Michael Lewandowski; Edward Edney; Tadeusz Kleindienst; Mohammed Jaoui; Shin-An Chen; Jun-Nan Nian; Chien-Cheng Tsai; Hsisheng Teng; Birnur Buzcu-Guven; Steven Brown; Anna Frankel; Hilary Hafner; Paul Roberts; Elizabeth Vega; Hugo Ruiz; Gerardo Marti´nez-Villa; Gustavo Gonza´lez-A´; Elizabeth Reyes; Jose´ Garci´a

2007-01-01

405

OceanGLOBE: an Outdoor Research and Environmental Education Program for K-12 Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OceanGLOBE is an outdoor environmental research and education program for upper elementary, middle and high school students, supplemented by online instructional materials that are available without charge to any educator. OceanGLOBE was piloted in 1995 with support from a National Science Foundation Teacher Enhancement project, "Leadership in Marine Science" (award no.ESI-9454413 to UCLA). Continuing support by a second NSF Teacher Enhancement project (award no. ESI-9819424 to UCLA) and by COSEE-West (NSF awards OCE-215506 to UCLA and OCE-0215497 to USC) has enabled OceanGLOBE to expand to a growing number of schools and to provide an increasingly robust collection of marine science instructional materials on its website, http://www.msc.ucla.edu/oceanglobe/ OceanGLOBE provides a mechanism for students to conduct inquiry-based, hands-on marine science research, providing experiences that anchor the national and state science content standards learned in the classroom. Students regularly collect environmental and biological data from a beach site over an extended period of time. In the classroom they organize, graph and analyze their data, which can lead to a variety of student-created science products. Beach research is supported by instructional marine science materials on the OceanGLOBE website. These online materials also can be used in the classroom independent of the field component. Annotated PowerPoint slide shows explain research protocols and provide marine science content. Field guides and photographs of marine organisms (with emphasis on the Southern California Bight) and a growing collection of classroom investigations (applicable to any ocean location) support the science content presented in the beach research program and slide shows. In summary, OceanGLOBE is a comprehensive learning package grounded in hands-on, outdoor marine science research project in which students are the principal investigators. By doing scientific work repetitively over an extended time period students learn about how science is done as much as they learn science content.

Perry, R. B.; Hamner, W. M.

2006-12-01

406

Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality  

PubMed Central

Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

2014-01-01

407

Is Formal Lifelong Learning a Profitable Investment for All of Life? How Age, Education Level, and Flexibility of Provision Affect Rates of Return to Adult Education in Colombia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3800  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifelong learning is increasingly being recognized as a primary factor for knowledge diffusion and productivity growth. However, little economic evidence exists on the economic value of lifelong learning for the individual, especially in developing countries. This paper contributes to remedy this shortfall. It investigates one aspect of lifelong…

Sohnesen, Thomas Pave; Blom, Andreas

2005-01-01

408

Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.  

PubMed

Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend their interests into the environmental field and to focus on this important area. PMID:16140836

Myers, I; Maynard, R L

2005-09-01

409

Personal UV exposure for different outdoor sports.  

PubMed

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major environmental risk factor in the development of skin cancers and it occurs mainly during outdoor activities. The purpose of this study is to quantify the UV exposure suffered by amateur athletes (tennis players, hikers and runners) in their training schedules. The study on tennis player exposure took place at a tennis club in Valencia during the month of June 2011. With respect to the hiking group, the hikes studied took place in several mountainous areas of Spain and France from June to August 2011. Finally, the exposure suffered by ten runners while participating in a running circuit in the province of Valencia, from March to November 2011, was studied. The athletes were monitored using personal dosimeters (VioSpor), with the tennis players and runners wearing them on the wrist and the hikers on the shoulder. The median daily personal UV exposure for the hikers was 8.1 Standard Erythema Dose (SED) and for the tennis players 7.5 SED per day of training. The runners received a median of 14.6 SED while participating in the running circuit and about 2 SED per competition day. Median daily UV exposure of the hikers and tennis players exceeded 5 SED, which means that, in the case of non-sun-adapted skin type III and the non-use of sun protection, erythema may be induced in these subjects. However, the exposure suffered by the runners did not exceed the maximum personal exposure of 5 SED. Accordingly, it is necessary to encourage the use of high protection sunscreens and protective clothing and to avoid UV exposure in the hottest part of the day. PMID:24535504

Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos; Gurrea, Gonzalo

2014-04-01

410

Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,…

Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob

2011-01-01

411

How Have Concepts of Informal Learning Developed over Time?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the current interest in informal learning seems recent, performance improvement professionals have long had an interest in informal learning-the ways that people learn outside of formal structures. The earliest forms of learning for work were informal, including de facto and formal apprenticeship programs and the "school of…

Carliner, Saul

2013-01-01

412

Outdoor Adventures: Tracking Eastern Box Turtles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thematic and hands-on approach to learning ensures that students develop a deeper understanding and retain information longer. Bouillion and Gomez (2001) argue that real-world problems and school-community partnerships help engage students to connect with school science. When there is a disconnect between the activities of school science and…

Somers, Ann Berry; Matthews, Catherine E.; Bennett, Kristin R.; Seymour, Sarah; Rucker, John

2003-01-01

413

Next Evolution of the Seneca College Outdoor Recreation Program: One Year of High Level Professional Outdoor Training and Development for Post-Diploma/Post-Degree Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the steps in utilizing fast-tracking to phase out the overloaded two-year Outdoor Recreation Technician Co-op program at Seneca College (Ontario) and phase in a one-year graduate Outdoor Recreation Certificate program with a lower teacher-student ratio. A concept model relates generalist core skills to specializations and outdoor

Magee, Clare

1998-01-01

414

HPM: A Computational Formalism for Heuristic Procedure Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HPM (Heuristic Procedure Modification) system is a model of strategy learning and optimization, implemented as a processing environment within the PRISM production system package (4). This paper describes progress in getting HPM to emulate children's discoveries about basic addition procedures. HPM s goal-trace and production trace formalisms allow it to maintain a history of its actions which is both

Robert Neches

1981-01-01

415

Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education in US Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable attention has focused on the challenges of English language learners without age-appropriate formal education and first language literacy. They are viewed here as students with high-context learning experiences and expectations (Hall in Beyond culture, Anchor, New York, 1976), and a collectivistic orientation, with a pragmatic, rather…

DeCapua, Andrea; Marshall, Helaine W.

2010-01-01

416

Deep First Formal Concept Search  

PubMed Central

The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA); however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis. PMID:25254232

Zhang, Tao; Li, Hui; Hong, Wenxue; Yuan, Xiamei; Wei, Xinyu

2014-01-01

417

Hard Times for HRD, Lean Times for Learning?: Workplace Participatory Practices as Enablers of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article aims to show how in times of austerity when formal HRD activity is curtailed and yet the need for learning is greatest, non-formal learning methods such as workplace involvement and participation initiated by line managers can compensate by enabling the required learning and change. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative…

Warhurst, Russell

2013-01-01

418

Formal verification of AI software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

1989-01-01

419

Bridging the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal learning skills are enhanced throughout our daily lives through the public media, (television, newspapers, radio); while hiking our favorite park; or by visiting a museum or science center. Over the past few years the informal science community has started to bridge the gap with the formal education community. Although few informal education organizations have established set curriculum guidelines, many have adapted the use of the National Science Standards. In so doing, these organizations have raised their level of professionalism. Many formal school programs are now actively seeking collaborative science education programs to enhance and expand their hands-on, inquiry based curriculia through informal science organizations. This paper/presentation will address my current research within this field. I will discuss selected federal science agencies education and outreach efforts. Key points will include media useage, age of target audiences, credentials of interpretation staff, and level(s) of collaboration with formal schools.

Hamel, C.

2001-12-01

420

Lesson Learning at JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

Oberhettinger, David

2011-01-01

421

Perspectives on ecological research at the Outdoor StreamLab, a field-scale experimental stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial streams hold great promise for examining ecological processes. They lend themselves to manipulations of discharge, sediment load, water chemistry, and other parameters difficult or impossible to control in natural streams. However, artificial streams also have important limitations. In this presentation we describe insights gained from several ecological studies conducted at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory’s Outdoor StreamLab, including, 1) short-term turbidity exposure effects on fish health, 2) macroinvertebrate grazing rates on periphyton as a function of velocity, 3) rates of macroinvertebrate colonization as related to velocity, and 4) fine-scale correlations of periphytic biomass with hydraulic conditions. Several lessons emerge from these initial attempts at ecological research in the Outdoor StreamLab. We have learned that the size, flow rate, substrate, water chemistry, and available colonization population of the artificial stream limit the kinds of organisms and types of ecological processes that can be examined and the types of experiments that can be run. We suggest that short-term biotic responses are best for study in a system of this type, and note that constant experiment maintenance is essential. Operating artificial streams to meet the needs of multiple researchers also presents challenges of scheduling, coordination, and conflict resolution. Although ecological research in artificial streams has considerable potential, the planning required is no less than that of traditional field studies.

Merten, E. C.; Dieterman, D.; Kramarczuk, K.; Lightbody, A.; Orr, C. H.; Wellnitz, T.

2009-12-01

422

A Formal Program Evaluation Model for the Special Education Programs in Pennsylvania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preliminary draft of a formal program evaluation model for special education operations in Pennsylvania is presented. Beginning chapters provide a review of literature on norm-referenced measurement, an illustration of formal and informal program evaluation in a learning disabilities context, descriptions of general implementation strategies…

Proger, Barton B.

423

Self-Directed Lifelong Learning in Hybrid Learning Configurations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present-day students are expected to be lifelong learners throughout their working life. Higher education must therefore prepare students to self-direct their learning beyond formal education, in real-life working settings. This can be achieved in so-called hybrid learning configurations in which working and learning are integrated. In such a…

Cremers, Petra H. M.; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Wesselink, Renate; Nieveen, Nienke; Mulder, Martin

2014-01-01

424

Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations.  

PubMed

This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ?148 Bq m(-3). Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. PMID:24936021

Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W; Steck, Daniel J; Field, R William

2015-02-01

425

Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play.  

PubMed

Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their five-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level crime rates, maternal mental health, and social support. Living in public housing, perceptions of low neighborhood collective efficacy, and living in a Census tract with a higher proportion of Blacks and households in poverty are associated with higher odds of maternal fear, but crime rates are not a significant predictor of fear. We also demonstrate that not being depressed - but not social support or collective efficacy - buffers the influence of neighborhood poverty on maternal fears of outdoor play. PMID:21927529

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

2011-10-01

426

Outdoor performance of CIGS modules in different climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor product reliability testing of MiaSolé Glass-Glass CIGS Modules in different external environments is an important aspect of determining the overall product durability and quality. The multi-year performance of MiaSolé modules in several different test regions will be presented. MiaSolé has implemented outdoor testing in Dry and Hot region (Phoenix, Arizona); Hot and Humid (Miami, Florida); Seasonally Cold with Snowfall (Medina, Ohio) and at MiaSolé Headquarters in Santa Clara, CA. MiaSolé used a second party to perform the outdoor testing in Arizona, Florida, and Ohio. We will review the details of the test site setup, installation, on-site implementation, data transfer and analysis methodology.

Toivola, Kristopher; Robusto, Paul F.; Saproo, Ajay; Kessler, Bill

2014-10-01

427

Learning Logical Definitions from Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes FOIL, a system that learns Horn clauses from data expressed as relations. FOIL is based on ideas that have proved effective in attribute-value learning systems, but extends them to a first-order formalism. This new system has been applied successfully to several tasks taken from the machine learning literature.

J. Ross Quinlan

1990-01-01

428

Online Learning and Social Exclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning covers a wide range of technologies and formal and informal learning methods. A key factor promoting the significant enthusiasm for online learning across all education and training sectors in Great Britain and elsewhere is its potential to overcome many of the barriers of place, pace, and time that socially and economically…

Clarke, Alan

429

Workplace Learning in Informal Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning does not stop when an individual leaves formal education, but becomes increasingly informal, and deeply embedded within other activities such as work. This article describes the challenges of informal learning in knowledge intensive industries, highlighting the important role of personal learning networks. The article argues that…

Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison; Margaryan, Anoush

2014-01-01

430

Procedural considerations for CPV outdoor power ratings per IEC 62670  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IEC Working Group 7 (WG7) is in the process of developing a draft procedure for an outdoor concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) module power rating at Concentrator Standard Operating Conditions (CSOC). WG7 recently achieved some consensus that using component reference cells to monitor/limit spectral variation is the preferred path for the outdoor power rating. To build on this consensus, the community must quantify these spectral limits and select a procedure for calculating and reporting a power rating. This work focuses on statistically comparing several procedures the community is considering in context with monitoring/limiting spectral variation.

Muller, Matthew; Kurtz, Sarah; Rodriguez, Jose

2013-09-01

431

Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

2014-05-01

432

24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280...Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. Link to...to energize heating and/or air conditioning equipment located...

2014-04-01

433

The Measured Energy Impact of Infiltration in an Outdoor Test Cell  

E-print Network

of these studies quantified energy loss reduction under a variety of outdoor weather conditions. The energy performance was investigated in an outdoor test cell with different leakage configurations and air flow rates under both infiltration and exfiltration...

Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

434

University of Minnesota Center for Outdoor Adventure (COA) Health History Form  

E-print Network

1 University of Minnesota Center for Outdoor Adventure (COA) Health History Form Center for Outdoor_____________________________________________________Relationship_________________ Phone number___________________________________ #12;2 II. Past and Present Medical History Please mark

Amin, S. Massoud

435

Creative and Playful Learning: Learning through Game Co-Creation and Games in a Playful Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a pilot study in which children aged 7-12 (N = 68) had an opportunity to study in a novel formal and informal learning setting. The learning activities were extended from the classroom to the playful learning environment (PLE), an innovative playground enriched by technological tools. Curriculum-based learning was intertwined…

Kangas, Marjaana

2010-01-01

436

THE FIELD STUDY NOTEBOOK FOR THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE "FIELD STUDY NOTEBOOK" HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR USE BY PAROCHIAL AND PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR STUDYING ECOLOGY AT AN OUTDOOR SCHOOL. THE NOTEBOOK EMPHASIZES COMMUNITY DYNAMICS THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES THAT ILLUSTRATE ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS. INFORMATION IS PROVIDED ON THE ORGANIZATION OF A FIELD STUDY AND ON PERFORMING VARIOUS…

BURGESS, ROBERT A.; GILFILLAN, WARREN C.

437

Robust Crop and Weed Segmentation under Uncontrolled Outdoor Illumination  

PubMed Central

An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA). PMID:22163954

Jeon, Hong Y.; Tian, Lei F.; Zhu, Heping

2011-01-01

438

Fingerprint recognition performance in rugged outdoors and cold weather conditions  

E-print Network

technologies, such as fingerprint, face and iris recognition, allow automatic identification of users [7. Many different biometric technologies were explored and evaluated against a set of usability and operat recognition technology in rugged outdoor condi- tions, with an especial concentration on the performance

Adler, Andy

439

Fipronil and its degradates in indoor and outdoor dust  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fipronil is a potent insecticide used for control of termites, fleas, roaches, ants, and other pests. We measured fipronil, fipronil sulfide, and desulfinyl fipronil concentrations in indoor and outdoor dust from 24 residences in Austin, Texas. At least one of these three fipronil compounds was detected in every sample. Fipronil accounted for most of the total fipronil (T-fipronil; fipronil+desulfinyl fipronil+fipronil sulfide), followed by desulfinyl fipronil and fipronil sulfide. Nineteen of 24 samples of indoor dust had T-fipronil concentrations less than 270 ??g/kg; the remaining five had concentrations from 1320 to 14,200 ??g/kg. All three of the residences with a dog on which a flea-control product containing fipronil was used were among the five residences with elevated fipronil concentrations. In outdoor dust, all concentrations of T-fipronil were less than 70??g/kg with one exception (430??g/kg). For every residence, the concentration of T-fipronil in indoor dust exceeded that in outdoor dust, and the median concentration of T-fipronil was 15 times higher indoors than outdoors.

Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Burkhardt, M.R.

2009-01-01

440

Outdoor Programming for Older Adults Who Are Frail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of outdoor nature-oriented activities for very old, frail elderly, and institutionalized elderly persons with regard to exercising to increase mobility, spiritual development, sensory stimulation, and social interaction. A study of elderly participants in a "back to nature" experience suggests that modified camping…

Buettner, Linda; Kennison, Judith

1993-01-01

441

A Closer Look Series from North Dakota Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has recently added this publicly targeted resource to the NPWRC homepage. Originally published in North Dakota Outdoors, this site is a collection of brief fact sheets on some of North Dakota's wildlife, from ospreys to giant moths. This resource may be downloaded as a .zip file.

442

Hovering control of outdoor blimp robots based on path following  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surveillance system is required to gather information about the stricken area safely and quickly after large-scale disasters. An autonomous blimp is the best option for this purpose. This paper proposes a control design method for automatic hovering of outdoor blimp robots under strong wind by using path following approach. The method consists of inverse optimal path following control in

Hitomu Saiki; Takanori Fukao; Takateru Urakubo; Takashi Kohno

2010-01-01

443

Outdoor Education Guide-Handbook, Waukesha Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed by the Waukesha Public Schools (Wisconsin) specifically for an elementary level three-day camping trip at Camp Phantom Lake, this outdoor education guide presents some activities which suggest adaptation. Activity directions, plans, worksheets, evaluation sheets, and illustrations are presented in sequential order for the following…

Vitale, Joseph A.

444

Exploring Railroad Track Ecology as an Outdoor Teaching Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Railroad right-of-ways can provide an outdoor classroom where many indigenous organisms and other natural resources can be directly experienced. A typical class can be divided into 3 or 4 segments, with each representing a study group assigned to a specific area of investigation. Suggested activities and questions are presented for the following:…

Rillo, Thomas J.

445

Cabora Bassa HVDC transmission: Oil cooled outdoor thyristor valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil-cooled outdoor thyristor valves for the first stage of the 1920 MW, 860 mile d.c. link between the Cabora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique and Pretoria, South Africa, which is first to transmit power in early 1975, are described. A brief summary of the extensive valve type tests carried out successfully at the world's largest HVDC valve testing

F. C. Beriger; J. Hengsberger; G. W. Juette

1975-01-01

446

Recognizing and Developing Adaptive Expertise within Outdoor and Expedition Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive expertise, an individual's ability to perform flexibly and innovatively in novel and unstructured situations, could have particular relevance for expedition and outdoor leaders. This element may be recognized in leadership practitioners who are able to act more effectively when problem-solving in complex, ambiguous and unpredictable…

Tozer, Mark; Fazey, Ioan; Fazey, John

2007-01-01

447

Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set II use living organisms such as crabs, birds, crayfish, lichens, and insects to investigate biological interrelationships, organism behavior, and species density to promote greater environmental and sensory awareness. The activities, designed primarily for…

Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

448

First Person Indoor/Outdoor Augmented Reality Application: ARQuake  

E-print Network

overlaid computer-generated infor- mation by means of see-through head-mounted displays. Unlike virtual:75­86 #12;3. Relevant information is displayed as augmen- ted reality via a head-mounted see-through display of applications outdoors, displaying their relevant information by augmenting reality. In particular we consider

Thomas, Bruce

449

EFFECTS OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL ON PERIPHYTON COMMUNITIES IN OUTDOOR EXPERIMENTAL STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the periphyton community in outdoor experimental streams. It was part of a larger study in which an objective was to evaluate the effects of PCP at water quality criterion levels on natural aq...

450

Near Time-optimal Constrained Trajectory Planning on Outdoor Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an outdoor terrain planner that finds near optimal trajectories under dynamic and kinematic constraints. The planner can find solutions in close to real time by relaxing some of the assumptions associated with costly rigid body simulation and complex terrain surface interactions. Our system is based on control-driven Proba- bilistic Roadmaps and can efficiently find and optimize a near

Marin B. Kobilarov; Gaurav S. Sukhatme

2005-01-01

451

Basic Principles--Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The priorities for sustaining life--air, shelter, water, and food--are the subjects of this module designed to give junior and senior high school students the foundation for safe, rewarding experiences in the outdoors. Five 50-minute lesson plans cover the basic need in order of priority: air (3 minutes to survive without it), shelter (3 hours, in…

Deaton, Don

452

9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards...Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities...by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated to...

2010-01-01

453

9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards...Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities...by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated to...

2011-01-01

454

Everyday Uncertainties: Reframing Perceptions of Risk in Outdoor Free Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of risk reframing, an intervention to offer parents and educators a context for building new and complex perceptions of risk in children's outdoor free play. Our objective was to alter these adults' perceptions of risk to increase the sustainability of an innovative child-centred playground intervention.…

Niehues, Anita Nelson; Bundy, Anita; Broom, Alex; Tranter, Paul; Ragen, Jo; Engelen, Lina

2013-01-01

455

Research article Habitat exploration in butterflies an outdoor cage  

E-print Network

Research article Habitat exploration in butterflies ­ an outdoor cage experiment ULF NORBERG long shady part of unsuitable habitat that the butterflies had to fly through to move between moved at lower rates. The distribution of these butterflies differ from widespread to local- ized

Leimar, Olof

456

Incorporating Outdoor Education into the Physical Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low motivation to participate in traditional or team sports, apathy toward competitive environments, and a low rate of transfer of skills to lifetime activities and wellness can be barriers for student pursuits of lifelong fitness. Adding an outdoor component can be a solution for some of these problems, while still accomplishing the National…

Nguyen, Nhu

2015-01-01

457

Challenges In Outdoor and Indoor Optical Wireless Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical wireless communications in the outdoor is capable of providing a broadband last mile access, and in the indoor environment it can be used to provide flexible interconnection through wireless distributed data communication systems to connect PCs, digital assistants, laptops, printers, digital cameras in offices, shopping areas, warehouses and manufacturing floors. Optical wireless communications, however, faces many challenges in its

Salahuddin Qazi

2006-01-01

458

19CHALLENGE Summer 2006 OUTDOOR LIGHTING, INSECTS & BIRDS  

E-print Network

19CHALLENGE Summer 2006 OUTDOOR LIGHTING, INSECTS & BIRDS Is light pollution killing our birds? Colin Henshaw and Graham Cliff believe that light pollution is reducing the numbers of insects on which of the authors (Colin Henshaw) entitled The Environmental Effects of Light Pollution. The letter concluded

459

PLACEMENT OF OUTDOOR RECYCLING CONTAINERS AROUND UBC CAMPUS  

E-print Network

of recyclable items in order to approach our goal towards a waste-free environment. #12;DATA & PROCEDURES BasePLACEMENT OF OUTDOOR RECYCLING CONTAINERS AROUND UBC CAMPUS UBC SEEDS Project by Iong, Sin I (Jace RECYCLING CONTAINERS ON UBC CAMPUS by Jace Iong 24 April, 2009 INTRODUCTION This SEEDS (Social, Ecological

460

Outdoor Experimental Comparison of Four Ad Hoc Routing Algorithms  

E-print Network

Outdoor Experimental Comparison of Four Ad Hoc Routing Algorithms Robert S. Grayb robert Sciences Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401, USA ABSTRACT Most comparisons of wireless ad hoc- tion; C.2.2 [Network Protocols]: Routing protocols General Terms Experimentation Keywords Wireless ad

Liu, Xiaowen "Jason"

461

Education Requirements for Natural Resource Based Outdoor Recreation Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Personnel Management should designate a new professional series for hiring individuals in outdoor recreational management. A new professional series would help set a standard for professionals with training in both resource management and the social sciences. Recommended educational requirements for the series include: (1) natural…

Elsner, Gary; And Others

462

The Accuracy of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present era of outcome assessment and accountability, self-efficacy is a popular outcome measure in outdoor and adventure education. Self-efficacy beliefs are context specific perceptions an individual possesses about a likelihood of success in future tasks and are related to well-being confidence, and persistence. However, recent research…

Schumann, Scott

2013-01-01

463

Robust crop and weed segmentation under uncontrolled outdoor illumination.  

PubMed

An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA). PMID:22163954

Jeon, Hong Y; Tian, Lei F; Zhu, Heping

2011-01-01

464

Site Inventory for Outdoor Education Facilities and Recreational Camps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once the function of an outdoor educational facility has been determined, a site inventory should examine the site's physical characteristics, soil types, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Provides suggestions on maximizing usage of the site while minimizing detrimental effects of site development and long-term environmental damage. (LP)

Blythe, Chris

1994-01-01

465

Kick-Sledding: An Outdoor Activity for Everyone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kick-sledding is an outdoor activity that originated in Scandinavia. Kick-sleds may be used on snowy roads, cross-country ski trails, and frozen lakes by anyone, including seniors, children, and mothers with babies. To ride a kick-sled, you stand holding onto a bar across the back of a chair attached to runners and propel yourself by kicking. (LP)

Wilson, Susan

1994-01-01

466

Reconstruction of Outdoor Sculptures from Silhouettes under Approximate Circular Motion  

E-print Network

Reconstruction of Outdoor Sculptures from Silhouettes under Approximate Circular Motion acquired around it using a hand-held camera. The technique introduced here uses only the silhouettes, and hence their silhouettes are very of- ten the only information available from their images. Be- sides

Martin, Ralph R.

467

Optimal Visual Servoed Guidance of Outdoor Autonomous Robotic Airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a visual servo control scheme for an outdoor autonomous airship in path following tasks. The visual based guidance takes full authority of the robotic airship and it is based on lines as image fea- tures, extracted from an on-board camera. An op- timal controller is designed using the dynamic model of the system, which tackles the dynamics

Geraldo F. Silveira; J. R. H. Carvalho; P. Rives; S. S. Bueno; Marconi K. Madrid

2002-01-01

468

Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition, Set IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight games are included in the 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set IV. There are also simulations, crafts, biological techniques, and organism investigations focusing on animal and plant life in the forest, desert, and snow. Designed for small groups of children ages 10 to 15 from schools and…

Throgmorton, Larry, Ed.; And Others

469

Campground Cookery. Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help instructors lead a group cooking experience at a base camp, the module provides information on food safety, planning a camping trip, building fires, constructing and using outdoor cooking equipment, campground cookery, and positive camping ethics. An extensive section offers 93 recipes to serve 12 people for breakfast (clam…

Phillips, Jan

470

The ultrasonic range finder for outdoor mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic rangefinders have already been used successfully for indoor mobile robots. However, in an outdoor environment, the sensor should be robust against noise from vehicle engines and other sound sources. The robust sensor has already been proposed, but it requires a high-performance processor. In this paper the authors propose a new ultrasonic ranging sensor which is simple and low-cost. This

Tsutomu Tanzawa; Noriaki Kiyohiro; Shinji Kotani; Hideo Mori

1995-01-01

471

Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas  

E-print Network

contamination after a flood event. Chemical contamination issues associated with flood events are not addressedGuidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas Environmental Health Buford Highway NE (F-60) Atlanta, GA 30341 March 2011 #12;2 Guidance on Microbial Contamination

472

A Sacred Presence: Bear Encounters in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are moments in outdoor education that can only be described as magical. These are times when the wider world mirrors human stories with an uncanny synchronicity, as if choreographed by an unseen hand. Often the only thing people can really do is try and stay out of the way. In the author's own work, the footsteps moving through such magical…

Norris, Julian

2007-01-01

473

Supporting the Outdoor Classroom: An Archaeo-Astronomy Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field trips and the outdoor classroom are a vital part of many areas of education. Ideally, the content should be taught within a realistic environment rather than just by providing a single field trip at the end of a course. The archaeo-astronomy project located at Nottingham Trent University envisages the development of a virtual environment…

Brown, Daniel; Francis, Robert; Alder, Andy

2013-01-01

474

Play--The Making of Deep Outdoor Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be outdoors and involved in adventures concerns the movement between safety and risk, the familiar and the unfamiliar. Deep involvement in activities and the seriousness found in play are essential in "Bildung." Findings in this paper stem from ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a kayak community, between late autumn 2006 until the fall of…

Magnussen, Leif Inge

2012-01-01

475

Outdoor Education and the Development of Environmental Responsibility Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six research studies are reviewed that examine the ability of environmental education programs in schools and resident camps to positively affect the environmental awareness and attitudes of children and adolescents. Outdoor educators must enable students to develop internal locus of control, critical thinking, and environmental action skills.…

Yerkes, Rita; Biederman, Kobe

2003-01-01

476

Risk and Hazard Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dilemma in adventure education is to eliminate unreasonable risks to participants without reducing the levels of excitement, challenge, and stress that are inherent in adventure programming. Most accidents in outdoor pursuits are caused by a combination of unsafe conditions; unsafe acts (usually on the part of the student); and error judgments…

Meier, Joel

477

AMMONIA EFFECTS ON MICROINVERTEBRATES AND FISH IN OUTDOOR EXPERIMENTAL STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory data on ammonia effects, the US EPA national water quality criteria for ammonia, and ammonia site-specific criteria were evaluated in four outdoor experimental streams (one control and three treatment streams) over a 76-week period. Calculated un-ionized ammonia concen...

478

Environmental Emergency Preparedness. Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's manual contains 21 lesson plans to teach advanced skills to cope with emergency outdoor living situations and emphasizes being prepared, rather than survival. Written for the classroom teacher, but adaptable for other youth groups, the module contains subject information, lesson plans with activities, student handouts, a written…

Deaton, Don

479

Student Preparation Workbook for the Multnomah Outdoor School. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for sixth grade students to help them prepare for the Multnomah County (Oregon) Outdoor School experience, the workbook provides fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners (rules for working in the woods). A section devoted to each resource area…

Bohm, Rudy; Cole, Wally

480

Rails-to-Trails: A Valuable Resource for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rails-to-trails movement, particularly in Ontario, where abandoned railways are converted to trails for hiking, skiing, cycling, and horseback riding. Proposes the often controversial rails-to-trails issue as a resource for discussion in outdoor leadership classes, focusing on rural and urban viewpoints. Also suggests using the…

Fischer, Jim

1993-01-01

481

Recognizing and developing adaptive expertise within outdoor and expedition leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive expertise, an individual's ability to perform flexibly and innovatively in novel and unstructured situations, could have particular relevance for expedition and outdoor leaders. This element may be recognized in leadership practitioners who are able to act more effectively when problem-solving in complex, ambiguous and unpredictable environments. The authors present a number of perspectives intended to assist individuals in making

Mark Tozer; Ioan Fazey; John Fazey

2007-01-01

482

SEGMENTATION OF RANGE IMAGES FOR MODELING OF LARGE OUTDOOR SCENES  

E-print Network

SEGMENTATION OF RANGE IMAGES FOR MODELING OF LARGE OUTDOOR SCENES Project in Lieu of Thesis. The aim in doing this project is to explore different techniques used for segmenting the range images that there is no universally acceptable segmentation technique that will work on all images and that no segmentation technique

Abidi, Mongi A.

483

Soil ingestion in children: Outdoor soil or indoor dust?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil ingestion estimates may play a prominent role in exposure estimation for risk assessments involving tightly bound soil contaminants such as dioxin, PCBs, and lead in soil. Since contamination is often localized to specific areas, the relative contribution of ingested soil due to outdoor soil and indoor dust may have a large impact on the risk assessment. This article examines

Edward J. Stanek III; Edward J. Calabrese

1992-01-01

484

Integrating virtual and augmented realities in an outdoor application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores interconnecting outdoor AR systems with a VR system to achieve collaboration in both domains simultaneously. We envisage multiple mobile users of wearable AR systems interacting with a stationary VR facility via a wireless network. An application in simulated combat training is described, where the AR users are soldiers with wearable computers, and the VR system is located

Wayne Piekarski; Bernard Gunther; Bruce Thomas

1999-01-01

485

The Meaning of Adventurous Activities for "Women in the Outdoors"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventurous activities are growing in popularity as a form of leisure and recreation, yet many non-participants find it difficult to understand what motivates people to seek out situations in which there is an element of danger and risk. This research examines the meanings of long-term participation in outdoor adventure for women working in…

Boniface, Maggie

2006-01-01

486

Outdoor Education: Research Topic or Universal Value? Part One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the late 1940s and much of the 1950s, attitudes towards outdoor education in Scotland were rooted in militaristic concerns with character building through adventure training and civic activities. During the late 1950s and the 1960s, the purposes of the field were seen as recreation, leisure education, personal and social development, and…

Nicol, Robbie

2002-01-01

487

Emergency Manual. Resident Outdoor Environmental Education School 1982-1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emergency manual for the Orange County Outdoor School provides phone numbers, procedures, safety rules, and plans in case of an emergency. Phone numbers are listed for fire and medical emergencies, police, and highway department. General emergency procedures are outlined in case of fire, vandalism, accidents, illness, power failure, animal…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

488

Outdoor Recreation, Health, and Wellness: Understanding and Enhancing the Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research literature on outdoor recreation as it relates to human health is vast and growing. To help policymakers take new and emerging findings into account when designing recreation and park services and initiatives for the 21st century, this paper summarizes the salient issues and identifies research gaps. It considers how being outside in natural surroundings may improve health and

Geoffrey Godbey

489

Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predominant focus of the 24 Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set III activities is on animal behavior, and the adaptations and diversity of both plants and animals. Night time activities, games, investigation, experimentation, and crafts are used to study ants, birds, clams, water snails, water striders, spiders,…

Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

490

Modelling power output in photovoltaic modules for outdoor operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology to estimate PV electrical production from outdoor testing data is presented. It is based on the adjustment of a well known I–V model curve slightly modified and a new maximum power output expression. The method is developed to provide PV module performance parameters for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. The method, theoretically based, is reasonably

J. I. Rosell; M. Ibáñez

2006-01-01

491

NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

Butler, Ricky W. (compiler)

1990-01-01

492

Hawking radiation of Etunneling formalism  

E-print Network

We use the tunneling formalism to calculate the Hawking radiation of massive particles. For E>=m, we recover the traditional result, identical to the massless case. But Etunnel across the horizon in a Hawking process. We study the probability for detecting such Etunneling formalism. We derive a general formula and obtain simple approximations in the near-horizon limit and in the limit of large radii.

Gil Jannes

2011-06-22

493

Hawking radiation of Etunneling formalism  

E-print Network

We use the tunneling formalism to calculate the Hawking radiation of massive particles. For E>=m, we recover the traditional result, identical to the massless case. But Etunnel across the horizon in a Hawking process. We study the probability for detecting such Etunneling formalism. We derive a general formula and obtain simple approximations in the near-horizon limit and in the limit of large radii.

Jannes, Gil

2011-01-01

494

Safety in Outdoor Adventure Programs. S.O.A.P. Safety Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drafted in 1978 as a working document for Safety in Outdoor Adventure Programs (S.O.A.P.) by a council of outdoor adventure programmers, checklists outline standard accepted safety policy for Outdoor Adventure Programs and Wilderness Adventure Programs conducted through public or private agencies in California. Safety policy emphasizes: the…

MacDonald, Wayne, Comp.; And Others

495

Northern Colorado Outdoor Nature Center Project, Poudre School District R-1, Fort Collins, Colorado. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of the Northern Colorado Outdoor Nature Center Project are to: (1) develop an outdoor nature center and an environmental education laboratory; (2) develop multidiscipline curriculum guides for grades K-12; (3) assist teachers in developing skills necessary to teach effectively in the outdoor setting; and (4) develop student…

Poudre School District R-1, Ft. Collins, CO.

496

A Baseline Study of Ontario Teachers' Views of Environmental and Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a research that came about as a result of several converging factors in Ontario: a resurgence of interest in environmental and outdoor education (including outdoor education (OE) centres); recent publications supporting environmental and outdoor education; and curriculum revisions across subject areas that include…

Pedretti, Erminia; Nazir, Joanne; Tan, Michael; Bellomo, Katherine; Ayyavoo, Gabriel

2012-01-01

497

Protection from being indoors against inhalation of suspended particulate matter of outdoor origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical report:A method of determining the protection factor from being indoors against inhalation of suspended particulate matter of outdoor origin is described. The method consists of simultaneously collecting particulate samples with air filters at indoor and outdoor sites. The samples are analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for elements known to be of outdoor origin. The procedure is applied to various building

A. F. Cohen; B. L. Cohen

1980-01-01

498

Private Assistance in Outdoor Recreation. A Directory of Organizations Providing Aid to Individuals and Public Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to aid private recreation area developers and operators, and other individuals interested in outdoor recreation, this Bureau of Outdoor Recreation publication lists a number of professional societies and national organizations providing low-cost publications and other aids to planning, development, and operation of outdoor recreation…

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

499

A Computerized Cataloging System for an Outdoor Program Library or Resource Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Outdoor Resource Library Cataloging System is a computer software program designed primarily for outdoor programs with small to medium-sized resource centers. The software is free to nonprofit organizations and is available from the Idaho State University Outdoor Program. The software is used to construct a database of library materials, which…

Watters, Ron

500

14 CFR 201.1 - Formal requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Formal requirements. 201.1 Section...Application Procedures § 201.1 Formal requirements. (a) Applications...number of copies, service, and formal specifications of papers. (b)...

2012-01-01