Science.gov

Sample records for formal outdoor learning

  1. Potential for Excellence: Interdisciplinary Learning Outdoors as a Moral Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Pete; Carr, David; Meldrum, George

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the place and status of outdoor learning within formal schooling. In light of recent British outdoor educational trends, it considers the general educational significance of outdoor learning in the context of the recent Scottish "Curriculum for Excellence". The article begins with an overview of some key educational…

  2. Potential for Excellence: Interdisciplinary Learning Outdoors as a Moral Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Pete; Carr, David; Meldrum, George

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the place and status of outdoor learning within formal schooling. In light of recent British outdoor educational trends, it considers the general educational significance of outdoor learning in the context of the recent Scottish "Curriculum for Excellence". The article begins with an overview of some key educational…

  3. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  4. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  5. Outdoor Adventure Education in a Formal Education Curriculum in Finland: Action Research Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karppinen, Seppo J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adventure in school culture may seem quite a contradiction. In this paper I will present arguments on the idea that outdoor adventure learning contributes to formal education and is compatible with school practice and goals. This paper is based on research conducted for my thesis. The doctoral degree was completed at Oulu University, Finland, in…

  6. Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

  7. Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

  8. Cooperative Learning and Outdoor/Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This newsletter contains 14 items on cooperative learning and outdoor education, with a particular focus on environmental education and ecology. "Cooperative Teaching/Learning Strategies and Objectives in Outdoor/Environmental Education" by Clifford E. Knapp is about cooperative teaching and learning strategies in outdoor education and emphasizes…

  9. Outdoor Play and Learning: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burriss, Kathleen; Burriss, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes national school district policy and practice regarding elementary school children's outdoor learning and play. District representatives from 173 randomly selected school districts completed questionnaires describing policy and practice related to recess, outdoor play, outdoor curricular studies, playground materials, ADA…

  10. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  11. Outdoor Education and Experiential Learning in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter, Ed.; Humberstone, Barbara, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers that describe a spectrum of experiential and outdoor education opportunities in the United Kingdom. The first section focuses on provision of outdoor education in schools, colleges, and outdoor education centers, drawing on formal curricula, including the British national curriculum. The second section examines outdoor

  12. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and posttests, progressive self-assessments, and ethnographic observations. Since I argue that the idea of learning from experience is underspecified, I present empirical findings to show that experience per se is not enough. I discuss tools and other artifacts that help learners notice key dimensions of their experiences, and demonstrate how they link these to other aspects of their culture and lives. Findings indicate that a mediated approach does in fact help students outperform participants who only received the experience. A time for telling was also advantageous for students to improve learning and using technology to reduce cognitive load was instrumental in further improving their learning. Future plans are discussed to follow up on these findings and to implement new tests as the dams are removed and the natural habitat is restored.

  13. Outdoor Learning: Primary Pupils' Experiences and Teachers' Interaction in Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws upon research undertaken for the Outdoor Pedagogies project and explores the processes of teaching and learning at one outdoor residential education centre with children and staff from "Oliver" Primary School. Data were collected through ethnographic research and include participant observation, interviews with teachers and centre…

  14. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

  15. Field Study Manual for Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliken, Margaret; And Others

    Ecology, the study of natural resources, and influences on natural resources are the concerns of this study, along with the idea of learning how to live with and understand our resources. This manual gives a detailed presentation of using the outdoors as a classroom and, although written on a more advanced level, probably could be adapted even to…

  16. The Caboose Hike: Enhancing Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siers, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Describes techniques for enhancing the experiences of participants in nature hikes or other outdoor group learning activities. Presents three techniques: (1) "The Caboose Hike" that engages students in sharing information; (2) "The Five Tools" that emphasizes use of the five senses; and (3) "Nature Detectives" that engages participants in a search…

  17. Using the Outdoors as a Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckner, John L.; Humphries, Sherry

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for using the outdoors as a way of enriching the learning that takes place in the classroom for hearing-impaired learners. Specific examples of activities include examining the microworld, conducting a hypothetical interview with an animal, and making a map of community energy sources. (Author/JDD)

  18. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  19. Outdoor Education and Environmental (Make that Nature) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor education cannot "not" be about nature learning. Just as David Orr (1992) says that all education is environmental education, so too all outdoor education teaches something about the natural world--either that it matters or that it doesn't. According to the Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario (COEO), "outdoor education directly exposes…

  20. Student Learning in Outdoor Education: A Case Study from the National Outdoor Leadership School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Karen; Furman, Nathan; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

    2008-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to what students learn in outdoor education settings, little has been paid to the process through which that learning occurs. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which students report learning one of six targeted objectives on courses offered by the National Outdoor Leadership School.…

  1. Outdoor Play and Learning for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Suzanne M.

    Infants and toddlers like to crawl, climb, run, and explore in wide open, outdoor spaces. This publication provides ideas for day care providers on using outdoor play to facilitate learning in infants and toddlers. Section 1 discusses the benefits of daily outdoor play, including learning to interact with others, practicing language skills,…

  2. Designing outdoor Learning Environments for and with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddemi, Marcy; Eriksen, Aase

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of outdoor learning environments, discusses types of children's play that promote their learning and growth, examines the role of outdoor play on children's development, and lists several indoor activities which can also be used as outdoor activities. (BC)

  3. Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina

    2004-01-01

    A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…

  4. The relationship of student achievement to learning elementary science outdoors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Steve Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teaching elementary science outdoors and student achievement on science standards. The study also considered student attitudes toward learning outdoors in the schoolyard and their achievement on a science standard appropriate for teaching outdoors. The seminal work in the field (Louv, 2005) created the phrase "nature deficit disorder" to describe the condition of children that spend little time outdoors learning from and playing in nature. Five fourth grade classes took part in outdoor instruction on particular standards after taking an attitudinal survey on learning outdoors and a pretest on the science content. Both measures were repeated after outdoor instruction. The hypotheses of the study were that students receiving outdoor instruction demonstrate improved science achievement and that student attitudes towards learning science outdoors has a significant impact on student achievement related to a science standard. The results of the study indicate a gain in student achievement followed the outdoor science lessons, allowing the research to accept the hypothesis as valid. However, the study found that student attitude toward learning science outdoors was not a significant factor in predicting gains in student achievement.

  5. Go outside to Learn: The Value of Outdoor Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robin R.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoors opens up endless possibilities. Every place and space people experience offers an opportunity to learn. Accepted educational research first theorized by social scientist and author, Howard Gardner, shows that learners have nine multiple intelligences--visual, logical, intrapersonal, musical, body-kinesthetic, linguistic, interpersonal,…

  6. Go outside to Learn: The Value of Outdoor Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robin R.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoors opens up endless possibilities. Every place and space people experience offers an opportunity to learn. Accepted educational research first theorized by social scientist and author, Howard Gardner, shows that learners have nine multiple intelligences--visual, logical, intrapersonal, musical, body-kinesthetic, linguistic, interpersonal,…

  7. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    2010-01-01

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

  8. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  9. Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

    2013-01-01

    This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

  10. Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2011-01-01

    Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced learning in…

  11. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  12. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  13. MOOC & B-Learning: Students' Barriers and Satisfaction in Formal and Non-Formal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gámiz-Sánchez, Vanesa-M.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The study presents a comparative analysis of two virtual learning formats: one non-formal through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and the other formal through b-learning. We compare the communication barriers and the satisfaction perceived by the students (N = 249) by developing a qualitative analysis using semi-structured questionnaires and…

  14. MOOC & B-Learning: Students' Barriers and Satisfaction in Formal and Non-Formal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gámiz-Sánchez, Vanesa-M.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The study presents a comparative analysis of two virtual learning formats: one non-formal through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and the other formal through b-learning. We compare the communication barriers and the satisfaction perceived by the students (N = 249) by developing a qualitative analysis using semi-structured questionnaires and…

  15. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

  16. Enhancing Children's Outdoor Learning Experiences with a Mobile Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikala, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how a mobile learning application can enhance children's outdoor learning experiences. The study draws upon empirical evidence gathered in one case study conducted in a Finnish primary school setting in the fall of 2012. The data were collected with student and teacher surveys. The case study indicated that the mobile…

  17. Enhancing Children's Outdoor Learning Experiences with a Mobile Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikala, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how a mobile learning application can enhance children's outdoor learning experiences. The study draws upon empirical evidence gathered in one case study conducted in a Finnish primary school setting in the fall of 2012. The data were collected with student and teacher surveys. The case study indicated that the mobile…

  18. Planning an Outdoor Learning Environment for a Small School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Developed to provide an outdoor learning environment for a small school which had relatively undeveloped grounds, these plans are aimed toward providing: physical activity (climbing, running, jumping, and games); imaginative activity; social learning; environmental study; mathematics and science; exploring materials, e.g., water and soil; and the…

  19. Planning an Outdoor Learning Environment for a Small School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Developed to provide an outdoor learning environment for a small school which had relatively undeveloped grounds, these plans are aimed toward providing: physical activity (climbing, running, jumping, and games); imaginative activity; social learning; environmental study; mathematics and science; exploring materials, e.g., water and soil; and the…

  20. Learning Conditions for Non-Formal and Informal Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…

  1. Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Di Prodi, P

    2013-11-01

    We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model. PMID:23777520

  2. Improving Learner Outcomes in Lifelong Education: Formal Pedagogies in Non-Formal Learning Contexts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how far research findings about successful pedagogies in formal post-school education might be used in non-formal learning contexts--settings where learning may not lead to formal qualifications. It does this by examining a learner outcomes model adapted from a synthesis of research into retention. The article first…

  3. Learning-Centered Planning Strategies in "Outdoor Education Programs": Enhancing Participation and Self-Directed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubball, Harry; West, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education (OE) takes place within a range of program settings and contexts (e.g., recreational, educational, developmental, or therapeutic). Experiential learning is central to OE and focuses these programs around elements of inquiry, active learning and reflection in the outdoor classroom. The personal, social and environmental benefits…

  4. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  5. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  6. Inclusion through Access to Outdoor Education: Learning in Motion (LIM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Learning in Motion (LIM) was a European project involving seven partners in five countries: Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Germany and Greece. The project focused on inclusion and access to outdoor education and was financed by the European Commission within the framework of the Socrates-Grundtvig Programme. The aim of the project was to explore if and…

  7. Cultivating Outdoor Classrooms: Designing and Implementing Child-Centered Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Create an outdoor learning program for young children. Transform outdoor spaces into learning environments where children can enjoy a full range of activities as they spend quality time in nature. This book is filled with guidance to help you plan, design, and create an outdoor learning program that is a rich, thoughtfully equipped, natural…

  8. Cultivating Outdoor Classrooms: Designing and Implementing Child-Centered Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Create an outdoor learning program for young children. Transform outdoor spaces into learning environments where children can enjoy a full range of activities as they spend quality time in nature. This book is filled with guidance to help you plan, design, and create an outdoor learning program that is a rich, thoughtfully equipped, natural…

  9. Action, Thinking, and Knowledge in the Learning Process of Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonen, Eija; Nevalainen, Raimo

    1994-01-01

    Interprets the outdoor-education learning process from viewpoint of pragmatist and cognitive conceptions of action, thinking, and knowledge as ways of structuring reality. Views outdoor education as socially organized, intentional activity aimed at student-environment interaction. Presents a model of outdoor learning involving goal-oriented…

  10. The Interrelatedness of Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Evidence from Labour Market Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn; Harrison, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Definitions, differences and relationships between formal, non-formal and informal learning have long been contentious. There has been a significant change in language and reference from adult education to what amounts to forms of learning categorised by their modes of facilitation. Nonetheless, there is currently a renewed interest in the…

  11. Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

  12. Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

  13. Learning about Outdoor Education through Authentic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The potential, for the learner, of a maths trail was documented in MT219. Here, the focus is on the planning element of such an event from the perspective of a group of student teachers. Personal reactions, and insights are used to demonstrate that "real, and authentic, learning" takes place for all those involved in the activity.

  14. How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…

  15. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  16. How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…

  17. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning…

  18. Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.

  19. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  20. An Introduction to the Constraints-Led Approach to Learning in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brymer, Eric; Renshaw, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Participation in outdoor education is underpinned by a learner's ability to acquire skills in activities such as canoeing, bushwalking and skiing and consequently the outdoor leader is often required to facilitate skill acquisition and motor learning. As such, outdoor leaders might benefit from an appropriate and tested model on how the learner…

  1. Formal and Non-Formal Digital Practices: Institutionalizing Transactional Learning Spaces in a Media Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how a classroom procedure known as PGE (Plan/Go-through/Evaluate) group work aims at integrating formal and non-formal media experiences and practices into classroom-based media learning. The study displays, on the one hand, how PGE group work emerged and was institutionally embedded in a media course. On the other hand, the…

  2. Formal and Non-Formal Digital Practices: Institutionalizing Transactional Learning Spaces in a Media Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how a classroom procedure known as PGE (Plan/Go-through/Evaluate) group work aims at integrating formal and non-formal media experiences and practices into classroom-based media learning. The study displays, on the one hand, how PGE group work emerged and was institutionally embedded in a media course. On the other hand, the…

  3. Blending Student Technology Experiences in Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…

  4. Blending Student Technology Experiences in Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…

  5. Non-Formal Learning: Clarification of the Concept and Its Application in Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, On Nei Annie

    2011-01-01

    The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…

  6. Students' Imaginings of Spaces of Learning in Outdoor and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lou

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I interrogate students' stories about the spaces and places in a tertiary Outdoor and Environmental Education course that support and shape their environmental ethics. Drawing on a longitudinal qualitative study, I explore the ways in which particular sites of learning (outdoor, practical learning) are privileged and how…

  7. Cultivating Lived-Body Consciousness: Enhancing Cognition and Emotion through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm; Marshall, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Through using school-based outdoor learning as the research context, the paper analyses the connections between bodily experiences and the embodied mind. Recent theorizing in outdoor learning, in reflecting phenomenology and Deweyian influences, has teased out how the relationships between the self, others and nature (environment) can be extended…

  8. Cultivating Lived-Body Consciousness: Enhancing Cognition and Emotion through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm; Marshall, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Through using school-based outdoor learning as the research context, the paper analyses the connections between bodily experiences and the embodied mind. Recent theorizing in outdoor learning, in reflecting phenomenology and Deweyian influences, has teased out how the relationships between the self, others and nature (environment) can be extended…

  9. Students' Imaginings of Spaces of Learning in Outdoor and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lou

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I interrogate students' stories about the spaces and places in a tertiary Outdoor and Environmental Education course that support and shape their environmental ethics. Drawing on a longitudinal qualitative study, I explore the ways in which particular sites of learning (outdoor, practical learning) are privileged and how…

  10. Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatiello, James

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

  11. Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

  12. Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

  13. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEARNING AND SEMANTIC AND FORMAL SIMILARITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOHM, AUDREY M.

    AN EXPERIMENT WAS DESIGNED TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS THAT, WITH MATERIAL OF HIGH MEANINGFULNESS, THE SEMANTIC DIMENSION OF SYNONYMITY (BATTLE-FIGHT) WILL HAVE GREATER IMPACT ON THE LEARNING PROCESS THAN THE DIMENSION OF FORMAL SIMILARITY (BATTLE-BOTTLE). THE LEARNING MATERIALS CONSISTED OF FOUR LISTS OF 12 PAIRS OF TWO-SYLLABLE WORDS. THEY WERE…

  14. School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

  15. School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

  16. The Slow Death of Formal Learning: A Polemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, David; Gubbins, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, approaches to education and training have become more informal, situated, outcome focused and experiential. Within this context, formal learning now plays a greatly diminished role, being supplanted by activity-based and technologically-based learning. This article, structured in the form of a polemic challenges readers to…

  17. Formal, nonformal and informal learning: Some North-South contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Kenneth

    1982-06-01

    It is argued that in the countries both of the South and of the North, inadequate attention has been given to the interactive dimensions of informal and formal learning. The differences between informal and formal learning have often been stressed in the past, but it is equally important to acknowledge the critical similarities as far as individual motivation and interest in learning are concerned. Before erecting new models for the integration of all three modes of learning, formal, nonformal and informal, into a system, it should be noticed that they already constitute a single comprehensive system — at least for the middle-class child. The problem in both the North and the South is often that the individual's learning is unsupported by any strong infrastructure of informal or nonformal education. This can happen in the industrialised countries, where the resources for informal learning are rich and varied, as well as in the developing world, where all too often the formal school has to operate without the support of a rich environment of literacy and learning.

  18. Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors

  19. The Place of Experience and the Experience of Place: Intersections between Sustainability Education and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Allen

    2013-01-01

    As social, economic and environmental issues have become more prominent in the 21st century, there has been increased critical scrutiny into the ways that outdoor learning interacts with sustainability issues and concepts. As a result, a number of discourses have emerged which interrogate human/nature relationships in traditional outdoor education…

  20. Classrooms in the Wild: Learning Language and Life Skills in the KUIS Outdoor Sports Circle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurr, Adrian

    The role of outdoor education activities in the Kanda University English language institute is described. The outdoor program was developed to unite faculty and students interested in recreational activities and provide an opportunity to explore common interests in nature, sports, and language learning. The activities develop self-esteem,…

  1. The Place of Experience and the Experience of Place: Intersections between Sustainability Education and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Allen

    2013-01-01

    As social, economic and environmental issues have become more prominent in the 21st century, there has been increased critical scrutiny into the ways that outdoor learning interacts with sustainability issues and concepts. As a result, a number of discourses have emerged which interrogate human/nature relationships in traditional outdoor education…

  2. The Hidden Turmoil: Females Achieving Longevity in the Outdoor Learning Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    Being a woman in the outdoor learning profession can bring distinctive challenges and roadblocks. Even more difficult is sustaining a life-long career, flourishing into a woman's 50s or 60s. Based on this premise, career longevity seems elusive for some women who aspire to work in the outdoors. This paper analyses the autobiographies of three…

  3. Place-Based Curriculum Making: Devising a Synthesis between Primary Geography and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor learning provides children with an opportunity to experience the interdisciplinary nature of the real world through interactions with each other and the planet. Geographical enquiry involves exploring the outdoors in an investigative capacity. Space, place and sustainability are three core concepts in primary geography, although…

  4. Place-Based Curriculum Making: Devising a Synthesis between Primary Geography and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor learning provides children with an opportunity to experience the interdisciplinary nature of the real world through interactions with each other and the planet. Geographical enquiry involves exploring the outdoors in an investigative capacity. Space, place and sustainability are three core concepts in primary geography, although…

  5. A Comparison of Children's Learning Under Different Program Structures in a Resident Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Michelle

    Hypothesizing that students who were given the opportunity to choose their learning activities in a residential outdoor education school (Stone Valley, Pennsylvania) would more readily attain the behavioral objectives of those activities, 68 fifth grade students participating in a four-day residential outdoor education program were divided into a…

  6. The Hidden Turmoil: Females Achieving Longevity in the Outdoor Learning Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    Being a woman in the outdoor learning profession can bring distinctive challenges and roadblocks. Even more difficult is sustaining a life-long career, flourishing into a woman's 50s or 60s. Based on this premise, career longevity seems elusive for some women who aspire to work in the outdoors. This paper analyses the autobiographies of three…

  7. Outdoor Play in Preschools in England and South Korea: Learning from Polyvocal Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Kwi-Ok; Waller, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a cross-cultural and collaborative project, in preschools in England and South Korea. The aim of the project is to investigate the pedagogy of outdoor play and learning in two different cultural contexts, from the perspectives of the practitioners. Although there has been a growing academic interest in the use of outdoor

  8. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  9. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  10. Learning through Outdoor Activities as Part of a P2000 Mental Health Branch Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Outdoor activities assist nursing students in developing self-awareness of communication, leadership, and coping abilities; learning communication, leadership, and problem-solving skills; and increasing assertiveness and initiative. (SK)

  11. Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Paul

    The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

  12. Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory.

    PubMed

    Waelti, P; Dickinson, A; Schultz, W

    2001-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theories, the discrepancy, or error, between the actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs when a stimulus is paired with a reward. The role of prediction errors is directly demonstrated by the observation that learning is blocked when the stimulus is paired with a fully predicted reward. By using this blocking procedure, we show that the responses of dopamine neurons to conditioned stimuli was governed differentially by the occurrence of reward prediction errors rather than stimulus-reward associations alone, as was the learning of behavioural reactions. Both behavioural and neuronal learning occurred predominantly when dopamine neurons registered a reward prediction error at the time of the reward. Our data indicate that the use of analytical tests derived from formal behavioural learning theory provides a powerful approach for studying the role of single neurons in learning. PMID:11452299

  13. Formal learning theory dissociates brain regions with different temporal integration.

    PubMed

    Gläscher, Jan; Büchel, Christian

    2005-07-21

    Learning can be characterized as the extraction of reliable predictions about stimulus occurrences from past experience. In two experiments, we investigated the interval of temporal integration of previous learning trials in different brain regions using implicit and explicit Pavlovian fear conditioning with a dynamically changing reinforcement regime in an experimental setting. With formal learning theory (the Rescorla-Wagner model), temporal integration is characterized by the learning rate. Using fMRI and this theoretical framework, we are able to distinguish between learning-related brain regions that show long temporal integration (e.g., amygdala) and higher perceptual regions that integrate only over a short period of time (e.g., fusiform face area, parahippocampal place area). This approach allows for the investigation of learning-related changes in brain activation, as it can dissociate brain areas that differ with respect to their integration of past learning experiences by either computing long-term outcome predictions or instantaneous reinforcement expectancies. PMID:16039570

  14. Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors. Workshop of the University of New Hampshire Outdoor Education Program (Durham, New Hampshire, March 5, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Michael A.

    A collection of information from the "Learning by Sharing in the Outdoors" workshop provides brief summaries of each workshop session along with lists of human, community, and bibliographical resources available to outdoor education practitioners, the workshop itinerary, and promotional brochures. The 18 workshop topics included: expedition…

  15. A systemic examination of the introduction of an outdoor learning-based science curriculum to students, their teacher, and the school principal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunker, Molly Louis

    The outdoor environment has been under-utilized as a legitimate setting for learning within the formal school context, resulting in few examples of curriculum materials that integrate the indoors and outdoors. This systemic problem is explored holistically through investigation of key sets of players in the school system. The overarching research question is "What is the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences within the school system?" I developed an eight-week Earth systems science unit grounded in research-based design principles. One teacher enacted the unit with 111 sixth graders, whose learning gains and perspectives of the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences were explored using a mixed-methods approach in a pre-post study design, including individual interviews, and instruments regarding students' perspectives of the outdoor component of the curricular enactment. I conducted six interviews with the participating teacher and one interview with the school principal, to explore their perspectives of the role of outdoor learning experiences, and their personal roles in the unit. The main finding from this study was that the outdoor component of the curriculum enhanced coherence---connectedness across science concepts, activities, and learning environments. Higher ability students were more aware of connections than lower ability students. Field experiences were seen as a tool for learning, and all students achieved substantial learning gains. The teacher viewed the role of the outdoor experiences as a way to engage students, and promote connections across the unit through firsthand and relevant experiences. The school principal viewed his role as supporting teachers in their practice and encouraging risk-taking and creativity in instructional approaches. This study is a valuable contribution to the field as it (1) identifies outdoor learning experiences as one way to enhance intraunit coherence, and (2) highlights variations in students' awareness of coherence while examining the teacher's experience. I discuss potential revisions to improve the curriculum based on the findings from the students, teacher, principal, and external curriculum evaluation. These data indicate a need for greater support for teachers to help all students make coherent connections across the unit, and to take account of students' developing ideas.

  16. The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

  17. The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

  18. "Memories Are Made of This": Some Reflections on Outdoor Learning and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Potential benefits for learning that the outdoors may hold have been brought into increased focus in the UK by the recent introduction of a manifesto for learning outside the classroom (DfES, "Learning outside the classroom: manifesto"; Nottingham, Department for Education and Skills, 2006). This article draws on two recent studies of outdoor…

  19. Formal and Informal Learning Situations or Practices vs Formal and Informal Ways of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkestad, Göran

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade there has been an awakening interest in considering not only formalised learning situations within institutional settings, but also all the various forms of informal musical learning practices outside schools. Informal musical learning outside institutional settings has been shown to contribute to important knowledge and…

  20. Rural Camp School Eco Learn--Outdoor Education in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeds, Pia; Jeronen, Eila; Kurppa, Sirpa; Vieraankivi, Marja-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor education in rural and agricultural surroundings offers many possibilities for learning and studying different school subjects as well as teaching. This study aims to explore the development of an educational rural camp school, Eco Learn, and to investigate pupils' expectations and experiences and teachers' experiences of carrying out the…

  1. Broadening the Learning Community Experience: An Outdoor Orientation Program's Impact on Engagement, Persistence, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Christy David

    2013-01-01

    The Keystone Learning Community was implemented by the Department of Campus Recreation to address retention at the institution. This learning community for incoming freshmen consists of two phases. Phase I is as an outdoor orientation program that includes a three day, two night canoeing and camping experience lead by upperclassmen leaders.…

  2. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the self-determination theory, therefore, we used a group-based, hands-on learning environment. To address this questions, we used a treatment—control design (BACI) with different treatments and a control group. Pre-, post- and retention tests were applied. All treatments led to a substantial increase of learning and retention knowledge compared to the control group. Immediately after the zoo visit, the zoo-guide tour provided the highest scores, while after a delay of 6 weeks, the learner-centered environment combined with a teacher-guided summarizing scored best. We suggest incorporating the zoo as an out-of-school environment into formal school learning, and we propose different methods to improve learning in zoo settings.

  3. Learning from Leisure: Developing Nature Connectedness in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgriff, Marg

    2011-01-01

    The "greening" of outdoor education has received increasing attention from educators in Aotearoa-New Zealand and internationally. Given contemporary global concerns about the scale of environmental issues and the associated recognition that educating for sustainability is a matter of urgency, the continuing exploration of pedagogies promoting…

  4. Beyond the Physical--Spriritual Values and Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Ongoing discussions about spiritual awareness and values in British outdoor education address their role in helping adolescents develop a strong positive identity; definition of values and spirituality; and assessment of client needs, especially with respect to cultural differences. Collaboration with the fields of transpersonal psychology and…

  5. Beyond the Physical--Spriritual Values and Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Ongoing discussions about spiritual awareness and values in British outdoor education address their role in helping adolescents develop a strong positive identity; definition of values and spirituality; and assessment of client needs, especially with respect to cultural differences. Collaboration with the fields of transpersonal psychology and…

  6. Learning from Leisure: Developing Nature Connectedness in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgriff, Marg

    2011-01-01

    The "greening" of outdoor education has received increasing attention from educators in Aotearoa-New Zealand and internationally. Given contemporary global concerns about the scale of environmental issues and the associated recognition that educating for sustainability is a matter of urgency, the continuing exploration of pedagogies promoting…

  7. New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

  8. New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

  9. Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

  10. Learning Portfolios: Creative Connections between Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Alice

    2010-01-01

    How do you know what students in your course "took away" with them? Why not ask? Through a learning portfolio assignment, I invited students to show: how they met the course objectives; connections they made to other courses as well as aspects of their lives; and their views and perspectives about the course material and processes. They…

  11. Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

  12. Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

  13. High School Teachers' Experience of the Educational Potential of Outdoor Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    This is a longitudinal case study where teachers from different disciplines were interviewed before and after an outdoor teaching project in a Swedish junior high school. The school grounds were used regularly as an area for teaching and learning in different subjects. The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers from different…

  14. Greening the Net Generation: Outdoor Adult Learning in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning today takes place primarily within walled classrooms or in other indoor settings, and often in front of various types of digital screens. As adults have adopted the digital technologies and indoor lifestyle attributed to the so-called "Net Generation," we have become detached from contact with the natural world outdoors.…

  15. Special Education Services: Outdoor Learning Program for Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jaimie P.

    For the special educator the Suffolk County (NY) Outdoor Learning Laboratories offer many spontaneous "teachable moments" that occur in the out-of-doors in which to guide students' attention and enthusiasm through the process of discovery and problem solving. The program welcomes students with varying degrees of physical, intellectual and/or…

  16. "Did You Enjoy Your Holiday?" Can Residential Outdoor Learning Benefit Mainstream Schooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Beth; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there is a long tradition of residential outdoor learning provision, but to date there is limited research evidence for the direct educational benefits of such experiences, and to both critics and supporters the distinction between such visits and "holidays in school time" is not always apparent. This paper…

  17. "Did You Enjoy Your Holiday?" Can Residential Outdoor Learning Benefit Mainstream Schooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Beth; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there is a long tradition of residential outdoor learning provision, but to date there is limited research evidence for the direct educational benefits of such experiences, and to both critics and supporters the distinction between such visits and "holidays in school time" is not always apparent. This paper…

  18. Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors…

  19. Greening the Net Generation: Outdoor Adult Learning in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning today takes place primarily within walled classrooms or in other indoor settings, and often in front of various types of digital screens. As adults have adopted the digital technologies and indoor lifestyle attributed to the so-called "Net Generation," we have become detached from contact with the natural world outdoors.…

  20. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing the Learning Environment of Outdoor Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orion, Nir; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development of the Science Outdoor Learning Environment Inventory which includes seven scales. The instrument was used by high school students (N=643) and the results indicate that the instrument is a sensitive measure that differentiates between different types of field trips. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  1. Young Children and Educators Engagement and Learning Outdoors: A Basis for Rights-Based Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Elliot, Enid

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article reports on a study undertaken with 4 early childhood programs in a medium-size city in Canada investigating young children's and educators' perspectives on engagement and learning possibilities outdoors. A rights-based methodology including participant observations and interactive activities with children as well as…

  2. Outdoor Play in Preschools in England and South Korea: Learning from Polyvocal Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Kwi-Ok; Waller, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a cross-cultural and collaborative project, in preschools in England and South Korea. The aim of the project is to investigate the pedagogy of outdoor play and learning in two different cultural contexts, from the perspectives of the practitioners. Although there has been a growing academic interest in the use of outdoor…

  3. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  4. How Teachers Learn: The Roles of Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Monty; Dexter, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study of math and science teachers at two middle schools identifies how their system for learning to integrate technology into their teaching goes beyond what school leaders typically consider when planning for teachers' learning. In addition to (a) the district-initiated, or formal, system of professional development (PD) and…

  5. How Teachers Learn: The Roles of Formal, Informal, and Independent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Monty; Dexter, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study of math and science teachers at two middle schools identifies how their system for learning to integrate technology into their teaching goes beyond what school leaders typically consider when planning for teachers' learning. In addition to (a) the district-initiated, or formal, system of professional development (PD) and…

  6. Learning outdoors: male lizards show flexible spatial learning under semi-natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Noble, Daniel W A; Carazo, Pau; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-12-23

    Spatial cognition is predicted to be a fundamental component of fitness in many lizard species, and yet some studies suggest that it is relatively slow and inflexible. However, such claims are based on work conducted using experimental designs or in artificial contexts that may underestimate their cognitive abilities. We used a biologically realistic experimental procedure (using simulated predatory attacks) to study spatial learning and its flexibility in the lizard Eulamprus quoyii in semi-natural outdoor enclosures under similar conditions to those experienced by lizards in the wild. To evaluate the flexibility of spatial learning, we conducted a reversal spatial-learning task in which positive and negative reinforcements of learnt spatial stimuli were switched. Nineteen (32%) male lizards learnt both tasks within 10 days (spatial task mean: 8.16 ± 0.69 (s.e.) and reversal spatial task mean: 10.74 ± 0.98 (s.e.) trials). We demonstrate that E. quoyii are capable of flexible spatial learning and suggest that future studies focus on a range of lizard species which differ in phylogeny and/or ecology, using biologically relevant cognitive tasks, in an effort to bridge the cognitive divide between ecto- and endotherms. PMID:23075525

  7. The Great Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Rob

    2001-01-01

    Explains how outdoor learning opens new possibilities for expanding educational opportunities. Explores various lifelong skills that can be learned from outdoor environments, and presents ways to expand classrooms beyond the school building. (GR)

  8. Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal: an out-door full-scale learning tool newly equipped with augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, A. H.; Schnepel, O.; Kraft, P.; Houska, T.; Plesca, I.; Orlowski, N.; Breuer, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses education and communication in hydrology and geosciences. Many approaches can be used, such as the well-known seminars, modelling exercises and practical field work but out-door learning in our discipline is a must, and this paper focuses on the recent development of a new out-door learning tool at the landscape scale. To facilitate improved teaching and hands-on experience, we designed the Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal. Equipped with field instrumentation, education trails, and geocache, we now implemented an augmented reality App, adding virtual teaching objects on the real landscape. The App development is detailed, to serve as methodology for people wishing to implement such a tool. The resulting application, namely the Schwingbachtal App, is described as an example. We conclude that such an App is useful for communication and education purposes, making learning pleasant, and offering personalized options.

  9. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  10. Professional Development across the Teaching Career: Teachers' Uptake of Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Dirk; Kunter, Mareike; Klusmann, Uta; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined teachers' uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities across the career cycle. Analyses were based on data from 1939 German secondary teachers in 198 schools. Results showed that formal learning opportunities (in-service training) were used most frequently by mid-career teachers, whereas informal learning opportunities…

  11. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  12. Landscapes for Learning: Creating Outdoor Environments for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Sharon

    The purpose of this book is to help designers and teachers think about the quality of outside school environments as learning places. The first chapter defines the players' roles as: (1) the designer, a maker of school form; (2) the teacher, the maintainer of the environment; and (3) the child, who is a major force in the use of the space. These…

  13. Sunship Earth: An Acclimatization Program for Outdoor Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    This book describes a 5-day program of imaginative activities designed to help elementary school children learn how their world functions through seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and hearing. The book is designed to help children understand energy flow, the cycles of basic materials, the diversity of life, natural communities, change,…

  14. Other Ways of Learning: Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning in School and Youth Work. Proceedings of the European Congress for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning (4th, Rimforsa, Sweden, September 9-13, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    A European conference convened 90 participants from 14 countries to consider "other ways of learning," such as experiential methods and aesthetic-sensual perception, which have been marginalized by the overemphasis on instrumental rationality in our societies and schools. This proceedings presents 18 papers and paper abstracts on outdoor

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Activities in a Non-Formal Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.; Morrison, Dirk; Daniel, Ben K.

    2009-01-01

    This research considers how professional participants in a non-formal self-directed learning environment (NFSDL) made use of self-directed learning activities in a blended face-to-face and on line learning professional development course. The learning environment for the study was a professional development seminar on teaching in higher education…

  16. Socio-Technical Dimensions of an Outdoor Mobile Learning Environment: A Three-Phase Design-Based Research Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Susan M.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey

    2015-01-01

    This design-based research project examines three iterations of Tree Investigators, a learning environment designed to support science learning outdoors at an arboretum and nature center using mobile devices (iPads). Researchers coded videorecords and artifacts created by children and parents (n = 53) to understand how both social and…

  17. Socio-Technical Dimensions of an Outdoor Mobile Learning Environment: A Three-Phase Design-Based Research Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Susan M.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey

    2015-01-01

    This design-based research project examines three iterations of Tree Investigators, a learning environment designed to support science learning outdoors at an arboretum and nature center using mobile devices (iPads). Researchers coded videorecords and artifacts created by children and parents (n = 53) to understand how both social and…

  18. Space Matters: Experiences of Managing Static Formal Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Managing the space in which learning takes place is subject to ongoing debate. Spatial management and movement can impact upon the construction of meaning within education and upon the dynamic of learning. It is suggested that there are now different learning goals and expectations and consequently a need for different learning environments. We…

  19. The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning

  20. Outdoor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

    2011-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

  1. Outdoor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

    2011-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

  2. Bounded Community: Designing and Facilitating Learning Communities in Formal Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brent G.; Ludwig-Hardman, Stacey; Thornam, Christine L.; Dunlap, Joanna C.

    2004-01-01

    Learning communities can emerge spontaneously when people find common learning goals and pursue projects and tasks together in pursuit of those goals. "Bounded" learning communities (BLCs) are groups that form within a structured teaching or training setting, typically a course. Unlike spontaneous communities, BLCs develop in direct response to…

  3. Understanding the Construction of Personal Learning Networks to Support Non-Formal Workplace Learning of Training Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Workers in the 21st century workplace are faced with rapid and constant developments that place a heavy demand on them to continually learn beyond what the Human Resources and Training groups can meet. As a consequence, professionals must rely on non-formal learning approaches through the development of a personal learning network to keep…

  4. Understanding the Construction of Personal Learning Networks to Support Non-Formal Workplace Learning of Training Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Workers in the 21st century workplace are faced with rapid and constant developments that place a heavy demand on them to continually learn beyond what the Human Resources and Training groups can meet. As a consequence, professionals must rely on non-formal learning approaches through the development of a personal learning network to keep…

  5. The Lifelong Learning Iceberg of Information Systems Academics--A Study of On-Going Formal and Informal Learning by Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Bill; Tatnall, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a study that examined the lifelong learning of information systems academics in relation to their normal work. It begins by considering the concept of lifelong learning, its relationship to real-life learning and that lifelong learning should encompass the whole spectrum of formal, non-formal and informal learning. Most…

  6. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  7. The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning…

  8. Stopping and Starting: Experiences of Adults Returning to Formal Literacy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Vivienne; Cates, Julie; Hellyer, Jan; Leverton, Marianne; Robinson, Helen; Tobias, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Case studies of six adult literacy students revealed factors that had influenced them to stop and restart formal education: family conditions, traumatic events, initial schooling experiences, social networks, personal motivations, and informal learning experiences. The influence of contextual factors on literacy learning and characteristics of…

  9. Open Learning and Formal Credentialing in Higher Education: Curriculum Models and Institutional Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reushle, Shirley, Ed.; Antonio, Amy, Ed.; Keppell, Mike, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The discipline of education is a multi-faceted system that must constantly integrate new strategies and procedures to ensure successful learning experiences. Enhancements in education provide learners with greater opportunities for growth and advancement. "Open Learning and Formal Credentialing in Higher Education: Curriculum Models and…

  10. "It's Never Too Late." A Learning Pack for Older People with Few or No Formal Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford Univ. (England). Ruskin Coll.

    This learning pack, which was developed in Britain primarily for use with small groups of older adults who have had little formal education, contains nine self-contained units of learning activities dealing with topics related to older adults' everyday lives. The following topics are covered: techniques for organizing and running a group; myths…

  11. The Potential of Interactive Learning Technologies in Formal and Nonformal Education in Rural and Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Larry K.; Simula, Vernon L.

    The College of Education and Human Service Professions of the University of Minnesota, Duluth, has established a Center for the Advancement of Learning Technologies. The Center is committed to the development of interactive learning technologies which can be used effectively in formal and nonformal continuing adult education. Emphasis has been on…

  12. A Comparative Study of the Impacts and Students' Perceptions of Indoor and Outdoor Learning in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhanapal, Saroja; Lim, Cally Cheng Yee

    2013-01-01

    The increasing awareness among educators around the world on the specialities of indoor and outdoor learning in enhancing students' academic performance and development of skills and attitudes influenced the purposes and background of this research study (Fagerstam, 2012; Jordet, 2010; Martin, 2010; Rickinson et al., 2004). Two key purposes…

  13. Helping Teachers to Use Their School's Backyard as an Outdoor Classroom: A Report on the Watershed Learning Center Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Jane L.; Militana, Heidi Price; Donohue, Mary Horrocks

    2003-01-01

    The Watershed Learning Center (WLC) was developed by the Brandywine Valley Association (BVA) to provide outdoor environmental lessons to schools on their own properties or on sites close by. Teachers are trained to take over the lessons by observing BVA instructors and attending workshops. The program was evaluated to discover how the WLC was…

  14. Outdoor Settings for Playing and Learning: Designing School Grounds to Meet the Needs of the Whole Child and Whole Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robin C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a list of imaginative design options for optimal outdoor learning as well as intimate contact with nature. Focuses on entrances, pathways, signage and displays, barriers and enclosures, manufactured equipment and play structures, multipurpose game settings, groundcovers and safety surfaces, landforms and topography, trees and vegetation,…

  15. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  16. Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

  17. Computational neural learning formalisms for manipulator inverse kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulati, Sandeep; Barhen, Jacob; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    1989-01-01

    An efficient, adaptive neural learning paradigm for addressing the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the infinite local stability of terminal attractors - a new class of mathematical constructs which provide unique information processing capabilities to artificial neural systems. For robotic applications, synaptic elements of such networks can rapidly acquire the kinematic invariances embedded within the presented samples. Subsequently, joint-space configurations, required to follow arbitrary end-effector trajectories, can readily be computed. In a significant departure from prior neuromorphic learning algorithms, this methodology provides mechanisms for incorporating an in-training skew to handle kinematics and environmental constraints.

  18. Teaching Science in the City: Exploring Linkages between Teacher Learning and Student Learning across Formal and Informal Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.; Brotman, Jennie S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the Science in the City seminar, an innovative approach to in-service and preservice science teacher development that bridges formal and informal science learning contexts. Drawing upon the tenets of design and evaluation research, the study focuses on the teachers' presentations of evidence of student learning from trips they…

  19. Attitudes to Formal Business Training and Learning amongst Entrepreneurs in the Cultural Industries: Situated Business Learning through "Doing with Others."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Carlo; O'Connor, Justin; Lovatt, Andy; Banks, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Presents arguments supporting a social model of learning linked to situated learning and cultural capital. Critiques training methods used in cultural industries (arts, publishing, broadcasting, design, fashion, restaurants). Uses case study evidence to demonstrates inadequacies of formal training in this sector. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  20. Recognition, Accreditation and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Prospects for Lifelong Learning in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2009-01-01

    This study was an exploration on the various issues related to recognition, accreditation and validation of non-formal and informal learning to open up avenues for lifelong learning and continuing education in Nepal. The perceptions, experiences, and opinions of Nepalese Development Activists, Educational Administrators, Policy Actors and…

  1. College Learning with and without Formal Classroom Instruction - A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmel, Clark E.

    This report examines the relationship between student learning and teacher pedagogy by focusing on two discrete instructional methods: traditional teacher-directed versus student self-directed study. An experiment was administered to two groups of college students enrolled in a psychology course, and the control group having class meetings and…

  2. Neuroeconomics: a formal test of dopamine's role in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Eric E J

    2014-04-14

    Over the last two decades, dopamine and reinforcement learning have been increasingly linked. Using a novel, axiomatic approach, a recent study shows that dopamine meets the necessary and sufficient conditions required by the theory to encode a reward prediction error. PMID:24735856

  3. Bridging the Gap between Formal and Informal Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    1996-01-01

    Presents and integrates findings from selected research and evaluation studies of informal science learning in different settings such as school-based field trips, student projects, community-based science programs, visits to museums and zoos, the press, and electronic media. Contains 91 references. (DDR)

  4. Formal and Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Giancaspro, Maria Luisa; Morciano, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The radical economic, social and cultural changes experienced by the labour market within recent decades have helped to highlight the central role played by the learning process in individual career development and organizational success. In such fast-moving working contexts, skills and competencies rapidly become outdated and need to be…

  5. Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media: Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The recent editorial in this journal by Bull et al. ("Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media" Vol 8, Iss 2) discussed the challenges of bridging formal learning practices and informal learning opportunities within the context of today's Web-enhanced world. In this commentary, Christine…

  6. Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media: Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The recent editorial in this journal by Bull et al. ("Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media" Vol 8, Iss 2) discussed the challenges of bridging formal learning practices and informal learning opportunities within the context of today's Web-enhanced world. In this commentary, Christine…

  7. Application of different entropy formalisms in a neural network for novel word learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordad, R.; Rastegar Sedehi, H. R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper novel word learning in adults is studied. For this goal, four entropy formalisms are employed to include some degree of non-locality in a neural network. The entropy formalisms are Tsallis, Landsberg-Vedral, Kaniadakis, and Abe entropies. First, we have analytically obtained non-extensive cost functions for the all entropies. Then, we have used a generalization of the gradient descent dynamics as a learning rule in a simple perceptron. The Langevin equations are numerically solved and the error function (learning curve) is obtained versus time for different values of the parameters. The influence of index q and number of neuron N on learning is investigated for the all entropies. It is found that learning is a decreasing function of time for the all entropies. The rate of learning for the Landsberg-Vedral entropy is slower than other entropies. The variation of learning with time for the Landsberg-Vedral entropy is not appreciable when the number of neurons increases. It is said that entropy formalism can be used as a means for studying the learning.

  8. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  9. Social Media and Education: Reconceptualizing the Boundaries of Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine; Lewin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that social media has the potential to bridge formal and informal learning through participatory digital cultures. Exemplars of sophisticated use by young people support this claim, although the majority of young people adopt the role of consumers rather than full participants. Scholars have suggested the potential of social media for…

  10. Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

  11. Social Media and Education: Reconceptualizing the Boundaries of Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine; Lewin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that social media has the potential to bridge formal and informal learning through participatory digital cultures. Exemplars of sophisticated use by young people support this claim, although the majority of young people adopt the role of consumers rather than full participants. Scholars have suggested the potential of social media for…

  12. Job Requirements and Workers' Learning: Formal Gaps, Informal Closure, Systemic Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that formal educational attainments increasingly exceed the educational job requirements of the employed labour force in many advanced market economies--a phenomenon variously termed "underemployment", "underutilisation", or "overqualification". Conversely, both experiential learning and workplace case studies suggest…

  13. Qualitative Parameters for Evaluation Procedures of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Kaminskiene, Lina

    2009-01-01

    The article introduces evaluation principles of non-formal and informal learning that determine the quality of evaluation, describes stages of the evaluation procedure, differentiates their qualitative parameters and defines their criteria and indicators. It also brings in the discussion that consideration of qualitative parameters for the…

  14. Mobile City and Language Guides--New Links between Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo-Kristensen, Mads; Ankerstjerne, Niels Ole; Neutzsky-Wulff, Chresteria; Schelde, Herluf

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in second and foreign language education, is to create links between formal and informal learning environments. Mobile City and Language Guides present examples of theoretical and practical reflections on such links. This paper presents and discusses the first considerations of Mobile City and Language Guides in…

  15. Using CALL in a Formal Learning Context to Develop Oral Language Awareness in ESL: An Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent-Durroux, Laurence; Poussard, Cecile; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Aparicio, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    French learners at university meet difficulties in the comprehension of oral English. Being in a formal context of language learning, they need to develop language awareness to compensate for insufficient exposure to the English language. To meet the students' needs, data was collected in order to pinpoint the main errors made by French learners…

  16. Online Social Networks as Formal Learning Environments: Learner Experiences and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Navarrete, Cesar C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential of social networking sites to contribute to educational endeavors is highlighted by researchers and practitioners alike, empirical evidence on the use of such sites for formal online learning is scant. To fill this gap in the literature, we present a case study of learners' perspectives and experiences in an online course…

  17. Hypermedia Representations for Learning: Formal and Informal Observations on Designs and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, A. P.

    This paper focuses on issues of representation and interaction styles that are relevant considerations in the design and analysis of hypermedia learning environments. Analysis is supported by examples from the "HUGH" series of studies involving learners in reasoning about formal hypermedia representations. The representational issues include…

  18. Assessing, Recognising and Certifying Informal and Non-Formal Learning (ARCNIL): Evolution and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetlik, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying non-formal and informal knowledge may be a consequence of separating education and training from other social and economic activities. Specialisation and formalisation of education and training both aim to increase learning efficiency. In the emerging knowledge society, this has attracted particular attention among researchers and…

  19. Revealing the Interactional Features of Learning and Teaching Moments in Outdoor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Jane; Bateman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The data considered in this article was generated as part of a doctoral research study entitled: "A sociocultural consideration of child-initiated interaction with teachers in indoor and outdoor spaces" (Waters 2011) where child-initiated, teacher-child interaction in indoor and outdoor spaces were investigated. The purpose of the…

  20. Perceived Impact on Student Engagement When Learning Middle School Science in an Outdoor Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbatiello, James

    2014-01-01

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes…

  1. Revealing the Interactional Features of Learning and Teaching Moments in Outdoor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Jane; Bateman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The data considered in this article was generated as part of a doctoral research study entitled: "A sociocultural consideration of child-initiated interaction with teachers in indoor and outdoor spaces" (Waters 2011) where child-initiated, teacher-child interaction in indoor and outdoor spaces were investigated. The purpose of the…

  2. Outdoor Learning in Aotearoa New Zealand: Voices Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgriff, Marg; Legge, Maureen; Brown, Mike; Boyes, Mike; Zink, Robyn; Irwin, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Many of the principles and practices that have influenced outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand find their genesis in the United Kingdom and North America. In recent times, many of these foundational assumptions have been called into question. This paper highlights how emerging "local" voices are questioning and reframing how outdoor education…

  3. Where Learning Comes Naturally: A Review of MNR's Contribution to Outdoor and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barrie

    1997-01-01

    Traces the evolution of Canada's Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) from an agency focused on promotion of resource development and protection of the natural environment to a major player in outdoor and environmental education. Focuses on contributions of the Leslie M. Frost Natural Resources Centre, under MNR direction, in providing outdoor

  4. Perceived Impact on Student Engagement When Learning Middle School Science in an Outdoor Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbatiello, James

    2014-01-01

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes…

  5. Enough of Ronald and Mickey: Focusing on Learning in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon; Brown, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years ago Loynes expressed concern that market-place values were detrimentally impacting on the provision of outdoor education experiences. As tertiary educators with an interest in the impact of globalization on outdoor education, we have sought to extend Loynes' use of McDonaldization by drawing on Bryman's conceptual framework…

  6. Leadership in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Perspectives of Academics in Non-Formal Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Klopper, Hester C.; Warland, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Developing leaders and leadership are key factors to improve learning and teaching in higher education. Despite the abundance of literature concerning developing formal leadership, fewer studies have been conducted with academics in non-formal leadership roles that focus on how they develop their leadership in learning and teaching. Publication…

  7. Learning in the Second Half of the Career: Stimulating and Prohibiting Reasons for Participation in Formal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Michielsen, Maya; Van Nooten, Leen; Nijs, Sanne; Baert, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that, as workers age, their participation in education and training declines, which is a problem in our fast changing society and economy. This study focuses on the stimulating and prohibiting reasons for participation in formal learning activities. It investigates whether employees in the second half of their career differ…

  8. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor

  9. Financial literacy among Turkish college students: the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental teaching.

    PubMed

    Akben-Selcuk, Elif; Altiok-Yilmaz, Ayse

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed financial literacy and its correlates among Turkish college students, with special emphasis on the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental influences. Financial literacy was measured by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey, which assesses knowledge in four areas: general financial management, saving and borrowing, insurance, and investing. 853 Turkish university students were administered the survey (416 men, 437 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 0.6). The mean percentage of correct responses was 45% (SD = 12.8%). Regression results showed that formal finance education in college, a deep approach to learning, and direct financial teaching by parents were significantly associated with higher financial literacy scores. PMID:25153844

  10. Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Barbara P.

    This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests and questions raised during visits to informal settings. Consequently teachers noted their students were better able to connect to traditional elements of school as a result of their informal experiences. Personal growth of students was also a major area of change. Increases in self-esteem, fieldtrip and classroom participation, as well as improved classroom behavior were reported and observed and improved the way the classroom functioned.

  11. Formal to Informal Learning with IT: Research Challenges and Issues for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of clarity and consistency, the term e-learning is used throughout the paper to refer to technology-enhanced learning and information technology (IT) in teaching and learning. IT depicts computing and other IT resources. Research into e-learning has changed in focus and breadth over the last four decades as a consequence of…

  12. Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

  13. Formal, nonformal and informal education: A holistic perspective on lifelong learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Belle, Thomas J.

    1982-06-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for understanding the interrelationships among formal, nonformal and informal education. It provides a typology of modes of education across the life span, from childhood to old age. The nonformal education mode is the focus of the article as examples of programs for differing ages, sexes, social classes and ethnic groups are discussed. The third section of the article raises questions regarding the relationship between nonformal education for individual and social change within and across cultural and socio-economic groups. It also discusses the relationship between nonformal and formal education relative to their respective scope and outcomes. The author argues that educational resources must be viewed as interacting modes of emphasis rather than as discrete entities. Hence, all individuals are engaged in learning experiences at all times, from planned, compulsory and intentional to unplanned, voluntary and incidental. It is also argued that nonformal education may be more strongly associated with socio-economic, sex and ethno-religious groups than is formal education. Because of these strong socio-economic and cultural ties, the utility of nonformal education for social, as opposed to individual, change is often restricted. The value of nonformal, as opposed to formal, education for access to the opportunity structure for low socio-economic status populations is also questioned because of the greater legitimacy typically associated with schooling.

  14. Granular Computing Approach to Two-Way Learning Based on Formal Concept Analysis in Fuzzy Datasets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weihua; Li, Wentao

    2016-02-01

    The main task of granular computing (GrC) is about representing, constructing, and processing information granules. Information granules are formalized in many different approaches. Different formal approaches emphasize the same fundamental facet in different ways. In this paper, we propose a novel GrC method of machine learning by using formal concept description of information granules. Based on information granules, the model and mechanism of two-way learning system is constructed in fuzzy datasets. It is addressed about how to train arbitrary fuzzy information granules to become necessary, sufficient, and necessary and sufficient fuzzy information granules. Moreover, an algorithm of the presented approach is established, and the complexity of the algorithm is analyzed carefully. Finally, to interpret and help understand the theories and algorithm, a real-life case study is considered and experimental evaluation is performed by five datasets from the University of California-Irvine, which is valuable for applying these theories to deal with practical issues. PMID:25347892

  15. Does Comparing Informal and Formal Procedures Promote Mathematics Learning? The Benefits of Bridging Depend on Attitudes toward Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattikudur, Shanta; Sidney, Pooja G.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2016-01-01

    Students benefit from learning multiple procedures for solving the same or related problems. However, past research on comparison instruction has focused on comparing multiple formal procedures. This study investigated whether the benefits of comparing procedures extend to comparisons that involve informal and formal procedures. We also examined…

  16. Multiple Modes in Corporate Learning: Propelling Business IQ with Formal, Informal and Social Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, John; Ogilvie, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing that the shifting corporate environment is placing ever greater stresses on learning organizations, this paper reports how companies are increasingly offering employees a wide choice of learning options beyond conventional classroom training, including online, social learning, and other modalities in "blended" programs. Identifying a…

  17. Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

  18. The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wistoft, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

  19. The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wistoft, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and food preparation.…

  20. Supporting Whole-Child Learning in Nature-Filled Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Susan; Rosenow, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    "Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts." This much-repeated quote speaks eloquently to the kinds of life-enhancing skills children develop when they interact with caring adults in thoughtfully designed nature-filled outdoor classrooms. As a network of these classrooms springs…

  1. Beyond Learning by Doing: An Exploration of Critical Incidents in Outdoor Leadership Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Mark; Stokes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that outdoor leader education and training is characterized by the development of procedural skills at the expense of crucial but usually ignored non-technical skills (e.g. contextualized decision-making and reflection). This risks producing practitioners with a potentially unsophisticated awareness of the holistic outdoor…

  2. Supporting Whole-Child Learning in Nature-Filled Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Susan; Rosenow, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    "Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts." This much-repeated quote speaks eloquently to the kinds of life-enhancing skills children develop when they interact with caring adults in thoughtfully designed nature-filled outdoor classrooms. As a network of these classrooms springs…

  3. Outdoor Learning: Curriculum Imperatives and Community Relevance in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maposah-Kandemiri, Myra; Higgins, Peter; McLaughlin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of practice in the use of the outdoors, and its potential in the teaching of environmental education at Muenzaniso, a Zimbabwean primary school. The school uses permaculture and Integrated Land Use Design as tools for sustainable environmental management. Evidence suggests that pressing community and curriculum…

  4. A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

    Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

  5. Schoolyard Enhanced Learning: Using the Outdoors as an Instructional Tool, K-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    This book shows how the school grounds, whether urban, suburban, or rural, can become an enriching extension of the classroom. The author blends theory and practice, providing readers with teacher-tested suggestions and activities for using the outdoors. The book offers step-by-step guidance to help ensure success when teachers take a class…

  6. Facilitating Place-Based Learning in Outdoor Informal Environments with Mobile Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Land, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper advocates for place-based education to guide research and design for mobile computers used in outdoor informal environments (e.g., backyards, nature centers and parks). By bringing together research on place-based education with research on location awareness, we developed three design guidelines to support learners to develop robust…

  7. Nature and Well-Being in Outdoor Learning: Authenticity or Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we look at the ways in which the experience of the natural environment was made available to the pupils and the types of activities provided for specific engagement with the local natural environment. It draws upon research undertaken for the Well-being and Outdoor Pedagogies project and previous PhD research. These projects explored…

  8. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

    2012-01-01

    In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

  9. New Trade and Industrial Teachers' Perceptions of Formal Learning versus Informal Learning and Teaching Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Janet Z.; Schaefer, Karen; Hayden, Jessie M.

    2005-01-01

    Trade and industrial (T&I) teachers enter the classroom as content level experts who may have acquired their content expertise through a combination of formal industry training and informal on-the-job experiences. When they make the career transition from industry to teaching, they must acquire professional teaching competencies. Like the content…

  10. Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles J.

    2012-11-01

    A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.

  11. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor

  12. Formalizing dependency directed backtracking and explanation based learning in refinement search

    SciTech Connect

    Kambhampati, S.

    1996-12-31

    The ideas of dependency directed backtracking (DDB) and explanation based learning (EBL) have developed independently in constraint satisfaction, planning and problem solving communities. In this paper, I formalize and unify these ideas under the task-independent framework of refinement search, which can model the search strategies used in both planning and constraint satisfaction. I show that both DDB and EBL depend upon the common theory of explaining search failures, and regressing them to higher levels of the search tree. The relevant issues of importance include (a) how the failures are explained and (b) how many failure explanations are remembered. This task-independent understanding of DDB and EBL helps support cross-fertilization of ideas among Constraint Satisfaction, Planning and Explanation-Based Learning communities.

  13. Making Learning Visible: Identification, Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens

    Policies and practices in the areas of identification, assessment, and recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union (EU) were reviewed. The review focused on national and EU-level experiences regarding the following areas and issues: recognition of the contextual nature of learning; identification of methodological requirements for…

  14. Authentic Learning in a Sociocultural Framework: A Case Study on Non-Formal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Sven B.; Andersson, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a case study in which 53 adult refugees initiated their own forms of learning with the aim of strengthening their opportunities for integration into Swedish society. The overall research interest was to find out what theoretical implications can be drawn from a case study where two different forms of learning were implemented.…

  15. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

  16. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Characteristics, and Work Environment Characteristics on Informal Learning among Middle Managers in the Korean Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Woojae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of formal learning, personal characteristics, and work environment characteristics on informal learning among middle managers in the Korean banking sector. The conceptual framework identified three factors influencing informal learning. For this study, data collection was conducted in the…

  17. Youth Clubs as Spaces of Non-Formal Learning: Professional Idealism Meets the Spatiality Experienced by Young People in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilakoski, Tomi; Kivijärvi, Antti

    2015-01-01

    For many young people, youth clubs constitute a key instrument for learning outside the school curriculum. In this article, we scrutinise Finnish youth clubs empirically as spaces of non-formal learning from the perspectives of both professional youth workers and young people themselves. We propose that youth workers tend to present an educational…

  18. Youth Clubs as Spaces of Non-Formal Learning: Professional Idealism Meets the Spatiality Experienced by Young People in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilakoski, Tomi; Kivijärvi, Antti

    2015-01-01

    For many young people, youth clubs constitute a key instrument for learning outside the school curriculum. In this article, we scrutinise Finnish youth clubs empirically as spaces of non-formal learning from the perspectives of both professional youth workers and young people themselves. We propose that youth workers tend to present an educational…

  19. Women in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Women engaging in outdoor activities tend to be more supportive of each other and more willing to express their feelings and apprehensions about adventurous settings than are men. It is important for women to have strong female leaders as role models. Instructors should be aware that women's learning styles and learning curves differ from men's.…

  20. The Substance Beneath the Labels of Experiential Learning: The Importance of John Dewey for Outdoor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ord, Jon; Leather, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper recommends a reconceptualisation of "experience learning". It is premised on a belief that the simplistic learning cycle is problematic and moreover is an oversimplified interpretation of Kolb's original model of experiential learning. We argue that to understand experiential learning fully a return to the original theoretical…

  1. The effects of a formal notebook on learning achievement of tenth grade biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Sabine Korpus

    Despite the national agenda for achieving scientific literacy for all American students, there appears to be a paucity of research on the role of writing and, more specifically, on the organization of students' notes. The use of student notebooks as an ongoing record of both the process function and product function of notetaking has received little attention in the American research literature reviewed. The purposes of this study were to investigate if (a) the use of a formal notebook has a positive effect on learning achievement by high school biology students, (b) the gender of the biology student makes a difference with regard to the effect of keeping a formal notebook, (c) students perceive notetaking skills as an important set of study skills, and (d) students regard keeping a formal notebook as a valuable tool for improving learning outcomes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted, using a matching-only posttest control group design. A purposive cluster sample of four intact tenth grade biology classes with a total of 126 students from two Brevard County public high schools was used. The design resulted in two experimental conditions for the independent variable: (a) notebook treatment and (b) no notebook control. In each school, one class was randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. A Study Skills Questionnaire was pilot-tested, revised, and administered to all students as a pre-assessment to determine if notetaking was regarded as important. One teacher-made posttest was used to measure learning achievement in biology as a consequence of the experimental conditions. A researcher-developed six-item postquestionnaire was only administered to the students of the treatment groups to determine if students perceive the requirement of keeping a formal notebook as a valuable learning tool. A factorial independent measures analysis of variance (2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of experimental group, school, gender, and their interactions (alpha =.05). The results of ANOVA did not reveal a statistically significant difference on the posttest between the treatment group and control group for the entire sample and each subsample. However, ANOVA for school means indicated statistically significant differences on the posttest between the treatment and control group classes in the two schools. The interaction of gender and group, which approached statistical significance (alpha =.05), indicated that the gender of the biology student appears to make a difference with regard to the effect of keeping a formal notebook. This interaction was most notable between the experimental groups in school B. The data obtained from the questionnaires were reported in terms of number and percentage of positive responses for all items. The prequestionnaire results indicated that 61% of the students perceived notetaking skills as important for understanding what the teacher said in class. The results of the postquestionnaire showed that the treatment group students regarded notetaking as a valuable tool for preparing for tests and keeping up with homework. Future research on the use of notebooks should focus on the effects at different grade levels, the benefits for a wide range of science courses, and the variables of ability and gender.

  2. What Would You Like? Identifying the Required Characteristics of an Industry-Wide Incident Reporting and Learning System for the Led Outdoor Activity Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Natassia; Finch, Caroline F.; Cassell, Erin; Lenne, Michael G.; Salmon, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics that led outdoor activity providers agree are necessary for the development of a new industry-wide incident reporting and learning system (UPLOADS). The study involved: 1) a literature review to identify a set of characteristics that are considered to be hallmarks of successful reporting…

  3. What Would You Like? Identifying the Required Characteristics of an Industry-Wide Incident Reporting and Learning System for the Led Outdoor Activity Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Natassia; Finch, Caroline F.; Cassell, Erin; Lenne, Michael G.; Salmon, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics that led outdoor activity providers agree are necessary for the development of a new industry-wide incident reporting and learning system (UPLOADS). The study involved: 1) a literature review to identify a set of characteristics that are considered to be hallmarks of successful reporting…

  4. Skill Instruction in Outdoor Leadership: A Comparison of a Direct Instruction Model and a Discovery-Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses of two different approaches to teaching motor skills to students in outdoor education and outdoor recreation settings. Using acronyms to describe their stages: DEDICT is a six step, direct instructional model that some outdoor leaders may already be familiar with; and FERAL is my…

  5. Lights, Camera: Learning! Findings from studies of video in formal and informal science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the panel, media researcher, Jennifer Borland, will highlight findings from a variety of studies of videos across the spectrum of formal to informal learning, including schools, museums, and in viewers homes. In her presentation, Borland will assert that the viewing context matters a great deal, but there are some general take-aways that can be extrapolated to the use of educational video in a variety of settings. Borland has served as an evaluator on several video-related projects funded by NASA and the the National Science Foundation including: Data Visualization videos and Space Shows developed by the American Museum of Natural History, DragonflyTV, Earth the Operators Manual, The Music Instinct and Time Team America.

  6. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  7. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-08-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  8. Outdoor allergens.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Burge HA; Rogers CA

    2000-08-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control.

  9. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

  10. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  11. OUTDOOR EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, JULIAN W.; AND OTHERS

    AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IS USED TO RELATE A VARIETY OF CURRICULAR AREAS TO OUTDOOR EDUCATION. THE ROLE OF FEDERAL, STATE, AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS IN PROMOTING EDUCATIONAL AND RECREATIONAL USES OF PUBLIC LANDS AND FACILITIES IS DISCUSSED. SUGGESTIONS ARE OFFERED FOR THE TRAINING OF PERSONNEL TO LEAD THE OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS OF OUR…

  12. OUTDOOR EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, JULIAN W.; AND OTHERS

    AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IS USED TO RELATE A VARIETY OF CURRICULAR AREAS TO OUTDOOR EDUCATION. THE ROLE OF FEDERAL, STATE, AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS IN PROMOTING EDUCATIONAL AND RECREATIONAL USES OF PUBLIC LANDS AND FACILITIES IS DISCUSSED. SUGGESTIONS ARE OFFERED FOR THE TRAINING OF PERSONNEL TO LEAD THE OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS OF OUR…

  13. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor

  14. Outdoor and Risk Educational Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni

    Outdoor adventure education is an experiential method of learning which takes place primarily through sensory involvement with the outdoors. Characteristics of adventure education include uncertain outcomes, risk, inescapable consequences, energetic action, and willingness to participate. Adventure education occurs in a diversity of venues,…

  15. The Scope of Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    1960-01-01

    Outdoor education represents a practical and sound approach in the achievement of accepted educationa l objectives through the utilization of current resources available to the learning process, and not the addition of another discipline to the curriculum. One of the most sensational and successful programs of outdoor education has been the…

  16. Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: A Lithuanian Case of Novice Consultants' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkšaitiene, Nijole

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of the investigation into institutional support provided to adults by 12 novice consultants on assessment and recognition of their non-formal and informal learning in four institutions of higher education (HEIs) in Lithuania. Using the general systems perspective and perception theory, novice consultants'…

  17. Cooperate to Validate: OBSERVAL-NET Experts' Report on Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNIL) 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber Guisan, Saskia; Voit, Janine; Lengauer, Sonja; Proinger, Eva; Duvekot, Ruud; Aagaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The present publication is one of the outcomes of the OBSERVAL-NET project (follow-up of the OBSERVAL project). The main aim of OBSERVAL-NET was to set up a stakeholder-centric network of organisations supporting the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe based on the formation of national working groups in the 8 participating…

  18. Cooperate to Validate. Observal-Net Experts' Report on Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNIL) 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber Guisan, Saskia; Voit, Janine; Lengauer, Sonja; Proinger, Eva; Duvekot, Ruud; Aagaard, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The present publication is one of the outcomes of the OBSERVAL-NET project (followup of the OBSERVAL project). The main aim of OBSERVAL-NET was to set up a stakeholder centric network of organisations supporting the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe based on the formation of national working groups in the 8 participating…

  19. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  20. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  1. Does Online Game-Based Learning Work in Formal Education at School? A Case Study of VISOLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Morris S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    VISOLE (Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Environment) is a teacher-facilitated pedagogical approach to integrating constructivist online game-based learning into formal curriculum teaching in school education. This paper reports a case study on the implementation of VISOLE in secondary Geography education. We compared the pedagogical…

  2. Does Online Game-Based Learning Work in Formal Education at School? A Case Study of VISOLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Morris S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    VISOLE (Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Environment) is a teacher-facilitated pedagogical approach to integrating constructivist online game-based learning into formal curriculum teaching in school education. This paper reports a case study on the implementation of VISOLE in secondary Geography education. We compared the pedagogical…

  3. Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: A Lithuanian Case of Novice Consultants' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkšaitiene, Nijole

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of the investigation into institutional support provided to adults by 12 novice consultants on assessment and recognition of their non-formal and informal learning in four institutions of higher education (HEIs) in Lithuania. Using the general systems perspective and perception theory, novice consultants'…

  4. Participation in Non-Formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states. The paper also seeks to extend analysis of the training gap by pursuing the distinction between the supply and the demand for skills. We use aggregate data from the Adult Education Survey (Eurostat)…

  5. Models of Transformative Learning for Social Justice: Comparative Case Studies of Non-Formal Development Education in Britain and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents comparative case studies of non-formal development education by non-profit organisations in two European countries. The study aimed to explore the extent to which such activities provide opportunities for transformative learning. The research was qualitative and began with interviews with educators across 14 organisations in…

  6. Models of Transformative Learning for Social Justice: Comparative Case Studies of Non-Formal Development Education in Britain and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents comparative case studies of non-formal development education by non-profit organisations in two European countries. The study aimed to explore the extent to which such activities provide opportunities for transformative learning. The research was qualitative and began with interviews with educators across 14 organisations in…

  7. Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray

    Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

  8. Outdoor Unified Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Louise

    Escalante (Utah) High School's outdoor unified studies field trip is a learning experience to be remembered. The four-day camping experience begins with pre-trip plans, pretests, and lecture/introductions to the Anasazi culture and to geologic formations to be visited. Horses (and equipment-carrying trucks) take the students into the desert to set…

  9. Outdoor Ecology School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

  10. Outdoor Ecology School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

  11. Take Math Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Scavenger hunts, collecting bottle caps, observing shadows, and other outdoor activities can be developed into a mathematics unit that motivates students to acquire basic mathematical skills. A variety of natural ways to collect data are offered to help foster learning. (DF)

  12. Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray

    Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

  13. Outdoor Unified Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Louise

    Escalante (Utah) High School's outdoor unified studies field trip is a learning experience to be remembered. The four-day camping experience begins with pre-trip plans, pretests, and lecture/introductions to the Anasazi culture and to geologic formations to be visited. Horses (and equipment-carrying trucks) take the students into the desert to set…

  14. Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony

    Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

  15. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills. The data indicated that there is not a significant difference between adolescents and post-adolescents (up to 16-years-old) ability to learn formal thinking skills. Both groups (adolescent and post-adolescent) showed improvement in their formal thinking skill ability after the intervention. The intervention also demonstrated evidence of improving students' intelligence scores.

  16. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  17. Formal and Informal Context Factors as Contributors to Student Engagement in a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Rebecca; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper explored informal (after-school) and formal (elective course in-school) learning contexts as contributors to middle-school student attitudinal changes in a guided discovery-based and blended e-learning program in which students designed web games and used social media and information resources for a full school year. Formality of the…

  18. Outdoor Classrooms--Planning Makes Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however, the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum…

  19. Outdoor Classrooms--Planning Makes Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however, the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum…

  20. Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

  1. Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

  2. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  3. Science Sampler: Inquiry Goes Outdoors--What Can We Learn at the Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication "What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide" (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing…

  4. Science Sampler: Inquiry Goes Outdoors--What Can We Learn at the Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The Oregon 4-H Wildlife Stewards program has been training teachers and volunteers to convert school grounds to education sites by constructing schoolyard wildlife habitats since 1997. The publication "What Can We Learn at the Pond? 4-H Wildlife Stewards Master Leader Guide" (Bourdeau 2004a) was written to support the program's focus on developing…

  5. Handbook for Students, Teachers and Parents. BOCES/SCOPE Outdoor Learning Laboratory at Sunken Meadow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long Island State Park and Recreation Commission, NY.

    Since 1971 a fully equipped learning laboratory building and the open fields, woodlands, salt water marshes, and beaches of Sunken Meadow State Park have been available for year round day use by students and educators in New York's Suffolk and Nassau counties. Funded by the New York Office of Parks and Recreation and local Boards of Cooperative…

  6. Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

    2007-01-01

    A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

  7. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  8. Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

  9. Try This! Imitation and Copying in the Outdoor Learning World of Sea Kayaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnussen, Leif Inge

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between sea kayakers and their socio-cultural environment to explore the use of copying and imitation as learning strategies. The research involved ethnographic fieldwork conducted in sea kayak communities of south-eastern parts of Norway, between late autumn 2006 until the fall of 2008. Some of the key…

  10. Designing a Children's Water Garden as an Outdoor Learning Lab for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Renee K.; Haque, Mary Taylor; Tai, Lolly; McLellan, Gina K.; Knight, Erin Jordan

    2007-01-01

    A Clemson University introductory landscape design class collaborated with South Carolina Botanical Gardens (SCBG) staff and coordinators of Sprouting Wings to design an exploratory Children's Garden within the SCBG. Service learning provides students with invaluable real-world experiences solving problems and interacting with clients while…

  11. "Sometimes I Pounce on Twigs Because I'm a Meat Eater": Supporting Physically Active Play and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jane P.; Branum, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This article looks anew at the important role of physically active, outdoor play in children's social and cognitive development and the role of adults in supporting active, child-directed outdoor play. The authors describe the concept of play ecologies to highlight how children experience their environment as enlivened by their interactive…

  12. Outdoor Learning Can Help Children Flourish in Science and across the Curriculum--The FSC Takes a Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Hannah; Kempton, Anneke

    2014-01-01

    The recent explosive growth of the Wild Network, which exists to champion and support connection with nature and wildness in children and young people, suggests that there is a groundswell of support for getting young people outdoors. Hannah Rose and Anneke Kempton of the Field Studies Council (FSC) explain why the outdoors is such an important…

  13. Outdoor Learning Can Help Children Flourish in Science and across the Curriculum--The FSC Takes a Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Hannah; Kempton, Anneke

    2014-01-01

    The recent explosive growth of the Wild Network, which exists to champion and support connection with nature and wildness in children and young people, suggests that there is a groundswell of support for getting young people outdoors. Hannah Rose and Anneke Kempton of the Field Studies Council (FSC) explain why the outdoors is such an important…

  14. An examination of the impact of non-formal and informal learning on adult environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett

    The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation in non-formal and informal education venues improved environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior models, providing evidence for the value and need for non-formal and informal environmental adult education venues.

  15. Does formal complexity reflect cognitive complexity? Investigating aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an artificial language learning study.

    PubMed

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning. According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive). In two artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiments participants were presented with a language containing either nested or cross-serial dependencies. A learning effect for both types of dependencies could be observed, but no difference between dependency types emerged. These behavioral findings do not seem to reflect complexity differences as described in the Chomsky Hierarchy. This study extends previous findings in demonstrating learning effects for nested and cross-serial dependencies with more natural stimulus materials in a classical AGL paradigm after only one hour of exposure. The current findings can be taken as a starting point for further exploring the degree to which the Chomsky Hierarchy reflects cognitive processes. PMID:25885790

  16. Does Formal Complexity Reflect Cognitive Complexity? Investigating Aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an Artificial Language Learning Study

    PubMed Central

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning. According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive). In two artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiments participants were presented with a language containing either nested or cross-serial dependencies. A learning effect for both types of dependencies could be observed, but no difference between dependency types emerged. These behavioral findings do not seem to reflect complexity differences as described in the Chomsky Hierarchy. This study extends previous findings in demonstrating learning effects for nested and cross-serial dependencies with more natural stimulus materials in a classical AGL paradigm after only one hour of exposure. The current findings can be taken as a starting point for further exploring the degree to which the Chomsky Hierarchy reflects cognitive processes. PMID:25885790

  17. Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project in which students create their own outdoor environments using a tri-wall frame--a triple-layered cardboard, which is very lightweight and strong. Then the students compose a few sentences describing the scene or place.

  18. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  19. Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Connie L.

    Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

  20. Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

    Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

  1. Development of a Parent's Guide for the Singapore Primary Science Curriculum: Empowering Parents as Facilitators of Their Children's Science Learning outside the Formal Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ai Noi

    2012-01-01

    Parents can play a vital and active role in facilitating their children's science learning outside the formal classrooms. Parental involvement in their children's science learning process not only could enhance their children's learning motivation and interest in science, it could also help to strengthen the family bond when parents and children…

  2. Learning Journeys: The Road from Informal to Formal Learning--The UK Open University's Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Josie

    2013-01-01

    Online learning is now achieving recognition as offering a way for learning to scale. However we need to learn from the experiences in distance learning institutions. The Open University was established over 40 years ago and offers a unique experience in building a distance learning organisation on innovative use of media, originally through…

  3. Stop Making Sense: The Outdoors as Art. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Applied outdoor experiences may be seen as theater and, as such, can allow a more flexible, integrative approach to outdoor learning. Both the arts (particularly theater) and outdoor experiential learning contain nine common elements, including elements of working with groups, and personal and transpersonal components of experience. Three…

  4. Outdoor Education and the Development of Civic Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Judith A.

    This digest suggests how outdoor education and experiential learning can develop in students a sense of community participation and set them on a path of strong participation and civic responsibility. Following definitions of outdoor education and experiential learning, various outdoor and experiential approaches are described. Adventure education…

  5. Stop Making Sense: The Outdoors as Art. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Applied outdoor experiences may be seen as theater and, as such, can allow a more flexible, integrative approach to outdoor learning. Both the arts (particularly theater) and outdoor experiential learning contain nine common elements, including elements of working with groups, and personal and transpersonal components of experience. Three…

  6. Expanding "Within Context" to "Across Contexts" Learning: A Case Study of Informal and Formal Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi Song; Hung, Wei Loong David; Jamaludin, Azilawati Bte; Lim, Seo Hong

    2014-01-01

    Learning happens not only in schools, but also in every context that affords new experiences and opportunities for metacognition. We aim to maximize the different activity-milieux in which learners are engaged in developing their life-long learning dispositions to learn within and across contexts. This paper is a follow up of an earlier published…

  7. Formal Adult Learning and Working in Europe: A New Typology of Participation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefler, Gunter; Markowitsch, Jorg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how a typology of participating patterns is developed to deepen understanding of participation in formal adult education and the relationship between current workplace and educational programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of conceptual work based on a qualitative analysis…

  8. The Impact of Formal and Informal Learning on Students' Improvisational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyniak, Sylvana

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on my PhD empirical study, was conducted in a qualitative and holistic approach. It had examined how students had used formal and informal strategies, styles and situations while improvising and composing for the research task. Eighteen research groups made up of a total of 40 males and nine females had participated in…

  9. Using Social Software for Personal Knowledge Management in Formal Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettenati, Maria Chiara; Cigognini, Elisabetta; Mangione, Jose; Guerin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on the use of social software as educational enablers for use in formal online education contexts. To this end we study the hypothesis that users have to acquire a set of important Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) skills. Such PKM skills are presented in the paper. They are also examined in relation to…

  10. The Wicehtowak Partnership: Improving Student Learning by Formalizing the Family-Community-School Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunison, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which formalization of the family-community-school partnership through the Wicehtowak Partnership influenced educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in one urban school district. It finds that the community engagement process employed by the school district for creating the partnership…

  11. Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis

    2013-01-01

    Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to…

  12. A Evaluation of a Learning Cycle Intervention Method in Introductory Physical Science Laboratories in Order to Promote Formal Operational thought Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadburn, Randy Glen

    Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition, future studies should attempt to use vigorous measures of formal reasoning ability to pinpoint exactly when the transition occurs in students.

  13. Developing an eLearning tool formalizing in YAWL the guidelines used in a transfusion medicine service.

    PubMed

    Russo, Paola; Piazza, Miriam; Leonardi, Giorgio; Roncoroni, Layla; Russo, Carlo; Spadaro, Salvatore; Quaglini, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The blood transfusion is a complex activity subject to a high risk of eventually fatal errors. The development and application of computer-based systems could help reducing the error rate, playing a fundamental role in the improvement of the quality of care. This poster presents an under development eLearning tool formalizing the guidelines of the transfusion process. This system, implemented in YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language), will be used to train the personnel in order to improve the efficiency of care and to reduce errors. PMID:22874389

  14. Learning to Lead at 5,267 Feet: An Empirical Study of Outdoor Management Training and MBA Students' Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the leadership development of MBA students enrolled in an Organizational Behavior course. Students enrolled in either an in-class section or a section that included an intensive, outdoor training component called Leadership on the Edge. Results from Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practices Inventory (2003) showed that students…

  15. Take the Classroom Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widler, Theresa

    2001-01-01

    Explores how child care providers can use outdoor activities to enhance young children's cognitive, social, emotional, and motor development. Discusses surveying the outdoor play space, using outdoor prop boxes, planting a garden, and reflecting on outdoor experiences after moving indoors. Includes list of sample outdoor play materials and sample…

  16. Individualized Skill Assessment in Digital Learning Games: Basic Definitions and Mathematical Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, T.; Hockemeyer, C.; Kickmeier-Rust, M.; Albert, D.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a…

  17. Individualized Skill Assessment in Digital Learning Games: Basic Definitions and Mathematical Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, T.; Hockemeyer, C.; Kickmeier-Rust, M.; Albert, D.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a…

  18. A Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning: Students Learn Better When Words Are in Conversational Style Rather Than Formal Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Fennell, Sherry; Farmer, Lindsay; Campbell, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which "the" was changed to "your" in 12 places. In 3 experiments,…

  19. A Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning: Students Learn Better When Words Are in Conversational Style Rather Than Formal Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Fennell, Sherry; Farmer, Lindsay; Campbell, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which "the" was changed to "your" in 12 places. In 3 experiments,…

  20. Towards the Construction of a Personal Professional Pathway: An Experimental Project for the Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the University of Catania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, accreditation of prior learning is a sensitive issue. Despite the lack of laws or qualification frameworks regulating the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, most Italian universities proceed with caution, allowing only a restricted number of credits in the university curriculum related to practical activities or to external…

  1. Towards the Construction of a Personal Professional Pathway: An Experimental Project for the Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the University of Catania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, accreditation of prior learning is a sensitive issue. Despite the lack of laws or qualification frameworks regulating the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, most Italian universities proceed with caution, allowing only a restricted number of credits in the university curriculum related to practical activities or to external…

  2. AGORA V: Identification, Evaluation and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning (Thessaloniki, Greece, March 15-16, 1999). CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guggenheim, Eric Fries, Ed.

    This document contains papers from a 2-day meeting on identification, evaluation, and recognition of nonformal learning in the European Union. The following papers are included: "Identification, Assessment, and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning: European Tendencies" (Jens Bjornavold); "Why Measure Human Capital?" (Riel Miller); "Mobility and…

  3. Outdoor Education -- Edinburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Terry

    1974-01-01

    In Scotland, outdoor education is seen as a combination of outdoor pursuits and environmental studies. The article describes various centres in the Edinburgh area, outdoor education expeditions, and programs, such as mountaineering, rock climbing, orienteering, and canoeing. (KM)

  4. Lessons Learned by Combining Formal and Informal Science Education at CMMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, S.; Burt, M. A.; Jones, B.; Russell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2006, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) has pursued a vertically-integrated strategy for education and diversity from "K to gray." We've brought a traveling museum-style "informal science education" program to over 200,000 K-12 students and shown that it has a counterintuitive and substantial impact on content knowledge. The tremendous volume of this outreach program has only been possible by including over 100 undergraduate interns, which adds a layer of professional development to their formal education. We've also leveraged the "hands-on" informal education program to develop both formal professional development workshops for teachers and new undergraduate courses. So we're now using hands-on science activities developed by undergraduates for use in grades 5-8 for teaching climate science to undergrads! It's remarkable how well this integration works. We've also extended the approach beyond "hands-on" to "minds-on" experiments based on interactive modules that run inside web browsers. Building on the framework we developed for extending informal science education into formal instruction, we also entrained dozens of students at the largest graduate Atmospheric Science program in the US to provide them with professional development experiences and tracked their matriculation into the professional research and academic workforce. Finally, we've extended the informal minds-on techniques to both in-person and online courses offered to retirees and to the public. Combining these forms of outreach leverage direct experience of the nature of science with authentic communication to reach diverse audiences with climate science content.

  5. A Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network: The role of formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke-Nieves, Natasha Anika

    Science education research has consistently shown that elementary teachers have a low self-efficacy and background knowledge to teach science. When they teach science, there is a lack of field experiences and inquiry-based instruction at the elementary level due to limited resources, both material and pedagogical. This study focused on an analysis of a professional development (PD) model designed by the author known as the Collaborative Diagonal Learning Network (CDLN). The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school teacher participants pedagogical content knowledge related to their experiences in a CDLN model. The CDLN model taught formal and informal instruction using a science coach and an informal educational institution. Another purpose for this research included a theoretical analysis of the CDLN model to see if its design enabled teachers to expand their resource knowledge of available science education materials. The four-month-long study used qualitative data obtained during an in-service professional development program facilitated by a science coach and educators from a large natural history museum. Using case study as the research design, four elementary school teachers were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of their science coach and museum educator workshop sessions. During the duration of this study, semi-structured individual/group interviews and open-ended pre/post PD questionnaires were used. Other data sources included researcher field notes from lesson observations, museum field trips, audio-recorded workshop sessions, email correspondence, and teacher-created artifacts. The data were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged included increased self-efficacy; increased pedagogical content knowledge; increased knowledge of museum education resources and access; creation of a professional learning community; and increased knowledge of science notebooking. Implications for formal and informal professional development in elementary science reform are offered. It is suggested that researchers investigate collaborative coaching through the lenses of organizational learning network theory, and develop professional learning communities with formal and informal educators; and that professional developers in city school systems and informal science institutions work in concert to produce more effective elementary teachers who not only love science but love teaching it.

  6. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  7. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  8. The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettenger, Jim

    Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

  9. The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettenger, Jim

    Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

  10. Working Memory-Learning Condition Interactions Proficiency in L2 Russian under Naturalistic and Formal Learning Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canner, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationships between working memory (WM) and three commonly used learning strategies or conditions in the nature of proficiency among adult L2 Russian learners. Based on the aptitude-learning condition interaction framework articulated by Robinson (2002b), the study identifies two types of…

  11. Outdoor Education: Opening and Closing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter, Comp.

    Opening activites (to create an atmosphere of cooperation and a desire to work, explore, and learn together) and closing activities (to summarize what has happened or been learned) for outdoor education programs are described. All activities are intended to incite enthusiasm to learn and make the learning activity a desired, joyful experience.…

  12. Outdoor Education: Opening and Closing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter, Comp.

    Opening activites (to create an atmosphere of cooperation and a desire to work, explore, and learn together) and closing activities (to summarize what has happened or been learned) for outdoor education programs are described. All activities are intended to incite enthusiasm to learn and make the learning activity a desired, joyful experience.…

  13. Biographical Learning and Non-Formal Education: Questing, Threads and Choosing How to Be Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an initial inductive analysis of eight semi-structured interviews with English adult learners conducted as part of the European Union (EU) BeLL project. It uses the theoretical lens of biographical learning (with its key concepts of agency and narrative) to explore what these interviews can tell us about the ways adults express…

  14. Creating Personal Meaning through Technology-Supported Science Inquiry Learning across Formal and Informal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Sharples, Mike; Ainsworth, Shaaron; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Wright, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to engaging students in personal inquiry learning is described, whereby they carry out scientific investigations that are personally meaningful and relevant to their everyday lives. The learners are supported by software that guides the inquiry process, extending from the classroom into the school grounds, home, or…

  15. The Role of the Reflection Journal in Making Efficient the Learning Activity within Formal Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stan, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    One of the most efficient ways in helping the students improve their academic outcomes is by giving them the time and the instruments they need to develop their metacognitive skills when learning. Journals can help the students identify the strategies they used or the way they may use it and subsequently appraise their efficiency. Building-up a…

  16. The Formal Environments for Learning: Schools, Colleges, and Universities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Anita

    A tentative hypothesis growing out of the study of the transition from school to work has been that it is the type of articulation between the institution of school and that of the work-place which determines a smooth or rocky transition. Thus, this review of literature concerns itself with the characteristics of the learning environment with the…

  17. The Learning Lives of Digital Youth--Beyond the Formal and Informal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erstad, Ola

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to present an outline for an approach studying young people as learners across contexts, presented here as a "learning lives approach". For youth, the two most time-consuming aspects of their daily lives are schooling and media use. In research, we tend to study these as two separate worlds. The challenge is to…

  18. Television Goes to School: The Impact of Video on Student Learning in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on key questions concerning the relationship of television to learning, and provides examples drawn from current television research to demonstrate television's positive effect on student achievement. A set of practical recommendations are also provided so that broadcasters and educators can maximize the effectiveness of video…

  19. Television Goes to School: The Impact of Video on Student Learning in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on key questions concerning the relationship of television to learning, and provides examples drawn from current television research to demonstrate television's positive effect on student achievement. A set of practical recommendations are also provided so that broadcasters and educators can maximize the effectiveness of video…

  20. The Learning Lives of Digital Youth--Beyond the Formal and Informal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erstad, Ola

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to present an outline for an approach studying young people as learners across contexts, presented here as a "learning lives approach". For youth, the two most time-consuming aspects of their daily lives are schooling and media use. In research, we tend to study these as two separate worlds. The challenge is to…

  1. Case Studies of Non-Formal Education by Distance and Open Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaciwena, Richard, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from a study of the role of distance learning approaches in enhancing the contribution of nonformal education to socioeconomic development in Africa. "Introduction" (Richard Siaciwena) presents an overview of the research project and defines key terms related to nonformal education. "Ghana: The Use of Radio in…

  2. Biographical Learning and Non-Formal Education: Questing, Threads and Choosing How to Be Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an initial inductive analysis of eight semi-structured interviews with English adult learners conducted as part of the European Union (EU) BeLL project. It uses the theoretical lens of biographical learning (with its key concepts of agency and narrative) to explore what these interviews can tell us about the ways adults express…

  3. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  4. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  5. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  6. Outdoor Education--Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jean, Comp.; And Others

    Learning activities; lesson plans, and various resource materials are contained in this guide for the fifth grade outdoor education program in the Dixon Public Schools, Dixon, Illinois. Well over 100 activities are suggested, and many of these are described in detail. Although some information is specific to the Dixon program, which has access to…

  7. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  8. Learning to teach: how a formal teaching qualification improved our practice.

    PubMed

    Lipczynska, Sonya; Crowley, Clare

    2015-09-01

    In this article, guest writers Sonya Lipczynska and Clare Crowley from King's College London discuss the learning that occurred when they undertook a Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice in Higher Education (PGCAPHE). In particular, they identify how their exploration of relevant learning and teaching theory on the course helped them to evaluate their library instruction teaching practice with medical and dental students. They highlight how they made changes and improvements to the delivery of these sessions based on greater consideration of inclusivity and the characteristics of both individuals and broader student groups. They also discuss the successes of new teaching practices that they experimented with, and reflect on how they have developed as educators as a result of this. H.S. PMID:26268521

  9. "Is What You See What You Get?" The Production of Knowledge in-between the Indoors and the Outdoors in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Robyn; Burrows, Lisette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many believe the "outdoors" is a key factor influencing student learning in "outdoor education" because it is so different from the "everyday" indoor contexts of students' lives. In much of the outdoor education literature the outdoors is construed as a neutral and simplified space which allows students to have more "real" and…

  10. "Is What You See What You Get?" The Production of Knowledge in-between the Indoors and the Outdoors in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Robyn; Burrows, Lisette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many believe the "outdoors" is a key factor influencing student learning in "outdoor education" because it is so different from the "everyday" indoor contexts of students' lives. In much of the outdoor education literature the outdoors is construed as a neutral and simplified space which allows students to have more "real" and…

  11. The Outdoor Programming Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ron

    This manual provides guidelines for developing outdoor recreation programs. The manual was prepared for adult outdoor recreation programs, but could be useful for other age groups as well. The following topics are discussed: (1) the historical perspectives of outdoor recreation programming; (2) outdoor programming models, including the club model,…

  12. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Creative ways to use the outdoors as a part of the regular school curriculum are outlined in this teacher's manual for the elementary grades. Presented for consideration are the general objectives of outdoor education, suggestions for evaluating outdoor education experiences, and techniques for teaching outdoor education. The purpose and functions…

  13. Results of Formal Evaluation of a Data and Modeling Driven Hydrology Learning Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Sanchez, C. A.; Schiesser, R.; Merwade, V.

    2014-12-01

    New hydrologists should not only develop a well-defined knowledgebase of basic hydrological concepts, but also synthesize this factual learning with more authentic 'real-world' knowledge gained from the interpretation and analysis of data from hydrological models (Merwade and Ruddell, 2012, Wagener et al., 2007). However, hydrological instruction is often implemented using a traditional teacher-centered approach (e.g., lectures) (Wagener, 2007). The emergence of rich and dynamic computer simulation techniques which allow students the opportunity for more authentic application of knowledge (Merwade & Ruddell, 2012). This study evaluates the efficacy of using such data-driven simulations to increase the understanding of the field of hydrology in the lower-division undergraduate geoscience classroom. In this study, 88 students at a local community college who were enrolled in an Introductory Earth Science class were evaluated on their learning performance in a unit on applying the Rational Method to estimate hydrographs and flooding for urban areas. Students were either presented with a data and visualization rich computer module (n=52), or with paper and pencil calculation activities (n=36). All conceptual material presented in lecture was consistent across these two conditions. Students were evaluated for not only changes in their knowledge and application of the concepts within the unit (e.g., effects of urbanization and impervious cover, discharge rates), but also for their broad "T-shaped" profile of professional knowledge and skills. While results showed significant (p<.05) increases from pre to post assessments in all learning areas for both groups, there is a significantly larger benefit for the data module group when it came to (1) understanding the effects of urbanization and impervious cover on flooding, (2) applying consistent vocabulary appropriately within context, and (3) explaining the roles and responsibilities of hydrologists and flood managers.

  14. Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard

    SciTech Connect

    K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

    2006-05-10

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

  15. Looking for Learning in All the Wrong Places: Urban Native Youths' Cultured Response to Western-Oriented Place-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    For Indigenous youth growing up in today's Canadian cities, summer, non-formal learning programs developed around outdoor and/or environmental education themes offer the chance for reconnecting with ancestral territories. While tenable, few interpretive studies focus on youths' engagement with such learning. This paper offers an analysis of the…

  16. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  17. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  18. Fancy a Career Doing Therapy in the Outdoors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, no outdoor practitioner is working as a professional therapist and little formal training in outdoor therapy exists. Practice of this type requires supervision and professional accreditation. Interested undergraduates should check social work, probation, mental health, educational psychology, or occupational therapy…

  19. Knowledge Contribution in a Non-Formal Virtual Setting through a Social Constructionist Approach: A Case Study of an Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Myra Gail

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an online learning community in a non-formal educational setting and the process participants used in order to share, create, and construct knowledge through their interactions in the online community. Participants in the study were college interns who were part of a grant that focused on providing professional development for…

  20. Migration and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Europe: Inclusion, Exclusion or Polarisation in the Recognition of Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Villalba-Garcia, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    This article explores (1) the degree to which immigrants can be considered dominant groups in the area of validation of non-formal and informal learning and are subject to specific validation measures in 33 European countries; (2) whether country clusters can be identified within Europe with regard to the dominance of immigrants in the area of…

  1. Migration and Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning in Europe: Inclusion, Exclusion or Polarisation in the Recognition of Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Villalba-Garcia, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    This article explores (1) the degree to which immigrants can be considered dominant groups in the area of validation of non-formal and informal learning and are subject to specific validation measures in 33 European countries; (2) whether country clusters can be identified within Europe with regard to the dominance of immigrants in the area of…

  2. Using Formal Embedded Formative Assessments Aligned with a Short-Term Learning Progression to Promote Conceptual Change and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical…

  3. Knowledge Contribution in a Non-Formal Virtual Setting through a Social Constructionist Approach: A Case Study of an Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Myra Gail

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an online learning community in a non-formal educational setting and the process participants used in order to share, create, and construct knowledge through their interactions in the online community. Participants in the study were college interns who were part of a grant that focused on providing professional development for…

  4. "I Feel like I'm Being Hit from All Directions": Enduring the Bombardment as a Mature-Age Learner Returning to Formal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willans, Julie; Seary, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The mature-age learner's re-engagement with a formal learning environment may be somewhat akin to the novice Paintball player who, unless well positioned and attuned to the rules of the combative game, is bombarded and worn down by constant "hits". For the mature-age learner, such "hits" may come in the form of tensions surrounding institutional…

  5. The Outdoor Environment as a Site for Children's Participation, Meaning-Making and Democratic Learning: Examples from Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Wenche; Grindheim, Liv Torunn; Waters, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore socio-cultural theories of learning and some of the processes by which children learn democratic values. Norwegian policy and practice emphasises children's right to participation and involvement in decision-making. We discuss the importance of adults' attitudes, knowledge and ability to relate to and understand…

  6. Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Phil

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

  7. Outdoor Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, Tosio

    1986-01-01

    Discusses reasons for lack of outdoor education programs in Japan. Emphasizes importance of establishing outdoor education to recover traditional Japanese appreciation of nature. Examines Occidental and Oriental views of nature. Describes an innovative outdoor education program in Japan based on rice cultivation. (LFL)

  8. Americans and the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    A presidential panel was established in January, 1985 to examine the status of outdoor recreation in the United States. This publication briefly summarizes the full report of the President's Commission on Americans Outdoors. It discusses the essential need for providing every citizen with opportunity for outdoor experiences and suggest how it can…

  9. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

  10. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic for Family Child Care Providers" (Osborn); "A…

  11. Outdoor Mathematics Trails: An Evaluation of One Training Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor education has received greater attention in the United Kingdom with the launch of the Learning Outside the Classroom Manifesto. However, teachers' lack of confidence and competence appear to be key factors underpinning the extent of outdoor learning provision in schools. This paper reports on a partnership project in which student teachers…

  12. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point. PMID:24742168

  13. Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.

    PubMed

    Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. PMID:24462995

  14. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.

    PubMed

    Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

  15. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A.; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

  16. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooyers, Cobina; And Others

    Designed for teachers to provide students with an awareness of the world of nature which surrounds them, the manual presents the philosophy of outdoor education, goals and objectives of the school program, planning for outdoor education, the Wildwood Programs, sequential program planning for students, program booking and resource list. Content…

  17. Queering Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Connie; Sarick, Tema; Kennelly, Jackie

    2003-01-01

    Queer pedagogy is rife with possibilities for outdoor educators to challenge the status quo of heterosexism and sexism. From recognizing and addressing the heteronormative assumptions that influence the outdoor classroom, to subverting oppressive gender norms, to noticing the cultural constructs through which we view nature, queer pedagogy can…

  18. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  19. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  20. Economics of Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion; Knetsch, Jack L.

    Written for the purposes of presenting an overview of outdoor recreation in the United States and defining the significant outdoor recreation policy issues of the next 10 to 20 years, this document also includes major sections on recreation resources and economic considerations. Projections to the year 2000 are made for a national time budget,…

  1. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  2. Outdoor Classroom Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

  3. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  4. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  5. The Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dorothy E.

    An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

  6. Outdoor Education: Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Compiled to serve as a reference to help teachers locate outdoor education materials available from Canadian government and private agencies, this catalogue lists services and publications which can be utilized by educators in planning and implementing outdoor education programs. Among the services listed is a sampling of organizations,…

  7. Outdoor Classroom Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

  8. Outdoor Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    A discussion of the nature and scope of outdoor education is offered in this monograph. Societal changes are cited which indicate a growing need for outdoor education. Historical and current developments in the field are presented. Educational benefits such as improving the quality of educational experiences are discussed, and areas related to…

  9. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  10. Adult Learners' Learning Environment Perceptions and Satisfaction in Formal Education--Case Study of Four East-European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovan, Marko; Makovec, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes towards learning and perceptions of the learning environment. Our theoretical examination is based on the social-cognitive theory of motivation and research that emphasizes the connections between an individual's perceptions of the learning environment and his/her motivation, interest, attitudes…

  11. Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities in Government Organisations: Experiences of Public Sector Employees from Six Asian Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtar, Intan A.

    2010-01-01

    Lifelong learning and professional development have been the focus of government organisations after the 21st century was declared the "learning century", amidst the impact of globalisation and growth of knowledge-based economies. Although lifelong learning and professional development opportunities are available in most government organisations,…

  12. The Hidden Classroom of the Workplace: How Employees Learn at Work in Both Formal and Informal Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Richard; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Many are accustomed to the idea that we learn at school and that a college education is acquired in college classrooms. In reality, however, learning takes place in all aspects of a person's life--through military experience, raising a family, volunteering, and, perhaps most significantly, in the workplace. Learning that occurs in the workplace…

  13. Exploring Small Climates--An Outdoor Science Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    The study of climates in small areas as an outdoor science teaching technique is described in this paper. It is suggested that, while teachers are presenting a weather unit to their elementary school classes, they should not overlook the opportunity to make learning more meaningful through outdoor teaching techniques. Explorations of temperatures…

  14. Developing an Outdoor Education Program for Public Schools. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, James S.

    Education in, for, and about the outdoors is an effective way to develop students' knowledge and appreciation of their environment, to stimulate their curiosity, and to motivate them to learn. Steps involved in establishing an outdoor education program for public schools include: (1) gaining support of school teachers and administrators, parents,…

  15. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set I contains 24 varied activities which make use of crafts, simulations, and basic investigative techniques to provide introductory learning experiences in outdoor biology for children aged 10 to 15. The individual water-resistant folio for each activity includes biological…

  16. Outdoor Education at Camp Tawingo: History and Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Camp Tawingo (Ontario) started as a summer camp in 1961 based on the philosophy that through outdoor recreation and fun, children can learn about self, others, community, and nature. This philosophy has guided it through its growth into an independent residential outdoor center and an independent, small rural school for grades K-8, Tawingo…

  17. Saskatchewan's Trek School and the Greenall Outdoor School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notenboom, Rob; Moore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Trek School is an outdoor school program for any Grade 11 students in Regina, Saskatchewan. During the program, students engage in a series of classroom, outdoor, and experiential activities. The various courses are taught through these experiences. The program is designed to help students develop in the areas of independent learning, critical and…

  18. Developing an Outdoor Classroom: Blending Classroom Curriculum and Outdoor Play Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Mary L.

    1998-01-01

    Outdoor-learning centers provide information for children to understand their world. These centers are appropriate for emergent curriculums and many sensory experiences, and are created based on the environment and children's current use of the space. Ideas for learning centers include the following: writing center, dramatic play, art and…

  19. Migration and validation of non-formal and informal learning in Europe: Inclusion, exclusion or polarisation in the recognition of skills?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Villalba-Garcia, Ernesto

    2015-10-01

    This article explores (1) the degree to which immigrants can be considered dominant groups in the area of validation of non-formal and informal learning and are subject to specific validation measures in 33 European countries; (2) whether country clusters can be identified within Europe with regard to the dominance of immigrants in the area of validation; and (3) whether validation systems are likely to lead to the inclusion of immigrants or foster a process of "devaluation" of their skills and competences in their host countries. Based on the European Inventory on validation of non- formal and informal learning project (chiefly its 2014 update) as well as a review of 124 EU-funded (Lifelong Learning Programme and European Social Fund) validation projects, the authors present the following findings: (1) in the majority of European countries, immigrants are not a dominant group in the area of validation. (2) In terms of country clusters, Central European and Nordic countries tend to consider immigrants a dominant target group for validation to a greater extent than Southern and Eastern European countries. (3) Finally, few initiatives aim to ensure that immigrants' skills and competences are not devalued in their host country, and those initiatives which are in place benefit particularly those defined as "highly skilled" individuals, on the basis of their productive potential. There is, thus, a "low road" and a "high road" to validation, leading to a process of polarisation in the recognition of the skills and competences of immigrants.

  20. Unpacking (In)formal Learning in an Academic Development Programme: A Mixed-Method Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Hosein, Anesa

    2015-01-01

    How and with whom academics develop and maintain formal and informal networks for reflecting on their teaching practice has received limited attention even though academic development (AD) programmes have become an almost ubiquitous feature of higher education. The primary goal of this mixed-method study is to unpack how 114 academics in an AD…

  1. Unpacking (In)formal Learning in an Academic Development Programme: A Mixed-Method Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Hosein, Anesa

    2015-01-01

    How and with whom academics develop and maintain formal and informal networks for reflecting on their teaching practice has received limited attention even though academic development (AD) programmes have become an almost ubiquitous feature of higher education. The primary goal of this mixed-method study is to unpack how 114 academics in an AD…

  2. Ohio Sampler: Outdoor and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballbach, Joann, Ed.

    This document provides practical suggestions and meaningful activities for implementing Ohio's model curriculum in science for instruction that emphasizes hands-on experience and diverse learning opportunities. It also includes a variety of nonscience activities that emphasize and utilize the outdoors. This Sampler lists activities by indoor or…

  3. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the environment,…

  4. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  5. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  6. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  7. Research Update: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records eleven incidents not included in previous papers in this series. A total of 14 students or staff died in the incidents. The paper reviews the incidents and identifies what further lessons can be learned about fatality…

  8. Environmental Outdoor Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.

    2004-05-01

    Lighting for the outdoor environment presents challenges not usually found in interior lighting. Outdoors, the universal standard is the daytime sun, yet nighttime electric lighting falls far short of daylight. This presentation provides guidance in dealing with these shortcomings, allowing electric lighting systems to solve multiple needs while being responsive to the need for quality exterior lighting. Main aspects include visual issues, ordinances, sources, energy conservation, structure, softscape and hardscape, roadways and walkways, retail and parking lots, sports, and outdoor hospitality lighting. We will review many of the present recommendations for such lighting applications, ones designed to minimize any adverse effects.

  9. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  10. The Missing Link to Connect Education and Employment: Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werquin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The concept of learning outcomes is at the heart of many research programmes and policy responses. International surveys (from the International Adult Literacy Survey, back in the mid-nineties, to the forthcoming Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes two OECD surveys), National Qualifications Frameworks or the European Qualifications…

  11. Teaching English through Open Non-Formal Education (ONFE) in Bangladesh with an Effective Integration of ICT to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Md. Mizanoor; Panda, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The program entitled "English in Action (EIA)", 9 year period DFID funded project in Bangladesh, was launched in 2008, for the desire to bring a change in the learning of English language. EIA works to reach a total of 25 million primary and secondary students and adult learners through communicative language learning techniques and the use of…

  12. The Missing Link to Connect Education and Employment: Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werquin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The concept of learning outcomes is at the heart of many research programmes and policy responses. International surveys (from the International Adult Literacy Survey, back in the mid-nineties, to the forthcoming Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes two OECD surveys), National Qualifications Frameworks or the European Qualifications…

  13. Beyond formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  14. Authentic Learning through GBL: Using Inquiry and PBL Strategies to Accomplish Specific Learning Outcomes through Smart Games in Formal and Informal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Game-Based Learning (GBL) is a promising and engaging tool for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) learning. How GBL promotes content learning and mastery is unknown, however. For GBL to be more than an engaging tool for delivery of basic knowledge, it must be designed to achieve the goals of Project-Based Learning (PBL). PBL…

  15. Take Your Class Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellenberger, Barbara R.

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions for designing outdoor activities to provide students with opportunities for exploring, observing, and discovering. Outlines several science activities for each of the following topics: trees, rocks, soil, insects, wild flowers, grasses, lichens, and clouds. (DS)

  16. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

  17. Introducing the Use of a Semi-Structured Video Diary Room to Investigate Students' Learning Experiences during an Outdoor Adventure Education Groupwork Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…

  18. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

  19. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education, media, and free-choice learning. Though a statistically significant positive correlation was found between an individual's NES and their level of environmental knowledge as an adult, the relationship was weak (r= .112). One-on-one interviews also were conducted with 15 individuals selected from a random sample of the 382 participants. A post-survey focus group comprised of experts from the fields of environmental science and environmental education was also conducted to discuss results from the quantitative portion of the study and provide face validity to the questionnaire.

  20. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural world around them. The game is set around a mystery in which red wolves in eastern North Carolina are being poisoned. The students are asked to portray the role of a wildlife biologist, botanist, or entomologist, whose job it is to determine who is poisoning the red wolves. MSEG are a new form of SEG that is divided into components or modules. Each module has to be completed before the player can move on to the next module. A module can take on any format, but must encompass the storyline of the game and end in an assessment. The study focused on three research questions. How would students improve the Red Wolf Caper mSEG? Do mSEG affect students' understanding in environmental education concepts, specifically, collecting, evaluating, and developing an explanation for data they collected in the game and knowledge of environmental systems and biological and social implications for the reintroduction of a species? Which role within the mSEG do the students choose and what is their reasoning behind choosing that particular role? The game was tested by 81 middle school students during six sessions in June 2010. The study participants played the game and participated in design sessions. In addition, they were given a 5-question pretest/ posttest, role selection survey, and Serious Educational Game Rubric (SEGR). They were asked to develop a hypothesis and provide evidence to support their hypothesis. Finally, they were asked to write a letter to a local in judge explaining the importance of the red wolf reintroduction project. Twenty-three students were selected to participate in interviews to determine how to improve the game and why they chose the role they did. The mean student score for the SEGR was 18.13 out of 28. Five categories in particular stood out as needing improvement: rules, increasing complexity, manipulation, identity, and tutorial/ practice level. Sixty-nine completed pretests/posttests final scores were analyzed using a paired t-test ( p = 0.000046). The letters to the judge showed that study participants understood scientific concepts and were able to apply them to real world settings that were only portrayed briefly in the game, such as the food chain. Study participants chose to play one of three roles: a wildlife biologist ( n = 64), an entomologist (n = 10), and a botanist (n = 6). Their reason behind choosing a role included interest in learning more about the topic or the profession, a previous positive experience in that field, thought the role sounded fun or exciting, the role was better than the alternatives, or misunderstood the role. The experience overall was positive for the participants. They felt they learned how to identify tracks, scat, trees, and invertebrates depending on the role they played. The AR field tests were one of their favorite parts about the game. Only one student expressed that they did not like the game, while the others not only enjoyed playing the game, but felt that is was a good educational tool. This study explores only one possibility of how mSEGs can be used in education.

  1. Using NASA Data in the Classroom: Promoting STEM Learning in Formal Education using Real Space Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, B.; Hemenway, M. K.; Mendez, B.; Odenwald, S.

    2013-04-01

    Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provides formal educators the opportunity to teach their students real-world applications of the STEM subjects. Combining real space science data with lessons aimed at meeting state and national education standards provides a memorable educational experience that students can build upon throughout their academic careers. Many of our colleagues have adopted the use of real data in their education and public outreach (EPO) programs. There are challenges in creating resources using real data for classroom use that include, but are not limited to, accessibility to computers/Internet and proper instruction. Understanding and sharing these difficulties and best practices with the larger EPO community is critical to the development of future resources. In this session, we highlight three examples of how NASA data is being utilized in the classroom: the Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET) that utilizes real Hubble Space Telescope data; the computer image-analysis resources utilized by the NASA WISE infrared mission; and the space science derived math applications from SpaceMath@NASA featuring the Chandra and Kepler space telescopes. Challenges and successes are highlighted for these projects. We also facilitate small-group discussions that focus on additional benefits and challenges of using real data in the formal education environment. The report-outs from those discussions are given here.

  2. Developing Competence: A Qualitative Inquiry of College Student Leadership in University Outdoor Orientation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbuck, J. David.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-nine formal research studies have been conducted on participants of college outdoor orientation programs. Although many variables have been examined for the incoming students, only one study has focused on the impact on the student leaders. The goal of this study was to understand how student leaders in outdoor orientation programs…

  3. Participating in Non-Formal Learning: Patterns of Inequality in EU-15 and the New EU-8 Member Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2010-01-01

    We concentrate on the following research questions: (1) Do the structure of the educational system and its interaction with the labour market affect the training gap between low-skilled blue collar workers and high-skilled white collar workers? and (2) Do the ways that institutional systems shape opportunities for lifelong learning differ between…

  4. Relations between EFL Teachers' Formal Knowledge of Grammar and Their In-Action Mental Models of Children's Minds and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, O.; Strauss, S.; Ravid, D.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relations between English as a foreign language teachers' grammar knowledge and their in-action mental models (MMs) of children's minds and learning. The grammar knowledge we examined was English wh-constructions. A total of 74 teachers completed an assessment task and were classified to have deep, intermediate or shallow knowledge.…

  5. Hard/Soft, Formal/Informal, Work/Learning: Tenuous/Persistent Binaries in the Knowledge-Based Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela; Butterwick, Shauna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses insights from a study of women working, or seeking or preparing for work, in the information technology (IT) field. At issue is how and whether alternative career pathways and informally acquired skills and knowledge, as well as the operation of gender in learning and work, are acknowledged by employers, colleagues…

  6. The Intercultural and Non-Formal Learning Processes of Children in Primary School Exchange Programmes in France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Valérie; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on educational anthropology, and presents the initial findings of a three-year international comparative study of primary school children's learning-processes during travel and cross-cultural encounters. A French-German research team investigated and here reports on primary school exchange programmes. Open coding of the…

  7. Exploring University Students' Use of Technologies beyond the Formal Learning Context: A Tale of Two Online Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Liping; Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    Situated within an informal learning context, this study examines how a group of pre-service teachers in Hong Kong use Facebook and Google Sites on their own initiative to fulfil their academic and socio-emotional needs during their teaching practice. Also included in the study are the motivating and inhibiting factors that influence student…

  8. Informal Learning Organizations as Part of an Educational Ecology: Lessons from Collaboration across the Formal-Informal Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Knutson, Karen; Crowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    How do informal learning organizations work with schools as part of a broader educational ecology? We examined this question through a comparative case study of two collaborative efforts whereby informal arts education organizations, a children's museum and a community-based organization, worked with an urban school district to redefine the…

  9. The Intercultural and Non-Formal Learning Processes of Children in Primary School Exchange Programmes in France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Valérie; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on educational anthropology, and presents the initial findings of a three-year international comparative study of primary school children's learning-processes during travel and cross-cultural encounters. A French-German research team investigated and here reports on primary school exchange programmes. Open coding of the…

  10. Informal Learning Organizations as Part of an Educational Ecology: Lessons from Collaboration across the Formal-Informal Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Knutson, Karen; Crowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    How do informal learning organizations work with schools as part of a broader educational ecology? We examined this question through a comparative case study of two collaborative efforts whereby informal arts education organizations, a children's museum and a community-based organization, worked with an urban school district to redefine the…

  11. Exploring University Students' Use of Technologies beyond the Formal Learning Context: A Tale of Two Online Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Liping; Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    Situated within an informal learning context, this study examines how a group of pre-service teachers in Hong Kong use Facebook and Google Sites on their own initiative to fulfil their academic and socio-emotional needs during their teaching practice. Also included in the study are the motivating and inhibiting factors that influence student…

  12. Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    Contact Us Home > Healthy Living > Pollution > Outdoor Pollution > Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers ...

  13. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  14. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  15. Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Education and the Economy of Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Interviews and a literature review found that outdoor recreation contributes significantly to Scotland's tourist income, particularly in rural areas; outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas; the provision of outdoor education by secondary schools has decreased in the last 20 years; and therapeutic outdoor…

  16. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  17. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  18. Women Outdoor Leaders Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Wilma; Yerkes, Rita

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaire responses of 130 women outdoor leaders representing Outward Bound, all-women groups, university recreation instructors, and primary/secondary school teachers were compared as to background, income, motivations, and leadership perceptions. Essential leadership qualities were identified: effective communication skills and knowledge of…

  19. Outdoor Leadership Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Leo

    1978-01-01

    Existing university and college degree programs in recreation, park, and leisure services are in a logical position to support risk recreation programming, by providing necessary training in outdoor recreation leadership. In addition, private educational organizations and community organizations provide opportunities for such training. (Author/MJB)

  20. Outdoor Education Counselor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others

    An outdoor education counselor manual was developed as a sample guide to aid Oakland County (Michigan) student camp counselors in preparing for their camp experience, so they will understand their role in the total program. A welcome to student counselors briefly lists their responsibilities. A section on the purpose of the manual notes…

  1. Environmental Outdoor Laboratory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    January 31 to May 28, 1971, 44 5th grade classes and teachers from the Washington, D.C. Public Schools visited the Environmental Outdoor Laboratory School, Catoctin Mountain National Park, Thurmont, Maryland. The school provided: (1) specialized training in reading and related communication skills; (2) opportunities for growth in socialization…

  2. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  3. [Science in the Outdoors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarage, Joe; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

  4. [Outdoor Ethics Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izaak Walton League of America, Arlington, VA.

    This document contains information about outdoor ethics issues. The information was compiled by the Izaak Walton League of America, established in 1922 as a national nonprofit organization whose members educate the public about emerging natural resource threats and promote citizen involvement in environmental protection efforts. The league…

  5. [Science in the Outdoors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarage, Joe; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

  6. Journey to the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    A keen personal interest in natural history, involvement in environmental organisations, and experience, first as a secondary biology teacher and later as a field teacher, means that this author has spent many years working outdoors. Any part of the curriculum involving ecological concepts would lead her to open the door and go outside. She…

  7. Journey to the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    A keen personal interest in natural history, involvement in environmental organisations, and experience, first as a secondary biology teacher and later as a field teacher, means that this author has spent many years working outdoors. Any part of the curriculum involving ecological concepts would lead her to open the door and go outside. She…

  8. Outdoor Education. Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    The material in this catalog has been compiled to serve as a ready reference for teachers to assist them in locating outdoor education materials and obtaining environmental student project assistance available from government departments and private organizations within the province of Manitoba. Part 1 lists agencies that can provide speakers,…

  9. Technology and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Technology is influencing the evolution of adventure and outdoor education. Technology can negate adventure by dispelling the need of skill and mastery for attainment and by fostering a consumer mentality. Technology can enhance adventure by creating new experiences and suggesting that more is now possible. The challenge is to embody appropriate…

  10. Outdoor Education. Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    The material in this catalog has been compiled to serve as a ready reference for teachers to assist them in locating outdoor education materials and obtaining environmental student project assistance available from government departments and private organizations within the province of Manitoba. Part 1 lists agencies that can provide speakers,…

  11. [Outdoor Ethics Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izaak Walton League of America, Arlington, VA.

    This document contains information about outdoor ethics issues. The information was compiled by the Izaak Walton League of America, established in 1922 as a national nonprofit organization whose members educate the public about emerging natural resource threats and promote citizen involvement in environmental protection efforts. The league…

  12. Your Brain Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachren, Zabe

    2012-01-01

    The way technology influences a person's cognition is seldom recognized, but is of increasing interest among brain researchers. Outdoor educators tend to pay attention to the way different activities offer different perceptions of an environment. When natural spaces can no longer be accessed, they adapt and simulate natural activities in available…

  13. Outdoors at Grassroots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, David B.

    1981-01-01

    The Grassroots Project provides a one-year, college level program in the conservation occupations of agriculture, forestry, and wildlife management. Each year, 75 young men and women who wish to pursue outdoor careers are selected to study conservation in a small rural community in Vermont. (JN)

  14. Feminist Perspectives on Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla

    Feminist perspectives provide a basis for examining the nature of participation in outdoor experiences, the goals of outdoor leadership, and the meanings associated with the outdoors. Feminism is concerned with the correction of both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to social change and removal of social…

  15. Children and the Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Laila; Sandberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    In this article we will discuss the outdoor environment for younger children with the help of two different concepts. The first concept, affordance, is well known in the discussion about outdoor environments. What the affordance in the outdoor environment is perceived as can differ between actors. How the affordance is used can be another source…

  16. The Fragmentation of Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrell, David

    Although outdoor leadership does not appear to be coalescing into a unified profession, there are potential solutions to this fragmentation. Six robust approaches to the professional provision of outdoor leadership are: (1) outfitting and guiding; (2) organized camping; (3) adventure education, such as Outward Bound; (4) the outdoor school; (5)…

  17. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  18. Contemporary Perspectives in Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles A., Jr., Ed.; Carlson, Marcia K., Ed.

    Designed to provide the student of outdoor education with a synthesis of current literature in the field, this collection presents 26 articles which range from administrative to practical applications of outdoor education theory and philosophy. Articles include discussions of: (1) the philosophy of outdoor education; (2) a London school and its…

  19. Outdoor Education in Michigan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    Since outdoor education has already become an integral part of the curriculum of schools in Michigan, this booklet has been prepared both to assist schools planning to initiate outdoor education programs and to recommend improvements in existing programs. Included in the document are the history and development of outdoor education; the basic…

  20. A Rationale for Outdoor Activity as Experiential Education: The Reason for Freezin'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselheim, A. Donn

    John Dewey said, "Learning is thinking about experience". This dictum accurately reflects the rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education. The term "outdoor learning" refers to a set of activities which have the following characteristics in common: environmental contrast (a sharp environmental change for the participant); physical…

  1. Characteristics of Bicycling as a Viable Component to Outdoor Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Cynthia

    Bicycling is a valuable medium for outdoor experiential learning. Bicycling shares with other outdoor learning activities some common elements such as environmental contrast, physical activity, a small group context, and a self-reliant form of transportation. However, bicycling has several unique characteristics that set it apart from other common…

  2. A Rationale for Outdoor Activity as Experiential Education: The Reason for Freezin'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselheim, A. Donn

    John Dewey said, "Learning is thinking about experience". This dictum accurately reflects the rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education. The term "outdoor learning" refers to a set of activities which have the following characteristics in common: environmental contrast (a sharp environmental change for the participant); physical…

  3. The Special Nature of the Outdoors: Its Contribution to the Education of Children Aged 3-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue; Davis, Bernie; Rea, Tony

    2006-01-01

    There are many forms of outdoor learning. In the UK outdoor adventures, residential centres, field studies, Forest School and play in the outdoors are all available to some extent for the three to eleven age group. Each type has distinct aims and purposes but there are however some commonalities which may point to what the special nature of the…

  4. "The Trampoline Tree and the Swamp Monster with 18 Heads": Outdoor Play in the Foundation Stage and Foundation Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers pedagogy and outdoor play in the early years. The particular focus is on the specific features and benefits of outdoor play in the Foundation Stage (England) and Foundation Phase (Wales). The paper will draw on current international literature and evidence from outdoor learning constructed in an ongoing research project in two…

  5. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics: a cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children’s outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to identify quantitative as well as qualitative neighborhood characteristics related to outdoor play by means of neighborhood observations. Methods Questionnaires including questions on outdoor play behavior of the child were distributed among 3,651 parents of primary school children (aged 4–12 years). Furthermore, neighborhood observations were conducted in 33 Dutch neighborhoods to map neighborhood characteristics such as buildings, formal outdoor play facilities, public space, street pattern, traffic safety, social neighborhood characteristics, and general impression. Data of the questionnaires and the neighborhood observations were coupled via postal code of the respondents. Multilevel GEE analyses were performed to quantify the correlation between outdoor play and independently measured neighborhood characteristics. Results Parental education was negatively associated with outdoor play among children. Neither the presence nor the overall quality of formal outdoor play facilities were (positively) related to outdoor play among children in this study. Rather, informal play areas such as the presence of sidewalks were related to children’s outdoor play. Also, traffic safety was an important characteristic associated with outdoor play. Conclusions This study showed that, apart from individual factors such as parental education level, certain modifiable characteristics in the neighborhood environment (as measured by neighborhood observations) were associated with outdoor play among boys and girls of different age groups in The Netherlands. Local policy makers from different sectors can use these research findings in creating more activity-friendly neighborhoods for children. PMID:22901102

  6. Is Adolescence a Critical Period for Learning Formal Thinking Skills? A Case Study Investigating the Development of Formal Thinking Skills in a Short-Term Inquiry-Based Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Forrest S.

    2009-01-01

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking…

  7. Mobile learning in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  8. Natural and Formal Infinities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2001-01-01

    The construction of both natural and formal infinities are products of human thought and may be considered in terms of embodied cognition. Forwards the viewpoint that formal deduction focuses as far as possible on formal logic in preference to perceptual imagery, developing a network of formal properties that do not depend on specific embodiments.…

  9. Natural and Formal Infinities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2001-01-01

    The construction of both natural and formal infinities are products of human thought and may be considered in terms of embodied cognition. Forwards the viewpoint that formal deduction focuses as far as possible on formal logic in preference to perceptual imagery, developing a network of formal properties that do not depend on specific embodiments.…

  10. Spin-coefficient formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Ezra Ted; Penrose, Roger

    2009-06-01

    The spin-coefficient formalism (SC formalism) (also known in the literature as Newman-Penrose formalism (NP formalism) ) is a commonly used technique based on the use of null tetrads, with ideas taken from 2-component spinors, for the detailed treatment of 4-dimensional space-times satisfying the equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  11. Outdoor Education, Literature, and Reading: It's Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogl, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes benefits to outdoor education students of daily reading aloud of books and poetry related to nature, environment, and outdoor adventures. Emphasizes the importance of good book collections in outdoor centers. (LFL)

  12. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  13. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  14. Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin

    2007-01-01

    At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

  15. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  16. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  17. OBIS: Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.; Richmond, Robert F.

    The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project began in 1972 to enable non-school youth groups (aged 10-15) to gain firsthand experiences in outdoor environments. This descriptive paper explains the program including its purpose and historical background. Specific objectives are to: (1) stimulate curiosity about local environments;…

  18. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  19. Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Matt

    Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

  20. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  1. Technology Works in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zita, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

  2. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  3. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  4. Outdoor Wilderness Program: A Campus Makes a Commitment to the Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Gary; Neal, Larry

    1980-01-01

    A resource room containing information about outdoor programs generates individual and cooperative learning activities and outdoor experiences. Although adventure participants are responsible for decisions and risks undertaken, the program should attempt to enhance experiences by reducing difficulties brought on by outsiders, institutions, and red…

  5. Outdoor Education on Your School Grounds: An Action Approach to Better Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Norman F.

    The use of school grounds as an outdoor learning area is the main emphasis of this manual for elementary and junior high school teachers. Detailed plannin g steps, site plots, directions for planting, and other related planning information are given, along with guidelines concerning the use of an outdoor classroom by teachers of various subjects.…

  6. Outdoor Wilderness Program: A Campus Makes a Commitment to the Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Gary; Neal, Larry

    1980-01-01

    A resource room containing information about outdoor programs generates individual and cooperative learning activities and outdoor experiences. Although adventure participants are responsible for decisions and risks undertaken, the program should attempt to enhance experiences by reducing difficulties brought on by outsiders, institutions, and red…

  7. View the Zoo! Evaluation of Visual Communication in an Outdoor Educational Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others

    Almost all of what people learn from outdoor educational settings such as zoos and gardens stems from the exhibits themselves or signs about the exhibits. Evaluation of the various forms of visual communication in outdoor educational settings is necessary to determine the effectiveness of exhibitions, educational activities, and/or conservation…

  8. Reflective Practice as a Means for Preparing to Teach Outdoors in an Ecological Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Although teachers are engaged in many field-trips, they seldom have the pedagogical knowledge and experience to enact them. This article presents an effort to support reflective practice of teachers in the outdoors. The teaching experience of five pre- and in-service teachers included preparation for teaching in the outdoors, designing learning

  9. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  10. Transfer Problems in Outdoor Management Development Programs and How to Overcome Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Peter

    This paper examines the issues and problems that arise in the transfer process in outdoor management development (OMD) programs. The transfer of learning from the outdoors back to the workplace is a crucial element of OMD. A review of general transfer problems and management development demonstrates that many of the transfer problems associated…

  11. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  12. The School Ground Classroom: A Curriculum to Teach K-6 Subjects Outdoors. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dan; And Others

    Suggesting that outdoor activities can be positive learning experiences, lesson plans and activities were designed to demonstrate that the outdoors is an interdisciplinary classroom, to be used on virtually any school site, and to teach subject matter taught as part of the standard curriculum. Seventeen interdisciplinary ideas with correlated…

  13. The School Ground Classroom: A Curriculum to Teach K-6 Subjects Outdoors. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dan; And Others

    Suggesting that outdoor activities can be positive learning experiences, lesson plans and activities were designed to demonstrate that the outdoors is an interdisciplinary classroom, to be used on virtually any school site, and to teach subject matter taught as part of the standard curriculum. Seventeen interdisciplinary ideas with correlated…

  14. Gender Choreography and Micro-Structures--Early Childhood Professionals' Understanding of Gender Roles and Gender Patterns in Outdoor Play and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlemalm-Hagser, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre-school professionals understand the notion of gender-equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre-school playground. The study draws on socio-cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre-schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on…

  15. Using a Tactile Map with a 5-Year-Old Child in a Large-Scale Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Rebecca L.; Zimmerman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors constructed an 11 x 17 in. tactile map to teach routes in an outdoor play environment to a 5-year-old blind child. After learning the routes on the tactile map, the child independently navigated them in the outdoor play environment. With practice, the child reduced the time necessary to learn and navigate the routes. The authors…

  16. Children's Views and Preferences Regarding Their Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to enhance awareness of what young children want to do outside and their preferences regarding their outdoor environment. Views of children as active participants, the affordance of the environment and the importance of place for children's learning constitute the theoretical background of the study. The study was part of a…

  17. Old Time Apple Cider Makin': An Outdoor Education Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; Oakes, David B.

    An illustrated, self-contained packet, the resource materials contained in this guide are designed for adaptation to K-8. The resources and ideas presented here are designed to encourage utilization of the outdoors as a learning resource. While intrinsically multidisciplinary, the activities are particularly adaptable to social studies, science,…

  18. Mechanisms Influencing Student Understanding on an Outdoor Guided Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the…

  19. COEO's Landmark Research Summary: "Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linney, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Over the past year, Andrea Foster reviewed a wide array of current and international research into the multiple, powerful and lasting outcomes produced through utilizing outdoor and experiential education (OEE) as a key learning methodology. As co-authors, Foster and Linney produced an 80-page document that reports the findings according to the…

  20. Children's Views and Preferences Regarding Their Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to enhance awareness of what young children want to do outside and their preferences regarding their outdoor environment. Views of children as active participants, the affordance of the environment and the importance of place for children's learning constitute the theoretical background of the study. The study was part of a…

  1. The Outdoor Classroom. Experiencing Nature in the Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    Through direct experience within natural settings, outdoor education allows students to learn about environmental concerns such as migration of birds, weather systems, wildlife habitats, watersheds, soil erosion, geological formations, food chains, and community resources. All subject areas in the present curriculum can be enriched through outdoor…

  2. Mechanisms Influencing Student Understanding on an Outdoor Guided Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the…

  3. Children's Outdoor Environment in Icelandic Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate what characterizes the discourse on the role of the outdoor environment in young children's learning in educational policy documents in Iceland. Policy documents, laws and regulations, national curriculum guides for pre- and compulsory school levels, and documents from municipalities were analyzed. A…

  4. Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James N.

    1993-01-01

    Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)

  5. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  6. Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

    The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

  7. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  8. Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

  9. Fostering Experiential Self-Regulation through Outdoor Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…

  10. Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

  11. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  12. Resident Program Guide: Hillside Outdoor Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Bonnie

    Founded in 1972 as part of the private, non-profit Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Centers, the Hillside Outdoor Education Center offers services to various educational groups by providing residential experiences for students and faculty, day-visit programs, school-site outdoor education programs, teacher workshops, college courses in outdoor

  13. Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fresh water (e.g., lake, river, stream) or soil, the disease can live there for weeks to ... into close contact with fresh water or damp soil when they participate in outdoor activities. For example, ...

  14. Lifelong Learning and Lifewide Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agency for Education, Stockholm.

    Lifelong learning and lifewide learning describes the concept of learning in which individuals learn throughout the life-span from formal, non-formal, and informal sources. It is an issue for educational policy, labor market policy, and the workplace, as well as for civil society. Key issues in lifelong learning include the following: (1) lifelong…

  15. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training ...

  16. Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…

  17. The Quantum Formalism and the GRW Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghì, Nino

    2012-10-01

    The Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber (GRW) theory of spontaneous wave function collapse is known to provide a quantum theory without observers, in fact two different ones by using either the matter density ontology (GRWm) or the flash ontology (GRWf). Both theories are known to make predictions different from those of quantum mechanics, but the difference is so small that no decisive experiment can as yet be performed. While some testable deviations from quantum mechanics have long been known, we provide here something that has until now been missing: a formalism that succinctly summarizes the empirical predictions of GRWm and GRWf. We call it the GRW formalism. Its structure is similar to that of the quantum formalism but involves different operators. In other words, we establish the validity of a general algorithm for directly computing the testable predictions of GRWm and GRWf. We further show that some well-defined quantities cannot be measured in a GRWm or GRWf world.

  18. The isotropic Hamiltonian formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2011-02-10

    A Hamiltonian formalism is a procedure that allows to associate a dynamical system to a function and that includes classical Hamiltonian mechanics as a particular case. The present, expository paper gives a survey of the Hamiltonian formalism defined by an isotropic subbundle of TM+T*M, in particular, by a Dirac structure. We discuss reduction and geometric quantization of the Hamiltonian dynamical systems provided by this formalism.

  19. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar

    2015-05-01

    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration. PMID:26366926

  20. Informal Conversations about Teaching and Their Relationship to a Formal Development Program: Learning Opportunities for Novice and Mid-Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in informal activities, like conversations with colleagues, is one way that professionals can learn within workplace contexts. Informal conversations present opportunities for academics to learn about teaching. The current study investigated academics' experience of informal conversations, and their experience of the relations between…