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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Vision + Community = Outdoor Learning Stations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor learning areas are becoming more popular as a means for community-based, cross-curricular learning where children study issues of local relevance (Sobel 2004). Outdoor learning areas, any place outside of the school building where children can observe and interact with the natural world around them, include outdoor structures for seating…

Eick, Charles; Tatarchuk, Shawna; Anderson, Amy

2013-01-01

2

Making Outdoor Learning Possible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance for children of playing outdoors. Describes playground types (traditional, creative, and environmental), a vision of the ideal playground, and specific types of outdoor places that most benefit children, including places for active motor play and places to "be human." (EV)

Greenman, Jim

2003-01-01

3

Cooperative Learning and Outdoor/Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter contains 14 items on cooperative learning and outdoor education, with a particular focus on environmental education and ecology. "Cooperative Teaching/Learning Strategies and Objectives in Outdoor/Environmental Education" by Clifford E. Knapp is about cooperative teaching and learning strategies in outdoor education and emphasizes…

Knapp, Clifford E., Ed.

1986-01-01

4

Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

2010-01-01

5

Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and posttests, progressive self-assessments, and ethnographic observations. Since I argue that the idea of learning from experience is underspecified, I present empirical findings to show that experience per se is not enough. I discuss tools and other artifacts that help learners notice key dimensions of their experiences, and demonstrate how they link these to other aspects of their culture and lives. Findings indicate that a mediated approach does in fact help students outperform participants who only received the experience. A time for telling was also advantageous for students to improve learning and using technology to reduce cognitive load was instrumental in further improving their learning. Future plans are discussed to follow up on these findings and to implement new tests as the dams are removed and the natural habitat is restored.

O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

6

Field Study Manual for Outdoor Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecology, the study of natural resources, and influences on natural resources are the concerns of this study, along with the idea of learning how to live with and understand our resources. This manual gives a detailed presentation of using the outdoors as a classroom and, although written on a more advanced level, probably could be adapted even to…

Milliken, Margaret; And Others

7

Outdoor Education and Environmental (Make that Nature) Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education cannot "not" be about nature learning. Just as David Orr (1992) says that all education is environmental education, so too all outdoor education teaches something about the natural world--either that it matters or that it doesn't. According to the Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario (COEO), "outdoor education directly exposes…

Johnston, Julie

2007-01-01

8

Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2010-01-01

9

Designing outdoor Learning Environments for and with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of outdoor learning environments, discusses types of children's play that promote their learning and growth, examines the role of outdoor play on children's development, and lists several indoor activities which can also be used as outdoor activities. (BC)

Guddemi, Marcy; Eriksen, Aase

1992-01-01

10

Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…

Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina

2004-01-01

11

Attributes of Meaningful Learning Experiences in an Outdoor Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological study sought to identify the attributes of meaningful learning experiences as found in an outdoor education program. Thirteen students in the Wilderness Writing Program at Brigham Young University were the sample of this study. Their participation in outdoor recreational activities and their reflections about their…

Taniguchi, Stacy T.; Freeman, Patti A.; Richards, A. LeGrand

2005-01-01

12

Attributes of meaningful learning experiences in an outdoor education program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This phenomenological study sought to identify the attributes of meaningful learning experiences as found in an outdoor education program. Thirteen students in the Wilderness Writing Program at Brigham Young University were the sample of this study. Their participation in outdoor recreational activities and their reflections about their experiences were analyzed. Through written journal entries, group discussions, observations, and writing assignments,

Stacy T. Taniguchi; Patti A. Freeman; A. LeGrand Richards

2005-01-01

13

Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

2013-01-01

14

Outdoor Learning: Supervision Is More than Watching Children Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood programs strive to provide good-quality care and education as young children develop their physical, emotional, social, and intellectual skills. In order to provide children with positive, developmentally appropriate learning opportunities, educators ensure the safety and security of children, indoors and outdoors. The outdoor

Olsen, Heather; Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan

2011-01-01

15

Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

2010-01-01

16

A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

2013-01-01

17

Learning Outdoors: Leader Guide, Grade 3. 4-H Discovery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States has a rich natural resource heritage. It is important to educate students in the principles of conservation so that these natural resources may endure for generations. This guide is designed to help leaders to learn to organize groups of children and conduct successful meetings; provide fun, safe, outdoor learning experiences for…

Abell, John R.; Newman, Jerry A.

18

Outdoor Experiential Education: Learning through the Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people can recall a time when they learned a skill or came to understand an idea while participating in an experience: learning in such a way that the action being taken and the resulting learning outcomes were synonymous. Time spent in hands-on efforts tend to engage learners physically and emotionally in both the process of learning and the…

Howden, Eric

2012-01-01

19

Learning-Centered Planning Strategies in "Outdoor Education Programs": Enhancing Participation and Self-Directed Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education (OE) takes place within a range of program settings and contexts (e.g., recreational, educational, developmental, or therapeutic). Experiential learning is central to OE and focuses these programs around elements of inquiry, active learning and reflection in the outdoor classroom. The personal, social and environmental benefits…

Hubball, Harry; West, Darren

2009-01-01

20

Inclusion through Access to Outdoor Education: Learning in Motion (LIM)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in Motion (LIM) was a European project involving seven partners in five countries: Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Germany and Greece. The project focused on inclusion and access to outdoor education and was financed by the European Commission within the framework of the Socrates-Grundtvig Programme. The aim of the project was to explore if and…

Brodin, Jane

2009-01-01

21

Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.  

PubMed

We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model. PMID:23777520

Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Di Prodi, P

2013-11-01

22

Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

2005-01-01

23

Learning about Outdoor Education through Authentic Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential, for the learner, of a maths trail was documented in MT219. Here, the focus is on the planning element of such an event from the perspective of a group of student teachers. Personal reactions, and insights are used to demonstrate that "real, and authentic, learning" takes place for all those involved in the activity.

Moffett, Pamela

2012-01-01

24

To construct the outdoor experience game-based learning system by integrating ubiquitous technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-learning nowadays is getting more and more popular along with the improvement of advanced ubiquitous technologies and wireless network. One obvious example is the outdoor experience learning. The outdoor experience game could help learners to learn the course knowledge by interacting with real-life learning activities. In this paper, we proposed a web-based outdoor experience game-based learning system by integrating the

Ming-Jhe Yang; Jui-Hung Chen; Te-Hua Wang; Louis R. Chao; Timothy K. Shih

2009-01-01

25

Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

Misko, Josie

2008-01-01

26

Formal, Non-Formal and Informal learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills, and Language Learning in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to literacy and essential skills, as well as the learning of second and other languages in Canada. It builds upon the work of the OECD (n.d.) and Werquin…

Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2010-01-01

27

The Outdoor Classroom Ages 3-7: Using Ideas from Forest Schools to Enrich Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outdoor area is now an integral part of many early years settings and schools, but is it being used to its full potential? This book clearly explains the learning potential of the outdoor environment and practically demonstrates how the "Outdoor Classroom" can be developed in early years settings and schools. Drawing on the Forest School…

Constable, Karen

2012-01-01

28

The Nature of "Udeskole": Outdoor Learning Theory and Practice in Danish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing number of Danish teachers have started introducing school-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day for school children--often called "udeskole" in Danish. Although at least 14% of Danish schools practise this form of outdoor teaching with some classes, it is not mentioned in the national curriculum and…

Bentsen, Peter; Jensen, Frank Sondergaard

2012-01-01

29

Green School Grounds as Sites for Outdoor Learning: Barriers and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their review of evidence-based research entitled "A Review of Research on Outdoor Learning," Rickinson "et al." (2004) identify five key constraints that limit the amount of outdoor learning. This paper explores whether green school grounds might be a location where these constraints could be minimised. Specifically, it reports on a study that…

Dyment, Janet E.

2005-01-01

30

Green School Grounds as Sites for Outdoor Learning: Barriers and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their review of evidence-based research entitled A Review of Research on Outdoor Learning, Rickinson et al. (2004) identify five key constraints that limit the amount of outdoor learning. This paper explores whether green school grounds might be a location where these constraints could be minimised. Specifically, it reports on a study that sought to investigate the use of green

Janet E. Dyment

2005-01-01

31

Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

Abbatiello, James

32

Non-Formal Learning: Clarification of the Concept and Its Application in Music Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…

Mok, On Nei Annie

2011-01-01

33

Blending Student Technology Experiences in Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…

Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald

2013-01-01

34

Classrooms in the Wild: Learning Language and Life Skills in the KUIS Outdoor Sports Circle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of outdoor education activities in the Kanda University English language institute is described. The outdoor program was developed to unite faculty and students interested in recreational activities and provide an opportunity to explore common interests in nature, sports, and language learning. The activities develop self-esteem,…

Wurr, Adrian

35

A Comparison of Children's Learning Under Different Program Structures in a Resident Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesizing that students who were given the opportunity to choose their learning activities in a residential outdoor education school (Stone Valley, Pennsylvania) would more readily attain the behavioral objectives of those activities, 68 fifth grade students participating in a four-day residential outdoor education program were divided into a…

Conrad, Michelle

36

Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.  

PubMed

This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. PMID:23335571

Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

2013-01-01

37

Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach activity in many communities, there has been

Mark Griffiths; Kathleen Armour

2012-01-01

38

Enriching Formal Language Learning with an Informal Social Component  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an informal component that we added to an online formal language learning environment in order to help the learners reach relevant Internet pages they can freely use to complement their learning activity. Thanks to this facility, each lesson is enriched, at run time, with a number of links automatically retrieved from social…

Dettori, Giuliana; Torsani, Simone

2013-01-01

39

Learning through Outdoor Activities as Part of a P2000 Mental Health Branch Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor activities assist nursing students in developing self-awareness of communication, leadership, and coping abilities; learning communication, leadership, and problem-solving skills; and increasing assertiveness and initiative. (SK)

Edwards, Keith; And Others

1996-01-01

40

Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

2012-01-01

41

A systemic examination of the introduction of an outdoor learning-based science curriculum to students, their teacher, and the school principal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outdoor environment has been under-utilized as a legitimate setting for learning within the formal school context, resulting in few examples of curriculum materials that integrate the indoors and outdoors. This systemic problem is explored holistically through investigation of key sets of players in the school system. The overarching research question is "What is the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences within the school system?" I developed an eight-week Earth systems science unit grounded in research-based design principles. One teacher enacted the unit with 111 sixth graders, whose learning gains and perspectives of the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences were explored using a mixed-methods approach in a pre-post study design, including individual interviews, and instruments regarding students' perspectives of the outdoor component of the curricular enactment. I conducted six interviews with the participating teacher and one interview with the school principal, to explore their perspectives of the role of outdoor learning experiences, and their personal roles in the unit. The main finding from this study was that the outdoor component of the curriculum enhanced coherence---connectedness across science concepts, activities, and learning environments. Higher ability students were more aware of connections than lower ability students. Field experiences were seen as a tool for learning, and all students achieved substantial learning gains. The teacher viewed the role of the outdoor experiences as a way to engage students, and promote connections across the unit through firsthand and relevant experiences. The school principal viewed his role as supporting teachers in their practice and encouraging risk-taking and creativity in instructional approaches. This study is a valuable contribution to the field as it (1) identifies outdoor learning experiences as one way to enhance intraunit coherence, and (2) highlights variations in students' awareness of coherence while examining the teacher's experience. I discuss potential revisions to improve the curriculum based on the findings from the students, teacher, principal, and external curriculum evaluation. These data indicate a need for greater support for teachers to help all students make coherent connections across the unit, and to take account of students' developing ideas.

Yunker, Molly Louis

42

The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community of its in-house business projects as springboards

Carol C. Thompson

2012-01-01

43

IMS Learning Design Support for the Formalization of Collaborative Learning Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative Learning Patterns (CLPs) are detailed descriptions of best practices in collaborative learning. These patterns provide a way for a representation of key aspects of CSCL (Computer- Supported Collaborative Learning) that is easy to understand by software developers. To formalize these CLPs we have focused our attention on IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD). IMS-LD provides a means of expressing many different

Davinia Hernández Leo; Juan I. Asensio Pérez; Yannis A. Dimitriadis

44

IMS Learning Design Support for the Formalization of Collaborative Learning Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Collaborative Learning Patterns (CLPs) are detailed descriptions of best practices in collaborative learning These patterns provide a way easily understandable by software developers of representing key aspects of CSCL (Computer - Supported Collaborative Learning) To formalize these CLPs we have focused our attention on IMS Learning Design (IMS - LD) IMS - LD provides a means of expressing many

Davinia Hernández Leo; Juan I. Asensio-pérez; Yannis A. Dimitriadis

2004-01-01

45

IMS Learning Design Support for the Formalization of Collaborative Learning Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative Learning Patterns (CLPs) are detailed descriptions of best practices in collaborative learning. These patterns provide a way easily understandable by software developers of representing key aspects of CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning). To formalize these CLPs we have focused our attention on IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD). IMS-LD provides a means of expressing many different pedagogical approaches (including collaborative learning), however

Davinia Hernández; Juan I. Asensio; Yannis A. Dimitriadis

46

"Did You Enjoy Your Holiday?" Can Residential Outdoor Learning Benefit Mainstream Schooling?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United Kingdom there is a long tradition of residential outdoor learning provision, but to date there is limited research evidence for the direct educational benefits of such experiences, and to both critics and supporters the distinction between such visits and "holidays in school time" is not always apparent. This paper…

Christie, Beth; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

2014-01-01

47

New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

2010-01-01

48

Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2011-01-01

49

Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

2012-01-01

50

Professional Development across the Teaching Career: Teachers' Uptake of Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teachers' uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities across the career cycle. Analyses were based on data from 1939 German secondary teachers in 198 schools. Results showed that formal learning opportunities (in-service training) were used most frequently by mid-career teachers, whereas informal learning opportunities…

Richter, Dirk; Kunter, Mareike; Klusmann, Uta; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

2011-01-01

51

Authenticity in Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Bridging the Formal and the Informal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper attempts to bridge informal and formal learning by leveraging on affordance structures associated with informal environments to help learners develop social, cognitive, and metacognitive dispositions that can be applied to learning in classrooms. Most studies focus on either learning in formal or informal contexts, but this study seeks…

Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

2012-01-01

52

Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Europe: Key Developments and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the gradual introduction of arrangements for validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe. While the debate on how to identify, assess and recognise learning achievements acquired outside formal education and training institutions has been going on for several decades, we can now observe that these approaches are…

Bjornavold, Jens

2009-01-01

53

The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning

Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

2014-01-01

54

Fostering professional development through integrating work and formal learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The undergraduate site learning program (USLP) is an innovative work-based learning program that addresses the call to develop a broader set of attributes in engineering graduates. Unlike cooperative education programs, site learning can give students full academic credit for their placement without extending the duration of the degree through the use of an innovative learning alignment model. A central part

David Radcliffe; Allison Brown

2003-01-01

55

Learning of Linguistic Rules in Formal Second Language Learning : A Classification of the Activ- ity Types from a Psycholinguistic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

development of second language competence. In the latter, functions and notions of language are given primary importance and communicative activities are stressed in the learning process. It is true that first language learning and second language learning in natural settings take place in actual communicative interactions without formal instruction. Our argument to be made in this article, however, takes a

Toshihiko Yamaoka

56

Outdoor Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

2011-01-01

57

Bounded Community: Designing and Facilitating Learning Communities in Formal Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning communities can emerge spontaneously when people find common learning goals and pursue projects and tasks together in pursuit of those goals. "Bounded" learning communities (BLCs) are groups that form within a structured teaching or training setting, typically a course. Unlike spontaneous communities, BLCs develop in direct response to…

Wilson, Brent G.; Ludwig-Hardman, Stacey; Thornam, Christine L.; Dunlap, Joanna C.

2004-01-01

58

Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris' distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector

Philipp Cimiano; Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab

2005-01-01

59

Informal/Formal Learning and Workload among Ontario Secondary School Teachers. NALL Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following up on an earlier national survey study of Canadian teachers' formal and informal learning, this study had 13 Ontario secondary teachers keep detailed logs of their day and evening activities, along with notations about what they may have learned as a result of engaging in each activity, for 7 consecutive days in late 1999, and again in…

Smaller, Harry; Hart, Doug; Clark, Rosemary; Livingstone, David

60

Educational Incongruence: An Exploration of the Disconnection between Formal Schooling and the Natural Learning of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational incongruence exists in classrooms today. Formal schooling is often incongruent and disconnected with the natural learning of children. This can result in educational experiences that fail to meet personal and societal needs. I believe we need greater congruence between learning and teaching in order to improve current and future social…

Layman, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

61

Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

Gadio, Moussa

2011-01-01

62

Stopping and Starting: Experiences of Adults Returning to Formal Literacy Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of six adult literacy students revealed factors that had influenced them to stop and restart formal education: family conditions, traumatic events, initial schooling experiences, social networks, personal motivations, and informal learning experiences. The influence of contextual factors on literacy learning and characteristics of…

Boyd, Vivienne; Cates, Julie; Hellyer, Jan; Leverton, Marianne; Robinson, Helen; Tobias, Robert

2002-01-01

63

Attitudes to Formal Business Training and Learning amongst Entrepreneurs in the Cultural Industries: Situated Business Learning through "Doing with Others."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents arguments supporting a social model of learning linked to situated learning and cultural capital. Critiques training methods used in cultural industries (arts, publishing, broadcasting, design, fashion, restaurants). Uses case study evidence to demonstrates inadequacies of formal training in this sector. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

Raffo, Carlo; O'Connor, Justin; Lovatt, Andy; Banks, Mark

2000-01-01

64

Computational neural learning formalisms for manipulator inverse kinematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient, adaptive neural learning paradigm for addressing the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the infinite local stability of terminal attractors - a new class of mathematical constructs which provide unique information processing capabilities to artificial neural systems. For robotic applications, synaptic elements of such networks can rapidly acquire the kinematic invariances embedded within the presented samples. Subsequently, joint-space configurations, required to follow arbitrary end-effector trajectories, can readily be computed. In a significant departure from prior neuromorphic learning algorithms, this methodology provides mechanisms for incorporating an in-training skew to handle kinematics and environmental constraints.

Gulati, Sandeep; Barhen, Jacob; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

1989-01-01

65

TEACHING IN THE OUTDOORS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OUTDOOR EDUCATION REINFORCES ABSTRACT LEARNING WITH CONCRETE EXPERIENCE. ITS RELATION TO THE CLASSROOM CURRICULUM IS LIMITED ONLY BY THE IMAGINATION OF THE INSTRUCTOR. OUTDOOR EDUCATION LENDS ITSELF TO THE EXPLORATORY OR DISCOVERY APPROACH TO LEARNING, WHEREBY QUESTIONING BY THE TEACHER CAUSES OBSERVATION AND REACTION BY THE STUDENT. THE RESIDENT…

HAMMERMAN, DONALD R.; HAMMERMAN, WILLIAM M.

66

Neuroeconomics: A Formal Test of Dopamine's Role in Reinforcement Learning.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, dopamine and reinforcement learning have been increasingly linked. Using a novel, axiomatic approach, a recent study shows that dopamine meets the necessary and sufficient conditions required by the theory to encode a reward prediction error. PMID:24735856

Dewitt, Eric E J

2014-04-14

67

Canadian Outdoor Adventure Education: Hear the Challenge--Learn the Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canada is the second largest country in the world by area. With its diverse geophysical features and relatively small population density it is a mecca for outdoor enthusiasts of all types. In the Canadian outdoor adventure education field there is an awakened acknowledgement of the centrality of Native peoples that pervades its practice today.…

Potter, Tom G.; Henderson, Bob

2004-01-01

68

Mobile City and Language Guides--New Links between Formal and Informal Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major challenges in second and foreign language education, is to create links between formal and informal learning environments. Mobile City and Language Guides present examples of theoretical and practical reflections on such links. This paper presents and discusses the first considerations of Mobile City and Language Guides in…

Bo-Kristensen, Mads; Ankerstjerne, Niels Ole; Neutzsky-Wulff, Chresteria; Schelde, Herluf

2009-01-01

69

Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

2012-01-01

70

Using CALL in a Formal Learning Context to Develop Oral Language Awareness in ESL: An Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French learners at university meet difficulties in the comprehension of oral English. Being in a formal context of language learning, they need to develop language awareness to compensate for insufficient exposure to the English language. To meet the students' needs, data was collected in order to pinpoint the main errors made by French learners…

Vincent-Durroux, Laurence; Poussard, Cecile; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Aparicio, Xavier

2011-01-01

71

Discovering Frequent Episodes and Learning Hidden Markov Models: A Formal Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper establishes a formal connection between two common, but previously unconnected methods for analyzing data streams: discovering frequent episodes in a computer science framework and learning generative models in a statistics framework. We introduce a special class of discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), called Episode Generating HMMs (EGHs), and associate each episode with a unique EGH. We prove that,

Srivatsan Laxman; P. S. Sastry; K. P. Unnikrishnan

2005-01-01

72

Relationship of Connected and Separate Knowing to the Learning Styles of Kolb, Formal Reasoning, and Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines relationship between Connected and Separate Knowing dimensions of Knowledge Styles Inventory (K. Knight and others, 1994) and learning modes of A. Kolb (1984), formal operational reasoning (B. Inhelder and J. Piaget, 1958, 1975; G. Tobin and W. Capie, 1981), and vocabulary and abstract thinking abilities (W. Shipley, 1940). Findings…

Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.; Martin, Matthew B.

1997-01-01

73

Online Social Networks as Formal Learning Environments: Learner Experiences and Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the potential of social networking sites to contribute to educational endeavors is highlighted by researchers and practitioners alike, empirical evidence on the use of such sites for formal online learning is scant. To fill this gap in the literature, we present a case study of learners' perspectives and experiences in an online course…

Veletsianos, George; Navarrete, Cesar C.

2012-01-01

74

Job Requirements and Workers' Learning: Formal Gaps, Informal Closure, Systemic Limits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is substantial evidence that formal educational attainments increasingly exceed the educational job requirements of the employed labour force in many advanced market economies--a phenomenon variously termed "underemployment", "underutilisation", or "overqualification". Conversely, both experiential learning and workplace case studies suggest…

Livingstone, D. W.

2010-01-01

75

Learning Goal Orientation, Formal Mentoring, and Leadership Competence in HRD: A Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest a conceptual model of formal mentoring as a leadership development initiative including "learning goal orientation", "mentoring functions", and "leadership competencies" as key constructs of the model. Design/methodology/approach: Some empirical studies, though there are not many, will provide…

Kim, Sooyoung

2007-01-01

76

Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities People who enjoy outdoor ... canoeing or swimming may be at risk for leptospirosis. Learn how to help prevent infection and stay ...

77

Learning in the Second Half of the Career: Stimulating and Prohibiting Reasons for Participation in Formal Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that, as workers age, their participation in education and training declines, which is a problem in our fast changing society and economy. This study focuses on the stimulating and prohibiting reasons for participation in formal learning activities. It investigates whether employees in the second half of their career differ…

Kyndt, Eva; Michielsen, Maya; Van Nooten, Leen; Nijs, Sanne; Baert, Herman

2011-01-01

78

Enriching the Outdoor Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to expand the range of outdoor learning experiences by providing: (1) prop boxes or play crates; (2) a transition area to make going outdoors easier; (3) opportunities to observe birds, insects, weather, other children, and plants; (4) semi-structures to provide protection from weather conditions; and (5) a digging area for plants.…

McGinnis, Janet R.

2002-01-01

79

Individual differences in formal operational thought: sex role and learned helplessness.  

PubMed

Research on sex differences in the utilization of formal operations is equivocal, yet where such differences have been observed, males generally perform better than females. It is unclear, however, whether this sex difference reflects a difference in competence or performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex-role identity and learned helplessness as possible mediating factors affecting performance on formal operational tasks. Performance on 4 tasks requiring formal operations was assessed for 13-year-old males and females. Contrary to expectations, the performance of individuals with a feminine sex role did not differ significantly from that of individuals with a masculine sex role. While adolescents who were classified as both androgynous and helpless performed poorly on several of the measures, this result was not completely consistent across tasks. Possible explanations for this lack of consistency are explored. PMID:7172779

Overton, W F; Meehan, A M

1982-12-01

80

Science Class Moves Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Corporate Lands for Learning (CLL) program whose goal is to improve environmental education opportunities for students of all ages. Highlights the range of hands-on outdoor programs available for students. (JRH)

Grove, Mary Anna

1997-01-01

81

Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests and questions raised during visits to informal settings. Consequently teachers noted their students were better able to connect to traditional elements of school as a result of their informal experiences. Personal growth of students was also a major area of change. Increases in self-esteem, fieldtrip and classroom participation, as well as improved classroom behavior were reported and observed and improved the way the classroom functioned.

Schneider, Barbara P.

82

Supporting Whole-Child Learning in Nature-Filled Outdoor Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts." This much-repeated quote speaks eloquently to the kinds of life-enhancing skills children develop when they interact with caring adults in thoughtfully designed nature-filled outdoor classrooms. As a network of these classrooms springs…

Wirth, Susan; Rosenow, Nancy

2012-01-01

83

The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

Wistoft, Karen

2013-01-01

84

Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

2009-01-01

85

A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

86

Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

2009-01-01

87

The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor

Wood, Gregory

1997-01-01

88

Multiple Modes in Corporate Learning: Propelling Business IQ with Formal, Informal and Social Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that the shifting corporate environment is placing ever greater stresses on learning organizations, this paper reports how companies are increasingly offering employees a wide choice of learning options beyond conventional classroom training, including online, social learning, and other modalities in "blended" programs. Identifying a…

Ambrose, John; Ogilvie, Julie

2010-01-01

89

The Substance Beneath the Labels of Experiential Learning: The Importance of John Dewey for Outdoor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recommends a reconceptualisation of "experience learning". It is premised on a belief that the simplistic learning cycle is problematic and moreover is an oversimplified interpretation of Kolb's original model of experiential learning. We argue that to understand experiential learning fully a return to the original theoretical…

Ord, Jon; Leather, Mark

2011-01-01

90

Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.

Eick, Charles J.

2012-11-01

91

Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

Choi, Woojae

2010-01-01

92

Semi-Formal Learning Communities for Professional Development in Mobile Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major barrier to the uptake and integration of mobile technologies in teaching and learning is the lack of personal experience of mobile learning on the part of those involved in teaching and in the preparation of materials and methods of learner support. Our project addressed this by introducing 40 academic and support staff to the use of…

Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Pettit, John

2008-01-01

93

THE MOLES AND MINI MOLES SOFTWARE SYSTEM: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present Moles and Mini Moles, a combination of learning software tools that serve in bridging the gap between inside and outside classroom learning experiences. Secondary school students use these tools for hypothesizing, transferring, and testing lessons learned in the classroom into their physical environment. In particular, students use Moles and Mini Moles to create interactive multimedia

André Melzer; Lia Hadley; Marie Glasemann; Michael Herczeg

2006-01-01

94

Learning in Formal and Informal Contexts: Conceptions and Strategies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the conceptions of formal learning held by 22 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students from 3 Australian universities, a group with a high attrition rate in tertiary education. Results show that these students view and approach university learning in much the same way as other students, but the strategies these students used did not…

Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Marton, Ference; Lewis, David C.; Wilss, Lynn A.

2000-01-01

95

Bayesian Network Structure Learning and Inference in Indoor vs. Outdoor Image Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian network model selection techniques may be used to learn and elucidate conditional relationships between features in pattern recognition tasks. The learned Bayesian network may then be used to infer unknown node-states, which may correspond to semantic tasks. One such application of this framework is scene categorization. In this paper, we employ low-level classification based on color and texture, semantic

Michael J. Kane; Andreas E. Savakis

2004-01-01

96

Teachers--The Professionals in Formal Learning as Practitioners of Informal Workplace Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools have been targets for plenty of research, but working life researchers have showed only limited interest in schools as workplaces and as arenas for learning among teachers and other staff. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new study, "Research-supported development work in the schools" by describing its background and…

Tikkanen, Tarja

2006-01-01

97

Learning in dynamic environments with Ensemble Selection for autonomous outdoor robot navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous robot navigation in unstructured out- door environments is a challenging area of active research. The navigation task requires identifying safe, traversable paths which allow the robot to progress toward a goal while avoiding obstacles. Machine learning techniques—in particular, classifier ensembles—are well adapted to this task, accomplishing near- to-far learning by augmenting near-field stereo readings in order to identify safe

Michael J. Procopio; Jane Mulligan; Gregory Z. Grudic

2008-01-01

98

Outdoor Classrooms -- Planning Makes Perfect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum and provide a creative outlet for meeting national and state standards in several disciplines.

Haines, Sarah

2006-07-01

99

Lights, Camera: Learning! Findings from studies of video in formal and informal science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the panel, media researcher, Jennifer Borland, will highlight findings from a variety of studies of videos across the spectrum of formal to informal learning, including schools, museums, and in viewers homes. In her presentation, Borland will assert that the viewing context matters a great deal, but there are some general take-aways that can be extrapolated to the use of educational video in a variety of settings. Borland has served as an evaluator on several video-related projects funded by NASA and the the National Science Foundation including: Data Visualization videos and Space Shows developed by the American Museum of Natural History, DragonflyTV, Earth the Operators Manual, The Music Instinct and Time Team America.

Borland, J.

2013-12-01

100

Exploring salutogenic mechanisms of an outdoor experiential learning programme on youth care farms in the Netherlands: untapped potential?  

PubMed Central

This study explored how (learning) experiences offered through outdoor experiential programmes, particularly the youth care farm approach, may (or may not) enhance young peoples’ ability to recognise and then utilise available resources for personal growth, protection and health promotion. A total of 11 youngsters were asked to look back on their half-year stay on a care farm in the Netherlands, by using semi-structured interviews to elicit their experiences from a salutogenic perspective. Analysis revealed that several resources (and the interaction of these resources) on the youth care farm worked well for the youngsters; contributed to their personal development and to their sense of coherence: the feeling that the world is or can be meaningful, comprehensible and manageable, associated with positive outcome in endeavours linked to improving health and well-being. In general, the attitude of the farmer, working with animals, the informal atmosphere and being temporarily cut-off from the former environment were elements most positively highlighted by the youngsters. The farm environment was mentioned as calming, however, as structuring as well. The strength of the programme as an experiential learning opportunity appears to be the diversity and richness of resources (and stressors!) available to the participants. This creates various opportunities for learning: making sense, interpreting and giving meaning to resources and stressors. Further research into the impact of this kind of programmes, compared to more ‘traditional’ programmes, especially on the ability of youngsters to use resources to finish school, find employment and develop better relationships with their parents is recommended.

Schreuder, Ester; Rijnders, Mandy; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hassink, Jan; Enders-Slegers, Marie-Jose; Kennedy, Lynne

2014-01-01

101

Ambient wood: designing new forms of digital augmentation for learning outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous and mobile technologies provide opportunities for designing novel learning experiences that move out of the classroom. Information can be presented and interacted with in a variety of ways while exploring a physical environment. A key issue this raises is when, where, what and how much? Our research is concerned with the design, delivery and interaction of digital information when

Y. Rogers; S. Price; G. Fitzpatrick; R. Fleck; E. Harris; H. Smith; C. Randell; H. Muller; C. O'Malley; D. Stanton; M. Thompson; M. Weal

2004-01-01

102

Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

2012-01-01

103

Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

2007-01-01

104

Science Sampler: Inquiry Goes Outdoors--What Can We Learn at the Pond?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication "What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide" (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing…

Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary E.

2008-01-01

105

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

2012-01-01

106

Outdoor Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Outdoor Education is a series of outdoor activities that include orienteering, soil and water conservation, forestry, minerals, wildlife, and basic first aid disciplines. This program was designed to enable learners to have hands-on contact with the natural world as well as experience various facets of their natural environment.

Cooper, John

1998-01-01

107

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature—the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework—is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4–6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the research literature and the data collected, allows

Orly Morag; Tali Tal

2011-01-01

108

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature—the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework—is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4–6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the research literature and the data collected, allows

Orly Morag; Tali Tal

2012-01-01

109

Outdoor Ecology School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

Cole, Anna Gahl

2004-01-01

110

Take Math Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scavenger hunts, collecting bottle caps, observing shadows, and other outdoor activities can be developed into a mathematics unit that motivates students to acquire basic mathematical skills. A variety of natural ways to collect data are offered to help foster learning. (DF)

Schall, William E.

1984-01-01

111

Participation in Non-Formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states. The paper also seeks to extend analysis of the training gap by pursuing the distinction between the supply and the demand for skills. We use aggregate data from the Adult Education Survey (Eurostat)…

Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

2012-01-01

112

Science Sampler: Inquiry goes outdoors--What can we learn at the pond?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing science skills. Lessons in this publication are supported by the Inquiry in Action model (Bourdeau 2004b), which provides a framework for students to use all the steps needed for science inquiry. This article illustrates how this model can be used to engage students in an investigation about life in and around ponds.

Arnold, Mary E.; Bourdeau, Virginia

2008-09-01

113

Formal and Informal Context Factors as Contributors to Student Engagement in a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explored informal (after-school) and formal (elective course in-school) learning contexts as contributors to middle-school student attitudinal changes in a guided discovery-based and blended e-learning program in which students designed web games and used social media and information resources for a full school year. Formality of the…

Reynolds, Rebecca; Chiu, Ming Ming

2013-01-01

114

Participation, Learning and Change. Commonwealth Approaches to Non-Formal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six-chapter book highlights the main issues and findings of the 1979 New Delhi Conference on Non-formal Education for Development. Chapter 1 defines non-formal education, discusses development needs, and discusses motivation at the political, operational, and participatory level. Chapter 1 includes two case studies of non-formal education in…

Fordham, Paul, Ed.

115

Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

Murphy, Tony

116

A National Study of Outdoor Wilderness Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the learning and character development effects of the outdoor wilderness experience. The research consisted of a retrospective study in which surveys were completed by 429 participants in outdoor programs sponsored by the Student Conservation Association, the National Outdoor Leadership School, and Outward Bound; and a…

Kellert, Stephen R.

117

An examination of the impact of non-formal and informal learning on adult environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation in non-formal and informal education venues improved environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior models, providing evidence for the value and need for non-formal and informal environmental adult education venues.

Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett

118

Young Students Learning Formal Algebraic Notation and Solving Linear Equations: Are Commonly Experienced Difficulties Avoidable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looks at a mixed ability group of 21 Year 5 primary students (aged 9-10 years old) who had previously never had formal instruction using letters to stand for unknowns or variables in a mathematics context; nor had they been introduced to formal algebraic notation. Three lessons were taught using the computer software "Grid Algebra"…

Hewitt, Dave

2012-01-01

119

Personalization Principle in Multimedia Learning: Conversational versus Formal Style in Written Word  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of appropriately designed multimedia software for both conversational and formal styles with respect to various variables. The model of nonequivalent control group was used in the study. While the group studying with the multimedia material in formal style included 22 students, the other group…

Kurt, Adile Askim

2011-01-01

120

The Effect of Formal Representation on the Learning of Ratio Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of formal representation of blue and yellow color mixtures as rational numbers on students' ability to solve ratio problems comparing the mixtures. Sixty subjects participated, 20 from each of grades 7, 8, and 9 from a Haifa (Israel) junior high school. Introducing the formal representation improved performance for…

Nesher, Pearla; Sukenik, Michal

1991-01-01

121

Outdoor Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes an art project in which students create their own outdoor environments using a tri-wall frame--a triple-layered cardboard, which is very lightweight and strong. Then the students compose a few sentences describing the scene or place.

Tomascoff, Rocky

2009-01-01

122

Development of a Parent's Guide for the Singapore Primary Science Curriculum: Empowering Parents as Facilitators of Their Children's Science Learning outside the Formal Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents can play a vital and active role in facilitating their children's science learning outside the formal classrooms. Parental involvement in their children's science learning process not only could enhance their children's learning motivation and interest in science, it could also help to strengthen the family bond when parents and children…

Lee, Ai Noi

2012-01-01

123

Learning by Doing: Practical Courses in Lightweight Formal Methods using VDM++.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe the design and delivery of two courses that aim to develop skills of use to students in their subsequent professional practice, whether or not they are directly applying formal methods. Both curricula take a 'lightweight' approach, emphasising...

J. S. Fitzgerald P. G. Larsen S. Riddle

2006-01-01

124

Recognising Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Participant Insights and Perspectives. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of the skills acquired through non-formal or informal learning is important for a number of reasons. Individuals gain a feeling of worth and self-confidence, which encourages them to continue to upgrade their skills and knowledge, often leading to formal qualifications and improved employment outcomes. The process of recognition of…

Smith, Larry; Clayton, Berwyn

2009-01-01

125

Outdoor Ecology School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On a bright spring day last year, high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of an annual Outdoor Ecology School. At a water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students rotated through a series of inquiry-based activities that involved conducting field research and scavenger hunts, discovering animal habitats, studying population growth, and exploring predator-prey relationships. Community members and parents who dropped by were treated to an enthusiastic flurry of activities and learning.

Cole, Anna G.

2004-05-01

126

From Non-Formal Education to Lifelong Learning: Bridging Schools with Youth Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New, more comprehensive forms of cooperation are needed between schools and sources of nonformal education in the community. Institutions should work together to promote a new culture of learning and enhanced learning environments. (SK)

Sahlberg, Pasi

2001-01-01

127

When a Carton Becomes a Car: Encouraging Imaginative Play Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the importance of outdoor play as a space for active learning, discovery, and development of motor skills. Provides suggestions for creating an outdoor curriculum, including how to get started, important materials, and activity ideas. Encourages teachers and caregivers to devote plenty of time and energy to outdoor learning. (SD)

Butler, Margie; And Others

1997-01-01

128

Developing an eLearning tool formalizing in YAWL the guidelines used in a transfusion medicine service.  

PubMed

The blood transfusion is a complex activity subject to a high risk of eventually fatal errors. The development and application of computer-based systems could help reducing the error rate, playing a fundamental role in the improvement of the quality of care. This poster presents an under development eLearning tool formalizing the guidelines of the transfusion process. This system, implemented in YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language), will be used to train the personnel in order to improve the efficiency of care and to reduce errors. PMID:22874389

Russo, Paola; Piazza, Miriam; Leonardi, Giorgio; Roncoroni, Layla; Russo, Carlo; Spadaro, Salvatore; Quaglini, Silvana

2012-01-01

129

The Impact of Formal and Informal Learning on Students' Improvisational Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, based on my PhD empirical study, was conducted in a qualitative and holistic approach. It had examined how students had used formal and informal strategies, styles and situations while improvising and composing for the research task. Eighteen research groups made up of a total of 40 males and nine females had participated in…

Augustyniak, Sylvana

2014-01-01

130

Formal Adult Learning and Working in Europe: A New Typology of Participation Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how a typology of participating patterns is developed to deepen understanding of participation in formal adult education and the relationship between current workplace and educational programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of conceptual work based on a qualitative analysis…

Hefler, Gunter; Markowitsch, Jorg

2010-01-01

131

Piagetian Formal Operational Tasks: A Crossover Study of Learning Effect and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purposes of this study were to analyze responses on five Piagetian formal operational tasks in a test-retest situation to determine the extent to which taking a pretest effected scores on posttests and to determine task and examiner reliabilities. Significant test score gains on Piagetian tasks appeared to result from test-retest…

Lawson, Anton E.; And Others

1974-01-01

132

The Wicehtowak Partnership: Improving Student Learning by Formalizing the Family-Community-School Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which formalization of the family-community-school partnership through the Wicehtowak Partnership influenced educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in one urban school district. It finds that the community engagement process employed by the school district for creating the partnership…

Tunison, Scott

2013-01-01

133

Outdoor Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Today’s outdoor navigation systems are based on various advanced technologies. The main technologies include geo-positioning\\u000a to determine the current location of a user in real time (e.g., using GPS), wireless communication to obtain updated data\\u000a about traffic and weather in real time and\\/or to provide navigation services via remote servers, and database for storage\\u000a of spatial and non-spatial data in

Hassan A. Karimi

134

Mature Student Perceptions of Formal and Informal Learning on a Diploma in Childcare and Education Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social learning theory and situated learning were reflected in the discourse of British adult students in a childcare/early childhood education course. They attached considerable importance to placement experiences and had concerns about the theory-practice gap and the quality of placement support. (Contains 51 references.) (SK)

Coleman, Phil

2003-01-01

135

The Role of Written Formative Feedback in Inducing Non-Formal Learning among Masters Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adds to the existing literature on nonformal learning in education in general and the role played by written feedback in providing the space for such learning in particular. The study was conducted in an English as a Foreign Language context in which the participating students received written feedback on their English writings.…

Mirzaee, Alireza; Hasrati, Mostafa

2014-01-01

136

Teachers as Game Designers: Using a Game in Formal Learning in a Singapore Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have offered, in recent years, compelling reasons for considering the potential of digital games to support learning and in response policy-makers and educators around the world have demonstrated a commitment to exploring their practical use in school. There remain, however, many questions about how games can best support learning,…

Sandford, Richard

2014-01-01

137

AGORA V: Identification, Evaluation and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning (Thessaloniki, Greece, March 15-16, 1999). CEDEFOP Panorama Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains papers from a 2-day meeting on identification, evaluation, and recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union. The following papers are included: "Identification, Assessment, and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning: European Tendencies" (Jens Bjornavold); "Why Measure Human Capital?" (Riel Miller); "Mobility and…

Guggenheim, Eric Fries, Ed.

138

USING THE MOLES AND MINI MOLES SOFTWARE SYSTEM TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses on bridging the gap between inside and outside classroom learning experiences. We present Moles and Mini Moles, a learning software tools system specifically designed to serve this purpose. Secondary school students use these tools for hypothesizing, gathering, and transferring information learned within the classroom and testing their knowledge and recording their experiences in the physical environment

André Melzer; Lia Hadley; Marie Glasemann; Michael Herczeg

139

The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

Ettenger, Jim

140

Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

Knapp, Clifford E.

141

An Outdoor Workshop: Raku Firing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of building and firing a raku kiln is a memorable happening. The cost is low and students learn to appreciate the work involved in firing a kiln while the pots are a pleasant reminder of an outdoor workshop. (Author/RK)

Siver, David

1978-01-01

142

Television Goes to School: The Impact of Video on Student Learning in Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on key questions concerning the relationship of television to learning, and provides examples drawn from current television research to demonstrate television's positive effect on student achievement. A set of practical recommendations are also provided so that broadcasters and educators can maximize the effectiveness of video…

Education Development Center, Inc, 2004

2004-01-01

143

Coordinating Formal and Informal Aspects of Mathematics in a Computer Based Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction of educational technology to school classes promises--through the students' active engagement with mathematical concepts--the creation of teaching and learning opportunities in mathematics. However, the way technological tools are used in the teaching practice as a means of human thought and action remains an unsettled matter as…

Skouras, A. S.

2006-01-01

144

Identification, Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning in Spain. CEDEFOP Panorama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes and analyzes the situation of nonformal learning in Spain. Chapter 1 describes the Spanish context by looking at qualification as the point of departure; recent changes in the industrial fabric of Spain and the birth of a new social and institutional view of qualification; the reform of vocational education and training;…

Castillo, Juan Jose; Alas-Pumarino, Andres; Santos, Maximiano

145

Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

Rillo, Thomas J.

146

Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

2006-05-10

147

"I Feel like I'm Being Hit from All Directions": Enduring the Bombardment as a Mature-Age Learner Returning to Formal Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mature-age learner's re-engagement with a formal learning environment may be somewhat akin to the novice Paintball player who, unless well positioned and attuned to the rules of the combative game, is bombarded and worn down by constant "hits". For the mature-age learner, such "hits" may come in the form of tensions surrounding institutional…

Willans, Julie; Seary, Karen

2011-01-01

148

Your Outdoor Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

Hinman, Laurie

2005-01-01

149

Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

2003-01-01

150

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

151

E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care  

PubMed Central

Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point.

2014-01-01

152

The Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

Thomas, Dorothy E.

153

Effective Thinking Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

Hyde, Rod

1997-01-01

154

Outdoor Classroom Coordinator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

Keeler, Rusty

2010-01-01

155

Hunting and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

Matthews, Bruce E.

1991-01-01

156

Outdoor Recreation Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

Jubenville, Alan

157

Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

2000-01-01

158

Outdoor Education at Camp Tawingo: History and Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camp Tawingo (Ontario) started as a summer camp in 1961 based on the philosophy that through outdoor recreation and fun, children can learn about self, others, community, and nature. This philosophy has guided it through its growth into an independent residential outdoor center and an independent, small rural school for grades K-8, Tawingo…

Fortin, Neil

2000-01-01

159

Exploring Small Climates--An Outdoor Science Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of climates in small areas as an outdoor science teaching technique is described in this paper. It is suggested that, while teachers are presenting a weather unit to their elementary school classes, they should not overlook the opportunity to make learning more meaningful through outdoor teaching techniques. Explorations of temperatures…

Rillo, Thomas J.

160

The Outdoor Classroom. Experiencing Nature in the Elementary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through direct experience within natural settings, outdoor education allows students to learn about environmental concerns such as migration of birds, weather systems, wildlife habitats, watersheds, soil erosion, geological formations, food chains, and community resources. All subject areas in the present curriculum can be enriched through outdoor

Alexander, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

161

Wilderness Writing: Using Personal Narrative To Enhance Outdoor Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreation professor and a writing teacher created a college program combining outdoor experiences with personal narrative writing. Students learn technical outdoor skills and a process of self-discovery, experience the complete writing process, and build cohesive discourse communities. Developing such a program involves making goals, designing…

Bennion, John; Olsen, Burton

2002-01-01

162

Outdoor education: Research topic or universal value? Part three  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the discussion in parts one and two there are two main points that emerge. The first is that it is difficult to identify from outdoor education literature a philosophical framework on which practice is based. Secondly, the body of outdoor education literature attaches more importance to learning outcomes relating to personal and social education than environmental education. The purpose

Robbie Nicol

2003-01-01

163

Science, Using the Outdoors. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Features five articles on outdoor learning for young children: (1) "Summertime Science for School-Agers: Just for Fun?" (Steven L. Snyder); (2) "Nurturing Environmental Awareness in Children" (Kim Hyers); (3) "Sharing Nature with Children" (Karen Stephens); (4) "The Adventure Outside Your Classroom Door" (Sally Hurwitz); and (5) "Environmental…

Snyder, Steven L.; Hyers, Kim; Stephens, Karen; Hurwitz, Sally; Kelly, Anna

1999-01-01

164

Exploring Sound in the Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes teaching the phenomena of sound in the outdoor classroom to enhance learning experiences. Methods for demonstrating sound travel and speed are explained. Activities cover listening to natural sounds, determining tone and volume, and constructing instruments from natural sources. The suggested lesson plan for exploring sounds…

Rillo, Thomas J.

165

Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

Galloway, Shayne

2005-01-01

166

Outdoor Education Directory: Organizations Involved in Outdoor Experiential Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists organizations actively involved in outdoor experiential education. Outdoor experiential education includes some or all of the following elements: (1) active involvement in solving outdoor problems; (2) verbal reflection following the experience; (3) introduction of a level of stress or challenge in completing the outdoor

ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.

167

Healthy Air Outdoors  

MedlinePLUS

... threaten life itself. Protecting Your Health Outdoor air pollution threatens the lives and health of millions of ... challenges of global warming and energy use, air pollution remains a widespread problem. » More Fighting for Healthy ...

168

Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

169

Lived-experience in outdoor education: Explorations for the educational practitioner \\/ researcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within outdoor education, researcher's and author's representations of 'nature', 'the outdoor environment', 'the outdoor classroom', and 'wilderness' are often presented as unproblematic phenomena to be encountered, learned 'in', 'about', and sometimes 'for'. This approach continues despite the emergence within environmental discourse of arguments suggesting that the human experience of relations with these 'places' are far more complex and ambiguous. This

Brian Wattchow

170

Using NASA Data in the Classroom: Promoting STEM Learning in Formal Education using Real Space Science Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provides formal educators the opportunity to teach their students real-world applications of the STEM subjects. Combining real space science data with lessons aimed at meeting state and national education standards provides a memorable educational experience that students can build upon throughout their academic careers. Many of our colleagues have adopted the use of real data in their education and public outreach (EPO) programs. There are challenges in creating resources using real data for classroom use that include, but are not limited to, accessibility to computers/Internet and proper instruction. Understanding and sharing these difficulties and best practices with the larger EPO community is critical to the development of future resources. In this session, we highlight three examples of how NASA data is being utilized in the classroom: the Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET) that utilizes real Hubble Space Telescope data; the computer image-analysis resources utilized by the NASA WISE infrared mission; and the space science derived math applications from SpaceMath@NASA featuring the Chandra and Kepler space telescopes. Challenges and successes are highlighted for these projects. We also facilitate small-group discussions that focus on additional benefits and challenges of using real data in the formal education environment. The report-outs from those discussions are given here.

Lawton, B.; Hemenway, M. K.; Mendez, B.; Odenwald, S.

2013-04-01

171

A Case for Using Computer-Assisted Learning in Mathematics to Improve Instruction in Formal GED Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using computer-assisted learning to deliver math instruction for General Educational Development (GED) students would increase achievement through individuation and free class time for developing critical-thinking skills. This would maximize the part-time experience of GED students. (SK)

Elias, Joseph S.; Yoder, Zelda

1998-01-01

172

Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

173

Outdoor Adventure Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor adventure training resulted in increased sensitivity, self-confidence, carry-over into intellectual activities, and pro-social change in a variety of university, juvenile, and penal institutional settings. Modifications for urban adventure training opportunities have also been developed but not yet evaluated. (MJB)

Dickey, Howard L.

1978-01-01

174

Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

Exceptional Parent, 1983

1983-01-01

175

Perception for Outdoor Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews progress at Carnegie Mellon from August 16, 1991 to August 15, 1992 on research sponsored by DARPA, DoD, monitored by the U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center under contract DACA 76-89-C-0014, titled Perception for Outdoor Navigati...

C. Thorpe T. Kanade M. Hebert D. Pomerleau

1992-01-01

176

Outdoor Education. Resource Catalogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this catalog has been compiled to serve as a ready reference for teachers to assist them in locating outdoor education materials and obtaining environmental student project assistance available from government departments and private organizations within the province of Manitoba. Part 1 lists agencies that can provide speakers,…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

177

The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

Rich, Steve

2000-01-01

178

Infant and Toddler Outdoor Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is the time to take full advantage of the myriad wonders of nature--and all the outdoor play spaces--with children and toddlers. In this article, the author presents several outdoor summer activities for infants and toddlers.

Honig, Alice Sterling

2005-01-01

179

A Rationale for Outdoor Activity as Experiential Education: The Reason for Freezin'.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Dewey said, "Learning is thinking about experience". This dictum accurately reflects the rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education. The term "outdoor learning" refers to a set of activities which have the following characteristics in common: environmental contrast (a sharp environmental change for the participant); physical…

Kesselheim, A. Donn

180

Feminist Perspectives on Outdoor Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist perspectives provide a basis for examining the nature of participation in outdoor experiences, the goals of outdoor leadership, and the meanings associated with the outdoors. Feminism is concerned with the correction of both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to social change and removal of social…

Henderson, Karla

181

Children and the Outdoor Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we will discuss the outdoor environment for younger children with the help of two different concepts. The first concept, affordance, is well known in the discussion about outdoor environments. What the affordance in the outdoor environment is perceived as can differ between actors. How the affordance is used can be another source…

Niklasson, Laila; Sandberg, Anette

2010-01-01

182

The Fragmentation of Outdoor Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although outdoor leadership does not appear to be coalescing into a unified profession, there are potential solutions to this fragmentation. Six robust approaches to the professional provision of outdoor leadership are: (1) outfitting and guiding; (2) organized camping; (3) adventure education, such as Outward Bound; (4) the outdoor school; (5)…

Cockrell, David

183

Contemporary Perspectives in Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide the student of outdoor education with a synthesis of current literature in the field, this collection presents 26 articles which range from administrative to practical applications of outdoor education theory and philosophy. Articles include discussions of: (1) the philosophy of outdoor education; (2) a London school and its…

Lewis, Charles A., Jr., Ed.; Carlson, Marcia K., Ed.

184

"Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

Tellnes, Atle

1992-01-01

185

Outdoor Programmes for Women Only?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for women-only outdoor programs as an alternative to mixed programs, socialization and stereotyping of gender roles and behavior in society, and barriers to outdoor participation for women. Describes some women-only outdoor programs and their benefits and disadvantages. Provides recommendations concerning program design and…

Nolan, Tammy Leigh; Priest, Simon

1993-01-01

186

Group Dynamics and Initiative Activities with Outdoor Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on group dynamics and introduces the use of initiative activities as a means of facilitating a more cohesive group experience in outdoor programs. Specific topics addressed and defined include: (1) curative factors of groups (universality, didactic learning, altruism, socialization, peer learning, group cohesiveness); (2) stages…

Zwaagstra, Lynn

187

Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

Carter, Candice C.

2013-01-01

188

Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineers at Pennsylvania State University have devised an air conditioning system that is more efficient than current standards and is highly resistant to dangerous airborne microbes such as anthrax. Because the Dedicated Outdoor Air System (DOAS) does not use recirculated air, a letter contaminated with anthrax would not spread throughout the building. A detailed technical overview of the concept is given on the DOAS home page, as well as an assessment of its benefits over traditional air conditioning. A collection of over twenty research papers and five presentations related to the system's development is also provided.

2001-01-01

189

Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics: a cross-sectional neighborhood observation study  

PubMed Central

Background Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children’s outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to identify quantitative as well as qualitative neighborhood characteristics related to outdoor play by means of neighborhood observations. Methods Questionnaires including questions on outdoor play behavior of the child were distributed among 3,651 parents of primary school children (aged 4–12?years). Furthermore, neighborhood observations were conducted in 33 Dutch neighborhoods to map neighborhood characteristics such as buildings, formal outdoor play facilities, public space, street pattern, traffic safety, social neighborhood characteristics, and general impression. Data of the questionnaires and the neighborhood observations were coupled via postal code of the respondents. Multilevel GEE analyses were performed to quantify the correlation between outdoor play and independently measured neighborhood characteristics. Results Parental education was negatively associated with outdoor play among children. Neither the presence nor the overall quality of formal outdoor play facilities were (positively) related to outdoor play among children in this study. Rather, informal play areas such as the presence of sidewalks were related to children’s outdoor play. Also, traffic safety was an important characteristic associated with outdoor play. Conclusions This study showed that, apart from individual factors such as parental education level, certain modifiable characteristics in the neighborhood environment (as measured by neighborhood observations) were associated with outdoor play among boys and girls of different age groups in The Netherlands. Local policy makers from different sectors can use these research findings in creating more activity-friendly neighborhoods for children.

2012-01-01

190

Outdoor recreational opportunities in Alabama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What comes to mind when you think about outdoor recreational opportunities? Diagram of the recreational opportunities to enjoy First we will look at the forest services and recreational opportunities. Forest Services There is plenty of hunting opportunities in Alabama to enjoy. Hunting Opportunities Outdoor tips can be essential when enjoying the outdoors. Outdoor Tips What a better way to spend a weekend then going fishing with family and friends. Places to Fish A great way to spend a weekend could also consist of hiking. Hiking Now ...

Smith, Adam

2012-04-04

191

Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin

2007-01-01

192

Preparing Effective Outdoor Pursuit Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information related to selecting, training, and certifying outdoor leaders for high adventure pursuits, is provided by selected experts from five English-speaking nations (Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States). Patterns of differences and similarities among these nations regarding outdoor leadership components and…

Priest, Simon

193

Training College Outdoor Program Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a training program for college outdoor program leaders developed by the Outdoor Action Program at Princeton University (New Jersey). The training program includes a leader training course, a safety management seminar, a wilderness first aid course, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and group skills workshop. This paper describes…

Curtis, Rick

194

Technology Works in the Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

Zita, Adam

2008-01-01

195

Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

Matthews, Bruce E.

1978-01-01

196

View the Zoo! Evaluation of Visual Communication in an Outdoor Educational Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost all of what people learn from outdoor educational settings such as zoos and gardens stems from the exhibits themselves or signs about the exhibits. Evaluation of the various forms of visual communication in outdoor educational settings is necessary to determine the effectiveness of exhibitions, educational activities, and/or conservation…

Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others

197

Supporting Outdoor Play for Young Children: The Zone Model of Playground Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff at the Frank Porter Graham (FPG) Child Care Program developed the zone model of playground supervision (ZoMPS) to ensure a safe environment for outdoor play and enhance playground time for all children. In addition to the social and free-play elements of outdoor play, they wanted to provide activities that support learning and development.…

Kern, Petra; Wakeford, Linn

2007-01-01

198

Outdoor Education on Your School Grounds: An Action Approach to Better Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of school grounds as an outdoor learning area is the main emphasis of this manual for elementary and junior high school teachers. Detailed plannin g steps, site plots, directions for planting, and other related planning information are given, along with guidelines concerning the use of an outdoor classroom by teachers of various subjects.…

Marsh, Norman F.

199

PROGRAM OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION FOR SOUTHERN IDAHO, CURRICULUM GUIDE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES, CONCEPTS, EXPERIENCES, AND DATA TO BE COVERED ARE PRESENTED WITH SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES AND DAILY LESSON PLANS TO PROVIDE TEACHERS IN A SUMMER OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAM WITH MATERIALS TO REINFORCE AND ENHANCE TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM LEARNING. WEEKLY UNIT PLANS IN SCIENCE, LANGUAGE ARTS, MATHEMATICS, AND SOCIAL STUDIES COVER THE…

DU BOIS, DENIS C.; FAITH, DAVID W.

200

Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

201

Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

Rosenow, Nancy

2011-01-01

202

Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)

Briggs, James N.

1993-01-01

203

Designing Backpacks for High Fidelity Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design for our latest backpack to support mobile outdoor augmented reality, and how it evolved from lessons learned with our previous designs. We present a number of novel features which help to re- duce size and weight, improve reliability and ease of con- figuration, and reduce CPU usage on laptop computers.

Wayne Piekarski; Ross Smith; Bruce H. Thomas

2004-01-01

204

COEO's Landmark Research Summary: "Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past year, Andrea Foster reviewed a wide array of current and international research into the multiple, powerful and lasting outcomes produced through utilizing outdoor and experiential education (OEE) as a key learning methodology. As co-authors, Foster and Linney produced an 80-page document that reports the findings according to the…

Linney, Grant

2007-01-01

205

Old Time Apple Cider Makin': An Outdoor Education Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An illustrated, self-contained packet, the resource materials contained in this guide are designed for adaptation to K-8. The resources and ideas presented here are designed to encourage utilization of the outdoors as a learning resource. While intrinsically multidisciplinary, the activities are particularly adaptable to social studies, science,…

Matthews, Bruce E.; Oakes, David B.

206

Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

Mullins, Philip M.

2011-01-01

207

Integrating outdoor activities into the FOSS curriculum: Effect on teacher practices on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A goal of the Center for Learning and Teaching West based at the University of Montana is to provide in-depth professional development through a combination of on-site and distance education activities to mathematics and science middle and high school teachers at identified high-needs schools. In accordance with the Center's goal, teachers on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation have been contacted as they meet the "high-needs" criteria: the schools are in a rural setting and educate mainly Native American students. Since the spring of 2003, contact with the directors of the Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI) on the Blackfeet Reservation has uncovered the need for integration of local outdoor earth science activities into the current Full Option Science System (FOSS) curriculum used in the middle school classrooms. This information combined with the results of a teacher interest survey sent out to the Blackfeet educators in early 2004 indicates an interest in professional development (PD) that covers training in both earth science and field experiences. This research focuses on the earth science teachers and their use of outdoor activities in their science curriculum. Much research has been conducted on the learning styles of Native American students and show that these students have some tendency toward: global/holistic style of organizing information, visual style of mental representation in thinking, reflective style for information processing, and preference of collaborative work on assigned tasks (Hilberg and Tharp, 2002). Though native students generally perform poorly in science, the belief is that their learning styles matched with hands-on, outdoor instruction may improve the students' connection with science and their performance on science assessments. Therefore, the first step in the process is to work with the teachers through professional development in order to incorporate activities that match the learning styles of their students. The workshop designed for the middle school teachers on the Blackfeet Reservation provides support for teachers with regards to FOSS training, content, and activities at local field sites (example is the outdoor classroom at Cut Bank Creek outside of Browning, MT) specific to the Earth History FOSS kit activities chosen for the workshop. The field activities will highlight National and Montana Science Content Standards identified by the teachers and specifically Montana Science Content Standard 5 which reads: "Students understand how scientific knowledge and technological developments impact society." The specific focus on this standard provides opportunity for the "traditional" and "practical" earth science experiences to be "integrated into the more formal content approach of school science (Cajete, 1988)"; a format more accessible to native students."

Geraghty, E.

2004-12-01

208

Outdoor ground impedance models.  

PubMed

Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values. PMID:21568385

Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

2011-05-01

209

Outdoor Science: A Practical Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available February 2010. Research shows that environment-centered education improves student achievement. Whatever your school's setting--urban, suburban, or rural--you can create stimulating outdoor classrooms for your students, with a litt

Rich, Steve

2010-02-01

210

Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... it safely once you've arrived. Pack and Transport Food Safely Keep your food safe: from the ... foods won’t be exposed to warm outdoor air temperatures. Keep coolers closed. Once at the picnic ...

211

The Teachers' Handbook for the Outdoor School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Built around the role of the teacher in outdoor education, this manual outlines important aspects of an organized Outdoor School program for sixth-grade students in Multnomah County, Oregon. The manual describes the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities, and orientation to the Outdoor School. Specific information for teachers, suggested follow-up…

Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

212

Moving Math Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touts using the schoolyard for teaching mathematics. Mathematics is a way of describing the world and its patterns; schoolyards are especially suited to concept application and problem solving. Mathematics in a natural setting also allows students and teachers to meet learning objectives in more than one subject area. Includes math activities for…

Bezanson, Char; Killion, Judith

2001-01-01

213

Secret Ninja Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of formal methods can signicantly improve software quality. However, many instructors and students consider formal meth- ods to be too dicult, impractical, and esoteric for use in undergraduate classes. This paper describes a method, used successfully at several uni- versities, that combines ninja stealth with the latest advances in formal methods tools and technologies to integrate applied formal

Joseph R. Kiniry; Daniel M. Zimmerman

2008-01-01

214

Learning Outdoors: The Forest School Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the role that Forest School can play in children's development. With over 100 Forest Schools in England, 20 in Scotland and 20 in Wales, this concept is growing across Britain. Forest School involves children having regular contact with woodland over an extended period of time; it allows them to become familiar, and have…

O'Brien, Liz

2009-01-01

215

Nonparametric classification of pixels under varying outdoor illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using color for visual recognition outdoors has proven to be a difficult problem, chiefly due to varying illumination. Attempts to classify pixels or image patches in outdoor scenes often fail, partly because of the paucity of the data, but partly because color shifts due to changes in illumination are not well modeled as random noise. Approaches which attempt to recover the `true color' of objects by calculating the color of the incident light (i.e. color-constancy approaches) appear to work in constrained environments, but are not yet applicable to outdoor scenes. We present a technique that uses training images of an object under daylight to learn the shift in color of an object. Our method uses multivariate decision trees for piecewise linear approximation of the region corresponding to the object's appearance in color space. We then classify pixels in outdoor scenes depending on whether they fall within this region, and group clusters of target pixels in to regions of interest (ROIs) for a model-based RSTA system. The techniques presented are demonstrated on a challenging task: recognizing camouflaged vehicles in outdoor military scenes.

Buluswar, Shashi; Draper, Bruce A.

1994-10-01

216

Language Learning in Formal and Informal Contexts. Proceedings of a Joint Seminar of the Irish and British Associations for Applied Linguistics (Dublin, Ireland, September 11-13, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of issues of central importance to understanding the nature of language, its acquisition and use were considered at a seminar on language learning. Papers delivered at the seminar are as follows: "Why Don't Learners Learn What Teachers Teach? The Interaction Hypothesis" (Dick Allwright); "The Role of Instruction in Second Language…

Singleton, D. M., Ed.; Little, D. G., Ed.

217

Assessment and Non Formal Education: The Philippine Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education should not be thought of as being confined within traditional, formal education, but as embracing all learning processes and activities. Formal and informal systems of learning have specific roles to play within the educational process, while maintaining close cooperative linkages with each other. In other words, education is a lifelong…

Valisno, Mona D.

218

Outdoor Adventure and Legal Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines ways in which outdoor adventure programs can guard against charges of negligence and the possibility of lawsuits without diluting challenge or participant satisfaction. Discusses risk management, insurance, safety guidelines to use in the development of program-specific standards, and accident prevention. Contains 19 references. (SV)

Helesic, Terri; Priest, Simon

1991-01-01

219

Outdoor Recreation at Brock University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brock University offers both undergraduate and graduate programs and is host to approximately 17,000 students. It is the only Canadian university located in a World Biosphere Reserve--the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail passes through campus, and offers ample opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, nature interpretation and outdoor

Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Hutson, Garrett

2007-01-01

220

[Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

Farquhar, Carin; And Others

221

Outdoor Recreation Activities at Cispus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the activities in this booklet have been developed around skills related to the outdoors and, in particular, to the logging industry and forest fire fighting. The activities attempt to develop muscles, coordination skills, and teamwork. They also give the students (junior high school or high school) and staff the opportunity to do…

Cispus Environmental Center, Randle, WA.

222

Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

Renner, Hans-Georg

2011-01-01

223

The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starr Commonwealth has served troubled children and youth and their families for nearly a century. Starr's Montcalm Schools operate from campuses in Michigan and Ohio, enrolling students referred by families and educational consultants. The Montcalm Outdoor Challenge Program is a key part of Starr's network of nonprofit alternative education and…

Mitchell, Martin; McCall, Herman J.

2007-01-01

224

Outdoor Recreation Plan, Door County, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an analysis of outdoor recreation trends in Door County. It outlines a program for sound future outdoor recreation development, with major attention given to an action program for implementation of the proposals. The report is intended...

1969-01-01

225

OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

226

Outdoor Recreation Action: Federal, State, Local, Private.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reports on outdoor recreation actions taken at the federal, state, local, and private levels. The Land and Water Conservation Fund and the financing of outdoor recreation on all levels are discussed. New agencies, personnel, reorganizations, resolutions, and recommendations for the organization and administration of outdoor recreation…

Kyle, George M., Ed.

227

Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

2006-01-01

228

Instructional Program Planning for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide on instructional program planning for outdoor education, prepared for Oakland County (Michigan) teachers, contains suggestions for program planning and lists information sources on suitable outdoor activities. The purpose of outdoor education is defined as being: "to enrich, vitalize and complement content areas of the school curriculum by…

Garbutt, Barbara; And Others

229

Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use

Robert Leonard Goldberg; Anthony M. Hicks; L. M. OLeary; Stephanie London

1991-01-01

230

Reflective Practice as a Means for Preparing to Teach Outdoors in an Ecological Garden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although teachers are engaged in many field-trips, they seldom have the pedagogical knowledge and experience to enact them. This article presents an effort to support reflective practice of teachers in the outdoors. The teaching experience of five pre- and in-service teachers included preparation for teaching in the outdoors, designing learning materials, teaching elementary and junior-high school students in an ecogarden, and reflecting upon these teaching experiences. The data collected by teachers and researchers highlighted challenges such as lack of confidence, class management and inadequate student motivation. The group and the instructors’ support and collaboration and careful preparation yielded a positive outdoor teaching experience. We suggest that supported field experience followed by individual and group reflection are promising in encouraging teachers to carry out outdoor learning activities.

Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

2009-06-01

231

Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The interconnections of these three concepts---the outdoor setting, the students' interest, the social interaction---worked to provide the mechanisms by which the students increased their understanding of the rock cycle.

Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

232

How to Set Up a Resource Center to be Compatible with an Outdoor Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A materials collection can provide indirect experiences that will supplement the direct learning experiences offered by an outdoor education nature center. The Instructional Materials Center at Lorado Taft Field Campus provides such multiple learning experiences as it offers print media as well as slides, films, tapes, and projection and field…

Stilson, Jan

233

Formally Generating Adaptive Security Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the five years of the project Formally Generating Adaptive Security Protocols, new formal tools based on original theoretical results of the research team allowed them to formally specify requirements for distributed protocols in a formal logic of sy...

R. L. Constable

2013-01-01

234

Software Formal Inspections Guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

1993-01-01

235

Formal Languages and Computability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 360. Formal Languages and Computability I (3) Prerequisite: CSC 242 and CSC 332. An introduction to theoretical computer science. Topics include regular expression and finite state concepts; basic automata theory; formal grammars and languages; computability; Turing machines; elementary recursive function theory.

Adhar, Gur

2003-04-21

236

Eliciting Formal Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable disagreement concerning the age of onset and universality of attainment of Piaget's stage of formal operations. This study examines developmental differences in response to brief prompts in the use of a formal operational approach to the solution of two tasks. The subjects were 10 males and 10 females from each of Grades 5,…

Danner, Fred W.; Day, Mary Carol

237

Formal Fault Tree Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In train control systems, more and more (electro-)mechanical devices are substituted by software based devices. To sustain the high level safety standards for these embedded systems, we propose the integration of fault tree analysis and formal methods. This combines two important safety analysis methods from the involved domains of engineering and software development. Our approach proposes to build a formal

Gerhard Schellhorn; Andreas Thums; Wolfgang Reif Lehrstuhl

2002-01-01

238

Notes on Formalizing Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

These notes discuss formalizing contexts as rst class objects. The basic relation is ist(c; p). It asserts that the proposition p is true in the context c. The most important formulas relate the propositions true in dieren t contexts. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit ax- iomatizations in limited contexts to be expanded to transcend the original limitations. This

John Mccarthy

1993-01-01

239

Case studies of individualized professional development at an outdoor education center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the publishing of A Nation at Risk in 1983, educators across the country have directed attention and formal research studies towards discovering why American schools are not producing graduates who measure up to students in other countries. Research has been done which deals with children's responses to learning science while utilizing a variety of educational strategies. Factors such as gender, ethnicity, class size, length of the school day or school year, equipment availability and usage, have been studied and their impact analyzed. New assessment devices and testing instruments have been used to measure the amount and quality of their learning. Significant in its absence from most studies is the recognition of what classroom teachers believe about science, what they feel to be the best way(s) to teach science, and how they actually teach science. Related research on these factors laid the ground work for this study. Teaching is a profession characterized by a need for life-long learning. Some teachers study for advanced degrees. "Workshops" and "teacher institutes", either on-site at their own schools or through other enrichment situations provide learning opportunities for others. Informal educational institutions which have provided science enrichment field trip opportunities have recently begun to look at the curriculum goals and expectations of the state boards of education and regional school districts. As they become informed about these goals, their enrichment opportunities are found to serve the schools more fully. This study focuses on the Arlington Echo Outdoor Education Center, where the staff does not merely plan, prepare for, and present lessons on various age-appropriate science topics to schoolchildren which come to them. Instead, it is the policy of this center to prepare the individual classroom teachers so that the teacher assumes the responsibility to provide the preparation of the children for the experience, the facilitation of the various activities and lessons while at the center, and the assessment of the student's learning following the experience. The staff works with each teacher to prepare them to use transdisciplinary science lessons which were planned to satisfy and enrich state, district, and school expectations (Outdoor Education Guidebook, 1997). The staff members believe that if the teachers are prepared to do these things, not only will the current students learn more, but that the teacher will experience growth professionally and this will impact more children over time. The teachers gain science content knowledge and learn constructivist teaching strategies while learning how to use the facilities and equipment safely and confidently. Ideas for preparatory and follow-up activities are made available. This study looked closely at the individualization of the professional development provided by this informal science institution. Data from observations of professional development sessions as well as the on-site experiences with the children were used in the study. Teachers were asked to reflect on the degree to which the Arlington Echo approach to professional development was beneficial in building their confidence about providing science-based, interdisciplinary experiences for their students, with comparisons made between the responses of veteran teachers and those of teachers with fewer years of experience. Through the reflections of the participant teachers, it was possible to gather data about whether their beliefs about science and about how science is best taught were modified by this experience.

Pearsall, Marjorie

240

Automata Games, Stochastic Automata and Formal Languages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is mainly concerned with the behavior of a class of learning automata operating in random environment and a preliminary study of relating automata theory to formal languages. Based on the strategies of two-armed bandit problems, two sequential ...

T. J. Li K. S. Fu

1969-01-01

241

Emissivity measurement for outdoor structures  

SciTech Connect

The author tests a radiometric method of measuring emissivity for outdoor structures. The method measures emissivity from the functional relationship between the brightness of the emission from a source with a known standard emitter and the temperature which is the same as that for the working surface with its coating. The standard sources were provided by special paint coatings whose emissivities were 0.40-0.95. A portable pyrometer was used for the measurements. The radiation temperature and the brightness in relation to the emissivity are shown, as are the coating temperatures as functions of emissivity.

Surin, V.G.

1987-07-01

242

Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges.  

PubMed

Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors. PMID:1865252

Goldberg, R L; Hicks, A M; O'Leary, L M; London, S

1991-06-01

243

Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges  

SciTech Connect

Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. (University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

1991-06-01

244

Residential design and outdoor area accessibility.  

PubMed

The outdoor environment can provide many positive and therapeutic benefits for persons with complex neurological conditions. In order to benefit from outdoor exposure and experiences, individuals need to be able to access that environment. This article provides a discussion of physical and programmatic access to outdoor living elements in homes and residential facilities for persons with neuro-disabilities. Design considerations for outdoor elements such as common gathering areas, walking paths and paths to/between elements, gardens (viewing and working), and resting areas are presented using legal standards or universal design principles as guides. PMID:19893188

York, Sherril L

2009-01-01

245

Formal Synthesis of (?)-Roseophilin  

PubMed Central

A formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5’-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge formation via ?-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21.

Bitar, Abdallah Y.; Frontier, Alison J.

2009-01-01

246

Outdoor air: Calculation and delivery  

SciTech Connect

Calculation of equivalent outdoor air ventilation rates is important when comparing, designing or troubleshooting HVAC systems. Ventilation rates affect indoor air quality, energy use, plant design and cost. Simple calculation methods that do not consider distribution of outdoor air to the occupants, do not distinguish between good and poor distribution systems and are likely to result in unsatisfactory ventilation. In recognition of this ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality requires calculation of equivalent ventilation rates where the supply air rate and occupant density vary between zones. However, the method in the standard assumes that the supply to each zone has a common OA fraction, an assumption that is not valid for dual fan dual duct systems, fan powered terminal systems or systems with imperfect mixing of the supply air. A calculation method extending the existing ASHRAE formula to handle such systems and allowing for imperfect mixing within zones is presented in this article. This method is relatively simple to use and can provide meaningful results where traditional methods do not. This article also includes background on ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality, discussion of appropriate system parameters and suggests on how to achieve in practice, what is conceived as theory.

Warden, D. [Warden (David), Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-06-01

247

Formal Methods for Privacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy means something different to everyone. Against a vast and rich canvas of diverse types of privacy rights and violations, we argue technology’s dual role in privacy: new technologies raise new threats to privacy rights and new technologies can help preserve privacy. Formal methods, as just one class of technology, can be applied to privacy, but privacy raises new challenges, and thus new research opportunities, for the formal methods community.

Tschantz, Michael Carl; Wing, Jeannette M.

248

Revisiting Your Outdoor Environment: Reasons to Reshape, Enrich, Redevelop the Outdoor Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides suggestions for designing effective outdoor space. Focuses on advocating for space, designing spaces based on children's characteristics and preferences, integrating the outdoors in educational planning, including children in decision making and work, knowing about injury prevention, providing adult models who love the outdoors, and…

Mauffette, Anne Gillain

1998-01-01

249

Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

Phipps, Maurice L.

250

Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report on learning psychology and its relationship to the study of school learning emphasizes the increasing interaction between theorists and educational practitioners, particularly in attempting to learn which variables influence the instructional process and to find an appropriate methodology to measure and evaluate learning. "Learning

Glaser, Robert

251

Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

252

Outdoor Education for Behavior Disordered Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor education programs ranging from simple, near-school activities to lengthy wilderness camping experiences can benefit behavior disorderd students. Studies of outdoor education programs for these students have shown positive effects including improvements in self-concept, social adjustment, academic achievement, and group cohesion. Many…

Lappin, Edward

253

Instincts for Survival in Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the outdoor education program in Waterloo County (Ontario) has become an important component of the school system by developing a sound philosophy, staying abreast of educational trends, implementing professional development, providing data on the value of outdoor education, developing community partnerships, and initiating projects…

Glew, Frank

1994-01-01

254

Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

255

Mobility Modeling of Outdoor Scenarios for MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility of users significantly impacts performance of a mobile ad-hoc network. Most existing simulation tools offer only a few random mobility models, which poorly reflect user movements in outdoor scenarios. For example, they do not consider restrictions of a spatial environment. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and extensible approach to model mobility of users in outdoor scenarios. It

Illya Stepanov; Pedro Jose Marron; Kurt Rothermel

2005-01-01

256

Ethical Frameworks, Moral Practices and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insights from quantum physics and chaos theory help create new metaphors about ethical frameworks and moral practices in outdoor education. The seemingly straightforward concept of values is analogous to the initial simple nonlinear equation of a fractal. The value claims of outdoor education--trust, cooperation, environmental awareness,…

Fox, Karen M.; Lautt, Mick

257

Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

Whitcombe, Mark

1989-01-01

258

Multiculturalism: Implications for Outdoor and Conservation Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the role of multiculturalism in outdoor and conservation education. Multiculturalism promotes appreciation of diversity including differences originating from race, ethnicity, gender, and abilities, thereby developing tolerance and human understanding. Several trends make multiculturalism relevant to outdoor activities. By the…

Matthews, Bruce E.

259

Selection of standby batteries for outdoor systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the engineer responsible for selecting batteries for outdoor systems should be to minimize the cost of batteries over the life of the system. Due to the costs associated with battery replacement in decentralized outdoor sites, this objective is best achieved by selecting a battery which can deliver a long life. This is true even if there is

P. Shumard

1997-01-01

260

Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

261

Decontamination of Large Horizontal Concrete Surfaces Outdoors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfa...

C. V. Chester M. M. Barbier

1980-01-01

262

Outdoor mixed reality utilizing surveillance cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outdoor mixed-reality system designed for pedestrians who carries a camera-attached PDA is presented. Our system utilizes surveillance cameras for two purposes; for showing hidden area to the pedestrians by mixed-reality technology and for updating textures of calibration markers in order to handle possible texture changes in outdoor real world.

Yoshinari Kameda; Taisuke Takemasa; Yuichi Ohta

2004-01-01

263

Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

Bunting, Camille J.

264

Outdoor air pollution and asthma.  

PubMed

Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R

2014-05-01

265

The effects of analogy-based instruction on concept learning and retention in a non-formal coral reef ecology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a number of instructional models focus on the use of analogies, research into their effectiveness in enhancing comprehension and retention of scientific concepts, particularly involving adult learners, has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using the common teaching strategy for comparing the function of a coral reef to that of a city by using an analogy-based instructional model termed FAR. The training program entitled "Marine Resource Management for Dive Professionals" (MRMDP) was developed for this study. It was targeted to professionals in the recreational scuba industry to improve their understanding of coal reef ecology, as well as orient them to pertinent marine resource management issues, and promote environmentally-responsible attitudes and diving practices among their clients. A quasi-experimental pre-post-delayed posttest control group design was used to explore five research questions and corresponding hypotheses. A 55-item researcher-developed test of coral reef ecology was administered pre and post instruction. The delayed posttest was self-administered by the subjects three weeks after course completion. Data on seven experiential variables hypothesized as research factors were collected. Ten MRMPD courses were taught in seven nations, involving 194 subjects (85 subjects in four control courses, 109 in six treatment course). The results were analyzed using multiple regression/correlation (MRC) techniques to determine: (1) any significant relationship between pretest performance and experiential variables, (2) treatment versus control group posttest performance, and (3) treatment versus control group delayed posttest performance. Within the treatment group, learning gains and retention were determined by t-test analysis. Results indicated: (1) all research factors except one were significant predictors of pretest scores in the presence of the covariate; (2) no significant difference was found between control and treatment groups' pretest scores; (3) a significant interaction effect from a MANCOVA analysis, and resulting aptitude-treatment interaction analysis, showed group membership had a differential effect on the posttest relative to pretest scores; (4) the contribution of group membership to delayed posttest performance was significant; and (5) the treatment out-performed the control group on the posttest and delayed posttest. T-test analyses of treatment group performance showed a significant positive gain and retention.

Brylske, Alexander Frederick

266

Megatrends in Outdoor Education: Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspired by John Naisbitt's "Megatrends," the article identifies the past, present, and future directions of outdoor education. The article notes the implications of these directions for outdoor education programing and forecasts changes in outdoor education. (SB)

Rillo, Thomas J.

1984-01-01

267

Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

268

Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

1993-01-01

269

Wilderness U.: Opportunities for Outdoor Education in the U.S. & Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1980s saw a dramatic change in the use of leisure as millions of Americans turned to vacations that emphasized exploration, learning, and renewed awareness of the natural world. The first part of this three-part sourcebook lists approximately 270 institutions, organizations, and businesses offering programs in outdoor education, environmental…

McMillon, Bill

270

Student Evaluation of the Waterloo County Board of Education Outdoor and Environmental Education Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a survey of 517 8th- and 12th-grade students in Waterloo County (Ontario) schools, the majority of students who had attended outdoor and environmental education programs reported high levels of learning in key areas of ecology and environmental studies. In addition, most respondents reported feeling positive about the program and their…

Eagles, Paul; And Others

1997-01-01

271

Life in Early California: A New Approach to the Outdoor Field Trip  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an outdoor educational program at the University of California Botanical Garden in which children are encouraged to handle the plants and are provided with a taped commentary. By the use of an inquiry method, children learn how the Californian Indians used many of the native plants. (JR)

Falk, John H.

1973-01-01

272

Exploring Bi-Cultural Awareness through Outdoor Education in Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the use of outdoor-based experiential learning in an undergraduate physical education teacher preparation program to develop a culturally-sensitive pedagogy for work with children from different cultures. Applying the six-stage process for becoming a bi-cultural teacher (Klug & Whitfield, 2003), teacher preparation students…

Brawdy, Paul J.

2004-01-01

273

Lessons from the Mud: Nurturing an Outdoor Classroom in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A muddy area between two new elementary schools was transformed into a school "wetlands"--an outdoor learning center used for nature study and various creative and sensory activities. The area encourages children's natural curiosity, provides many discoveries about nature, and promotes a sense of stewardship. (SV)

Bodner, Virginia; Sampson, Karla

1999-01-01

274

Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio

2007-01-01

275

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES SUPPLEMENTAL TO AND RELATED TO THE ART PROGRAM AT DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A CURRICULUM GUIDE DEALING WITH VARIOUS SUBJECT AREAS WAS PREPARED FOR POSSIBLE STUDY ACTIVITIES THAT WOULD USE THE LEARNING RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE DEEP RIVER OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER IN GARY, INDIANA. ACTIVITIES GUIDES ARE PRESENTED FOR (1) ART ACTITIVIES RELATED TO DESIGN, COLOR, LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION, PAPER CONSTRUCTION, DRAWING, PRINT…

Gary City Public School System, IN.

276

Freedom, Flow and Fairness: Exploring How Children Develop Socially at School through Outdoor Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report on a study that sought to discover micro-level social interactions in fluid outdoor learning spaces. Our methodology was centred around the children; our methods moved with them and captured their social interactions through mobile audio-recording. We argue that our methodological approach supported access to…

Waite, Sue; Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie

2013-01-01

277

New Perspectives for Teaching Physical Education: Preservice Teachers' Reflections on Outdoor and Adventure Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers' perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the…

Timken, Gay L.; McNamee, Jeff

2012-01-01

278

Concrete to Formal Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compares the concrete to formal operations of a group of psychiatlic outpatient adults with a normal control group as reflected in six Piagetian tasks. Tasks or procedures requiring the manipulation of the concrete features of material objects (conservation and classification) showed the strongest effect on patients' performance. Surprisingly, no significant difference was found in tasks requiring the higher

Liliana Tolcinsky Landsmann; Noomi Katz

1988-01-01

279

Formalizing information security knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unied and formal knowledge models of the information se- curity domain are fundamental requirements for supporting and enhancing existing risk management approaches. This paper describes a security ontology which provides an on- tological structure for information security domain knowl- edge. Besides existing best-practice guidelines such as the German IT Grundschutz Manual also concrete knowledge of the considered organization is incorporated.

Stefan Fenz; Andreas Ekelhart

2009-01-01

280

Formalizing software ecosystem modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is no formal modeling standard for software ecosystems that models both the ecosystem and the environment in which software products and services operate. Major implications are (1) software vendors have trouble distinguishing the specific software ecosystems in which they are active and (2) they have trouble using these ecosystems to their strategic advantage. In this paper we present

Vasilis Boucharas; Slinger Jansen; Sjaak Brinkkemper

2009-01-01

281

Formalizing architectural connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As software systems become more complex the overall system structure – or software architecture – becomes a central design problem. An important step towards an engineering discipline of sofware is a formal basis for describing and analyzing these designs. In this paper we present a theory for one aspect of architectural description: the interactions between components. The key idea is

Robert B. Allen; David Garlan

1994-01-01

282

Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range  

SciTech Connect

The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

NONE

1989-05-01

283

The MObile-Based Interactive Learning Environment (MOBILE) and A Case Study for Assisting Elementary School English Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research develops a mobile-based interactive learning environment (MOBILE) for aiding elementary school English learning. The MOBILE consists of a mobile learning server and mobile learning tools, which is able to support in- or outdoor learning activities. Several theme-based mobile learning activities including body parts learning and creation of species are conducted. Experimental results obtained from posttests and questionnaire indicate

Tan-hsu Tan; Tsung-yu Liu

2004-01-01

284

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...protect themselves from the direct rays of the sun. When the atmospheric temperature exceeds 90 °F. artificial cooling shall be...all rabbits kept outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection...

2010-01-01

285

9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...protect themselves from the direct rays of the sun. When the atmospheric temperature exceeds 90 °F. artificial cooling shall be...all rabbits kept outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection...

2009-01-01

286

Formal and Integrated Strategies for Competence Development in SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the relationships among the workplace as a learning environment, strategies for competence development used by SMEs and learning outcomes. Specifically, there is a focus on a distinction between formal and integrated strategies for competence development, the conditions under which…

Kock, Henrik; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

2011-01-01

287

Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

Huffman, Michael G.

288

Cooperative Programs in Residential Outdoor Environmental Education: Teacher's Materials Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as teacher orientation materials for the cooperative programs in residential outdoor education located in Marin County, California, this guide includes the following: (1) "This I Believe" (a philosophical statement on outdoor environmental education); (2) "Outdoor Science and Conservation Education Report" (a brief history of outdoor

Marin County Superintendent of Schools, Corte Madera, CA.

289

Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

2012-01-01

290

Adventure in Environment, Outdoor Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this handbook are questions and ideas for students to consider while studying their environment out-of-doors. Developed to accompany the National Environmental Education Development (NEED) program, it was written to help the student learn to look at familiar places and things in new ways. It utilizes the concept of "strand" approach…

National Park Foundation, Washington, DC.

291

Learning how to learn: the dynamic assessment of learning power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the notion of the assessment of ‘learning power’ as an important station in a mentored learning journey, which begins with the motivation and identity of the person who is learning, and moves through the awareness and development of the power to learn, to the publicly valued competencies and funds of knowledge of the formal curriculum. The seven

Ruth Deakin Crick

2007-01-01

292

Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-supervised learning has attracted a signicant amount of attention in pattern recognition and machine learning. Most previous studies have focused on designing special algorithms to effectively exploit the unlabeled data in conjunction with labeled data. Our goal is to improve the classication accuracy of any given supervised learning algorithm by using the available unlabeled examples. We call this as the

Josephine Gleason; L Postman

1918-01-01

293

On pure spinor superfield formalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that a certain superfield formalism can be used to find an off-shell supersymmetric description for some supersymmetric field theories where conventional su- perfield formalism does not work. This \\

Victor Alexandrov; Vyacheslav Lysovdef; P. N. Lebedev; B. Cheremushkinskaya; L. D. Landau

294

Formalizing the concept of sound.  

SciTech Connect

The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-08-03

295

Formal Semanol Specification of Ada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

this report summarizes the performance and results of a contractual effort to develop a formal operational specification of the DoD common programming language Ada. The formalism used was that of the Semantics Oriented Language, SEMANOL. The design produc...

P. T. Berning

1980-01-01

296

An ethnography of the outdoor classroom – how teachers manage risk in the outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the approaches to risk that some teachers adopt when they are involved in facilitating outdoor activities. The research was carried out at a residential outdoor centre as part of a PhD study and a follow-up pilot project. The participants were primary school pupils, their teachers and the centre staff. For the purpose of this article, the term

Ina Stan; Barbara Humberstone

2011-01-01

297

The Outdoor World: An Outdoor Science and Culture Program for Seneca Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an outdoor summer science program for Seneca Indian children in grades 5-7 that featured weekly outdoor topics integrating science, traditional Native American/Seneca culture, and skills in reading and language arts. Daily activities included field trips, community guests, storytelling, and individual and group projects. (LP)

Dobey, Daniel C.

1994-01-01

298

Continuous lattices in formal topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representation of continuous and prime-continuous lattices via formal topology is found. This representation stems from\\u000a special examples of formal topologies in constructive analysis that give rise to the definition of the classes of locally\\u000a Stone and locally Scott formal topologies. As an application, a representation theorem for locally compact spaces is obtained.

Sara Negri

299

Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

2007-01-01

300

Scenario based outdoor simulation in pre-hospital trauma care using a simple mannequin model  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe a system of scenario-based training using simple mannequins under realistic circumstances for the training of pre-hospital care providers. Methods A simple intubatable mannequin or student volunteers are used together with a training version of the equipment used on a routine basis by the pre-hospital care team (doctor + paramedic). Training is conducted outdoors at the base location all year round. The scenarios are led by scenario facilitators who are predominantly senior physicians. Their role is to brief the training team and guide the scenario, results of patient assessment and the simulated responses to interventions and treatment. Pilots, fire-fighters and medical students are utilised in scenarios to enhance realism by taking up roles as bystanders, additional ambulance staff and police. These scenario participants are briefed and introduced to the scene in a realistic manner. After completion of the scenario, the training team would usually be invited to prepare and deliver a hospital handover as they would in a real mission. A formal structured debrief then takes place. Results This training method technique has been used for the training of all London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (London HEMS) doctors and paramedics over the last 24 months. Informal participant feedback suggests that this is a very useful teaching method, both for improving motor skills, critical decision-making, scene management and team interaction. Although formal assessment of this technique has not yet taken place we describe how this type of training is conducted in a busy operational pre-hospital trauma service. Discussion The teaching and maintenance of pre-hospital care skills is essential to an effective pre-hospital trauma care system. Simple mannequin based scenario training is feasible on a day-to-day basis and has the advantages of low cost, rapid set up and turn around. The scope of scenarios is limited only by the imagination of the trainers. Significant effort is made to put the participants into "the Zone" - the psychological mindset, where they believe they are in a realistic setting and treating a real patient, so that they gain the most from each teaching session. The method can be used for learning new skills, communication and leadership as well as maintaining existing skills. Conclusion The method described is a low technology, low cost alternative to high technology simulation which may provide a useful adjunct to delivering effective training when properly prepared and delivered. We find this useful for both induction and regular training of pre-hospital trauma care providers.

2010-01-01

301

Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables ?, ? and ?, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

2014-05-01

302

The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

Duvekot, Ruud

2009-01-01

303

A Rule-Based Formalism for Describing Collaborative Adaptive Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A significant number of collaborative and adaptive web-based systems have been created to support distance learning in the\\u000a last years. However, there is a need of formalisms to support an extensible, flexible and maintainable specification of both\\u000a collaboration and adaptation issues, especially when they are combined in an integrated environment. In this paper we present\\u000a a rule-based formalism for the

Rosa M. Carro; Alvaro Ortigosa; Johann H. Schlichter

2003-01-01

304

Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors  

SciTech Connect

A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed.

Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

1980-01-01

305

Personal exposure to PM 2.5 and element composition—A comparison between outdoor and indoor workers from two Mexican cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many individuals work outdoors in the formal and informal economy of the large urban areas in developing countries, where they are potentially exposed for long periods to high concentrations of ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). This study describes the personal exposures to PM of 2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter and smaller (PM 2.5) for a sample of outdoor and indoor workers in two cities, Mexico City and Puebla, in central Mexico. Thirty-six workers in Mexico City and 17 in Puebla were studied. Thirty were outdoor workers (i.e., taxi and bus drivers, street vendors, and vehicle inspectors) and 23 were indoor (office) workers. Their personal exposures to PM 2.5 were monitored for a mean 19-h period. In Mexico City, the street vendors and taxi drivers overall exposures were significantly higher than indoor workers were. In Puebla, bus drivers had a higher overall exposure than vehicle inspectors or indoor workers. Most of the exposures were above the 65 ?g m -3 24-h Mexican standard. In Mexico City, exposures to Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and Cd were higher for outdoor than for indoor workers. In Puebla, exposures to Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, and Zn also were higher for outdoor workers. In Mexico City outdoor workers exposures to Cu, Pb, Cr, Se and Mo were 4 or more times higher than for Puebla outdoor workers, while Puebla outdoor workers' exposures to V, Si, Fe and Ca were 3 or more times higher than Mexico City outdoor workers. These results suggest that for these outdoor workers the elevated local ambient air PM concentrations and an extended period spent outside are more important contributors to total exposures than indoor concentrations. These workers could be at particular risk of increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient PM.

Tovalin-Ahumada, Horacio; Whitehead, Lawrence; Blanco, Salvador

306

Learning the Ropes: A SpeyGrian Sailing Tale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen educators went Scottish island-hopping on a 100-year-old sailing boat to learn journal writing and new techniques in outdoor learning, gain confidence for teaching about controversial issues, and experience creative education in general. This narrative of their journey eloquently captures the essence and power of experiential, outdoor

McEwen, Christian

2003-01-01

307

A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education centers such as museums, zoos and aquariums has stimulated studies of the relationship between learning in and outside of schools. Although many studies focus on the teachers, the contexts, and/or the students during the field trip, only a few look at the entire process of learning by including the classroom setting before and after the field trip. This study was designed to develop understandings of the student process of learning during and surrounding an environmental science field trip to an outdoor setting. John Dewey's extensive writings on the relationship between experience and learning informed the analysis, creating a focus on active and passive elements of the experience, continuity within and across contexts, the interactive nature of the experience and the importance of subject matter. An exploration of environmental education (EE), environmental science (ES), and nature study as content revealed the complexities of the subject matter of the field trip that make its presentation problematic. An urban school was chosen to contribute to the research literature about urban student learning in outdoor environments. During the field trip, the students' active engagement with each other and the environment supported meaningful remembrances of the field trip experiences during interviews after the field trip. The students accurately described plants and animals they had observed in different habitats during the field trip. They also made connections with their home life and prior experiences in the outdoors as they discussed the field trip and drew pictures that represented their experiences. One student integrated his outdoor experience with a language arts assignment as he reflected deeply on the field trip. One implication of this study is that educational experiences in outdoor natural environments are complex in ways that contribute to lack of continuity between science lessons in an elementary classroom and environmental science field trip. Long term relationships between schools and informal settings that recognize the strengths of both contexts in terms of student learning processes surrounding field trip experiences are needed to strengthen the educative process for field trip participants.

Preusch, Peggy L.

308

Formal verification of AI software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

1989-01-01

309

Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

2009-01-01

310

OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS USING AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA). Thirty-three dual sm...

311

Outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic ground target measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) system consists of a microphone and loudspeaker traveling along a 6.3-meter rail system. This is an extension from a prior indoor laboratory measurement system in which selected targets were insonified while suspended in air. Here, the loudspeaker and microphone are aimed perpendicular to their direction of travel along the rail. The area next

Steven Bishop; Therese-Ann Ngaya; Joe Vignola; John Judge; Jay Marble; Peter Gugino; Mehrdad Soumekh; Erik Rosen

2010-01-01

312

Outdoor beam tracing over undulating terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructing noise maps for large areas is a tedious and CPU intensive task, even if engineering approxi- mations to outdoor sound propagation models are introduced. This paper reports on an effort to optimize beam tracing in order to reduce the number of generated paths between source and observer, while still guaranteeing the required accuracy. Beam tracing is a ray based

Bram de Greve; Tom De Muer; Dick Botteldooren

313

Evaluating white LEDs for outdoor lighting application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to understand the acceptability of different white light emitting diodes (LEDs) for outdoor landscape lighting. The study used a scaled model setup. The scene was designed to replicate the exterior of a typical upscale suburban restaurant including the exterior façade of the building, an approach with steps, and a garden. The lighting was designed to

Insiya Shakir; Nadarajah Narendran

2002-01-01

314

Prevent Tick Bites While Enjoying the Outdoors  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prevent Tick Bites While Enjoying the Outdoors With no vaccines for ... Preidt Sunday, April 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Tick Bites SUNDAY, April 13, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- With spring's ...

315

The Leader Pack: Outdoor Travel Insurance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides outdoor leaders with suggestions for items to include in a leader pack. The pack should include a first aid kit, as well as survival and emergency gear. Recommends using a journal to document information about participants, events, and accidents. (KS)

Kozolanka, Karne

1992-01-01

316

Standards and Practices in Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide provides a series of checklists and guidelines to assist Quebec outdoor education teachers and/or leaders and their principals in planning safe, enjoyable, educational experiences for elementary and secondary school students. The basic planning checklist itemizes specific tasks under eight categories: (1) preliminary discussion with…

Robertson, Stuart, Ed.

317

Outdoor Education Expands Small School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the Violet Hill, Arkansas K-12 school district developed a new curriculum through outdoor education. Describes how the district's alternative energy agricultural complex (including a windmill, solar greenhouse, and farm plots, and gardens) will be incorporated into the curriculum via math, business, science, agriculture, economics,…

Floyd, James; And Others

1984-01-01

318

Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies: Development and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the objectives of Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS), one aspect of the program (lawn communities) and the evaluation of this activity. Includes resultant recommendations. The evaluation criteria are suggested as a model to be used in either designing or in evaluating curricula. (BR)

Falk, John; And Others

1975-01-01

319

Laser and Vision Based Outdoor Object Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generating rich representations of environments can significantly improve the autonomy of mobile robotics. In this paper we introduce a novel approach to building object-type maps of outdoor environments. Our approach uses conditional random fields (CRF) to jointly classify laser returns in a 2D scan map into seven object types (car, wall, tree trunk, foliage, person, grass, and other). The spatial

Bertrand Douillard; Dieter Fox; Fabio Ramos

320

Conditional Random Fields for Outdoor Object Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a novel approach to building object type maps of outdoor environments. Our approach applies standard scan matching techniques to align 2D laser scans collected by a vehicle driving through urban environments (2). We use conditional random fields (CRF) to classify each laser re turn into the seven object types car, wall, tree trunk, folia ge,

Bertrand Douillard; Dieter Fox; Fabio Ramos

321

Outdoor Smog Chamber Experiments Using Automobile Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Outdoor smog chamber experiments using automobile exhaust were performed in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide a data base that modelers could use to develop new, improved mechanisms for use in the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EK...

H. E. Jeffries K. G. Sexton T. P. Morris M. Jackson R. G. Goodman

1985-01-01

322

An International Survey of Outdoor Leadership Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways in which outdoor leadership preparation differs in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada based on questionnaire responses of 169 selected experts. Examines skills (technical activity, organizational, environmental, instructional, group management, problem solving) and attributes (motivational,…

Priest, Simon

1987-01-01

323

Get Moving! Active Play Indoors and Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the importance of active play. Parts A and B of this experience provide learners with a variety of active play options for indoors and outdoors that promote physical fitness. This activity is featured on pp. 20-21 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2014-04-30

324

Outdoor Path Labeling Using Polynomial Mahalanobis Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous robot navigation in outdoor environ- ments remains a challenging and unsolved problem. A key issue is our ability to identify safe or navigable paths far enough ahead of the robot to allow smooth trajectories at acceptable speeds. Colour or texture-based labeling of safe path regions in image sequences is one way to achieve this far field prediction. A challenge

Gregory Z. Grudic; Jane Mulligan

2006-01-01

325

Beyond Networking: Connecting University Outdoor Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, the authors started a discussion about St. Cloud State University Outdoor Endeavors working together to run a trip in the Everglades National Park. The following summer they began the planning process through phone conversations, email and division of tasks. Despite the physical distance and separate university systems, each with their…

Bartha, Ivan; Morgan, Brett

2008-01-01

326

Outdoor Education Project Report, Camp Alpine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report is given of Project Alpine, two summer pilot programs in outdoor education sponsored by the Mesa Public Schools of Arizona. The report outlines the duties of camp personnel and includes an instruction sheet used by camp counselors. Various activities held for the campers (boys and girls from both upper elementary and secondary grades) are…

Palmer, N. J.

327

Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.  

PubMed Central

In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions.

Cohen, A J

2000-01-01

328

78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reconnect with the outdoors. To lead the way, First Lady Michelle Obama's Let's Move Outside! initiative encourages families to...renew them in the years to come. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of...

2013-06-06

329

Microscopic Investigation of Outdoor “Sooty” Surface Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of darkening agent contamination (termed sooty problems) on the surfaces of buildings and outdoor facilities relies on the microscopical analysis of particles. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA) Standard D6602 deals with surface disfigurement by soot and other environmental particulate. It provides a framework for sampling and using both light and electron microscopy

James R. Millette; William Turner Jr; Whitney B. Hill; Pronda Few; J. Philip Kyle

2007-01-01

330

Resident Outdoor Education Program. Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive list of outdoor education activities that can be integrated into the traditional curriculum is presented in this guide. Activities are arranged by grade (from kindergarten through sixth) and by subject areas taught at each grade level. Subjects covered in grades 1-6 are science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, art, music,…

Hayes, Jonathan; Deem, Robert

331

The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of…

Clement, Kent

332

Outdoor Recreation. Curriculum Materials for Agricultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for agricultural education contains nine chapters on outdoor recreation. Each is written by a different author (professors at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and follows a similar format: Objectives, list of references, list of teaching materials, notes on teacher preparation, content for presentation,…

McElwee, Robert; And Others

333

Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

Collins, Di

334

Paddle Making: A Craft for Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crafting experiences, such as paddle making, fit in with the ideals and goals of outdoor and experiential education and can be linked to environmental education by creating environmental consciousness. Crafting a canoe paddle from harvested materials directly engages students with the land and can lead to reflection on material objects, patterns…

Carrier, Allison

2001-01-01

335

Outdoor Recreation in Two European Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires completed by older adults in Luxembourg (N=138) and in France (N=100) revealed a high extent of participation in outdoor recreation (a demonstrated predictor of successful aging) in the two countries. Identified similarities and differences in socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes, and environmental factors associated with…

Rubenstein, James M.

1987-01-01

336

Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

337

Polyurethane Foam Pack Outdoor Storage Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 3-year outdoor storage test of 6V53 engines packaged in polyurethane foam by the total encapsulation process was undertaken to evaluate alternate tops and/or the need for a top. It was concluded that the current top was inadequate and that a 2- by 2-inc...

T. M. Hinkley

1987-01-01

338

Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

Bitbol, Michel

339

Outdoor Science: A Practical Guide (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research shows that environment-centered education improves student achievement. Whatever your school's setting--urban, suburban, or rural--you can create stimulating outdoor classrooms for your students, with a little help from Outdoor Science . Au

Rich, Steve

2010-06-03

340

Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared specifically for use in one-week outdoor summer camp programs for migrant children aged 10-15, the twenty bilingual (Spanish and English) educational and recreational activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps package have been revised to develop language skills as well as an awareness of the outdoor

California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

341

Spatial Organization Skills of the Blind in Large Outdoor Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the ability of 40 blind adults to spatially organize large outdoor places using a verbal response survey and a near space lapboard task. The study found a high correlation between performances on the large outdoor environment with and without sighted guide tasks. The lapboard task also predicted performance in the outdoor

Penrod, William M.; Petrosko, Joseph

2003-01-01

342

The Content of a College-Level Outdoor Leadership Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study used the Delphi technique to determine the ideal content of a college-level outdoor leadership course for land-based outdoor pursuits in the Pacific Northwest. Topics were generated and value-rated by 61 Pacific Northwest outdoor leaders using a Likert-type scale in three separate questionnaires. Thirty-five topics were…

Green, Paul

343

America's Outdoor Recreation Areas--Playgrounds for the Affluent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to assess the societal benefits of outdoor recreation and to determine the relationship of social stratification to utilization of outdoor recreation facilities. Conclusions are that many of America's outdoor recreation sites are located at considerable distances from population concentrations and require substantial…

Hunt, John D.

344

Outdoor See-Through Vision Utilizing Surveillance Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new outdoor mixed-reality sys- tem designed for people who carry a camera-attached small handy device in an outdoor scene where a num- ber of surveillance cameras are embedded. We propose a new functionality in outdoor mixed reality that the handy device can display live status of invisible areas hidden by some structures such as buildings, walls,

Yoshinari Kameda; Taisuke Takemasa; Yuichi Ohta

2004-01-01

345

Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

Hug, J. William

1998-09-01

346

Outdoor Education: A Unique Experience for Student Teachers at U.N.B.'s Faculty of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1974 the course "Outdoor Education" began at the University of New Brunswick for student teachers in training. Since its inception 125 students have laboured, learned and enjoyed the course whose 3 primary goals are to help student teachers (1) choose aspects of the environment to enlarge the scope of a subject, (2) focus attention on the need…

Bell, John; Caterini, Charles

347

A Formal Ontology of Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common problem of ontologies is that their taxonomic structure is often poor and confusing. This is typically exemplified by the unrestrained use of subsumption to accomplish a variety of tasks. In this paper we show how a formal ontology of unary properties can help using the subsumption relation in a disciplined way. This formal ontology is based on some

Nicola Guarino; Christopher A. Welty

2000-01-01

348

Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

2014-01-01

349

Learning Activity Spaces: Towards Flexibility in Learning Design?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing a computer-supported learning scenario involving a constructivist approach of learning lays on a paradox. On the one hand, learning flows must be precisely described - including role distribution, required resources, tools, and scaffolds - to be realized in computer-supported environments. On the other hand, a fine-grained formalization of learning flows diverges from the constructivist notion of learning that learners

Anne Lejeune; Muriel Ney; Armin Weinberger; Margus Pedaste; Lars Bollen; Tasos Hovardas; Ulrich Hoppe; Ton De Jong

2009-01-01

350

Learning in a personal context: Levels of choice in a free choice learning environment in science and natural history museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to characterize contextual learning during class visits to science and natural history museums. Based on previous studies, we assumed that outdoor learning is different from classroom-based learning, and free choice learning in the museums enhances the expression of learning in personal context. We studied about 750 students participating in class visits at four museums, focusing on the

Yael Bamberger; Tali Tal

2007-01-01

351

Coaches' Experiences of Formal Coach Education: A Critical Sociological Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to recent academic reviews, formal coach education courses are rarely considered important or useful events in a broader coach learning process. At present, there is insufficient research to define the nature and extent of this problem which is likely to become more important under the prevailing governing rationalities of modernisation…

Piggott, David

2012-01-01

352

Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education in US Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable attention has focused on the challenges of English language learners without age-appropriate formal education and first language literacy. They are viewed here as students with high-context learning experiences and expectations (Hall in Beyond culture, Anchor, New York, 1976), and a collectivistic orientation, with a pragmatic, rather…

DeCapua, Andrea; Marshall, Helaine W.

2010-01-01

353

Framing the Adoption of Serious Games in Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays formal education systems are under increasing pressure to respond and adapt to rapid technological innovation and associated changes in the way we work and live. As well as accommodation of technology in its ever-diversifying forms, there is a fundamental need to enhance learning processes through evolution in pedagogical approaches, so…

Arnab, Sylvester; Berta, Riccardo; Earp, Jeffrey; de Freitas, Sara; Popescu, Maria; Romero, Margarida; Stanescu, Ioana; Usart, Mireia

2012-01-01

354

Formal and Informal Mentoring: Complementary, Compensatory, or Consistent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informal mentors likely play a substantial role in novice teacher learning, yet we know little about them, especially in relation to formal mentoring, which is the cornerstone to most induction programs. This study analyzes survey and interview data from 57 first-year mathematics teachers from 11 districts to investigate differences in the…

Desimone, Laura M.; Hochberg, Eric D.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Schwartz, Robert; Johnson, L. Joy

2014-01-01

355

Polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers for outdoor use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymeric materials that are stable enough to use outdoors without changes in excess of 20 years are investigated. Ultraviolet stabilizers or plastic materials were synthesized, polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers, particularly of the 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)2H-benzotriazole family were prepared their polymerization, copolymerization and grafting onto other polymers were demonstrated, and ultraviolet stabilizing systems were devised. These materials were evaluated from the photophysical point of view.

Vogl, O.

1982-01-01

356

Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms\\/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing

R. K. Tripathi; P. C. Sherertz; G. C. Llewellyn; C. W. Armstrong

1991-01-01

357

e-Learning, Lifelong Learning and Innovation in the working world  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an in-depth analysis of the relationship between e-learning, lifelong learning and innovation in the working world, as a result of the comparative analysis of three e-learning territories, which are developing within and around the world of work and combining features of formal, non-formal and informal learning, i.e.: inter-organisational learning, e-learning in the workplace and professional learning networks.

Stefania Aceto; Claudio Dondi

358

Cooperating Formal Methods Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Formal methods research has developed a variety of mathematical tools and techniques applicable to the development of software systems, but they are greatly underused. The reasons include the limited mathematical backgrounds of many end-users and develope...

D. Guaspari

1996-01-01

359

NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

Butler, Ricky W. (compiler)

1990-01-01

360

A User-Centric Adaptive Learning System for E-Learning 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The success of Web 2.0 inspires e-learning to evolve into e-learning 2.0, which exploits collective intelligence to achieve user-centric learning. However, searching for suitable learning paths and content for achieving a learning goal is time consuming and troublesome on e-learning 2.0 platforms. Therefore, introducing formal learning in these…

Huang, Shiu-Li; Shiu, Jung-Hung

2012-01-01

361

Intellectual development beyond formal operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post?formal operations as a stage of cognitive development beyond Piaget's formal operations state are discussed. It is argued that thinking abilities are of major importance for an adequate understanding of quantum?mechanical and relativistic issues as they occur in modern science, especially physics. Some pedagogical consequences of the ‘fifth stage’ of cognitive development are discussed and proposals made about how post?operational

Eduardo A. Castro; Francisco M. Fernández

1987-01-01

362

Some Grammar Formalisms for Natural Language Processing,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report an overview of some existing formalisms of grammar for natural language processing is given. Each formalism is described and evaluated and some systems using the formalism are mentioned. First the Augmented Transition Network (ATN) and the D...

A. van Rijn

1988-01-01

363

Promoting Democratic Citizenship through Non-Formal Adult Education: The Case of Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents selected findings from in-depth case studies of two non-formal learning activities organized by the Danish Folk High Schools and Day High Schools, respectively. The purpose of the empirical study was to investigate how longstanding, non-formal, adult education institutions have worked to foster the acquisition of civic…

Milana, Marcella; Sorensen, Tore Bernt

2009-01-01

364

An example of formal usability inspections in practice at Hewlett-Packard company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can usability engineers, not formally educated as human factors engineers, help facilitate improving the ease of use of software products? Can design engineers learn to detect usability defects? The answer to both questions is yes. This is a success story of a partnership between human factors engineers and usability engineers in providing a Formal Usability Methodology that has been accepted

Cathy Gunn

1995-01-01

365

Formal Theory of Creativity, Fun, and Intrinsic Motivation (1990-2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simple but general formal theory of fun & intrinsic motivation & creativity (1990-) is based on the concept of maximizing intrinsic reward for the active creation or discovery of novel, surprising patterns allowing for improved prediction or data compression. It generalizes the traditional field of active learning, and is related to old but less formal ideas in aesthetics theory

Jürgen Schmidhuber

2010-01-01

366

Modeling for Meaningful Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of the chapter, we argue that the goal of formal education should be meaningful learning. Meaningful learning is necessarily social, collaborative, intentional, authentic, and active. The result of meaningful learning lies in its cognitive residue, the learner’ mental model.

David H. Jonassen; Johannes Strobel

367

Adult Learning Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

368

Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor {number sign}1 and by 96 percent for instructor {number sign}2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors.

Tripathi, R.K.; Sherertz, P.C.; Llewellyn, G.C.; Armstrong, C.W. (Virginia State Department of Health, Richmond (USA))

1991-06-01

369

Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor #1 and by 96 percent for instructor #2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors.

Tripathi, R K; Sherertz, P C; Llewellyn, G C; Armstrong, C W

1991-01-01

370

Innovative Approaches to Providing Outdoor Education for Handicapped Students. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes 12 outdoor education programs/centers serving persons with disabilities in their program curriculum. Each program is described in detail and each description includes an overview of purposes and goals, facility/site description, administration structure, program emphasis for disabled populations, and source of funding…

Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

371

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

2011-07-01

372

WHEELCHAIR PROPULSION DEMANDS DURING OUTDOOR COMMUNITY AMBULATION  

PubMed Central

Objective Quantify manual wheelchair propulsion effort during outdoor community ambulation. Design Case series Subjects Thirteen individuals (12 with SCI, 1 with spina bifida) who were experienced manual wheelchair users and had no current upper extremity injury or pain complaints. Methods Measurements were obtained from instrumented wheelchair rims during steady-state propulsion as subjects traversed outdoor concrete sidewalk terrain that included smooth level, aggregate level, and a ramp with a smooth surface. Propulsion effort was assessed using the average propulsion moment, average instantaneous power, and work for both upper extremities. Results Propulsion effort, captured by the propulsion moment, work and power, varied across ground conditions (p<0.001). Propulsion effort was greater as the rolling resistance increased (ie., smooth versus aggregate surfaces) and as the inclination angle progressed from level to inclined surfaces. There were no side-to-side differences across ground conditions for the propulsion moment or work. Power generation was significantly greater on the dominant compared to the non-dominant extremity during the more challenging aggregate surface and ramp conditions. Conclusions Propulsion effort varies with demands imposed by different ground conditions. Quantification of wheelchair propulsion demands provides rehabilitations specialists with objective information to guide treatment of patients adapting to manual wheelchair use.

Hurd, Wendy J.; Morrow, Melissa M. B.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; An, Kai-Nan

2009-01-01

373

Health effects of outdoor air pollution  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution.

Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

2011-01-01

374

Outdoor Air Pollutants and Patient Health  

PubMed Central

Almost 160 million persons live in areas of the United States that exceed federal health-based air pollution standards. The two air pollutants that most commonly exceed standards are ozone and particulate matter. Ozone and particulate matter can harm anyone if levels are sufficiently elevated, but health risk from air pollution is greatest among vulnerable populations. Both ozone and particulate matter can cause pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function, and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Particulate matter is also strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Children, older adults, and other vulnerable persons may be sensitive to lower levels of air pollution. Persons who are aware of local air pollution levels, reported daily by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the Air Quality Index, can take action to reduce exposure. These actions include simple measures to limit exertion and time spent outdoors when air pollution levels are highest, and to reduce the infiltration of outdoor air pollutants into indoor spaces.

LAUMBACH, ROBERT J.

2014-01-01

375

Jacobi structures in supergeometric formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the supergeometric formalism, more precisely, the so-called "big bracket" (for which brackets and anchors are encoded by functions on some graded symplectic manifold) to address the theory of Jacobi algebroids and bialgebroids, following mainly the previous works of Iglesias-Marrero [9] and Grabowski-Marmo [10]. This formalism is efficient to define the Jacobi-Gerstenhaber algebra structure associated to a Jacobi algebroid, to define its Poissonization, and to express the compatibility condition defining Jacobi bialgebroids. It also yields a simple description of the Jacobi bialgebroid associated to a Jacobi structure, and conversely, of the Jacobi structure associated to a Jacobi bialgebroid.

Antunes, Paulo; Laurent-Gengoux, Camille

2011-11-01

376

Teaching and Learning outside the Classroom: Personal Values, Alternative Pedagogies and Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports on a recent survey of 334 settings in a county in the South West of England and five case studies exploring current practice and aspirations for learning outdoors for children between the ages of 2 to 11. Practitioners' aspirations for outdoor learning appear to go beyond providing fresh air and "letting off steam" and include…

Waite, Sue

2011-01-01

377

Parallax Park - A bilingual, outdoor, interactive family exhibit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design for Parallax Park, an outdoor, interactive family exhibit for McDonald Observatory that will bring the quest for learning about extra-solar planets and the astronomical distance ladder down to Earth for the more than 100,000 visitors who come to the Observatory each year. The Park will teach visitors the basic principles of astrometry. It will concentrate on distance determination and extrasolar planet detection, and emphasize the advantages of space-based astrometric measurements. Visitors will experience parallax by traveling a path around a representation of the Sun, mimicking Earth's orbit, while viewing representations of stars at various distances and in various directions. Concepts include Cepheids as standard candles, the inverse square law, and motion around a center of mass. The exhibit includes interactive components suitable for children's use. Text labels and printed guides, in English and Spanish, will explain how to use the Park to explore the uses of astrometry in modern science. This program was made possible through funding from the Hubble Space Telescope Cycle 11 and 12 Education and Public Outreach Grant Programs. Support from the NASA/JPL Space Interferometry Mission (JPL contract #1227563) is also gratefully acknowledged.

Hemenway, M. K.; Benedict, G. F.; Preston, S. L.; Armosky, B. J.; Cianciolo, F. W., Jr.; Wetzel, M. N.; Freeman, R.; Ransenberg, A.

2004-12-01

378

Formal Verification of the AAMP-FV Microcode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the experiences of Collins Avionics & Communications and SRI International in formally specifying and verifying the microcode in a Rockwell proprietary microprocessor, the AAMP-FV, using the PVS verification system. This project built extensively on earlier experiences using PVS to verify the microcode in the AAMP5, a complex, pipelined microprocessor designed for use in avionics displays and global positioning systems. While the AAMP5 experiment demonstrated the technical feasibility of formal verification of microcode, the steep learning curve encountered left unanswered the question of whether it could be performed at reasonable cost. The AAMP-FV project was conducted to determine whether the experience gained on the AAMP5 project could be used to make formal verification of microcode cost effective for safety-critical and high volume devices.

Miller, Steven P.; Greve, David A.; Wilding, Matthew M.; Srivas, Mandayam

1999-01-01

379

Cooperative Learning in Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

1994-01-01

380

Formal Theory of Green Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formal theory of Green functions is reviewed for many particle problems in nuclear physics or in solid state physics. In particular, one- and two-particle Green functions are discussed in detail. The Feynman amplitudes are also explained together with the effective potential and its applications. This article contains the following sections: S 1. Preliminary remarks S 2. Definition of Green

Tomokazu Kato; Tetsuro Kobayashi; Mikio Namiki

1960-01-01

381

Formal verification of parallel programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two formal models for parallel computation are presented: an abstract conceptual model and a parallel-program model. The former model does not distinguish between control and data states. The latter model includes the capability for the representation of an infinite set of control states by allowing there to be arbitrarily many instruction pointers (or processes) executing the program. An induction principle

Robert M. Keller

1976-01-01

382

FORMAL OPERATIONAL THOUGHT AND READING  

Microsoft Academic Search

If reading is viewed as an active cognitive process, then the understanding and evaluation of written material may depend somewhat on the reader's cognitive ability. Furthermore, developmental changes in cognitive ability may be related to changes in reading behavior. This article provides a brief overview of Jean Piaget's theories of cognitive development; characteristics of the formal operational thought period (approximately

Nancy D. Padak

1982-01-01

383

Software engineering challenges of multi-player outdoor smartphone games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactivity and social isolation are the demons of computer gaming. To combat these and similar problems, my goal is to create attractive game experiences that require play outdoors, encourage multi-player interaction, and incorporate vigorous physical activity inherently. However, play outdoors in large scale naturalistic environments, using only the equipment (e.g., smartphones) people normally carry with them in the world,

Robert J. Hall

2011-01-01

384

Unsupervised Detection of Artificial Objects in Outdoor Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó This paper presents a novel unsupervised sen- sor fusion method to detect articial objects in outdoor en- vironments. We dene articial objects present in outdoor environments using structure and appearance informations: an articial object is composed of several smooth surfaces with sufciently extended area and distinctive color from the surrounding environment. The structure information detection is computed from 3D

Luciano Spinello; Roland Siegwart

2007-01-01

385

Passive cooling of outdoor urban spaces. The role of materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a comparative study aiming to investigate the suitability of materials used in outdoor urban spaces in order to contribute to lower ambient temperatures and fight heat island effect. The study involved in total 93 commonly used pavement materials outdoors and was performed during the whole summer period of 2001. The thermal performance of the

L Doulos; M Santamouris; I Livada

2004-01-01

386

CHARACTERISTICS OF WILDERNESS USERS IN OUTDOOR RECREATION ASSESSMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel profiles were developed. The purpose of this analysis is to

Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann

387

Outdoor Recreation, a Comprehensive Plan for New Mexico, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1976 State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan--New Mexico (SCORP) is directed toward identifying the outdoor recreation needs of New Mexicans and presenting an action plan to be used by public officials and the private sector to satisfy present and...

1976-01-01

388

The Development of the Outdoor Leadership Training Simulator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A leadership simulation model, patterned after the avalanche simulator used by the United States Forest Service and applicable within a variety of field situations (outdoor camps, church groups, commercial enterprises) can augment the development and observation of outdoor leaders. The model includes both a broad base of practitioner inputs and an…

Ewert, Alan; Hollenhorst, Steven

389

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

390

Methodology in Outdoor Research: Approaches from an Alternative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Powerful, dominant discourses surrounding neo-Hahnian theory (as discussed by Brookes in 2003) and effectiveness (as discussed by Hargreaves and Fullan in 1998, for example) have influenced both practice and research in outdoor adventure education. This has led to a concentration of research that focuses on the impact of outdoor programmes. It has…

Rea, Tony

2008-01-01

391

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

392

THE GEOMET INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the formulation of the GEOMET Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution (GIOAP) model. The model estimates indoor air pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor pollutant levels, indoor pollutant generation sources rates, pollutant chemical decay rates, and air ex...

393

Out, out, and Away! Collection Development: Outdoor Recreation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summer is fast approaching, and it will soon be time to climb the mountains to get their good tidings, as naturalist John Muir put it. In other words, librarians must now prepare for the influx of patrons making weekend recreational and summer vacation plans by stocking up on books and other resources on the great outdoors. Outdoor recreational…

Helling, John

2009-01-01

394

The Management of Nature and Socialization to Outdoor Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Norwegian study of socialization into friluftsliv (traditional open-air life) found that factors affecting lifelong interest included parents' and friends' relationship to friluftsliv, proximity to suitable areas, outdoor hobbies, access to a summer home, and owning a dog. Educational experiences outdoors were collectively about as influential…

Dahle, Borge

2001-01-01

395

Jumping Deadfall: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Outdoor and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the common barriers confronting outdoor and experiential education teachers and presents strategies for surmounting them. The identified concerns and suggested solutions were obtained from in-depth open-ended interviews conducted with 10 outdoor education/environmental education consultants and teachers in Alberta…

Hanna, Glenda

396

An IBM Compatible Participant Data Base System for Outdoor Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of maintaining mailing lists and other informational files on outdoor program participants is, plainly and simply, a pain in the neck. Mailing list maintenance is particularly difficult for programs that deal with university students, due to their frequent moves. This paper describes a new software program, the Outdoor Program Data…

Watters, Ron

397

Nonparametric classification of pixels under varying outdoor illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using color for visual recognition outdoors has proven to be a difficult problem, chiefly due to varying illumination. Attempts to classify pixels or image patches in outdoor scenes often fail, partly because of the paucity of the data, but partly because color shifts due to changes in illumination are not well modeled as random noise. Approaches which attempt to recover

Shashi Buluswar; Bruce A. Draper

1994-01-01

398

Non-parametric Clasification of Pixels Under Varying Outdoor Illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using color for visual recognition outdoors has proven to be a difficult problem, chiefly due to varying illumination. Attempts to classify pixels or image patches in outdoor scenes based on their RGB values often fail, partly because of the inadequacy of the feature set, but partly because of color shifts due to changes in illumination are not well modeled as

Shashi D. Buluswar; Bruce A. Draper

1994-01-01

399

HYDROPHOBICITY OF SILICONE RUBBER USED FOR OUTDOOR INSULATION (AN OVERVIEW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the new insulating materials widely used in high voltage outdoor insulation sys- tems, silicon rubber materials also called polymeric materials are very important; during last 20 years they have been applied for manufacturing outdoor insulators. These materials are organic in nature; therefore they are prone to decomposition under different environmental conditions; the most important among these conditions for consideration

Mohammad Amin; Mohammad Akbar; Salman Amin

400

An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

2013-01-01

401

Wondering Outdoors. Adventures and Experiences in Earth's Oldest Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An aid for planning outdoor education for elementary and high school students in the Freeport Public Schools, Freeport, Illinois, this guide is designed to help teachers expand the existing curriculum by integrating outdoor activities in all areas of study. Activities for grades K-6 are organized by location (school ground, neighborhood,…

Lathrop, David M.; And Others

402

Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution Relationship: A Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While extensive measurements have been and are being made of outdoor pollution, relatively few data have been gathered on indoor pollution. The data that are available are compiled and analyzed in the report. Based on a review of the literature, it was possible to infer relationships between indoor and outdoor pollution and to identify factors…

Benson, Ferris B.; And Others

403

Jumping Deadfall: Overcoming Barriers To Implementing Outdoor and Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers wishing to teach experientially and to include environmental outdoor education in their classes must have the knowledge and skills to overcome barriers that may impede their way to this goal. Common barriers include senior administrative support, teachers' comfort and competence levels, scheduling outdoor explorations, terrain and sites,…

Hanna, Glenda

1996-01-01

404

Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

Richards, Kaye

1999-01-01

405

Brock BaseCamp--Outdoor Orientation Programs Come to Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What exactly is an "outdoor orientation program?" First offered in the United States in the 1930s by Dartmouth College, outdoor orientation programs (OOPs) use adventure programming to help incoming students adjust to university or college. Typically, these programs are conducted in a wilderness or backcountry setting, are several days long and…

O'Connell, Tim

2011-01-01

406

Outdoor education: Research topic or universal value? Part Two  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper follows the theme of part one in that it sets out to discover if the history of outdoor education provides its modern exponents with a legacy of prescribed conservatism or alternatively a form of education which embraces, or is capable of embracing, diversity of theory and practice. Focusing on local authority residential outdoor education centres it begins with

Robbie Nicol

2002-01-01

407

Viewing the Landscape of Outdoor Education in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the variety of outdoor education programs and initiatives existing in Saskatchewan. Describes the Saskatchewan Outdoor Environmental Education Association conference, residential and day programs for elementary school students in Regina and Saskatoon, preservice teacher education, wilderness experiences for teachers,…

Forsberg, Nick

1997-01-01

408

Integration of Risk Management Techniques into Outdoor Adventure Program Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is designed to acquaint the outdoor professional with the risk management decision making process required for the operation and management of outdoor adventure activities. The document examines the programming implications of fear in adventure activities; the risk management process in adventure programming; a definition of an…

Bruner, Eric V.

409

Representation in incremental learning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.

1993-01-01

410

Monostatic microwave sensor for outdoor perimeter protection  

SciTech Connect

A monostatic microwave sensor has been developed which can compliment or provide dual technology with microwave bistatic sensors used in many nuclear facilities. The monostatic sensor provides target signatures and detection patterns uniquely different form bistatic sensors. Although the microwave transceiver has been used for indoor applications for over 20 years, outdoor use has been limited because of inability to discriminate against small targets close to the antenna such as rain on the radome and large targets beyond the range of the protected area. A monostatic sensor recently developed has a modulation technique along with appropriate signal processing in the receiver that rejects targets beyond a predetermined range and also attenuates the reflections of small close in targets.

Cheal, J.

1986-01-01

411

Light and Color in the Outdoors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All of science springs from the observation of nature. In this classic book, the late Marcel Minnaert accompanies the reader on a tour of nature's light and color and reveals the myriad phenomena that may be observed outdoors with no more than a pair of sharp eyes and an enquiring mind. From the intriguing shape of the dapples beneath a tree on a sunny day, to rainbows, mirages, and haloes, to the colors of liquid, ice, and the sky, to the appearance of the sun, moon, planets, and stars - Minnaert describes and explains them all in clear language accessible to the layman. This volume includes 80 new photographs, over half in color, illustrating many of the phenomena - ordinary and exotic discussed in the book. Most of the new photos are by Pekka Parviainen, the renowned Finnish nature photographer.

Minnaert, Marcel; Seymour, L.

412

Outdoor propagation analysis of ultrawideband signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra wide band (UWB) signal is defined as any radiation in which the 3-dB bandwidth is greater than 25% of the center frequency. UWB signals are characterized by extreme low powers and large bandwidths, which can be used for data, voice and video communication. Since UWB waveforms have very short time duration, they are relatively immune to multi-path cancellation effects. In this paper we test the performance of a simulation to model the propagation of an UWB signal in outdoor forested environment. The simulation uses a combination of Finite Difference Time Domain and ray tracing methods to simulate the UWB wave propagation. The model takes into consideration the dielectric constants of the materials of the trees and measures the signal strength for vertical and horizontal polarizations of the UWB antennas placed at various heights and distances from each other. The results of the simulation are compared to measurements obtained from tests conducted at a wooded area in Seneca Creek State Park, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was observed that upto 150 ft distance between the transmitter and receiver, the horizontally polarized antenna system gave better signal-to-noise ratio, but at greater distances the vertically polarized antenna system gave a better signal-to-noise ration performance. Three dimensional plots of the signal strengths and the signal-to-noise ratio for various transmitter and receiver distances are plotted for the system. These are compared with experimental results and the simulation closely matched the experimental data. The results of the simulation and measurements will be used for further developing an UWB location and tracking system for outdoor environments.

Schiavone, Guy A.; Wahid, Parveen; Palaniappan, Ravi; Tracy, Judd; Van Doorn, Eric; Lonske, Benjamin

2003-08-01

413

Outdoor and indoor UFP in primary schools across Barcelona.  

PubMed

Indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time ultrafine particles (UFP; N10-700 in this study) number concentration and average diameter were collected twice at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. Simultaneous outdoor N concentration measurements at schools under different traffic exposures showed the important role of this source, with higher levels by 40% on average at schools near heavy traffic, highlighting thus the increased exposure of children due to urban planning decisions. A well-defined spatial pattern of outdoor UFP levels was observed. Midday increases in outdoor N levels mainly attributed to nucleation processes have been recorded both at high and low temperatures in several of the outdoor school sites (increasing levels by 15%-70%). The variation of these increases also followed a characteristic spatial pattern, pointing at schools' location as a key variable in terms of UFP load owing to the important contribution of traffic emissions. Indoor N concentrations were to some extent explained by outdoor N concentrations during school hours, together with average temperatures, related with natural ventilation. Outdoor midday increases were generally mimicked by indoor N concentrations, especially under warm temperatures. At specific cases, indoor concentrations during midday were 30%-40% higher than outdoor. The time scale of these observations evidenced the possible role of: a) secondary particle formation enhanced by indoor precursors or conditions, maybe related with surface chemistry reactions mediated by O3, and/or b) UFP from cooking activities. Significant indoor N increases were detected after school hours, probably associated with cleaning activities, resulting in indoor N concentrations up to 3 times higher than those in outdoor. A wide variability of indoor/outdoor ratios of N concentrations and mean UFP sizes was detected among schools and measurement periods, which seems to be partly associated with climatic conditions and O3 levels, although further research is required. PMID:25003584

Reche, C; Viana, M; Rivas, I; Bouso, L; Alvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

2014-09-15

414

Indoor-outdoor relationships of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides under different outdoor meteorological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respirable suspended particulate matter and nitrogen oxides concentrations were measured inside and outside a student office in an urban location during a 9-month period. Direct reading tapered-element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) instruments and passive sampling techniques were used to provide indoor and outdoor hourly averages of the two pollutants during the sampling period. The variations and correlations of the pollutant concentrations and the indoor-outdoor (IO) ratio against various outdoor meteorological factors, namely temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and solar irradiation were studied. Using a data-mining procedure, suitable sets of data were amassed and grouped together to study the effect of these individual weather parameters on the IO ratio. It is found through statistical regression techniques that temperature, humidity and solar irradiation play a vital role in the variation of the IO ratio. In fact, the IO ratio shows convincing tendency of increase with increase of these three weather parameters. On the other hand, both pressure and wind speed seems to have relatively little effect on the IO ratio.

Chan, Andy T.

415

Institute on Outdoor Education for the Handicapped. (Battle Creek Outdoor Education Center, Clear Lake, Dowling, Michigan, June 1969).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early June 1969, 55 special education and physical education teachers and experts in outdoor education met for a week at the Battle Creek Public Schools' outdoor education center, Clear Lake Camp (Michigan). The participants shared in the camping activities of children from Battle Creek classes for the physically and mentally handicapped, deaf,…

Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

416

Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems  

SciTech Connect

As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

Williams, L.G. [Software Engineering Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1991-11-15

417

Symposium: ICT4D and the Learning Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, the learning sciences have contributed immensely to curricula-based learning in formal environments. Recently, there is an increased emphasis on learning that occurs outside formal institutions, especially through the use of technology. Design experiments and design-based research have resulted in several innovations and in an overall conception of designing and researching new learning environments. Not surprisingly,

Michael A. Evans; Aditya Johri; George E. Glasson

418

Experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds in the northern Rocky Mountains: A compendium of outdoor laboratories in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

This is a compendium of experimental forests, ranges, watersheds, and other outdoor laboratories, formally established by the Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the universities in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. The purposes, histories, natural resource bases, data bases, past and current studies, locations, and who to contact for information are given for these areas that represent ecosystems ranging from deserts to cold subalpine forests.

Schmidt, W.C.; Friede, J.L.

1996-04-01

419

Notoph gauge theory: Superfield formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations for the 4D free Abelian 2-form gauge theory by exploiting the superfield approach to BRST formalism. The antisymmetric tensor gauge field of the above theory was christened as the "notoph" (i.e. the opposite of "photon") gauge field by Ogievetsky and Palubarinov way back in 1966-67. We briefly outline the problems involved in obtaining the absolute anticonimutativity of the (anti-) BRST transformations and their resolution within the framework of geometrical superfield approach to BRST formalism. One of the highlights of our results is the emergence of a Curci-Ferrari type of restriction in the context of 4D Abelian 2-form (notoph) gauge theory which renders the nilpotent (anti-) BRST symmetries of the theory to be absolutely anticommutative in nature.

Malik, R. P.

2011-05-01

420

Clean formal semantics for VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple formal semantics for the standard hardwaredescription language vhdl is set out in functionalstyle. The presentation comprises an executable specificationfor a synchronously clocked vhdl simulator.1 IntroductionThis paper attempts to lay the basis for simplerformal semantics for vhdl than available in the literature. Vhdl is a standardized hardware descriptionlanguage developed in the 1980s with the supportof the US DoD, and

Peter T. Breuer; Luis Sánchez Fernández; Carlos Delgado Kloos

1994-01-01

421

Hyperspherical Harmonic Formalism for Tetraquarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a generalization of the hyperspherical harmonic formalism to study systems made of quarks and antiquarks of the same flavor. This generalization is based on the symmetrization of the N-body wave function with respect to the symmetric group using the Barnea and Novoselsky algorithm. Our analysis shows that four-quark systems with non-exotic 2++ quantum numbers may be bound independently of the quark mass. 0+- and 1+- states become attractive only for larger quarks masses.

Vijande, J.; Valcarce, A.; Barnea, N.

422

Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,…

Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob

2011-01-01

423

Indoor and outdoor concentrations of inorganic acidic aerosols and gases  

SciTech Connect

Annular denuder-filter pack sampling systems were used to make indoor and outdoor measurements of aerosol strong H{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and the gaseous pollutants SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, HONO and NH{sub 3} during summer and winter periods in Boston, Massachusetts. Outdoor levels of SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} exceeded their indoor concentrations during both seasons. Winter indoor/outdoor ratios were lower than during the summer, probably due to lower air exchange rates during the winter period. During both monitoring periods, indoor/outdoor ratios of aerosol strong H{sub +} were 40-50% of the indoor/outdoor SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratio. Since aerosol strong acidity is typically associated with SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, this finding is indicative of neutralization of the acidic aerosol by the higher indoor NH{sub 3} levels. Geometric mean indoor/outdoor NH{sub 3} ratios of 3.5 and 23 respectively were measured for the summer and winter sampling periods. For HONO, NH{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, indoor concentrations were significantly higher than ambient levels. Indoor levels of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were slightly less than outdoor concentrations.

Brauer, M.; Koutrakis, P.; Keeler, G.J.; Spengler, J.D. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA))

1991-02-01

424

Indoor and Outdoor Mobility following Total Knee Arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Purpose: To determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor mobility capacity in older adults with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and, secondarily, to determine walking intensity in the same population and to compare all outcomes to a control group of older adults without knee pathology. Method: In this cross-sectional study, participants (TKA=16, mean 22.9 (SD 9.7) mo post TKA; control=22) completed indoor walking tests and a 580 m outdoor course that included varying terrain (e.g., curbs, grass, sidewalk) and frequent changes in direction. Walking capacity was assessed using stopwatches, global positioning system watches and accelerometers. Results: Outdoor walking time was moderately correlated (p<0.05) with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (r=0.65), stair-climb test (SCT) (r=0.67 ascending, r=0.79 descending), 10 m walk test (10 mWT) (r=0.73), and 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) (r=-0.75). Based on activity counts, walking intensity levels for participants in both groups were moderate (outdoor walk and 6 MWT). There was no significant difference in walking capacity between groups (TUG, SCT, 10 mWT, 6 MWT, outdoor walk). Conclusions: Common clinical walking tests are moderately correlated with outdoor mobility. Mobility capacity of individuals post TKA was similar to controls in both indoor and outdoor environments, and participants in both groups achieved moderate physical activity levels with walking. PMID:24403699

Storey, Ava S T; Myrah, Ainslie M; Bauck, Robyn A; Brinkman, Danielle M; Friess, Shawn N; Webber, Sandra C

2013-01-01

425

Indoor and Outdoor Mobility following Total Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor mobility capacity in older adults with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and, secondarily, to determine walking intensity in the same population and to compare all outcomes to a control group of older adults without knee pathology. Method: In this cross-sectional study, participants (TKA=16, mean 22.9 (SD 9.7) mo post TKA; control=22) completed indoor walking tests and a 580 m outdoor course that included varying terrain (e.g., curbs, grass, sidewalk) and frequent changes in direction. Walking capacity was assessed using stopwatches, global positioning system watches and accelerometers. Results: Outdoor walking time was moderately correlated (p<0.05) with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (r=0.65), stair-climb test (SCT) (r=0.67 ascending, r=0.79 descending), 10 m walk test (10 mWT) (r=0.73), and 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) (r=?0.75). Based on activity counts, walking intensity levels for participants in both groups were moderate (outdoor walk and 6 MWT). There was no significant difference in walking capacity between groups (TUG, SCT, 10 mWT, 6 MWT, outdoor walk). Conclusions: Common clinical walking tests are moderately correlated with outdoor mobility. Mobility capacity of individuals post TKA was similar to controls in both indoor and outdoor environments, and participants in both groups achieved moderate physical activity levels with walking.

Storey, Ava S.T.; Myrah, Ainslie M.; Bauck, Robyn A.; Brinkman, Danielle M.; Friess, Shawn N.

2013-01-01

426

GSBPP Faculty Perceptions of Synchronous Distance Learning Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distance Learning (DL) is a formal learning activity that occurs when students and instructors are separated by either time or geographical distance. Since the learning and teaching occur in different places, DL requires special course design and instruct...

I. C. Guremen

2008-01-01

427

Formal and Real Authority in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a theory of the allocation of formal authority (the right to decide) and real authority (the effective control over decisions) within organizations, and it illustrates how a formally integrated structure can accommodate various degrees of \\

Philippe Aghion; Jean Tirole

1997-01-01

428

Least-Squares Finite Element Numerical Formalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties of a numerical formalism for solving the stationary and static electromagnetic field equations inside inhomogeneous media are analyzed. This numerical formalism is constructed such that the error in solving the relevant equations is minimiz...

I. E. Lager J. van Kan G. Mur

1996-01-01

429

Indoor and outdoor characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds in city centre and suburban elementary schools of Aveiro, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutants inside school buildings may affect children's health and influence learning performance and attendance. This study investigated pollutant concentrations inside and outside school buildings at different locations (city centre and suburban) in Aveiro, Portugal, between April and June 2010. The aim was to evaluate simultaneously comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and CO) and indoor and outdoor concentrations of VOCs, NO2, PM10 and bioaerosols. PM10 samples were analysed and characterised, for the first time, for the water soluble inorganic ions (WSII), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbonates, and detailed organic speciation. The CO2 and bioaerosol levels were higher than the acceptable maximum values to the occupants' comfort. Concentrations of the traffic tracer NO2 were higher outdoors. The daily indoor PM10 levels were always higher than those outdoors, except on weekends, suggesting that the physical activity of pupils and class works highly contributed to the emission and resuspension of particles. Almost all identified VOCs showed I/O ratios higher than one, which denotes an important contribution from indoor sources at both schools. The suburban school was more exposed to industrial emissions than the institution located in the city centre. Especially at the city centre, infiltration of outdoor particulates leads to contamination of school indoor environment with vehicle emissions and biomass burning smoke likely coming from biofuel use in nearby restaurants and bakeries.

Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Silva, J. R.; Vieira, S. L. A.; Caseiro, A.; Pio, C. A.

2012-08-01

430

Outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic ground target measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) system consists of a microphone and loudspeaker traveling along a 6.3-meter rail system. This is an extension from a prior indoor laboratory measurement system in which selected targets were insonified while suspended in air. Here, the loudspeaker and microphone are aimed perpendicular to their direction of travel along the rail. The area next to the rail is insonified and the microphone records the reflected acoustic signal, while the travel of the transceiver along the rail creates a synthetic aperture allowing imaging of the scene. Ground surfaces consisted of weathered asphalt and short grass. Several surface-laid objects were arranged on the ground for SAA imaging. These included rocks, concrete masonry blocks, grout covered foam blocks; foliage obscured objects and several spherical canonical targets such as a bowling ball, and plastic and metal spheres. The measured data are processed and ground targets are further analyzed for characteristics and features amenable for discrimination. This paper includes a description of the measurement system, target descriptions, synthetic aperture processing approach and preliminary findings with respect to ground surface and target characteristics.

Bishop, Steven; Ngaya, Therese-Ann; Vignola, Joe; Judge, John; Marble, Jay; Gugino, Peter; Soumekh, Mehrdad; Rosen, Erik

2010-04-01

431

Maude as a formal meta-tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the different perspectives from which a complex software system has to be analyzed, the multiplicity of formalisms is\\u000a unavoidable. This poses two important technical challenges: how to rigorously meet the need to interrelate formalisms, and\\u000a how to reduce the duplication of effort in tool and specification building across formalisms. These challenges could be answered\\u000a by adequate formal meta-tools that,

Manuel Clavel; Francisco Durán; Steven Eker

1999-01-01

432

The formal de Rham complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a formal construction generalizing the classic de Rham complex to a wide class of models in mathematical physics and analysis. The presentation is divided into a sequence of definitions and elementary, easily verified statements; proofs are therefore given only in the key case. Linear operations are everywhere performed over a fixed number field {F} = {R},{C}. All linear spaces, algebras, and modules, although not stipulated explicitly, are by definition or by construction endowed with natural locally convex topologies, and their morphisms are continuous.

Zharinov, V. V.

2013-02-01

433

Studying Formal Methods Applications in CBTC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal methods are mathematics-based techniques, often supported by reasoning tools, that can offer a rigorous and effective way to model, design and analyse computer systems. Up to now formal methods in railway systems have mostly been used for interlocking applications. We are interested in studying and describing some possible formal methods applications in CBTC (Communications-Based Train Control). The main goal

Fei Yan

2011-01-01

434

Experiences Using Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three cases studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modelling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve

Steve Easterbrook; Robyn Lutz; Rick Covington; John Kelly; Yoko Ampo; David Hamilton

1996-01-01

435

Ego Identity, Egocentrism, and Formal Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between ego identity, formal operations, and egocentrism in adolescents. Results indicated significant positive correlations between ego identity and formal operations and between ego identity and grade in school. Grade in school explained 21 percent of the variance while formal operational thinking, egocentrism, and sex…

Protinsky, Howard; Wilkerson, Jackie

1986-01-01

436

Comment: universality of formal operational thought.  

PubMed

Piaget suggested four stages of development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete and formal operations) may be universally observed, but only the first three have been confirmed because few people attain formal operations. Both Westerners and Africans may attain formal operations, however, given the way they reason and interact in their milieu. PMID:1528695

Mwamwenda, T S

1992-08-01

437

Some empirical parameters of formal thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-five undergraduates were tested on five formal thinking tasks and the verbal and figural sections of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. The percentage of students operating at the formal level for three of the four ordinally scored formal problems was significantly above the 50% figure usually reported with a more intellectually representative sample of adolescents. It was suggested that

Robert J. Ross

1973-01-01

438

Seven More Myths of Formal Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For whatever reason, formal methods remain one of the more contentious techniques inindustrial software engineering. Despite great increases in the number of organizations andprojects applying formal methods, it is still the case that the vast majority of potential usersof formal methods fail to become actual users. A paper by Hall in 1990 examined a number of`myths\\

Jonathan P. Bowen; Michael G. Hinchey

1995-01-01

439

Formal safety assessment of cruise ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the applicability of formal safety assessment to the cruise industry. Formal safety assessment and its development in the cruise shipping industry are described. Cruise ship accident statistics are studied and discussed. This is followed by an analysis of cruise ship characteristics and a proposed formal safety assessment methodology for cruise ships. A case study is carried out

P Lois; J Wang; A Wall; T Ruxton

2004-01-01

440

Regional Demand and Supply Projections for Outdoor Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA), requires the USDA Forest Service to conduct an assessment of national level economic trends in renewable resources, including outdoor recreation, every 10 years. The study, an issue ...

C. J. Betz D. B. K. English H. K. Cordell J. C. Bergstrom J. M. Young

1993-01-01

441

Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of kno...

A. Shehabi, A. J. Gadgil, P. N. Price, R. W. Chan

2006-01-01

442

THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicity Abstract Mutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

443

Nation-Wide Outdoor Recreation Supply Inventory, 1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1965 nationwide area and agency inventory of public outdoor recreation supply covers federal, state, county, and city jurisdictions. It includes acreage, facilities, and visitation data. (Cities under 50,000 population were sampled.)

B. Collins

1965-01-01

444

MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

445

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.

2011-04-01

446

Preventing Heat-Related Illness or Death of Outdoor Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Outdoor workers in agriculture, construction, and other industries are exposed to a great deal of exertional and environmental heat stress that may lead to severe illness or death. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommen...

2013-01-01

447

Lesson Learning at JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

Oberhettinger, David

2011-01-01

448

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF IMS LEARNING DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.The objective of the IMS Learning Design specification is to provide a containment framework ofelements,that can describe any design of a teaching-learning process in a formal way. The proposed specification is pedagogically neutral and provides a means for defining diverse learning designs (e.g.: collaborative learning, problem-based learning, blended learning). Regardless of the pedagogy involved, inpractice,every learning design comes ,to: a

Manuel Caeiro; Luis Anido; Martín Llamas

449

Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq·m-3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq·m-3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can

H. Hötzl; R. Winkler

1994-01-01

450

Gaseous emissions from outdoor concrete yards used by livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) were made from 11 outdoor concrete yards used by livestock. Measurements of NH3 emission were made using the equilibrium concentration technique while closed chambers were used to measure N2O and CH4 emissions. Outdoor yards used by livestock proved to be an important source of NH3 emission. Greatest emission rates were

T. H Misselbrook; J Webb; D. R Chadwick; S Ellis; B. F Pain

2001-01-01

451

Victory Media Network®: the world's largest outdoor digital gallery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique outdoor digital art gallery opened in March of 2007 in the heart of the new 75-acre Victory Park mixed-use urban development project in Dallas, Texas. The gallery and its associated display technologies, cumulatively referred to as Victory Media Network®, incorporate a total of eleven large-scale outdoor LED video screens as well as LCD screens encased in kiosks distributed

Kristin Gray; Don Richards; Jason Cox

2007-01-01

452

Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Falls are a major threat to older people’s health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people’s experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. Methods We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Results Forty-four adults aged 65 – 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. Conclusions This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

2013-01-01

453

Authoring and Reengineering of IMS Learning Design Units of Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs) are notations that allow instructors to formally describe educational processes, including teaching and learning interactions and activities. The description of a specific teaching process using an EML is called a learning design. EMLs, where IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) is becoming a \\

Iván Martínez-ortiz; Jose-Luis Sierra; Baltasar Fernández-manjón

2009-01-01

454

The Influence of Investment in Workplace Learning on Learning Outcomes and Organizational Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the importance of workplace learning has been recognized in research and practice, there is little empirical support that describes how workplace learning, including both formal and informal learning, is linked to organizational performance. This study investigated the influence of investment in workplace learning on learning outcomes and…

Park, Yoonhee; Jacobs, Ronald L.

2011-01-01

455

Study of Relation between Indoor Radon in Multi-storey Building and Outdoor Factors  

SciTech Connect

A continuous radon monitoring in indoor and outdoor air was carried out for the period of one year. The relation between indoor radon and indoor-outdoor temperature difference, as well as between indoor radon and outdoor radon was investigated. The best correlation was obtained between indoor and outdoor radon concentrations.

Muellerova, Monika; Holy, Karol [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina F1, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

2010-01-05

456

Outdoor Adventures: Tracking Eastern Box Turtles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thematic and hands-on approach to learning ensures that students develop a deeper understanding and retain information longer. Bouillion and Gomez (2001) argue that real-world problems and school-community partnerships help engage students to connect with school science. When there is a disconnect between the activities of school science and…

Somers, Ann Berry; Matthews, Catherine E.; Bennett, Kristin R.; Seymour, Sarah; Rucker, John

2003-01-01

457

Outdoor winter activities of spinal cord-injured patients. With special reference to outdoor mobility.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty-seven patients with spinal cord injuries living in Hokkaido, the northern part of Japan, were mailed a questionnaire relating to winter outdoor activities. One hundred eight patients responded to the questionnaire, 98 males and 10 females, with ages ranging from 30 to 79 (mean, 53.3) yr. Injury levels of patients were: cervical in 23 patients, thoracic and thoracolumbar in 47, and lumbar in 38. All respondents were unable to walk independently because of quadriplegia or paraplegia. Approximately 90 percent of respondents found it necessary to go outside during the winter season. Eighty-five percent were outside during the coldest period. The most common reasons for outdoor activities were shopping and routine doctor's appointments. The main method of ambulating outside was a manual and/or electrically operated wheelchair, sometimes in conjunction with an automobile. However, there were many problems reported in using wheelchairs; for example, wheels and casters were very slippery on the snow and ice, casters were easily buried in the snow, and wheelchair rims were very cold to handle. It was also pointed out that exposure to cold weather induced physical problems such as muscle spasticity, pain, and numbness of lower extremities. This survey revealed that spinal cord-injured patients would benefit from a wheelchair specifically designed for winter conditions. PMID:8534383

Shirado, O; Shundo, M; Kaneda, K; Strax, T E

1995-01-01

458

A Mobile Butterfly-Watching Learning System for Supporting Independent Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system which supports independent learners by offering a new pattern of outdoor mobile learning (or called as m-learning) activities. The proposed BWL system was designed using a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. In our designed system, each individual learner has a wireless handheld device, which is a

Yuh-shyan Chen; Tai-chien Kao; Gwo-jong Yu; Jang-ping Sheu

2004-01-01

459

Personal UV exposure for different outdoor sports.  

PubMed

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major environmental risk factor in the development of skin cancers and it occurs mainly during outdoor activities. The purpose of this study is to quantify the UV exposure suffered by amateur athletes (tennis players, hikers and runners) in their training schedules. The study on tennis player exposure took place at a tennis club in Valencia during the month of June 2011. With respect to the hiking group, the hikes studied took place in several mountainous areas of Spain and France from June to August 2011. Finally, the exposure suffered by ten runners while participating in a running circuit in the province of Valencia, from March to November 2011, was studied. The athletes were monitored using personal dosimeters (VioSpor), with the tennis players and runners wearing them on the wrist and the hikers on the shoulder. The median daily personal UV exposure for the hikers was 8.1 Standard Erythema Dose (SED) and for the tennis players 7.5 SED per day of training. The runners received a median of 14.6 SED while participating in the running circuit and about 2 SED per competition day. Median daily UV exposure of the hikers and tennis players exceeded 5 SED, which means that, in the case of non-sun-adapted skin type III and the non-use of sun protection, erythema may be induced in these subjects. However, the exposure suffered by the runners did not exceed the maximum personal exposure of 5 SED. Accordingly, it is necessary to encourage the use of high protection sunscreens and protective clothing and to avoid UV exposure in the hottest part of the day. PMID:24535504

Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos; Gurrea, Gonzalo

2014-04-01

460

Educational Metadata for Mobile Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an educational metadata schema for use with mobile learning. The development of metadata schemas has been at the core of the learning technology standardisation process. These proposals have been aimed at conventional eLearning on a desktop computer in a formal training and teaching environment. Our aim has been to specify a metadata schema, based on the existing IEEE

Tony Chan; Mike Sharples; Giasemi N. Vavoula; Peter Lonsdale

2004-01-01

461

Corporate Learning: Rhetoric and Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses lifelong learning and considers the development of innovative approaches to work-related learning, using formal and informal opportunities. More effective learning in organizations and return on the investment in training are considered, and two programs in the United Kingdom are described which were developed by the university…

Caley, Lynne; Hendry, Elaine

1998-01-01

462

Indoor and outdoor air pollution in Tokyo and Beijing supercities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since automobile exhaust and coal combustion exhaust are the major sources of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and airborne pollutants in many countries, SPM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in indoor and outdoor air were measured using the new portable samplers (AND sampler) around a main road and in residential areas of Tokyo and Beijing. The results showed that the relationship between the airborne particle concentration in indoor air and outdoor air varied with the aerodynamic diameter of the particles. The concentration of SPM in indoor air increased in proportion to that in outdoor air. The concentration of PAH and mutagenic activity in air also varied with the aerodynamic diameter of the particles. Fine particles exhibiting an aerodynamic diameter of < 2 ?m contained high concentrations of PAH and mutagens. The concentrations of benzo( k)fluoranthene, benzo( a)pyrene [B( a)P], and benzo( ghi)perylene in indoor air increased in proportion to those in outdoor air around a main road and in residential areas of Tokyo and Beijing. The results showed that fine particles seemed to be more harmful to humans than coarse ones. In the winter season, the SPM and sulfur dioxide concentration in indoor and outdoor air in residential areas of Beijing was approximately 4 to 5 times higher than that around a main road of Tokyo. The B( a)P concentration in outdoor air in residential areas of Beijing was approximately 15 times higher than that in residential areas around a main road of Tokyo. Since the concentration of SPM and PAH in indoor air increases in proportion to that in outdoor air, it is reasonable to make efforts to reduce SPM and PAH generated by automobile exhaust in Tokyo and coal combustion exhaust in Beijing.

Ando, M.; Katagiri, K.; Tamura, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Li, Y. F.; Cao, S. R.; Ji, R. D.; Liang, C. K.

463

Creative and Playful Learning: Learning through Game Co-Creation and Games in a Playful Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a pilot study in which children aged 7-12 (N = 68) had an opportunity to study in a novel formal and informal learning setting. The learning activities were extended from the classroom to the playful learning environment (PLE), an innovative playground enriched by technological tools. Curriculum-based learning was intertwined…

Kangas, Marjaana

2010-01-01

464

Learning as Partners: Realising the Potential of Work-based Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of educational partnerships determines the success of work-based learning. High-quality learning partnerships have explicit outcomes, formal assessment processes, standards, quality assurance processes, and recognition through the awarding of credit or certification. (SK)

Smith, Robin; Betts, Mick

2000-01-01

465

Next Evolution of the Seneca College Outdoor Recreation Program: One Year of High Level Professional Outdoor Training and Development for Post-Diploma/Post-Degree Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the steps in utilizing fast-tracking to phase out the overloaded two-year Outdoor Recreation Technician Co-op program at Seneca College (Ontario) and phase in a one-year graduate Outdoor Recreation Certificate program with a lower teacher-student ratio. A concept model relates generalist core skills to specializations and outdoor

Magee, Clare

1998-01-01

466

Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning Landscape is the total context for students' learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. The goal of the Learning Landscape approach is to acknowledge this richness and maximize encounters among people,…

Dugdale, Shirley

2009-01-01

467

Alternative Learning Arenas - Pedagogical Challenges to Mobile Learning Technology in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

ICT-implementation in education has mostly been aimed at enhancing learning informal arenas-the classroom. However, accepting that learning does not only forego in the formal learning arenas, it is proposed that mobile technology can be used as a bridge between the formal and informal learning arenas. The question is whether the bridge between school and other arenas open or closed-is there

Louise Mifsud

2002-01-01

468

Ego identity, egocentrism, and formal operations.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between ego identity and formal operations and egocentrism in an adolescent population. Results indicated significant positive correlations between ego identity and formal operations and between ego identity and grade in school. Multiple regression analysis revealed that grade in school explained 21 percent of the variance while formal operational thinking, egocentrism, and sex accounted for only an additional 2 percent of the variance. PMID:3739842

Protinsky, H; Wilkerson, J

1986-01-01

469

Third NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication constitutes the proceedings of NASA Langley Research Center's third workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. This workshop brought together formal methods researchers, industry engineers, and academicians to discuss the potential of NASA-sponsored formal methods and to investigate new opportunities for applying these methods to industry problems. contained herein are copies of the material presented at the workshop, summaries of many of the presentations, a complete list of attendees, and a detailed summary of the Langley formal methods program. Much of this material is available electronically through the World-Wide Web via the following URL.

Holloway, C. Michael (compiler)

1995-01-01

470

Formal Methods for Life-Critical Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computer software in life-critical applications, such as for civil air transports, demands the use of rigorous formal mathematical verification procedures. This paper demonstrates how to apply formal methods to the development and verification of software by leading the reader step-by-step through requirements analysis, design, implementation, and verification of an electronic phone book application. The current maturity and limitations of formal methods tools and techniques are then discussed, and a number of examples of the successful use of formal methods by industry are cited.

Butler, Ricky W.; Johnson, Sally C.

1993-01-01

471

Teenagers as scientist - Learning by doing or doing without learning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Title: Teenagers as scientist - Learning by doing or doing without learning? Authors: Dr. Suzanne Kapelari* and Elsabeth Carli*, Ulrike Tappeiner** *Science Educaton Center,**Institute of Ecology,University Innsbruck, Austria The PISA (2006-2007) Assessment Framework asks for"…. the development of a general understanding of important concepts and explanatory framework of science, of the methods by which science derives evidence to support claims for its knowledge and of the strength and limitations of science in the real world….". To meet these requirements pupils are eventually asked to engage in "working like scientists learning activities" at school or while visiting informal learning institutions. But what does it mean in a real life situation? An ambitious project call named "Sparkling Science" was launched by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research in 2008, asking scientists to run their research in tight co-operation with local teachers and pupils. Although this would be enough of a challenge anyway, the ultimate goals of these projects are to achieve publishable scientific results in the particular field. The project design appears to be promising. Pupils and teachers are invited to gain first hand experience as part of a research team investigating current research questions. Pupils experience science research first hand, explore laboratories and research sites, gather data, discuss findings, draw conclusions and finally publish them. They set off on an exciting two years journey through a real scientific project. Teachers have the unique opportunity to get insight into a research project and work closely together with scientists. In addition teachers and pupils have the opportunity to gain first hand knowledge about a particular topic and are invited to discuss science matters on the uppermost level. Sparkling Science promoting agents have high expectations. Their website (www.sparklingscience.at) says: "Forming research teams that involve scientists and children simulates the research process and has a high impact on skill building for both partners". In the contrary hardly anything do we actually know about how effective these learning environments really are. For the last decades a large body of science education research has predominantly taken place in laboratories and formal educational settings. Significant "blind spots" in the current literature appear when it comes to focusing on "the nature of learning in outdoor education" as well as "learning in research-education partnerships". The Institute of Ecology at the University of Innsbruck, Austria was awarded the project: Top-Klima-Science: Hydrologic Balance and Global Change: Future Prospect for Mountain Areas in the Face of Changes in Land Use and Climate. The University of Innsbruck and the European Academy Bolzano are coordinating their efforts with their partner school HLFS Kematen in Tyrol. Two classes with nearly 60 students age 15 -18 years are involved in all areas of the project. The research project as such is accompanied by an ongoing evaluation of the process, which is carried out by science education researchers from the Science Education Centre at the University to Innsbruck, Austria. Iterative testing of teaching and learning strategies to improve them as they are developed is going along with a front, middle and end evaluation to find out what expectations, fears and motivations pupils, teachers and researchers have before joining in and how these develop in course of the two years working relationship. Evaluators also watch closely on how pupil develop their conceptual understanding of the topic they are investigating and whether their attitude towards science and science research changes in course of working as "real scientists. This talk will present preliminary results from work in progress and will discuss pros and cons of "doing real research" as a long term strategy for science in tomorrow's classrooms.

Kapelari, Suzanne; Carli, Elisabeth; Tappeiner, Ulrike

2010-05-01

472

[What is the role of outdoor air pollution in asthma?].  

PubMed

Strong scientific evidence has shown that ordinary peaks of outdoor air pollution worsen the symptoms and control of asthma. As for chronic exposure, elevated mean level of local, near-road air pollution may cause increased incidence of asthma among children, and probably also among adults. By contrast, while there is no doubt that air pollution worsens allergic inflammatory processes, it is not clearly established that it may increase allergic sensitization among the general population. In this regard, more research is needed, particularly on the effects of outdoor air pollution in the early periods of life. PMID:23240300

Rochat, T; Bridevaux, P-O; Gerbase, M; Probst-Hensch, N; Künzli, N

2012-11-21

473

Formalisms for user interface specification and design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of formal methods to the specification and design of human-computer interfaces is described. A broad outline of human-computer interface problems, a description of the field of cognitive engineering and two relevant research results, the appropriateness of formal specification techniques, and potential NASA application areas are described.

Auernheimer, Brent J.

1989-01-01

474

Formal proof of a program: Find  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1971, C.A.R. Hoare gave the proof of correctness and termination of a rather complex algorithm, in a paper entitled Proof of a program: Find. It is a handmade proof, where the program is given together with its formal specification and where each step is fully justified by mathematical reasoning. We present here a formal proof of the same program

Jean-christophe Filliâtre

2007-01-01

475

Formal Verification of a Medical Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether formal verification of medical protocols can contribute to their quality. Two versions of a medical protocol (for managing Hyperbilirubinemia) were converted into a formal model and implemented in the specification language PROMELA. The implemented model is checked with SPIN. No anomalies were discovered by SPIN, but some odd cases did come up during the implementation of

J. W. Brakel

2005-01-01

476

Planning Formalisms and Authoring in Interactive Storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interacting Storytelling systems integrate AI techniques such as plan- ning with narrative representations to generate stories. In this paper, we discuss the use of planning formalisms in Interactive Storytelling from the perspective of story generation and authoring. We compare two different planning formal- isms, Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning and Heuristic Search Plan- ning (HSP). While HTN provide a strong

Fred Charles; Miguel Lozano; Steven J. Mead; Alicia Fornes Bisquerra; Marc Cavazza

2003-01-01

477

Stochastic Quantization Method in Operator Formalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stochastic quantization method is developed in a possible ``Heisenberg'' operator theory of stochastic processes so designed as to keep a formal analogy to quantum mechanics. The general theory is first formulated for stochastic processes of the Wiener type and then its application to quantization of boson fields is presented. It seems that the operator formalism is convenient to examine

Mikio Namiki; Yoshiya Yamanaka

1983-01-01

478

A Simple Formalization of Actions Using Circumscription  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple circumscriptive method for formalizing actions with indirect effects (ramifi­ cations), and show that, in several examples, all second-order quantifiers can be eliminated from these formalizations using existing techniques for computing circumscriptions. One of the two symbolic computation methods employed here is a generalization of predicate completion and the other is based on the SCAN algorithm. The

G. Neelakantan Kartha; Vladimir Lifschitz

1995-01-01

479

General Formalism for the BRST Symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract In this paper we will discuss Faddeev—Popov method for gauge theories with a general form of gauge symmetry in an abstract way. We will then develope a general formalism for dealing with the BRST symmetry. This formalism will make it possible to analyse the BRST symmetry for any theory.

Suhail, Ahmad

2013-04-01

480

Formal Specification of a Display Editor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a formalization of the design of a Display Editor. The formalization is rigorous enough to serve as a touchstone for the correctness of implementations of the editor and to permit various desirable properties of the design to be proven....

B. Sufrin

1981-01-01

481

Formal Reasoning in Adolescence: An Alternative View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Piaget's (1958) theory of cognitive development, the stage of Formal Operational Thinking, highly abstract, as opposed to concrete, thinking, emerges during the adolescent period. Recent research suggests that "all" adolescents, or even adults, "do not" develop complete formal reasoning. Attempts to integrate research findings with…

Berzonsky, Michael D.

1978-01-01

482

Systematic reasoning: Formal or postformal cognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between formal and postformal systematic metasystematic reasoning. Shayer's (1978) chemicals task and a modified version of Kuhn and Brannock's (1977) plant task were used to measure formal thinking and Commons, Richard, and Kuhn's (1982) multisystem task and balance-beam task to detect postformal reasoning. Subjects were university students from the humanities

Eeva Kallio

1995-01-01

483

A Perspective on Formal Thought Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research of Jean Piaget and his Genevan co-workers might lead one to believe that all adolescents are formal thinkers by the time they are 15 or 16 years of age. The studies reviewed by the author on formal thinking in the United States seem to support the contention that the majority of late adolescents and adults function at the concrete…

Chiappetta, Eugene L.

484

Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

Linn, Marcia C.

485

Generating Unit Tests from Formal Proofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new automatic test generation method for JAVA CARD based on attempts at formal verification of the implementati on under test (IUT). Self-contained unit tests in JUnit format are generated aut omatically. The advan- tages of the approach are: (i) it exploits the full informati on available in the IUT and in its formal model giving very good

Christian Engel; Reiner Hähnle

2007-01-01

486

Formal hardware verification of digital circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of formal methods to verify the correctness of digital circuits is less constrained by the growing complexity of digital circuits than conventional methods based on exhaustive simulation. This paper briefly outlines three main approaches to formal hardware verification: symbolic simulation, state machine analysis, and theorem-proving.

Joyce, J.; Seger, C.-J.

1991-01-01

487

The Adolescent Personality, Formal Reasoning, and Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between levels of Piagetian formal reasoning ability and values preferences derived from Rokeach Value Survey. Findings from 448 secondary school students revealed that subjects with high scores on formal reasoning ranked terminal values representing abstract notions with long-term implications higher than those focusing on…

Darmody, John P.

1991-01-01

488

A formal basis for architectural connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As software systems become more complex, the overall system structure—or software architecture—becomes a central design problem. An important step toward an engineering discipline of software is a formal basis for describing and analyzing these designs. In the article we present a formal approach to one aspect of architectural design: the interactions among components. The key idea is to define architectural

Robert Allen; David Garlan

1997-01-01

489

STRUCTURE MAPPING THEORY AS A FORMALISM FOR INSTRUCTIONAL GAME DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

CyGaMEs, which stands for Cyberlearn- ing through Game-based, Metaphor Enhanced Learning Objects, is a formal approach to the design of instructional learning environments through applied structure mapping theory. This paper summarizes the CyGaMEs research pro- gram: its origin; the CyGaMEs approach to design, development, and assessment; the ex- perimental paradigm; and findings using Cy- GaMEs' online, single-player research envi- ronment,

Debbie Denise Reese

490

The Organization and Management of Informal and Formal Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This display sketches one element of the Digital Youth Network, a program aimed at producing digitally literate youth. The practices of program leaders blend those of mentoring and teaching. Despite the potential conflict between these roles, program leaders structure activities to support role transitions. The management of youth behavior within this structure supports the successful transition. This design creates a

Kimberly Austin; Nichole Pinkard

491

Studying Learners and Assessing Learning: A Process-Relational Perspective on the Learning Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of the learning sciences appears to favor cognitive and social approaches to the study of human learning. In this article, the author proposes that a deep cognizance of cultural influences on learning is vital if formal and informal learning are to make vital connections to learners' lives and their personal need for meaning making in…

Chee, Yam San

2010-01-01

492

Policy Formulation and Networks of Practice in European eLearning: The Emergence of a European E-Learning Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the emergence of a European E-Learning Area (EELA) as a consequence of three factors that can be observed in the e-learning developments over the past decade. The first factor consists of the carving of a policy sector in e-learning via formal instruments such as the eLearning Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and…

Salajan, Florin D.

2013-01-01

493

Test methods for polymeric insulating materials for outdoor HV insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an analysis of standardized and non-standardized test methods for polymeric insulating materials, either suitable or applied for, outdoor HV insulation. The analysis particularly considers the increasing use of silicone elastomers for composite insulators. In the first part, test methods covering erosion\\/tracking performance and hydrolysis phenomena are discussed. These are inclined plane test (IPT) and arc test (AT)

R. Barsch; H. Jahn; J. Lambrecht; F. Schmuck

1999-01-01

494

EFFECTS OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL ON PERIPHYTON COMMUNITIES IN OUTDOOR EXPERIMENTAL STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the periphyton community in outdoor experimental streams. It was part of a larger study in which an objective was to evaluate the effects of PCP at water quality criterion levels on natural aq...

495

Evaluating Outdoor Experiential Training for Leadership and Team Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for calculating the return on investment in outdoor experiential training that focuses on pre- and posttraining behavior and business performance. Includes a method for converting data on turnover, absenteeism, productivity, quality, and job performance into monetary values to compute return. (Contains 54 references.) (SK)

Williams, Scott D.; Graham, T. Scott; Baker, Bud

2003-01-01

496

Outdoor Recreation Behavior as Viewed from a Symbolic Interactionism Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes past studies of outdoor recreational behavior from the point of view of symbolic interactionism. This perspective focuses directly on the manner in which individuals interpret the words and behavior of others, as well as their own physical environment. The first part of the analysis examines some recent definitions of…

Colton, Craig W.; Morrione, Thomas J.

497

Operating a six-legged outdoor patrol robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the mechanical\\/electrical design of half-sized outdoor patrol robot CALEB I. The robots are designed to be operated by both remote control mode and autonomous mode. To patrol around buildings efficiently and safely, we implemented navigation algorithms based on GPS and odometer, and obstacle avoidance and traversal as well as posture stabilization. The robot offers autonomous

Jihong Lee; Hyungwon Shim; Sang-jin Oh; Jimi Hong; KyoungHwan Jo; Hyokjo Kwon; Jungbae Kim

2007-01-01

498

TimeWarp: an explorative outdoor mixed reality game  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mobile technology has advanced a number of electronic city guide products have become available. However, most of these products still maintain a conventional form of tour that is information centered and forces the user to take a certain route through a city. In contrast, TimeWarp is an outdoor edutainment game that provides an immersive experience of the history of

Iris Herbst; Sabiha Ghellah; Anne-Kathrin Braun

2007-01-01

499

Outdoor experiment of laser propagation with stimulated Brillouin scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laser propagation in the atmosphere, the wavefront of laser beam will be distorted by the atmospheric turbulence. The wavefront aberration can be compensated with the stimulated Brillouin-scattering (SBS) effect. In this paper, an outdoor experiment is presented. In the experiment, a ruby oscillator and an amplifier are used as source; a laser beam travels from the source to a

Xiaojun Du; Yuezhu Wang; Qi Wang; Zuguang G. Ma; Huifeng Xiong

1998-01-01

500

Using outdoor exercise to decrease jet lag in airline crewmembers.  

PubMed

The effects of outdoor exercise on urinary excretion of the 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), catecholamine rhythm, and sleep-wake patterns in cockpit crewmembers were investigated before, during and after jet travel between Tokyo and Los Angeles (8-h time difference). On the day following arrival at Los Angeles (day 3) 5 crewmembers exercised outdoors for about 5 h (exercise group, aged 47.2 +/- 6.8 yr), and 5 others volunteered to remain in their rooms and go shopping after the flight (control group, aged 47.4 +/- 1.5 yr). The timing of the acrophase of the 17-OHCS rhythm and sleep-wake patterns showed similar patterns of advance in the two groups on the day of arrival in Los Angeles (day 2) compared with that at baseline (B) in Tokyo. In the exercise group, the acrophase of the 17-OHCS rhythm tended to be delayed on day 3, and then phase-advanced on the day following outdoor exercise (day 4). The timing of acrophase of the 17-OHCS rhythm and sleep-wake patterns showed gradual delay on days 3-4 in the control group, and a significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed between the groups for the acrophase of 17-OHCS rhythm on day 4. These results suggest that outdoor exercise has some effects in hastening the resynchronization to a new environment of the circadian rhythm of the urinary 17-OHCS excretion. PMID:8968481

Shiota, M; Sudou, M; Ohshima, M

1996-12-01