Science.gov

Sample records for formation predictability maps

  1. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  2. Compressor map prediction tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Arjun; Sznajder, Lukasz; Bennett, Ian

    2015-08-01

    Shell Global Solutions uses an in-house developed system for remote condition monitoring of centrifugal compressors. It requires field process data collected during operation to calculate and assess the machine's performance. Performance is assessed by comparing live results of polytropic head and efficiency versus design compressor curves provided by the Manufacturer. Typically, these design curves are given for specific suction conditions. The further these conditions on site deviate from those prescribed at design, the less accurate the health assessment of the compressor becomes. To address this specified problem, a compressor map prediction tool is proposed. The original performance curves of polytropic head against volumetric flow for varying rotational speeds are used as an input to define a range of Mach numbers within which the non-dimensional invariant performance curve of head and volume flow coefficient is generated. The new performance curves of polytropic head vs. flow for desired set of inlet conditions are then back calculated using the invariant non-dimensional curve. Within the range of Mach numbers calculated from design data, the proposed methodology can predict polytropic head curves at a new set of inlet conditions within an estimated 3% accuracy. The presented methodology does not require knowledge of detailed impeller geometry such as throat areas, blade number, blade angles, thicknesses nor other aspects of the aerodynamic design - diffusion levels, flow angles, etc. The only required mechanical design feature is the first impeller tip diameter. Described method makes centrifugal compressor surveillance activities more accurate, enabling precise problem isolation affecting machine's performance.

  3. Maximum likelihood topographic map formation.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Marc M

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a new unsupervised learning algorithm for kernel-based topographic map formation of heteroscedastic gaussian mixtures that allows for a unified account of distortion error (vector quantization), log-likelihood, and Kullback-Leibler divergence. PMID:15802004

  4. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  5. Spatial predictive mapping using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, S.; Knobloch, A.; Etzold, S. H.; Barth, A.; Kallmeier, E.

    2014-11-01

    The modelling or prediction of complex geospatial phenomena (like formation of geo-hazards) is one of the most important tasks for geoscientists. But in practice it faces various difficulties, caused mainly by the complexity of relationships between the phenomena itself and the controlling parameters, as well by limitations of our knowledge about the nature of physical/ mathematical relationships and by restrictions regarding accuracy and availability of data. In this situation methods of artificial intelligence, like artificial neural networks (ANN) offer a meaningful alternative modelling approach compared to the exact mathematical modelling. In the past, the application of ANN technologies in geosciences was primarily limited due to difficulties to integrate it into geo-data processing algorithms. In consideration of this background, the software advangeo® was developed to provide a normal GIS user with a powerful tool to use ANNs for prediction mapping and data preparation within his standard ESRI ArcGIS environment. In many case studies, such as land use planning, geo-hazards analysis and prevention, mineral potential mapping, agriculture & forestry advangeo® has shown its capabilities and strengths. The approach is able to add considerable value to existing data.

  6. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed. PMID:24064605

  7. Crop biometric maps: the key to prediction.

    PubMed

    Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular "identity." This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed. PMID:24064605

  8. Galaxy Interactions with FIRE: Mapping Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a suite of 75 simulations of galaxies in idealised major mergers (stellar mass ratio ~2.5:1), with a wide range of orbital parameters, to investigate the spatial extent of interaction-induced star formation. Two versions are used, one based on a Kennicult-like subgrid model (Gadget, Springel & Hernquist 2003); the other based on the new Feedback In Realistic Environments model (FIRE, Hopkins et al. 2014). Although the total star formation in galaxy encounters is generally elevated relative to isolated galaxies, we find that this elevation is a combination of intense enhancements within the central kpc and moderately suppressed activity at large galacto-centric radii. This effect appears to be stronger in the older Gadget model. Suppression is the disk is also found in the FIRE runs, but at larger scales. This is because tidal torques are weaker in the newer FIRE model, leading to a more extended nuclear starburt. Our predictions of the radial dependence of triggered star formation, and specifically the suppression of star formation beyond kpc-scales, will be testable with the next generation of integral-field spectroscopic surveys.

  9. Preparation and Presentation of Digital Maps in Raster Format

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, K.; Batson, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A set of algorithms has been developed at USGS Flagstaff for displaying digital map data in raster format. The set includes: FILLIN, which assigns a specified attribute code to units of a map which have been outlined on a digitizer and converted to raster format; FILBND, which removes the outlines; ZIP, which adds patterns to the map units; and COLOR, which provides a simplified process for creating color separation plates for either photographic or lithographic reproduction. - Authors

  10. Predicting Droplet Formation on Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, Jacob Alfred

    Centrifugal microfluidics is a widely known research tool for biological sample and water quality analysis. Currently, the standard equipment used for such diagnostic applications include slow, bulky machines controlled by multiple operators. These machines can be condensed into a smaller, faster benchtop sample-to-answer system. Sample processing is an important step taken to extract, isolate, and convert biological factors, such as nucleic acids or proteins, from a raw sample to an analyzable solution. Volume definition is one such step. The focus of this thesis is the development of a model predicting monodispersed droplet formation and the application of droplets as a technique for volume definition. First, a background of droplet microfluidic platforms is presented, along with current biological analysis technologies and the advantages of integrating such technologies onto microfluidic platforms. Second, background and theories of centrifugal microfluidics is given, followed by theories relevant to droplet emulsions. Third, fabrication techniques for centrifugal microfluidic designs are discussed. Finally, the development of a model for predicting droplet formation on the centrifugal microfluidic platform are presented for the rest of the thesis. Predicting droplet formation analytically based on the volumetric flow rates of the continuous and dispersed phases, the ratios of these two flow rates, and the interfacial tension between the continuous and dispersed phases presented many challenges, which will be discussed in this work. Experimental validation was completed using continuous phase solutions of different interfacial tensions. To conclude, prospective applications are discussed with expected challenges.

  11. Accuracy, resolution, and cost comparisons between small format and mapping cameras for environmental mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras providing acceptable photographs within cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required only large format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be better. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  12. Prediction of collective opinion in consensus formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Jianguo; Pan, Xue; Song, Wen-Jun; Li, Xu-Dong

    2014-12-01

    In the consensus formation dynamics, the effect of leaders and interventions have been widely studied for it has many applications such as in politics and commerce. However, the problem is how to know if it is necessary for one to make an intervention. In this paper, we theoretically propose a method for predicting the tendency and final state of collective opinion. By giving each agent a conviction ci which measures the ability to insist on his opinion, we present an opinion formation model in which agents with high convictions naturally show up properties of the opinion leaders. Results reveal that, although each agent initially gets an opinion evenly distributed in the range [-1, 1], the collective opinion of the steady-state may deviate to the positive or negative direction because of the initial bias of the leaders' opinions. We further get the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship between the collective opinion and the initial bias according to both the experimental and theoretical analysis. Thus, we could predict the final state at the very beginning of the dynamic only if we get the opinions of a small portion of the population. The prediction would afford us more time and opportunities to make reactions and interventions.

  13. Bilingual Knowledge Maps (BiK Maps) as a Presentation Format: Delayed Recall and Training Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, G. Sussane; Dansereau, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    The use of bilingual graphic organizers (bilingual knowledge maps [BiK maps]) as a presentation format was investigated for the acquisition of foreign language vocabulary. Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 conditions for the task of studying 32 German-English word pairs. Participants in each condition were trained on either lists or BiK maps…

  14. Can Selforganizing Maps Accurately Predict Photometric Redshifts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Michael J.; Klose, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-map (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using delta(z) = z(sub phot) - z(sub spec)) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods

  15. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    gradients but are insufficient to maintain them because the stress perturbations will dissipate with deformation. Metamorphism can unquestionably cause sufficient rheological change, but only in certain rock types: for example, granitoids have much less capacity for metamorphically induced rheologic change than do mafic rocks. The magnitude of phase geometry variation observed in natural systems suggests that morphological change (e.g., interconnection of weak phases) likely has little direct affect on strength changes, although other textural factors related to diffusion paths and crystallographic orientation could play a significant role. Thermal perturbation, mainly in the form of shear heating, remains potentially powerful but inconclusive. Taken together, these observations indicate that a simple algorithm predicting shear zone formation will not succeed in many geologically relevant instances. One significant reason may be that the inherent lithologic variation at the km scale, such as observed in the Central Gneiss belt, prevents the development of self-organized strain patterns that would form in more rheologically uniform systems.

  16. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  17. Bifurcation of learning and structure formation in neuronal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschler, Christian; Faust-Ellsässer, Carmen; Starke, Jens; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-11-01

    Most learning processes in neuronal networks happen on a much longer time scale than that of the underlying neuronal dynamics. It is therefore useful to analyze slowly varying macroscopic order parameters to explore a network's learning ability. We study the synaptic learning process giving rise to map formation in the laminar nucleus of the barn owl's auditory system. Using equation-free methods, we perform a bifurcation analysis of spatio-temporal structure formation in the associated synaptic-weight matrix. This enables us to analyze learning as a bifurcation process and follow the unstable states as well. A simple time translation of the learning window function shifts the bifurcation point of structure formation and goes along with traveling waves in the map, without changing the animal's sound localization performance.

  18. Temporal Map Formation in the Barn Owl's Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibold, Christian; Kempter, Richard; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2001-12-01

    Barn owls provide an experimentally well-specified example of a temporal map, a neuronal representation of the outside world in the brain by means of time. Their laminar nucleus exhibits a place code of interaural time differences, a cue which is used to determine the azimuthal location of a sound stimulus, e.g., prey. We analyze a model of synaptic plasticity that explains the formation of such a representation in the young bird and show how in a large parameter regime a combination of local and nonlocal synaptic plasticity yields the temporal map as found experimentally. Our analysis includes the effect of nonlinearities as well as the influence of neuronal noise.

  19. Evaluating the Quality of Predictive Geological Maps Produced using Self-Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter-McAuslan, Angela; Farquharson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    With increased data collection, extraction of useful information from large, often multi-dimensional (where each dimension is a unique data-type), datasets becomes a challenge. Associated with the problem of extracting usable information is the need to evaluate the information extracted to determine its validity. Traditionally, geophysical data has been interpreted in map or profile form one data-type at a time using primarily visual inspection by the interpreter. This approach become increasingly difficult as the dimensionality (e.g. number of data-types) of the dataset is increased. As such, new methods for discovering patterns in multi-dimensional geophysical datasets need to be investigated. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) are a class of unsupervised artificial neural network algorithm which are used to cluster multi-dimensional data while preserving the overall topology of the original dataset. As geophysical responses measured in the field are closely linked to the local geology it is postulated that SOMs can be employed to cluster multi-dimensional geophysical data in order to produce predictive geological maps. In the development of an effective work flow for creating predictive geological maps using SOMs, synthetic and real world test cases are used so that the predictive maps can be compared to a known geology. This comparison can be done through visual inspection. However, quantitative measures of clustering quality are also desired. In this project three different types of cluster quality measures are investigated: cluster morphology measures (e.g. the Quantization Error and the Dunn Index); class/cluster concatenation measures (e.g. Cluster Purity and Normalized Mutual Information); and decision-based measures (e.g. the Rand Index and F-Measure). SOM predictive mapping was applied to mapping the Baie Verte Peninsula on the north coast of the island of Newfoundland, Canada. The Baie Verte Peninsula is a region of complex geology with good regional

  20. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  1. Neural map formation and sensory coding in the vomeronasal system.

    PubMed

    Brignall, Alexandra C; Cloutier, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Sensory systems enable us to encode a clear representation of our environment in the nervous system by spatially organizing sensory stimuli being received. The organization of neural circuitry to form a map of sensory activation is critical for the interpretation of these sensory stimuli. In rodents, social communication relies strongly on the detection of chemosignals by the vomeronasal system, which regulates a wide array of behaviours, including mate recognition, reproduction, and aggression. The binding of these chemosignals to receptors on vomeronasal sensory neurons leads to activation of second-order neurons within glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, vomeronasal receptor activation by a stimulus is organized into maps of glomerular activation that represent phenotypic qualities of the stimuli detected. Genetic, electrophysiological and imaging studies have shed light on the principles underlying cell connectivity and sensory map formation in the vomeronasal system, and have revealed important differences in sensory coding between the vomeronasal and main olfactory system. In this review, we summarize the key factors and mechanisms that dictate circuit formation and sensory coding logic in the vomeronasal system, emphasizing differences with the main olfactory system. Furthermore, we discuss how detection of chemosignals by the vomeronasal system regulates social behaviour in mice, specifically aggression. PMID:26329476

  2. Predictions from star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2010-03-15

    We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10x10{sup 9} years) after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed and marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central 2{sigma} of nearly all probability distributions we compute, and always within 3{sigma}. This success is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.

  3. The Dokuchaev hypothesis as a basis for predictive digital soil mapping (on the 125th anniversary of its publication)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinsky, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    Predictive digital soil mapping is widely used in soil science. Its objective is the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil taxonomic units and quantitative soil properties via the analysis of spatially distributed quantitative characteristics of soil-forming factors. Western pedometrists stress the scientific priority and principal importance of Hans Jenny's book (1941) for the emergence and development of predictive soil mapping. In this paper, we demonstrate that Vasily Dokuchaev explicitly defined the central idea and statement of the problem of contemporary predictive soil mapping in the year 1886. Then, we reconstruct the history of the soil formation equation from 1899 to 1941. We argue that Jenny adopted the soil formation equation from Sergey Zakharov, who published it in a well-known fundamental textbook in 1927. It is encouraging that this issue was clarified in 2011, the anniversary year for publications of Dokuchaev and Jenny.

  4. Advancements in predictive plasma formation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, Michael A.; Schafgans, Alexander; Brown, Daniel J. W.; Fomenkov, Igor; Rafac, Rob; Brown, Josh; Tao, Yezheng; Rokitski, Slava; Abraham, Mathew; Vargas, Mike; Rich, Spencer; Taylor, Ted; Brandt, David; Pirati, Alberto; Fisher, Aaron; Scott, Howard; Koniges, Alice; Eder, David; Wilks, Scott; Link, Anthony; Langer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    We present highlights from plasma simulations performed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Labs. This modeling is performed to advance the rate of learning about optimal EUV generation for laser produced plasmas and to provide insights where experimental results are not currently available. The goal is to identify key physical processes necessary for an accurate and predictive model capable of simulating a wide range of conditions. This modeling will help to drive source performance scaling in support of the EUV Lithography roadmap. The model simulates pre-pulse laser interaction with the tin droplet and follows the droplet expansion into the main pulse target zone. Next, the interaction of the expanded droplet with the main laser pulse is simulated. We demonstrate the predictive nature of the code and provide comparison with experimental results.

  5. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suk Young; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils. PMID:23646290

  6. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at -10 and -1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at -10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils. PMID:23646290

  7. Dynamical formation of stable irregular transients in discontinuous map systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hailin; Guan, Shuguang; Lai, C.-H.

    2009-10-01

    Stable chaos refers to the long irregular transients, with a negative largest Lyapunov exponent, which is usually observed in certain high-dimensional dynamical systems. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been well studied so far. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical formation of stable irregular transients in coupled discontinuous map systems. Interestingly, it is found that the transient dynamics has a hidden pattern in the phase space: it repeatedly approaches a basin boundary and then jumps from the boundary to a remote region in the phase space. This pattern can be clearly visualized by measuring the distance sequences between the trajectory and the basin boundary. The dynamical formation of stable chaos originates from the intersection points of the discontinuous boundaries and their images. We carry out numerical experiments to verify this mechanism.

  8. Mapping of Estimations and Prediction Intervals Using Extreme Learning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    Due to the large amount and complexity of data available nowadays in environmental sciences, we face the need to apply more robust methodology allowing analyses and understanding of the phenomena under study. One particular but very important aspect of this understanding is the reliability of generated prediction models. From the data collection to the prediction map, several sources of error can occur and affect the final result. Theses sources are mainly identified as uncertainty in data (data noise), and uncertainty in the model. Their combination leads to the so-called prediction interval. Quantifying these two categories of uncertainty allows a finer understanding of phenomena under study and a better assessment of the prediction accuracy. The present research deals with a methodology combining a machine learning algorithm (ELM - Extreme Learning Machine) with a bootstrap-based procedure. Developed by G.-B. Huang et al. (2006), ELM is an artificial neural network following the structure of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) with one single hidden layer. Compared to classical MLP, ELM has the ability to learn faster without loss of accuracy, and need only one hyper-parameter to be fitted (that is the number of nodes in the hidden layer). The key steps of the proposed method are as following: sample from the original data a variety of subsets using bootstrapping; from these subsets, train and validate ELM models; and compute residuals. Then, the same procedure is performed a second time with only the squared training residuals. Finally, taking into account the two modeling levels allows developing the mean prediction map, the model uncertainty variance, and the data noise variance. The proposed approach is illustrated using geospatial data. References Efron B., and Tibshirani R. 1986, Bootstrap Methods for Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Other Measures of Statistical accuracy, Statistical Science, vol. 1: 54-75. Huang G.-B., Zhu Q.-Y., and Siew C.-K. 2006

  9. CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.

    PubMed

    Bock, Christoph; Walter, Jörn; Paulsen, Martina; Lengauer, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1) reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2) failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3) apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to their characteristic

  10. Formation and evolution of Lakshmi Planum, Venus: Assessment of models using observations from geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Detailed geological analysis of the Lakshmi Planum region of western Ishtar Terra results in the establishment of the sequence of major events during the formation and evolution of western Ishtar Terra, an important and somewhat unique area on Venus characterized by a raised volcanic plateau surrounded by distinctive folded mountain belts, such as Maxwell Montes. These mapping results and the stratigraphic and structural relationships provide a basis for addressing the complicated problem of Lakshmi Planum formation and for testing the suite of models previously proposed to explain this structure. We review and classify previous models of formation for western Ishtar Terra into "downwelling" models (generally involving convergence and underthrusting) and "upwelling" models (generally involving plume-like upwelling and divergence). The interpreted nature of units and the sequence of events derived from geological mapping are in contrast to the predictions of the divergent models. The major contradictions are as follows: (1) The very likely presence of an ancient (craton-like) tessera massif in the core of Lakshmi, which is inconsistent with the model of formation of Lakshmi due to rise and collapse of a mantle diapir; (2) The absence of rift zones in the interior of Lakshmi that are predicted by the divergent models; (3) The apparent migration of volcanic activity toward the center of Lakshmi, whereas divergent models predict the opposite trend; (4) The abrupt cessation of ridges of the mountain ranges at the edge of Lakshmi Planum and propagation of these ridges over hundreds of kilometers outside Lakshmi; the divergent models predict the opposite progression in the development of major contractional features. In contrast, convergent models of formation and evolution of Lakshmi Planum appear to be more consistent with the observations and explain this structure by collision and underthrusting/subduction of lower-lying plains with the elevated and rigid block of

  11. Evaluation of current statistical approaches for predictive geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miska, Luoto; Jan, Hjort

    2005-04-01

    Predictive models are increasingly used in geomorphology, but systematic evaluations of novel statistical techniques are still limited. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of generalized linear models (GLM), generalized additive models (GAM), classification tree analysis (CTA), neural networks (ANN) and multiple adaptive regression splines (MARS) in predictive geomorphological modelling. Five different distribution models both for non-sorted and sorted patterned ground were constructed on the basis of four terrain parameters and four soil variables. To evaluate the models, the original data set of 9997 squares of 1 ha in size was randomly divided into model training (70%, n=6998) and model evaluation sets (30%, n=2999). In general, active sorted patterned ground is clearly defined in upper fell areas with high slope angle and till soils. Active non-sorted patterned ground is more common in valleys with higher soil moisture and fine-scale concave topography. The predictive performance of each model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Kappa value. The relatively high discrimination capacity of all models, AUC=0.85 0.88 and Kappa=0.49 0.56, implies that the model's predictions provide an acceptable index of sorted and non-sorted patterned ground occurrence. The best performance for model calibration data for both data sets was achieved by the CTA. However, when the predictive mapping ability was explored through the evaluation data set, the model accuracies of CTA decreased clearly compared to the other modelling techniques. For model evaluation data MARS performed marginally best. Our results show that the digital elevation model and soil data can be used to predict relatively robustly the activity of patterned ground in fine scale in a subarctic landscape. This indicates that predictive geomorphological modelling has the advantage of providing relevant and useful information on earth surface

  12. Magnetite deformation mechanism maps for better prediction of strain partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis of existing experimental deformation data for magnetite and other spinel-structured ferrites reveals that previously published flow laws are inadequate to describe the general deformation behavior of magnetite. Using updated rate equations for oxygen diffusion in magnetite, we present new flow laws that closely <span class="hlt">predict</span> creep rates similar to those found in deformation experiments and that can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> strain partitioning between cubic Fe oxides and other phases in the Earth's crust. New deformation mechanism <span class="hlt">maps</span> for magnetite have been constructed as functions of temperature and grain size. Using the revised creep parameters, estimates of strain partitioning between magnetite, ilmenite, and plagioclase indicate that concentrated zones of Fe-Ti oxides in oceanic crust near slow-spreading ridges could accommodate significant amounts of strain at moderate temperatures and may contribute to aseismic creep along spreading-segment faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2716K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2716K"><span id="translatedtitle">Using dominant eigenvalue analysis to <span class="hlt">predict</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> of alternans in the heart</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kakade, Virendra; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Tolkacheva, Elena G.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Ventricular fibrillation at the whole heart level is often preceded by the alternation of action potential duration (APD), i.e., alternans, at the cellular level. As proven in many experiments, traditional approaches based on the slope of the restitution curve have not been successful in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> alternans <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Recently, a technique has been theoretically developed based on dominant eigenvalue analysis to <span class="hlt">predict</span> alternans <span class="hlt">formation</span> in isolated cardiac myocytes. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that this technique can be applied to <span class="hlt">predict</span> alternans <span class="hlt">formation</span> at the whole heart level. Optical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> was performed in Langendorff-perfused hearts from New Zealand white rabbits (n = 4), which were paced at decreasing basic cycle lengths to introduce APD alternans. In each heart, the basic cycle length corresponding to the local onset of alternans, Bonset, was determined and two regions of the heart were identified at Bonset: one region which exhibited alternans (1:1alt) and one which did not (1:1). Corresponding two-dimensional eigenvalue (λ) <span class="hlt">maps</span> were generated using principal component analysis by analyzing action potentials after short perturbations from the steady state, and mean eigenvalues (λ¯) were calculated separately for the 1:1 and 1:1alt regions. We demonstrated that λ¯ calculated at Bonset was significantly different (p<0.05) between the two regions. Our results suggest that this dominant eigenvalue technique can be used to successfully <span class="hlt">predict</span> the local alternans <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the heart.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MS%26E..136a2084M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MS%26E..136a2084M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood Water Level <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Due to Dam Failures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation <span class="hlt">maps</span> have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these <span class="hlt">maps</span>, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood <span class="hlt">map</span> was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to <span class="hlt">predict</span> and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.B41A0170H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.B41A0170H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Detailed forest <span class="hlt">formation</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in the land cover <span class="hlt">map</span> series for the Caribbean islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Forest <span class="hlt">formation</span> and land cover <span class="hlt">maps</span> for several Caribbean islands were developed from Landsat ETM+ imagery as part of a multi-organizational project. The spatially explicit data on forest <span class="hlt">formation</span> types will permit more refined estimates of some forest attributes. The woody vegetation classification scheme relates closely to that of Areces-Malea et al. (1), who classify Caribbean vegetation according to standards of the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 1997), with modifications similar to those in Helmer et al. (2). For several of the islands, we developed image mosaics that filled cloudy parts of scenes with data from other scene dates after using regression tree normalization (3). The regression tree procedure permitted us to develop mosaics for wet and drought seasons for a few of the islands. The resulting multiseason imagery facilitated separation between classes such as seasonal evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest (including semi-evergreen forest), and drought deciduous forest or woodland <span class="hlt">formations</span>. We used decision tree classification methods to classify the Landsat image mosaics to detailed forest <span class="hlt">formations</span> and land cover for Puerto Rico (4), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada. The decision trees classified a stack of raster layers for each <span class="hlt">mapping</span> area that included the Landsat image bands and various ancillary raster data layers. For Puerto Rico, for example, the ancillary data included climate parameters (5). For some islands, the ancillary data included topographic derivatives such as aspect, slope and slope position, SRTM (6) or other topographic data. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> forest <span class="hlt">formations</span> with decision tree classifiers, ancillary geospatial data, and cloud-free image mosaics, accurately distinguished spectrally similar forest <span class="hlt">formations</span>, without the aid of ecological zone <span class="hlt">maps</span>, on the islands where the approach was used. The approach resulted in <span class="hlt">maps</span> of forest <span class="hlt">formations</span> with comparable or better detail</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......137C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......137C"><span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous <span class="hlt">formation</span> flight of helicopters: Model <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Hoam</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Formation</span> flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight <span class="hlt">formations</span> and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter <span class="hlt">formations</span> is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter <span class="hlt">formation</span> flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level <span class="hlt">formation</span> management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe <span class="hlt">formations</span>. The starting point for safe autonomous <span class="hlt">formation</span> flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a <span class="hlt">formation</span>, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous <span class="hlt">formations</span>, our decentralized model <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a <span class="hlt">formation</span>. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter <span class="hlt">formations</span> comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a <span class="hlt">formation</span> manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The <span class="hlt">formation</span> manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the <span class="hlt">formation</span> manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266672"><span id="translatedtitle">Literal grid <span class="hlt">map</span> models for animal navigation: Assumptions and <span class="hlt">predictions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turner, Rebecca M; Walker, Michael M; Postlethwaite, Claire M</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Many animals can navigate from unfamiliar locations to a familiar target location with no outward route information or direct sensory contact with the target or any familiar landmarks. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, one possibility being a literal interpretation of a grid <span class="hlt">map</span>. In this paper we systematically compare four such models, which we label: Correct Bicoordinate navigation, both Target and Release site based, Approximate Bicoordinate navigation, and Directional navigation. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> of spatial patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies depend on a combination of assumptions about the navigation mechanism and the geometry of the environmental coordinate fields used as model inputs. When coordinates axes are orthogonal at the target the <span class="hlt">predictions</span> from the Correct Bicoordinate (Target based) model and Approximate Bicoordinate model are identical. However, if the coordinate axes are non-orthogonal different regional patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies can be expected from these two models. Field anomalies produce high magnitudes of orientation errors close to the target, while region-wide nonlinearity leads to orientation errors increasing with distance from the target. In general, initial orientation error patterns are more useful for distinguishing between different assumption combinations than efficiencies. We discuss how consideration of model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> may be helpful in the design of experiments. PMID:27266672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950037046&hterms=Close+source&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DClose%2Bsource','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950037046&hterms=Close+source&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DClose%2Bsource"><span id="translatedtitle">Heliospheric current sheet inclinations <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from source surface <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shodhan, S.; Crooker, N. U.; Hughes, W. J.; Siscoe, G. L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The inclinations of the neutral line at the ecliptic plane derived from source surface model <span class="hlt">maps</span> of coronal fields are measured for the interval from June 1976 to March 1992. The mean and median values of 53 deg and 57 deg are close to the average inclinations determined earlier from minimum variance analyses of solar wind measurements at sector boundaries, but the mode falls in the 80 deg - 90 deg bin. This result, which is based on the model assumptions implicit in deriving the source surface <span class="hlt">maps</span>, <span class="hlt">predicts</span> that the heliospheric current sheet typically intersects the ecliptic plane nearly at right angles, even without steepening by stream interaction regions. High inclinations dominate the solar cycle for about 7 years around solar maximum. Dips to lower inclination occur near solar minimum, but high variance admits a wide range of inclinations throughout the cycle. Compared to the smooth solar cycle variation of the maximum latitudinal excursion of the neutral line, often treated as the tilt angle of a flat heliospheric current sheet, the noisy variation of the inclinations reflects the degree to which the neutral line deviates from a sine wave, implying warps and corrugations in the current sheet. About a third of the time the neutral line so deviates that it doubles back in longitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220945"><span id="translatedtitle">nu<span class="hlt">Map</span>: a web platform for accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of nucleosome positioning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alharbi, Bader A; Alshammari, Thamir H; Felton, Nathan L; Zhurkin, Victor B; Cui, Feng</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Nucleosome positioning is critical for gene expression and of major biological interest. The high cost of experimentally <span class="hlt">mapping</span> nucleosomal arrangement signifies the need for computational approaches to <span class="hlt">predict</span> nucleosome positions at high resolution. Here, we present a web-based application to fulfill this need by implementing two models, YR and W/S schemes, for the translational and rotational positioning of nucleosomes, respectively. Our methods are based on sequence-dependent anisotropic bending that dictates how DNA is wrapped around a histone octamer. This application allows users to specify a number of options such as schemes and parameters for threading calculation and provides multiple layout <span class="hlt">formats</span>. The nu<span class="hlt">Map</span> is implemented in Java/Perl/MySQL and is freely available for public use at http://numap.rit.edu. The user manual, implementation notes, description of the methodology and examples are available at the site. PMID:25220945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...817..169L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...817..169L"><span id="translatedtitle">Connecting CO Intensity <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> to Molecular Gas and Star <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in the Epoch of Galaxy Assembly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for the intensity <span class="hlt">map</span> and power spectrum of the CO(1-0) line from galaxies at z˜ 2.4-2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy-halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial <span class="hlt">prediction</span> should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the {L}{IR}-{L}{CO} relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. By probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in high-redshift galaxies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1257726-connecting-co-intensity-mapping-molecular-gas-star-formation-epoch-galaxy-assembly','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1257726-connecting-co-intensity-mapping-molecular-gas-star-formation-epoch-galaxy-assembly"><span id="translatedtitle">Connecting CO intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to molecular gas and star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the epoch of galaxy assembly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah E.</p> <p>2016-01-29</p> <p>Intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for the intensity <span class="hlt">map</span> and power spectrum of the CO(1–0) line from galaxies atmore » $$z\\sim 2.4$$–2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy–halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial <span class="hlt">prediction</span> should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the $${L}_{\\mathrm{IR}}$$–$${L}_{\\mathrm{CO}}$$ relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. Furthermore, by probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in high-redshift galaxies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009JHyd..373...57S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009JHyd..373...57S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the natural flow regimes of France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Snelder, Ton H.; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Leathwick, John R.; Pella, Hervé; Sauquet, Eric; Shankar, Ude</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>SummaryHydrologic variability is important in sustaining a variety of ecological processes in streams and rivers. Natural flow regime classifications group streams and rivers that are relatively homogeneous with respect to flow variability and have been promoted as a method of defining units for management of river flows. Although there has been considerable interest in classifying natural flow regimes, there has been less emphasis given to developing accurate methods of extrapolating these classifications to locations without flow data. We developed a method of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> flow regime classes using boosted regression trees (BRT) that automatically fits non-linear functions and interactions between explanatory variables of flow regimes, both of which can be expected when comparing responses between complex systems such as watersheds. A natural flow regimes classification of continental France was developed from cluster analysis of 157 hydrological indices derived from 763 gauging stations representing unmodified flows. BRT models were used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the likelihood of gauging stations belonging to each class based on the watershed characteristics. These models were used to extrapolate the natural flow regime classification to all segments of a national river network. The performance of the BRT models were compared with other methods of assigning locations to flow regime classes, including the use of geographically contiguous regions, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification and regression trees (CART). The "fitted" misclassification rate (associated with model fits) for assignment based on the BRT models was 13% whereas the fitted misclassification rates for geographically contiguous regions, LDA and CART were 52%, 44% and 39% respectively. A "<span class="hlt">predictive</span>" misclassification rate (calculated for new cases) was estimated for assignments based on the BRT, LDA and CART models using cross validation analysis. For assignment based on the BRT models, the mean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JAfES..99..666H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JAfES..99..666H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of prospectivity for orogenic gold in Uganda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herbert, Sarah; Woldai, Tsehaie; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>-driven multi-class index overlay method was used to integrate predictor layers representing those processes in order to model orogenic gold prospectivity into a single <span class="hlt">map</span>. Weighting of the predictor layers, prior to integration, occurs at the level of the critical process and takes into account the relative importance of the critical process mineralisation, the representativeness of a proxy and the accuracy of the proxy. The resultant prospectivity model shows that 83% of all gold occurrences are delineated within <span class="hlt">predicted</span> prospective areas covering 30% of the study area. Eight sub-areas, covering 2500 km2, have been recommended for follow-up exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899285"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> model for ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> on superhydrophobic surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bahadur, Vaibhav; Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Taylor, J Ashley; Aizenberg, Joanna; Krupenkin, Tom</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The prevention and control of ice accumulation has important applications in aviation, building construction, and energy conversion devices. One area of active research concerns the use of superhydrophobic surfaces for preventing ice <span class="hlt">formation</span>. The present work develops a physics-based modeling framework to <span class="hlt">predict</span> ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> on cooled superhydrophobic surfaces resulting from the impact of supercooled water droplets. This modeling approach analyzes the multiple phenomena influencing ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> on superhydrophobic surfaces through the development of submodels describing droplet impact dynamics, heat transfer, and heterogeneous ice nucleation. These models are then integrated together to achieve a comprehensive understanding of ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> upon impact of liquid droplets at freezing conditions. The accuracy of this model is validated by its successful <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the experimental findings that demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces can fully prevent the freezing of impacting water droplets down to surface temperatures of as low as -20 to -25 °C. The model can be used to study the influence of surface morphology, surface chemistry, and fluid and thermal properties on dynamic ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> and identify parameters critical to achieving icephobic surfaces. The framework of the present work is the first detailed modeling tool developed for the design and analysis of surfaces for various ice prevention/reduction strategies. PMID:21899285</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7241E..16B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7241E..16B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the performance of a spatial gamut <span class="hlt">mapping</span> algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bakke, Arne M.; Farup, Ivar; Hardeberg, Jon Y.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Gamut <span class="hlt">mapping</span> algorithms are currently being developed to take advantage of the spatial information in an image to improve the utilization of the destination gamut. These algorithms try to preserve the spatial information between neighboring pixels in the image, such as edges and gradients, without sacrificing global contrast. Experiments have shown that such algorithms can result in significantly improved reproduction of some images compared with non-spatial methods. However, due to the spatial processing of images, they introduce unwanted artifacts when used on certain types of images. In this paper we perform basic image analysis to <span class="hlt">predict</span> whether a spatial algorithm is likely to perform better or worse than a good, non-spatial algorithm. Our approach starts by detecting the relative amount of areas in the image that are made up of uniformly colored pixels, as well as the amount of areas that contain details in out-of-gamut areas. A weighted difference is computed from these numbers, and we show that the result has a high correlation with the observed performance of the spatial algorithm in a previously conducted psychophysical experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27208861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27208861"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power <span class="hlt">predicts</span> human memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Rugg, Michael D</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Pre-stimulus theta (4-8Hz) power in the hippocampus and neocortex <span class="hlt">predicts</span> whether a memory for a subsequent event will be formed. Anatomical studies reveal thalamus-hippocampal connectivity, and lesion, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies show that memory processing involves the dorsomedial (DMTN) and anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN). The small size and deep location of these nuclei have limited real-time study of their activity, however, and it is unknown whether pre-stimulus theta power <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of successful memory <span class="hlt">formation</span> is also found in these subcortical structures. We recorded human electrophysiological data from the DMTN and ATN of 7 patients receiving deep brain stimulation for refractory epilepsy. We found that greater pre-stimulus theta power in the right DMTN was associated with successful memory encoding, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> both behavioral outcome and post-stimulus correlates of successful memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>. In particular, significant correlations were observed between right DMTN theta power and both frontal theta and right ATN gamma (32-50Hz) phase alignment, and frontal-ATN theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling. We draw the following primary conclusions. Our results provide direct electrophysiological evidence in humans of a role for the DMTN as well as the ATN in memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of subsequent memory performance by pre-stimulus thalamic oscillations provides evidence that post-stimulus differences in thalamic activity that index successful and unsuccessful encoding reflect brain processes specifically underpinning memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Finally, the findings broaden the understanding of brain states that facilitate memory encoding to include subcortical as well as cortical structures. PMID:27208861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3692305','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3692305"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Standard Enthalpy of <span class="hlt">Formation</span> by a QSPR Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vatani, Ali; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Gharagheizi, Farhad</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The standard enthalpy of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of 1115 compounds from all chemical groups, were <span class="hlt">predicted</span> using genetic algorithm-based multivariate linear regression (GA-MLR). The obtained multivariate linear five descriptors model by GA-MLR has correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9830). All molecular descriptors which have entered in this model are calculated from chemical structure of any molecule. As a result, application of this model for any compound is easy and accurate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16831858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16831858"><span id="translatedtitle">Hippocampal and neocortical gamma oscillations <span class="hlt">predict</span> memory <span class="hlt">formation</span> in humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sederberg, Per B; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Madsen, Joseph R; Bromfield, Edward B; McCarthy, David C; Brandt, Armin; Tully, Michele S; Kahana, Michael J</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human brain has shown that the hippocampus and the left temporal and frontal cortices play a key role in the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of new verbal memories. We recorded electrical activity from 2349 surgically implanted intracranial electrodes in epilepsy patients while they studied and later recalled lists of common words. Using these recordings, we demonstrate that gamma oscillations (44-64 Hz) in the hippocampus and the left temporal and frontal cortices <span class="hlt">predict</span> successful encoding of new verbal memories. This increase in gamma oscillations was not seen in other frequency bands, whose activity generally decreased during successful memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>. These findings identify a role for gamma oscillations in verbal memory <span class="hlt">formation</span> with the hippocampus and the left temporal and frontal cortices, the same regions implicated using noninvasive fMRI recording methods. PMID:16831858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524629','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524629"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Peptide and Protein Propensity for Amyloid <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Família, Carlos; Dennison, Sarah R.; Quintas, Alexandre; Phoenix, David A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Understanding which peptides and proteins have the potential to undergo amyloid <span class="hlt">formation</span> and what driving forces are responsible for amyloid-like fiber <span class="hlt">formation</span> and stabilization remains limited. This is mainly because proteins that can undergo structural changes, which lead to amyloid <span class="hlt">formation</span>, are quite diverse and share no obvious sequence or structural homology, despite the structural similarity found in the fibrils. To address these issues, a novel approach based on recursive feature selection and feed-forward neural networks was undertaken to identify key features highly correlated with the self-assembly problem. This approach allowed the identification of seven physicochemical and biochemical properties of the amino acids highly associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid-like fibrils (normalized frequency of β-sheet, normalized frequency of β-sheet from LG, weights for β-sheet at the window position of 1, isoelectric point, atom-based hydrophobic moment, helix termination parameter at position j+1 and ΔG° values for peptides extrapolated in 0 M urea). Moreover, these features enabled the development of a new predictor (available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/appnn/index.html) capable of accurately and reliably <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the amyloidogenic propensity from the polypeptide sequence alone with a <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy of 84.9 % against an external validation dataset of sequences with experimental in vitro, evidence of amyloid <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:26241652</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100017204','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100017204"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimbelman, J. R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the status of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of portions of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geo-logic <span class="hlt">maps</span>, generated under an earlier PGG <span class="hlt">mapping</span> grant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110002771','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110002771"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimbelman, J. R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the status of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of portions of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geologic <span class="hlt">maps</span>, generated under an earlier PGG <span class="hlt">mapping</span> grant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H41C0814P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H41C0814P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ensemble <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Flood <span class="hlt">Maps</span> Under Uncertain Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Rodríguez-Rincón, J. P.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydro-meteorological hazards can have cascading effects and far-reaching implications on water security, with socio-economic and environmental consequences. Worldwide the magnitude of recent floods highlight the necessity to generate a better understanding on their causes and associated risk. An improved flood risk strategy should incorporate the communication of uncertain research results to decision-makers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to generate a robust framework that enables its quantification. The purpose of this study is to investigate the propagation of meteorological uncertainty within a cascade modelling approach to flood <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. The methodology is comprised of a Numerical Weather <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Model (NWP), a distributed rainfall-runoff model and a standard 2D hydrodynamic model. The cascade of models is used to reproduce an extreme flood event that took place in Southern Mexico, during September 2013. The event is selected as high quality field data (e.g. LiDAR; rain gauges) and satellite imagery are available. Uncertainty in the meteorological model (Weather Research and Forecasting model) is evaluated through the use of a multi-physics ensemble technique, which considers twelve parameterisation schemes to determine a given precipitation. The resulting precipitation fields are used as input in a distributed hydrological model, enabling the determination of different hydrographs associated to this event. Lastly, by means of a standard 2D hydrodynamic model, resulting hydrographs are used as forcing conditions to study the propagation of the meteorological uncertainty to an estimated flooded area. Results show the utility of the selected modelling approach to investigate error propagation within a cascade of models. Moreover, the error associated to the determination of the runoff, is showed to be lower than that obtained in the precipitation estimation suggesting that uncertainty do not necessarily increase within a model cascade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=68404&keyword=cross+AND+fit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=62105528&CFTOKEN=57288801','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=68404&keyword=cross+AND+fit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=62105528&CFTOKEN=57288801"><span id="translatedtitle">POSTERIOR <span class="hlt">PREDICTIVE</span> MODEL CHECKS FOR DISEASE <span class="hlt">MAPPING</span> MODELS. (R827257)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Disease incidence or disease mortality rates for small areas are often displayed on <span class="hlt">maps</span>. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of raw rates, disease counts divided by the total population at risk, have been criticized as unreliable due to non-constant variance associated with heterogeneity in base population si...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5260418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5260418"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictability</span> of <span class="hlt">formation</span> damage: An assessment study and generalized models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Civan, F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The project objective is to develop improved generalized <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models to be used for investigation of reservoir <span class="hlt">formation</span> damage and control for various fluid and rock conditions and to account for these effects in reservoir simulation. To accomplish its objective the proposed study will first critically study and evaluate the previous modeling efforts and the experimental studies reported in the literature. Then, generalized <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models will be formulated by combining the previous attempts and by improving and generalizing the modeling approaches to accommodate for a wide variety of conditions encountered in actual field applications. A critical review of the previous work addressing their theoretical basis, assumptions and limitations, and the generalized and improved model developed in this study will be presented in a systematic manner in terms of a standardized definition and nomenclature for direct comparison. Case studies with the generalized model will be presented to demonstrate its capacity and validity. User friendly computer programs implementing the improved modeling approaches will also be supplied. This study will form an assessment of the presently available models and methods for evaluating and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> damage and present improved models. Therefore, it will be an important reference for the petroleum industry. 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862913','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862913"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic wave method for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> subterranean earth <span class="hlt">formations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Shuck, Lowell Z.; Fasching, George E.; Balanis, Constantine A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The present invention is directed to a method for remotely <span class="hlt">mapping</span> subterranean coal beds prior to and during in situ gasification operations. This method is achieved by emplacing highly directional electromagnetic wave transmitters and receivers in bore holes penetrating the coal beds and then <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the anomalies surrounding each bore hole by selectively rotating and vertically displacing the directional transmitter in a transmitting mode within the bore hole, and thereafter, initiating the gasification of the coal at bore holes separate from those containing the transmitters and receivers and then utilizing the latter for monitoring the burn front as it progresses toward the transmitters and receivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4360766','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4360766"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">formative</span> quizzes <span class="hlt">predict</span> or improve summative exam performance?*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N.R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective Despite wide use, the value of <span class="hlt">formative</span> exams remains unclear. We evaluated the possible benefits of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessments in a physical examination course at our chiropractic college. Methods Three hypotheses were examined: (1) Receiving <span class="hlt">formative</span> quizzes (FQs) will increase summative exam (SX) scores, (2) writing FQ questions will further increase SE scores, and (3) FQs can <span class="hlt">predict</span> SX scores. Hypotheses were tested across three separate iterations of the class. Results The SX scores for the control group (Class 3) were significantly less than those of Classes 1 and 2, but writing quiz questions and taking FQs (Class 1) did not produce significantly higher SX scores than only taking FQs (Class 2). The FQ scores were significant predictors of SX scores, accounting for 52% of the SX score. Sex, age, academic degrees, and ethnicity were not significant copredictors. Conclusion Our results support the assertion that FQs can improve written SX performance, but students producing quiz questions didn't further increase SX scores. We concluded that nonthreatening FQs may be used to enhance student learning and suggest that they also may serve to identify students who, without additional remediation, will perform poorly on subsequent summative written exams. PMID:25517737</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....80....9H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....80....9H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> lithological <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of Canada's North using Random Forest classification applied to geophysical and geochemical data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, J. R.; Grunsky, E. C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A recent method for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> lithology which involves the Random Forest (RF) machine classification algorithm is evaluated. Random Forests, a supervised classifier, requires training data representative of each lithology to produce a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> or classified <span class="hlt">map</span>. We use two training strategies, one based on the location of lake sediment geochemical samples where the rock type is recorded from a legacy geology <span class="hlt">map</span> at each sample station and the second strategy is based on lithology recorded from field stations derived from reconnaissance field <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. We apply the classification to interpolated major and minor lake sediment geochemical data as well as airborne total field magnetic and gamma ray spectrometer data. Using this method we produce <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the lithology of a large section of the Hearne Archean - Paleoproterozoic tectonic domain, in northern Canada. The results indicate that meaningful <span class="hlt">predictive</span> lithologic <span class="hlt">maps</span> can be produced using RF classification for both training strategies. The best results were achieved when all data were used; however, the geochemical and gamma ray data were the strongest predictors of the various lithologies. The <span class="hlt">maps</span> generated from this research can be used to compliment field <span class="hlt">mapping</span> activities by focusing field work on areas where the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> geology and legacy geology do not match and as first order geological <span class="hlt">maps</span> in poorly <span class="hlt">mapped</span> areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8955858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8955858"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept <span class="hlt">formation</span> vs. logistic regression: <span class="hlt">predicting</span> death in trauma patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hadzikadic, M; Hakenewerth, A; Bohren, B; Norton, J; Mehta, B; Andrews, C</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>This study compares two classification models used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> survival of injured patients entering the emergency department. Concept <span class="hlt">formation</span> is a machine learning technique that summarizes known examples cases in the form of a tree. After the tree is constructed, it can then be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the classification of new cases. Logistic regression, on the other hand, is a statistical model that allows for a quantitative relationship for a dichotomous event with several independent variables. The outcome (dependent) variable must have only two choices, e.g. does or does not occur, alive or dead, etc. The result of this model is an equation which is then used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the probability of class membership of a new case. The two models were evaluated on a trauma registry database composed of information on all trauma patients admitted in 1992 to a Level I trauma center. A total of 2155 records. representing all trauma patients admitted for more than 24 h or who died in the Emergency Department, were grouped into two databases as follows: (1) discharge status of 'died' (containing 151 records), and (2) any discharge status other than 'died' (containing 2004 records). Both databases contained the same variables. PMID:8955858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975995"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale Model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection <span class="hlt">Maps</span> Metabolite and Gene Perturbations to Granuloma Sterilization <span class="hlt">Predictions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pienaar, Elsje; Matern, William M; Linderman, Jennifer J; Bader, Joel S; Kirschner, Denise E</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Granulomas are a hallmark of tuberculosis. Inside granulomas, the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis may enter a metabolically inactive state that is less susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding M. tuberculosis metabolism within granulomas could contribute to reducing the lengthy treatment required for tuberculosis and provide additional targets for new drugs. Two key adaptations of M. tuberculosis are a nonreplicating phenotype and accumulation of lipid inclusions in response to hypoxic conditions. To explore how these adaptations influence granuloma-scale outcomes in vivo, we present a multiscale in silico model of granuloma <span class="hlt">formation</span> in tuberculosis. The model comprises host immunity, M. tuberculosis metabolism, M. tuberculosis growth adaptation to hypoxia, and nutrient diffusion. We calibrated our model to in vivo data from nonhuman primates and rabbits and apply the model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> M. tuberculosis population dynamics and heterogeneity within granulomas. We found that bacterial populations are highly dynamic throughout infection in response to changing oxygen levels and host immunity pressures. Our results indicate that a nonreplicating phenotype, but not lipid inclusion <span class="hlt">formation</span>, is important for long-term M. tuberculosis survival in granulomas. We used virtual M. tuberculosis knockouts to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the impact of both metabolic enzyme inhibitors and metabolic pathways exploited to overcome inhibition. Results indicate that knockouts whose growth rates are below ∼66% of the wild-type growth rate in a culture medium featuring lipid as the only carbon source are unable to sustain infections in granulomas. By <span class="hlt">mapping</span> metabolite- and gene-scale perturbations to granuloma-scale outcomes and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> mechanisms of sterilization, our method provides a powerful tool for hypothesis testing and guiding experimental searches for novel antituberculosis interventions. PMID:26975995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012750','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012750"><span id="translatedtitle">Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 8: Satellite snow <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and runoff <span class="hlt">prediction</span> handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowley, C. J.; Barnes, J. C.; Rango, A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the handbook is to update the various snowcover interpretation techniques, document the snow <span class="hlt">mapping</span> techniques used in the various ASVT study areas, and describe the ways snowcover data have been applied to runoff <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Through documentation in handbook form, the methodology developed in the Snow <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> ASVT can be applied to other areas.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nonverbal+AND+gesture&pg=4&id=EJ734386','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nonverbal+AND+gesture&pg=4&id=EJ734386"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the Client's Perspective on Counseling Alliance <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bedi, Robinder P.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study was to identify, categorize, and model clients' understanding of early counseling alliance <span class="hlt">formation</span> factors. Forty participants who had received counseling services were interviewed and asked about what observable behaviors and verbalizations they thought had helped establish the alliance with their counselor.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvL..92a8101C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvL..92a8101C"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding Visual <span class="hlt">Map</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> through Vortex Dynamics of Spin Hamiltonian Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Myoung Won; Kim, Seunghwan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> in orientation and ocular dominance columns is one of the most investigated problems in the brain. From a known cortical structure, we build spinlike Hamiltonian models with long-range interactions of the Mexican hat type. These Hamiltonian models allow a coherent interpretation of the diverse phenomena in the visual <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> with the help of relaxation dynamics of spin systems. In particular, we explain various phenomena of self-organization in orientation and ocular dominance <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> including the pinwheel annihilation and its dependency on the columnar wave vector and boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..118a2029S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..118a2029S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Austenite <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schulze, P.; Schmidl, E.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>For the modeling and design of heat treatments, in consideration of the development/ transformation of the microstructure, different material data depending on the chemical composition, the respective microstructure/phases and the temperature are necessary. Material data are, e.g. the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal expansion and transformation data etc. The quality of thermal simulations strongly depends on the accuracy of the material data. For many materials, the required data - in particular for different microstructures and temperatures - are rare in the literature. In addition, a different chemical composition within the permitted limits of the considered steel alloy cannot be <span class="hlt">predicted</span>. A solution for this problem is provided by the calculation of material data using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In the present study, the start and finish temperatures of the transformation from the bcc lattice to the fcc lattice structure of hypoeutectoid steels are calculated using an Artificial Neural Network. An appropriate database containing different transformation temperatures (austenite <span class="hlt">formation</span> temperatures) to train the ANN is selected from the literature. In order to find a suitable feedforward network, the network topologies as well as the activation functions of the hidden layers are varied and subsequently evaluated in terms of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy. The transformation temperatures calculated by the ANN exhibit a very good compliance compared to the experimental data. The results show that the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance is even higher compared to classical empirical equations such as Andrews or Brandis. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presented ANN is a convenient tool to distinguish between bcc and fcc phases in hypoeutectoid steels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016DSRI..113...80R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016DSRI..113...80R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate <span class="hlt">mapping</span> techniques. <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest <span class="hlt">predictive</span> performances. Spatial <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble <span class="hlt">mapping</span> techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for <span class="hlt">predictive</span> habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to <span class="hlt">prediction</span> outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble <span class="hlt">mapping</span> approaches have clear value for spatial management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6932"><span id="translatedtitle">Machine and Process System Diagnostics Using One-Step <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> <span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Breeding, J.E.; Damiano, B.; Tucker, R.W., Jr.</p> <p>1999-05-10</p> <p>This paper describes a method for machine or process system diagnostics that uses one-step <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span>. The method uses nonlinear time series analysis techniques to form a one-step <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">map</span> that estimates the next time series data point when given a sequence of previously measured time series data point. The difference between the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> and measured time series values is a measure of the <span class="hlt">map</span> error. The average value of this error should remain within some bound as long as both the dynamic system and its operating condition remain unchanged. However, changes in the dynamic system or operating condition will cause an increase in average <span class="hlt">map</span> error. Thus, for a constant operating condition, monitoring the average <span class="hlt">map</span> error over time should indicate when a change has occurred in the dynamic system. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">map</span> error itself forms a time series that can be analyzed to detect changes in system dynamics. The paper provides technical background in the nonlinear analysis techniques used in the diagnostic method, describes the creation of one-step <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> and their application to machine or process system diagnostics, and then presents results obtained from applying the diagnostic method to simulated and measured data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402608"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Interaction between Neural Activity and Molecular Cues in the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Topographic <span class="hlt">Maps</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Owens, Melinda T; Feldheim, David A; Stryker, Michael P; Triplett, Jason W</p> <p>2015-09-23</p> <p>Topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> in visual processing areas maintain the spatial order of the visual world. Molecular cues and neuronal activity both play critical roles in <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>, but their interaction remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that when molecular- and activity-dependent cues are rendered nearly equal in force, they drive topographic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> stochastically. The functional and anatomical representation of azimuth in the superior colliculus of heterozygous Islet2-EphA3 knockin (Isl2(EphA3/+)) mice is variable: <span class="hlt">maps</span> may be single, duplicated, or a combination of the two. This heterogeneity is not due to genetic differences, since <span class="hlt">map</span> organizations in individual mutant animals often differ between colliculi. Disruption of spontaneous waves of retinal activity resulted in uniform <span class="hlt">map</span> organization in Isl2(EphA3/+) mice, demonstrating that correlated spontaneous activity is required for <span class="hlt">map</span> heterogeneity. Computational modeling replicates this heterogeneity, revealing that molecular- and activity-dependent forces interact simultaneously and stochastically during topographic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:26402608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010022239','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010022239"><span id="translatedtitle">Vector Topographic <span class="hlt">Map</span> Data over the BOREAS NSA and SSA in SIF <span class="hlt">Format</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This data set contains vector contours and other features of individual topographic <span class="hlt">map</span> sheets from the National Topographic Series (NTS). The <span class="hlt">map</span> sheet files were received in Standard Interchange <span class="hlt">Format</span> (SIF) and cover the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. The individual files are stored in compressed Unix tar archives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498166"><span id="translatedtitle">Traction force dynamics <span class="hlt">predict</span> gap <span class="hlt">formation</span> in activated endothelium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valent, Erik T; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Hordijk, Peter L</p> <p>2016-09-10</p> <p>In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability. Simultaneously, information about endothelial monolayer integrity, adherens junctions and cytoskeletal proteins (F-actin) were captured. This revealed a heterogeneous distribution of traction forces, with nuclear areas showing lower and cell-cell junctions higher traction forces than the whole-monolayer average. Moreover, junctional forces were asymmetrically distributed among neighboring cells. Force vector orientation analysis showed a good correlation with the alignment of F-actin and revealed contractile forces in newly formed filopodia and lamellipodia-like protrusions within the monolayer. Finally, unstable areas, showing high force fluctuations within the monolayer were prone to form inter-endothelial gaps upon stimulation with thrombin. To conclude, contractile traction forces are heterogeneously distributed within endothelial monolayers and force instability, rather than force magnitude, <span class="hlt">predicts</span> the stimulus-induced <span class="hlt">formation</span> of intercellular gaps. PMID:27498166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497816','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497816"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative assessment of computational models for retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sterratt, David C; Cutts, Catherine S; Willshaw, David J; Eglen, Stephen J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Molecular and activity‐based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus (SC) to form an ordered <span class="hlt">map</span> of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have developed a framework within which existing computational models can be assessed in an unbiased and quantitative manner against a set of experimental data curated from the mouse retinocollicular system. Our framework facilitates comparison between models, testing new models against known phenotypes and simulating new phenotypes in existing models. We have used this framework to assess four representative models that combine Eph/ephrin gradients and/or activity‐based mechanisms and competition. Two of the models were updated from their original form to fit into our framework. The models were tested against five different phenotypes: wild type, Isl2‐EphA3 ki/ki, Isl2‐EphA3 ki/+, ephrin‐A2,A3,A5 triple knock‐out (TKO), and Math5 −/− (Atoh7). Two models successfully reproduced the extent of the Math5 −/− anteromedial projection, but only one of those could account for the collapse point in Isl2‐EphA3 ki/+. The models needed a weak anteroposterior gradient in the SC to reproduce the residual order in the ephrin‐A2,A3,A5 TKO phenotype, suggesting either an incomplete knock‐out or the presence of another guidance molecule. Our article demonstrates the importance of testing retinotopic models against as full a range of phenotypes as possible, and we have made available MATLAB software, we wrote to facilitate this process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 641–666, 2015 PMID:25367067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25367067','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25367067"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative assessment of computational models for retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hjorth, J J Johannes; Sterratt, David C; Cutts, Catherine S; Willshaw, David J; Eglen, Stephen J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Molecular and activity-based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus (SC) to form an ordered <span class="hlt">map</span> of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have developed a framework within which existing computational models can be assessed in an unbiased and quantitative manner against a set of experimental data curated from the mouse retinocollicular system. Our framework facilitates comparison between models, testing new models against known phenotypes and simulating new phenotypes in existing models. We have used this framework to assess four representative models that combine Eph/ephrin gradients and/or activity-based mechanisms and competition. Two of the models were updated from their original form to fit into our framework. The models were tested against five different phenotypes: wild type, Isl2-EphA3(ki/ki), Isl2-EphA3(ki/+), ephrin-A2,A3,A5 triple knock-out (TKO), and Math5(-/-) (Atoh7). Two models successfully reproduced the extent of the Math5(-/-) anteromedial projection, but only one of those could account for the collapse point in Isl2-EphA3(ki/+). The models needed a weak anteroposterior gradient in the SC to reproduce the residual order in the ephrin-A2,A3,A5 TKO phenotype, suggesting either an incomplete knock-out or the presence of another guidance molecule. Our article demonstrates the importance of testing retinotopic models against as full a range of phenotypes as possible, and we have made available MATLAB software, we wrote to facilitate this process. PMID:25367067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PASP..124..274W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PASP..124..274W"><span id="translatedtitle">Can Self-Organizing <span class="hlt">Maps</span> Accurately <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Photometric Redshifts?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Way, M. J.; Klose, C. D.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-<span class="hlt">map</span> (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using Δz = zphot - zspec) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11274439','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11274439"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> of temporal-feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> by axonal propagation of synaptic learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kempter, R; Leibold, C; Wagner, H; van Hemmen, J L</p> <p>2001-03-27</p> <p>Computational <span class="hlt">maps</span> are of central importance to a neuronal representation of the outside world. In a <span class="hlt">map</span>, neighboring neurons respond to similar sensory features. A well studied example is the computational <span class="hlt">map</span> of interaural time differences (ITDs), which is essential to sound localization in a variety of species and allows resolution of ITDs of the order of 10 micros. Nevertheless, it is unclear how such an orderly representation of temporal features arises. We address this problem by modeling the ontogenetic development of an ITD <span class="hlt">map</span> in the laminar nucleus of the barn owl. We show how the owl's ITD <span class="hlt">map</span> can emerge from a combined action of homosynaptic spike-based Hebbian learning and its propagation along the presynaptic axon. In spike-based Hebbian learning, synaptic strengths are modified according to the timing of pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. In unspecific axonal learning, a synapse's modification gives rise to a factor that propagates along the presynaptic axon and affects the properties of synapses at neighboring neurons. Our results indicate that both Hebbian learning and its presynaptic propagation are necessary for <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the laminar nucleus, but the latter can be orders of magnitude weaker than the former. We argue that the algorithm is important for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of computational <span class="hlt">maps</span>, when, in particular, time plays a key role. PMID:11274439</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2991422','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2991422"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Genes that <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Treatment Outcome in Admixed Populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baye, Tesfaye M.; Wilke, Russell A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There is great interest in characterizing the genetic architecture underlying drug response. For many drugs, gene-based dosing models explain a considerable amount of the overall variation in treatment outcome. As such, prescription drug labels are increasingly being modified to contain pharmacogenetic information. Genetic data must, however, be interpreted within the context of relevant clinical covariates. Even the most <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models improve with the addition of data related to biogeographical ancestry. The current review explores analytical strategies that leverage population structure to more fully characterize genetic determinants of outcome in large clinical practice-based cohorts. The success of this approach will depend upon several key factors: (1) the availability of outcome data from groups of admixed individuals (i.e., populations recombined over multiple generations), (2) a measurable difference in treatment outcome (i.e., efficacy and toxicity endpoints), and (3) a measurable difference in allele frequency between the ancestral populations. PMID:20921971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......151R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......151R"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploration of very high spatial resolution data for vegetation <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using cartographic ontologies: Identifying life forms to <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">formations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez-Gallegos, Hugo Benigno</p> <p></p> <p>Vegetation <span class="hlt">mapping</span> is often considered the process of identifying landscape patterns of individuals or clusters of species or life forms (LF). At the landscape scale, the larger pattern represented by individuals or clusters represents the conceptualization of "vegetation <span class="hlt">mapping</span>" and can be used as a building block to describe an ecosystem. To represent these building blocks or LF a "common entity (CE)" concept is introduced to represent the components of <span class="hlt">Formations</span> as described by the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) system. The NVC has established protocols to consistently represent plant communities and promote coordinated management, particularly across jurisdictional boundaries. However, it is not a universal standard and the methods of producing detailed <span class="hlt">maps</span> of vegetation CE from very high spatial resolution (VHR) remote sensing data are important research questions. This research addressed how best to understand and represent plant cover in arid regions, the most effective methods of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> vegetation cover using high spatial resolution data, how to assess the accuracy of these <span class="hlt">maps</span>, and their value in establishing more standardized <span class="hlt">mapping</span> protocols across ecosystems. Utilizing VHR products from the IKONOS and QuickBird sensors the study focused on the Coronado National Memorial and Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona and Los Ajos and Pinacate - Grand Desierto Biosphere Reserves in Mexico. Individual CE were semi-automatically <span class="hlt">mapped</span> incorporating spectral, textural and geostatistical variables. The results were evaluated across sensors, study sites, and input variables. In addition, multiple methods of acquiring field data for accuracy assessment were evaluated and then an evaluation was made of a semi-automatic determination of <span class="hlt">Formation</span> based on CE. The results of the study suggest consistency across study sites using the IKONOS data. A comparison between VHR products from the same place is feasible but sensor spectral differences may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1060..174J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1060..174J"><span id="translatedtitle">Two States <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Based Time Series Neural Network Model for Compensation <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Residual Error</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Insung; Koo, Lockjo; Wang, Gi-Nam</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper was to design a model of human bio signal data <span class="hlt">prediction</span> system for decreasing of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> error using two states <span class="hlt">mapping</span> based time series neural network BP (back-propagation) model. Normally, a lot of the industry has been applied neural network model by training them in a supervised manner with the error back-propagation algorithm for time series <span class="hlt">prediction</span> systems. However, it still has got a residual error between real value and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> result. Therefore, we designed two states of neural network model for compensation residual error which is possible to use in the prevention of sudden death and metabolic syndrome disease such as hypertension disease and obesity. We determined that most of the simulation cases were satisfied by the two states <span class="hlt">mapping</span> based time series <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model. In particular, small sample size of times series were more accurate than the standard MLP model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484139"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> environmental risk: A road <span class="hlt">map</span> for the future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jager, Tjalling</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Frameworks for environmental risk assessment (ERA) focus on comparing results from separate exposure and effect assessments. Exposure assessment generally relies on mechanistic fate models, whereas the effects assessment is anchored in standard test protocols and descriptive statistics. This discrepancy prevents a useful link between these two pillars of ERA, and jeopardizes the realism and efficacy of the entire process. Similar to exposure assessment, effects assessment requires a mechanistic approach to translate the output of fate models into <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for impacts on populations and food webs. The aim of this study was to discuss (1) the central importance of the individual level, (2) different strategies of dealing with biological complexity, and (3) the role that toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models, energy budgets, and molecular biology play in a mechanistic revision of the ERA framework. Consequently, an outline for a risk assessment paradigm was developed that incorporates a mechanistic effects assessment in a consistent manner, and a "roadmap for the future." Such a roadmap may play a critical role to eventually arrive at a more scientific and efficient ERA process, and needs to be used to shape our long-term research agendas. PMID:27484139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6135386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6135386"><span id="translatedtitle">Impervious cover <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and runoff <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in a Dallas watershed using Landsat TM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Singletary, K.L.; Morgan, K.M.; Busbey, A.B.; Newland, L.W. . Dept. of Geology)</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>As urban development increases in metropolitan areas, the amount of impervious cover also increases and directly affects stormwater runoff volume. Techniques are needed by planning agencies to monitor urban changes and update flood <span class="hlt">maps</span>. In this study, the six 30 meter resolution bands of Landsat TM were analyzed to determine which wavelength(s) could be used to <span class="hlt">map</span> impervious cover in a watershed near Dallas. The resulting information was utilized in a runoff equation and compared to actual stormwater flow recorded at a U.S.G.S. gauge station. Accuracies of the image <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">predicted</span> runoff are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20774932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20774932"><span id="translatedtitle">Classical <span class="hlt">predictability</span> and coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's <span class="hlt">map</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scherer, Artur; Soklakov, Andrei N.; Schack, Ruediger</p> <p>2006-06-15</p> <p>We investigate how classical <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of the coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's <span class="hlt">map</span> depends on the character of the coarse-graining. Our analysis extends earlier work by Brun and Hartle [Phys. Rev. D 60, 123503 (1999)] to the case of a chaotic <span class="hlt">map</span>. To quantify <span class="hlt">predictability</span>, we compare the rate of entropy increase for a family of coarse-grainings in the decoherent histories formalism. We find that the rate of entropy increase is dominated by the number of scales characterizing the coarse-graining.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MAR.Y3002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MAR.Y3002K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> of temporal-feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> in the barn owl's auditory system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kempter, Richard</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>Computational <span class="hlt">maps</span> are of central importance to the brain's representation of the outside world. The question of how <span class="hlt">maps</span> are formed during ontogenetic development is a subject of intense research (Hubel & Wiesel, Proc R Soc B 198:1, 1977; Buonomano & Merzenich, Annu Rev Neurosci 21:149, 1998). The development in the primary visual cortex is in principle well explained compared to that in the auditory system, partly because the mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of temporal-feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> are hardly understood (Carr, Annu Rev Neurosci 16:223, 1993). Through a modelling study based on computer simulations in a system of spiking neurons a solution is offered to the problem of how a <span class="hlt">map</span> of interaural time differences is set up in the nucleus laminaris of the barn owl, as a typical example. An array of neurons is able to represent interaural time differences in an orderly manner, viz., a <span class="hlt">map</span>, if homosynaptic spike-based Hebbian learning (Gerstner et al, Nature 383:76, 1996; <A HREF=http://keck.ucsf.edu/ kempter/Publications/>Kempter et al, Phys Rev E 59:4498, 1999</A>) is combined with a presynaptic propagation of synaptic modifications (Fitzsimonds & Poo, Physiol Rev 78:143, 1998). The latter may be orders of magnitude weaker than the former. The algorithm is a key mechanism to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of temporal-feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> on a submillisecond time scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..499..235G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..499..235G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the Innermost Regions of Massive Stars in <span class="hlt">Formation</span> through Millimeter Recombination Lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galván-Madrid, R.; Liu, H. B.; Hernández-Gómez, A.; Carrasco-González, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Millimeter (mm) recombination lines (RLs) are intrinsically brighter than centimeter RLs and are free of pressure broadening. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> mm RLs in massive star <span class="hlt">formation</span> (MSF) regions would trace the dynamics of the innermost volume where stars more massive than 10 or 20 ⊙ are forming. We report on our search using ALMA for mm RL emission in two MSF regions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Professional+AND+identity&pg=7&id=EJ928710','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Professional+AND+identity&pg=7&id=EJ928710"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of Korean EFL Student Teachers' Autobiographical Reflections on Their Professional Identity <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lim, Hyun-Woo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study utilizes a concept <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method to explore the underlying structure and dimensionality of Korean student teachers' autobiographical reflections on their professional identity <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Participants consist of 90 students enrolled in bachelor's and master's degree programs in English teacher education. The study results imply core…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=211536','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=211536"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Potential for Ephemeral Gully <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Agricultural Watersheds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Erosion associated with ephemeral gullies in cultivated areas is known to contribute significantly to soil loss and sediment yield from arable watersheds. Despite this, no automated method currently exists for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the potential for ephemeral gully <span class="hlt">formation</span>. This study identifies that the capabi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/ofr-92-0507/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/ofr-92-0507/"><span id="translatedtitle">The digital geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of Colorado in ARC/INFO <span class="hlt">format</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, Gregory N.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> was prepared as a part of a study of digital methods and techniques as applied to complex geologic <span class="hlt">maps</span>. The geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> was digitized from the original scribe sheets used to prepare the published Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Colorado (Tweto 1979). Consequently the digital version is at 1:500,000 scale using the Lambert Conformal Conic <span class="hlt">map</span> projection parameters of the state base <span class="hlt">map</span>. Stable base contact prints of the scribe sheets were scanned on a Tektronix 4991 digital scanner. The scanner automatically converts the scanned image to an ASCII vector <span class="hlt">format</span>. These vectors were transferred to a VAX minicomputer, where they were then loaded into ARC/INFO. Each vector and polygon was given attributes derived from the original 1979 geologic <span class="hlt">map</span>. This database was developed on a MicroVAX computer system using VAX V 5.4 nd ARC/INFO 5.0 software. UPDATE: April 1995, The update was done solely for the purpose of adding the abilitly to plot to an HP650c plotter. Two new ARC/INFO plot AMLs along with a lineset and shadeset for the HP650C design jet printer have been included. These new files are COLORADO.650, INDEX.650, TWETOLIN.E00 and TWETOSHD.E00. These files were created on a UNIX platform with ARC/INFO 6.1.2. Updated versions of INDEX.E00, CONTACT.E00, LINE.E00, DECO.E00 and BORDER.E00 files that included the newly defined HP650c items are also included. * Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Descriptors: The Digital Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Colorado in ARC/INFO <span class="hlt">Format</span> Open-File Report 92-050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/0507a/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/0507a/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The digital geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of Colorado in ARC/INFO <span class="hlt">format</span>, Part A. Documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, Gregory N.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> was prepared as a part of a study of digital methods and techniques as applied to complex geologic <span class="hlt">maps</span>. The geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> was digitized from the original scribe sheets used to prepare the published Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Colorado (Tweto 1979). Consequently the digital version is at 1:500,000 scale using the Lambert Conformal Conic <span class="hlt">map</span> projection parameters of the state base <span class="hlt">map</span>. Stable base contact prints of the scribe sheets were scanned on a Tektronix 4991 digital scanner. The scanner automatically converts the scanned image to an ASCII vector <span class="hlt">format</span>. These vectors were transferred to a VAX minicomputer, where they were then loaded into ARC/INFO. Each vector and polygon was given attributes derived from the original 1979 geologic <span class="hlt">map</span>. This database was developed on a MicroVAX computer system using VAX V 5.4 nd ARC/INFO 5.0 software. UPDATE: April 1995, The update was done solely for the purpose of adding the abilitly to plot to an HP650c plotter. Two new ARC/INFO plot AMLs along with a lineset and shadeset for the HP650C design jet printer have been included. These new files are COLORADO.650, INDEX.650, TWETOLIN.E00 and TWETOSHD.E00. These files were created on a UNIX platform with ARC/INFO 6.1.2. Updated versions of INDEX.E00, CONTACT.E00, LINE.E00, DECO.E00 and BORDER.E00 files that included the newly defined HP650c items are also included. * Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Descriptors: The Digital Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Colorado in ARC/INFO <span class="hlt">Format</span> Open-File Report 92-050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA42B..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA42B..07P"><span id="translatedtitle">3-D or median <span class="hlt">map</span>? Earthquake scenario ground-motion <span class="hlt">maps</span> from physics-based models versus <span class="hlt">maps</span> from ground-motion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There are two common ways to create a ground-motion <span class="hlt">map</span> for a hypothetical earthquake: using ground motion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> equations (by far the more common of the two) and using 3-D physics-based modeling. The former is very familiar to engineers, the latter much less so, and the difference can present a problem because engineers tend to trust the familiar and distrust novelty. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> for essentially the same hypothetical earthquake using the two different methods can look very different, while appearing to present the same information. Using one or the other can lead an engineer or disaster planner to very different estimates of damage and risk. The reasons have to do with depiction of variability, spatial correlation of shaking, the skewed distribution of real-world shaking, and the upward-curving relationship between shaking and damage. The scientists who develop the two kinds of <span class="hlt">map</span> tend to specialize in one or the other and seem to defend their turf, which can aggravate the problem of clearly communicating with engineers.The USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) HayWired scenario has addressed the challenge of explaining to engineers the differences between the two <span class="hlt">maps</span>, and why, in a disaster planning scenario, one might want to use the less-familiar 3-D <span class="hlt">map</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23920744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23920744"><span id="translatedtitle">Fostering ontology alignment sharing: a general-purpose RDF <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">format</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anguita, Alberto; Escrich, Ana; Maojo, Victor</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>RDF has established in the last years as the language for describing, publishing and sharing biomedical resources. Following this trend, a great amount of RDF-based data sources, as well as ontologies, have appeared. Using a common language as RDF has provided a unified syntactic for sharing resources, but the semantics remain as the main cause of heterogeneity, hampering data integration and homogenization efforts. To overcome this issue, ontology alignment based solutions have been typically used. However, alignment information is usually codified using ad-hoc <span class="hlt">formats</span>. In this paper, we present a general purpose ontology <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">format</span>, totally independent from the homogenization approach to be applied. The <span class="hlt">format</span> is accompanied with a Java API that offers <span class="hlt">mapping</span> construction and parsing features, as well as some basic algorithms for applying it to data translation solutions. PMID:23920744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934879','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934879"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of Initial Value on Pattern <span class="hlt">Formation</span> for a Logistic Coupled <span class="hlt">Map</span> Lattice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Li; Zhang, Guang; Cui, Haoyue</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The logistic coupled <span class="hlt">map</span> lattices (LCML) have been widely investigated as well as their pattern dynamics. The patterns <span class="hlt">formation</span> may depend on not only fluctuations of system parameters, but variation of the initial conditions. However, the mathematical discussion is quite few for the effect of initial values so far. The present paper is concerned with the pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> for a two-dimensional Logistic coupled <span class="hlt">map</span> lattice, where any initial value can be linear expressed by corresponding eigenvectors, and patterns <span class="hlt">formation</span> can be determined by selecting the corresponding eigenvectors. A set of simulations are conducted whose results demonstrate the fact. The method utilized in the present paper could be applied to other discrete systems as well. PMID:27382964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CG.....36..355L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CG.....36..355L"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing spatial uncertainty in <span class="hlt">predictive</span> geomorphological <span class="hlt">mapping</span>: A multi-modelling approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luoto, Miska; Marmion, Mathieu; Hjort, Jan</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Maps</span> of earth surface processes and the potential distribution of landforms make an important contribution to theoretical and applied geomorphology. Because decision making often depends on information based on spatial models, there is a great need to develop methodology to evaluate the spatial uncertainty resulting from those models. In this study we developed a new method to produce <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the uncertainty of <span class="hlt">predictions</span> provided by ten state-of-the-art modelling techniques for sorted (SP) and non-sorted (NSP) patterned ground in subarctic Finland at a 1.0-ha resolution. Six uncertainty classes represent the modelling agreement between the different modelling techniques. The resulting uncertainty <span class="hlt">maps</span> reflect the reliability of the estimates for the studied periglacial landforms in the modelled area. Our results showed a significant negative correlation between the degree of uncertainty and the accuracy of the modelling techniques. On average, when all ten models agreed, the mean area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.904 (NSP) and 0.896 (SP), these values decreased to 0.416 (NSP) and 0.518 (SP), respectively, when only five models agreed. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the uncertainty of <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in geomorphology can help scientists to improve the reliability of their data and modelling results. The <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> can be interpreted simultaneously with the uncertainty information, improving understanding of the potential pitfalls of the modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17013379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17013379"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic shifts in the owl's auditory space <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">predict</span> moving sound location.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Witten, Ilana B; Bergan, Joseph F; Knudsen, Eric I</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>The optic tectum of the barn owl contains a <span class="hlt">map</span> of auditory space. We found that, in response to moving sounds, the locations of receptive fields that make up the <span class="hlt">map</span> shifted toward the approaching sound. The magnitude of the receptive field shifts increased systematically with increasing stimulus velocity and, therefore, was appropriate to compensate for sensory and motor delays inherent to auditory orienting behavior. Thus, the auditory space <span class="hlt">map</span> is not static, but shifts adaptively and dynamically in response to stimulus motion. We provide a computational model to account for these results. Because the model derives <span class="hlt">predictive</span> responses from processes that are known to occur commonly in neural networks, we hypothesize that analogous <span class="hlt">predictive</span> responses will be found to exist widely in the central nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with perceptions of stimulus motion in humans for many sensory parameters. PMID:17013379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2667968','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2667968"><span id="translatedtitle">Bone morphogenetic proteins, eye patterning, and retinocollicular <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the mouse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Plas, Daniel T.; Dhande, Onkar; Lopez, Joshua E.; Murali, Deepa; Thaller, Christina; Henkemeyer, Mark; Furuta, Yasuhide; Overbeek, Paul; Crair, Michael C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Patterning events during early eye <span class="hlt">formation</span> determine retinal cell fate and can dictate the behavior of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons as they navigate toward central brain targets. The temporally and spatially regulated expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors in the retina are thought to play a key role in this process, initiating gene expression cascades that distinguish different regions of the retina, particularly along the dorsoventral axis. Here, we examine the role of BMP and a potential downstream effector, EphB, in retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC). RGC axon behaviors during retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in wild type mice are compared with those in several strains of mice with engineered defects of BMP and EphB signaling. Normal RGC axon sorting produces axon order in the optic tract that reflects the dorsoventral position of the parent RGCs in the eye. A dramatic consequence of disrupting BMP signaling is a missorting of RGC axons as they exit the optic chiasm. This sorting is not dependent on EphB. When BMP signaling in the developing eye is genetically modified, RGC order in the optic tract and targeting in the LGN and SC are correspondingly disrupted. These experiments show that BMP signaling regulates dorsoventral RGC cell fate, RGC axon behavior in the ascending optic tract and retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the LGN and SC through mechanisms that are in part distinct from EphB signaling in the LGN and SC. PMID:18614674</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..450..609W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..450..609W"><span id="translatedtitle">Link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> based on hyperbolic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> with community structure for complex networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zuxi; Wu, Yao; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is becoming a concerned topic in the complex network field in recent years. However, the existing link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods are unsatisfactory for processing topological information and have high time complexity. This paper presents a novel method of Link <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> with Community Structure (LPCS) based on hyperbolic <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. Different from the existing link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods, to utilize global structure information of the network, LPCS deals with the network from an overall perspective. LPCS takes full advantage of the community structure and its hierarchical organization to <span class="hlt">map</span> networks into hyperbolic space, and obtains the hyperbolic coordinates which depict the global structure information of the network, then uses hyperbolic distance to describe the similarity between the nodes, finally <span class="hlt">predicts</span> missing links according to the degree of the similarity between unconnected node pairs. The combination of the hyperbolic geometry framework and the community structure makes LPCS perform well in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> missing links, and the time complexity of LPCS is linear, which makes LPCS can be applied to handle large scale networks in acceptable time. LPCS outperforms many state-of-the-art link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods in the networks obeying power-law degree distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140547','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140547"><span id="translatedtitle">Landscape <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of game fish biomass, an ecosystem service of Michigan rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Esselman, Peter C.; Stevenson, R Jan; Lupi, Frank; Riseng, Catherine M.; Wiley, Michael J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The increased integration of ecosystem service concepts into natural resource management places renewed emphasis on <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of fish biomass as a major provisioning service of rivers. The goals of this study were to <span class="hlt">predict</span> and <span class="hlt">map</span> patterns of fish biomass as a proxy for the availability of catchable fish for anglers in rivers and to identify the strongest landscape constraints on fish productivity. We examined hypotheses about fish responses to total phosphorus (TP), as TP is a growth-limiting nutrient known to cause increases (subsidy response) and/or decreases (stress response) in fish biomass depending on its concentration and the species being considered. Boosted regression trees were used to define nonlinear functions that <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the standing crops of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu, panfishes (seven centrarchid species), and Walleye Sander vitreus by using landscape and modeled local-scale predictors. Fitted models were highly significant and explained 22–56% of the variation in validation data sets. Nonlinear and threshold responses were apparent for numerous predictors, including TP concentration, which had significant effects on all except the Walleye fishery. Brook Trout and Smallmouth Bass exhibited both subsidy and stress responses, panfish biomass exhibited a subsidy response only, and Brown Trout exhibited a stress response. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of reach-specific standing crop <span class="hlt">predictions</span> showed patterns of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> fish biomass that corresponded to spatial patterns in catchment area, water temperature, land cover, and nutrient availability. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> illustrated <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of higher trout biomass in coldwater streams draining glacial till in northern Michigan, higher Smallmouth Bass and panfish biomasses in warmwater systems of southern Michigan, and high Walleye biomass in large main-stem rivers throughout the state. Our results allow fisheries managers to examine the biomass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361640"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of schistosomiasis in Brazil using Bayesian geostatistical models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Gosoniu, Laura; Malone, John B; Chammartin, Frédérique; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. A national control programme was initiated in Brazil in the mid-1970s and proved successful in terms of morbidity control, as the number of cases with hepato-splenic involvement was reduced significantly. To consolidate control and move towards elimination, there is a need for reliable <span class="hlt">maps</span> on the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis, so that interventions can target communities at highest risk. The purpose of this study was to <span class="hlt">map</span> the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. We utilized readily available prevalence data from the national schistosomiasis control programme for the years 2005-2009, derived remotely sensed climatic and environmental data and obtained socioeconomic data from various sources. Data were collated into a geographical information system and Bayesian geostatistical models were developed. Model-based <span class="hlt">maps</span> identified important risk factors related to the transmission of S. mansoni and confirmed that environmental variables are closely associated with indices of poverty. Our smoothed <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">map</span>, including uncertainty, highlights priority areas for intervention, namely the northern parts of North and Southeast regions and the eastern part of Northeast region. Our <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">map</span> provides a useful tool for to strengthen existing surveillance-response mechanisms. PMID:24361640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005JGRD..110.7S17R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005JGRD..110.7S17R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> secondary organic aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates in southeast Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Matthew; Allen, David T.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Rates of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span>, due to the reactions of aromatics and monoterpenes, were estimated for southeast Texas by incorporating a modified version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center's chemical mechanism (SAPRC99) into the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx version 3.10). The model included explicit representation of the reactions of five SOA precursors (α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, d-limonene, and Δ3-carene). Reactions of each SOA precursor with O3, OH radical, and NO3 radical were included. The model also included separate reactions for low- and high-SOA-yield aromatic groups with the OH radical. SOA yields in the mechanisms were estimated using compound-specific yield information (ΔSOA/ΔHC) derived from smog chamber experiments conducted by J. R. Odum and colleagues and R. J. Griffin and colleagues. The form of the SOA yield model was based on the work of J. R. Odum and colleagues and is a function of existing organic aerosol concentrations. Existing organic aerosol concentrations were estimated on the basis of ambient measurements of total organic carbon in southeast Texas. The reactions of monoterpenes (predominantly α-pinene and β-pinene) with ozone led to the most regional SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span>, followed by monoterpenes with the nitrate radical. Aromatic-OH reactions led to less regional SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> compared to monoterpenes; however, this <span class="hlt">formation</span> occurs close to the urban and industrial areas of Houston. In contrast, SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> due to the reactions of monoterpenes occurred in the forested areas north of the urban area. The results of this study are in qualitative agreement with estimates of SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> based on ambient data from the same time period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCAP...11..028M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCAP...11..028M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> signal for multi-J CO lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mashian, Natalie; Sternberg, Amiel; Loeb, Abraham</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We present a novel approach to estimating the intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> signal of any CO rotational line emitted during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Our approach is based on large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling, a radiative transfer modeling technique that generates the full CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for a specified gas kinetic temperature, volume density, velocity gradient, molecular abundance, and column density. These parameters, which drive the physics of CO transitions and ultimately dictate the shape and amplitude of the CO SLED, can be linked to the global properties of the host galaxy, mainly the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate (SFR) and the SFR surface density. By further employing an empirically derived SFR-M relation for high redshift galaxies, we can express the LVG parameters, and thus the specific intensity of any CO rotational transition, as functions of the host halo mass M and redshift z. Integrating over the range of halo masses expected to host CO-luminous galaxies, we <span class="hlt">predict</span> a mean CO(1-0) brightness temperature ranging from ~ 0.6 μK at z = 6 to ~ 0.03 μK at z = 10 with brightness temperature fluctuations of ΔCO2 ~ 0.1 and 0.005 μK respectively, at k = 0.1 Mpc-1. In this model, the CO emission signal remains strong for higher rotational levels at z = 6, with langle TCO rangle ~ 0.3 and 0.05 μK for the CO J = 6arrow5 and CO J = 10arrow9 transitions respectively. Including the effects of CO photodissociation in these molecular clouds, especially at low metallicities, results in the overall reduction in the amplitude of the CO signal, with the low- and high-J lines weakening by 2-20% and 10-45%, respectively, over the redshift range 4 < z < 10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26920129','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26920129"><span id="translatedtitle">The effectiveness of digital soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to <span class="hlt">predict</span> soil properties over low-relief areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mosleh, Zohreh; Salehi, Mohammad Hassan; Jafari, Azam; Borujeni, Isa Esfandiarpoor; Mehnatkesh, Abdolmohammad</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This study investigates the ability of different digital soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (DSM) approaches to <span class="hlt">predict</span> some of physical and chemical topsoil properties in the Shahrekord plain of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, Iran. According to a semi-detailed soil survey, 120 soil samples were collected from 0 to 30 cm depth with approximate distance of 750 m. Particle size distribution, coarse fragments (CFs), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, organic carbon (OC), and calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) were determined. Four machine learning techniques, namely, artificial neural networks (ANNs), boosted regression tree (BRT), generalized linear model (GLM), and multiple linear regression (MLR), were used to identify the relationship between soil properties and auxiliary information (terrain attributes, remote sensing indices, geology <span class="hlt">map</span>, existing soil <span class="hlt">map</span>, and geomorphology <span class="hlt">map</span>). Root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean error (ME) were considered to determine the performance of the models. Among the studied models, GLM showed the highest performance to <span class="hlt">predict</span> pH, EC, clay, silt, sand, and CCE, whereas the best model is not necessarily able to make accurate estimation. According to RMSE%, DSM has a good efficiency to <span class="hlt">predict</span> soil properties with low and moderate variabilities. Terrain attributes were the main predictors among different studied auxiliary information. The accuracy of the estimations with more observations is recommended to give a better understanding about the performance of DSM approach over low-relief areas. PMID:26920129</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415417','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415417"><span id="translatedtitle">A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial <span class="hlt">Map</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Using Persistent Homology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dabaghian, Y.; Mémoli, F.; Frank, L.; Carlsson, G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>An animal's ability to navigate through space rests on its ability to create a mental <span class="hlt">map</span> of its environment. The hippocampus is the brain region centrally responsible for such <span class="hlt">maps</span>, and it has been assumed to encode geometric information (distances, angles). Given, however, that hippocampal output consists of patterns of spiking across many neurons, and downstream regions must be able to translate those patterns into accurate information about an animal's spatial environment, we hypothesized that 1) the temporal pattern of neuronal firing, particularly co-firing, is key to decoding spatial information, and 2) since co-firing implies spatial overlap of place fields, a <span class="hlt">map</span> encoded by co-firing will be based on connectivity and adjacency, i.e., it will be a topological <span class="hlt">map</span>. Here we test this topological hypothesis with a simple model of hippocampal activity, varying three parameters (firing rate, place field size, and number of neurons) in computer simulations of rat trajectories in three topologically and geometrically distinct test environments. Using a computational algorithm based on recently developed tools from Persistent Homology theory in the field of algebraic topology, we find that the patterns of neuronal co-firing can, in fact, convey topological information about the environment in a biologically realistic length of time. Furthermore, our simulations reveal a “learning region” that highlights the interplay between the parameters in combining to produce hippocampal states that are more or less adept at <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>. For example, within the learning region a lower number of neurons firing can be compensated by adjustments in firing rate or place field size, but beyond a certain point <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> begins to fail. We propose that this learning region provides a coherent theoretical lens through which to view conditions that impair spatial learning by altering place cell firing rates or spatial specificity. PMID:22912564</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22103421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22103421"><span id="translatedtitle">Axon-axon interactions in neuronal circuit assembly: lessons from olfactory <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Imai, Takeshi; Sakano, Hitoshi</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>During the development of the nervous system, neurons often connect axons and dendrites over long distances, which are navigated by chemical cues. During the past few decades, studies on axon guidance have focused on chemical cues provided by the axonal target or intermediate target. However, recent studies have shed light on the roles and mechanisms underlying axon-axon interactions during neuronal circuit assembly. The roles of axon-axon interactions are best exemplified in recent studies on olfactory <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in vertebrates. Pioneer-follower interaction is essential for the axonal pathfinding process. Pre-target axon sorting establishes the anterior-posterior <span class="hlt">map</span> order. The temporal order of axonal projection is converted to dorsal-ventral topography with the aid of secreted molecules provided by early-arriving axons. An activity-dependent process to form a discrete <span class="hlt">map</span> also depends on axon sorting. Thus, an emerging principle of olfactory <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> is the 'self-organisation' of axons rather than the 'lock and key' matching between axons and targets. In this review, we discuss how axon-axon interactions contribute to neuronal circuit assembly. PMID:22103421</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000033157','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000033157"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Age of Comets: <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Physical and Chemical Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nuth, Joesph A., III; Hill, H. G. M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The chemical composition of a comet has always been considered to be a function of where it formed in the nebula. We suggest that the most important factor in determining a comet's chemistry might actually be when it formed. We present specific <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of correlations between the dust and volatile components to test our hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.448.1107M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.448.1107M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> galaxy encounters in numerical simulations: the spatial extent of induced star <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno, Jorge; Torrey, Paul; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.; Bluck, Asa F. L.; Bansal, Gunjan; Hernquist, Lars</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We employ a suite of 75 simulations of galaxies in idealized major mergers (stellar mass ratio ˜2.5:1), with a wide range of orbital parameters, to investigate the spatial extent of interaction-induced star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Although the total star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in galaxy encounters is generally elevated relative to isolated galaxies, we find that this elevation is a combination of intense enhancements within the central kpc and moderately suppressed activity at larger galactocentric radii. The radial dependence of the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> enhancement is stronger in the less massive galaxy than in the primary, and is also more pronounced in mergers of more closely aligned disc spin orientations. Conversely, these trends are almost entirely independent of the encounter's impact parameter and orbital eccentricity. Our <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the radial dependence of triggered star <span class="hlt">formation</span>, and specifically the suppression of star <span class="hlt">formation</span> beyond kpc-scales, will be testable with the next generation of integral-field spectroscopic surveys.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7120157','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7120157"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> weed migration from soil and climate <span class="hlt">maps</span>. [Centaurea maculosa Lam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation <span class="hlt">map</span> of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration <span class="hlt">prediction</span> technique shows promise for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6879990','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6879990"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and experimental observations of genomic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> by anchoring random clones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grigoriev, A.V. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>Genome <span class="hlt">mapping</span> by anchoring random clones has recently been the subject of intensive theoretical study. In this paper, differences between published <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of properties of anchored groups of clones ( contigs') are analyzed and simplifications of the mathematical formulae describing these properties are presented. The theoretical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are compared with the experimental results from the physical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the genome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Information about the number of genome sections with no anchored clone on them ( oceans') and the number of undetected overlaps between the contigs at a given stage of the experiment is required for the decision to change from the random strategy to that of a directed closure of gaps. We demonstrate that the expected number of oceans can be approximated by the number of groups of clones anchored by a single probe ( singletons'), as can the expected number of undetected overlaps between contigs by the number of contigs containing more than one anchor. 14 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213352-predictive-modeling-synergistic-effects-nanoscale-ion-track-formation','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213352-predictive-modeling-synergistic-effects-nanoscale-ion-track-formation"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.</p> <p>2015-08-05</p> <p>Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track <span class="hlt">formation</span> occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25320819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25320819"><span id="translatedtitle">A universal and efficient method to compute <span class="hlt">maps</span> from image-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabuncu, Mert R</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Discriminative supervised learning algorithms, such as Support Vector Machines, are becoming increasingly popular in biomedical image computing. One of their main uses is to construct image-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models, e.g., for computer aided diagnosis or "mind reading." A major challenge in these applications is the biological interpretation of the machine learning models, which can be arbitrarily complex functions of the input features (e.g., as induced by kernel-based methods). Recent work has proposed several strategies for deriving <span class="hlt">maps</span> that highlight regions relevant for accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Yet most of these methods o n strong assumptions about t he <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model (e.g., linearity, sparsity) and/or data (e.g., Gaussianity), or fail to exploit the covariance structure in the data. In this work, we propose a computationally efficient and universal framework for quantifying associations captured by black box machine learning models. Furthermore, our theoretical perspective reveals that examining associations with <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, in the absence of ground truth labels, can be very informative. We apply the proposed method to machine learning models trained to <span class="hlt">predict</span> cognitive impairment from structural neuroimaging data. We demonstrate that our approach yields biologically meaningful <span class="hlt">maps</span> of association. PMID:25320819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5162033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5162033"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformation and fracture <span class="hlt">map</span> methodology for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> cladding behavior during dry storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chin, B.A.; Khan, M.A.; Tarn, J.C.L.</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>The licensing of interim dry storage of light-water reactor spent fuel requires assurance that release limits of radioactive materials are not exceeded. The extent to which Zircaloy cladding can be relied upon as a barrier to prevent release of radioactive spent fuel and fission products depends upon its integrity. The internal pressure from helium and fission gases could become a source of hoop stress for creep rupture if pressures and temperatures were sufficiently high. Consequently, it is of interest to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the condition of spent fuel cladding during interim storage for periods up to 40 years. To develop this <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, deformation and fracture theories were used to develop <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Where available, experimental deformation and fracture data were used to test the validity of the <span class="hlt">maps</span>. <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> equations were then developed and cumulative damage methodology was used to take credit for the declining temperature of spent fuel during storage. This methodology was then used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> storage temperatures below which creep rupture would not be expected to occur except in fuel rods with pre-existing flaws. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> were also made and compared with results from tests conducted under abnormal conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192555"><span id="translatedtitle">A thermodynamic approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> apparent contact angles on microstructures using surface polygonal <span class="hlt">maps</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Calvimontes, A</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The thermodynamic model of wetting developed and tested in this work allows the understanding and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of apparent contact angles on topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> of real and digitally-generated microstructures. The model considers the solid component as a set of finite areal elements in the form of a polygonal <span class="hlt">map</span>. Liquid and gas components are instead evaluated as continuous and incompressible volumes. In this study, the concept of the wetting topographic spectrum (WTS) is proposed to simulate the changes in the liquid-solid contact areas and of the interfacial energies while wetting the microstructure from the top to the bottom of the topographic <span class="hlt">map</span>, passing through various states of metastable equilibrium, to find a stable configuration. The model was successfully applied to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the wetting apparent contact angles on randomly micro-structured polypropylene (PP) surfaces and on a superhydrophobic and superoleophobic transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure previously presented as a communication in this journal by other authors. The method presented in this study can be used to design and <span class="hlt">predict</span> the geometry of microstructures with special wetting characteristics. PMID:25192555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041007','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041007"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Lakshmi Planum is a high-standing plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing crustal plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes and played an important role in Venus geologic history. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 and Magellan data, resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual topographic and morphologic characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, <span class="hlt">formation</span> of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of <span class="hlt">formation</span> and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about the type and sequence of major events during <span class="hlt">formation</span> and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological <span class="hlt">mapping</span> can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (the V-7 quadrangle, 50-75degN, 300-360degE; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213352','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213352"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.</p> <p>2015-08-05</p> <p>Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO<sub>3</sub>. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track <span class="hlt">formation</span> occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23973561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23973561"><span id="translatedtitle">Using global <span class="hlt">maps</span> to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the risk of dengue in Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogers, David J; Suk, Jonathan E; Semenza, Jan C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article attempts to quantify the risk to Europe of dengue, following the arrival and spread there of one of dengue's vector species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus. A global risk <span class="hlt">map</span> for dengue is presented, based on a global database of the occurrence of this disease, derived from electronic literature searches. Remotely sensed satellite data (from NASA's MODIS series), interpolated meteorological data, <span class="hlt">predicted</span> distribution <span class="hlt">maps</span> of dengue's two main vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, a digital elevation surface and human population density data were all used as potential predictor variables in a non-linear discriminant analysis modelling framework. One hundred bootstrap models were produced by randomly sub-sampling three different training sets for dengue fever, severe dengue (i.e. dengue haemorrhagic fever, DHF) and all-dengue, and output <span class="hlt">predictions</span> were averaged to produce a single global risk <span class="hlt">map</span> for each type of dengue. This paper concentrates on the all-dengue models. Key predictor variables were various thermal data layers, including both day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature, human population density, and a variety of rainfall variables. The relative importance of each may be shown visually using rainbow files and quantitatively using a ranking system. Vegetation Index variables (a common proxy for humidity or saturation deficit) were rarely chosen in the models. The kappa index of agreement indicated an excellent (dengue haemorrhagic fever, Cohen's kappa=0.79 ± 0.028, AUC=0.96 ± 0.007) or good fit of the top ten models in each series to the data (Cohen's kappa=0.73 ± 0.018, AUC=0.94 ± 0.007 for dengue fever and 0.74 ± 0.017, AUC=0.95 ± 0.005 for all dengue). The global risk <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">predicts</span> widespread dengue risk in SE Asia and India, in Central America and parts of coastal South America, but in relatively few regions of Africa. In many cases these are less extensive <span class="hlt">predictions</span> than those of other published dengue risk <span class="hlt">maps</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2999403','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2999403"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Distribution <span class="hlt">Map</span> for the Giant Tropical Ant, Paraponera clavata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Murphy, Christina M.; Breed, Michael D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Paraponera clavata (Fabricius 1775) (Formicidae: Paraponerinae) is a widely distributed Neotropical ant whose large size has attracted the attention of numerous collectors. Working from museum specimens, a georeferenced database of collection localities was developed. This database then served as the source for computer generated <span class="hlt">predictive</span> distribution <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Annual rainfall was the most important variable chosen by the computer model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the distribution of P. clavata, both on the scale of the neotropics and at a finer scale at the northern end its distribution in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. When the model was forced to use vegetation as the first <span class="hlt">predictive</span> variable, the Neotropical model used temperature and rainfall variance as additional variables, while the Mesoamerican model used both climatic and soils variables. Overall, the modeling suggests that P. clavata is more sensitive to abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature, soils) than to biotic factors (vegetation type) in its distribution, although this conclusion comes with the caveat that the vegetation types used in the model are quite generalized. <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> distribution <span class="hlt">mapping</span> holds great promise for generating more precise representations of insect distributions, thereby allowing better tests of the extent of distribution overlaps and other community relationships. PMID:20334591</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1975678','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1975678"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of RNA Pseudoknots Using Heuristic Modeling with <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Sequential Folding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dawson, Wayne K.; Fujiwara, Kazuya; Kawai, Gota</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> RNA secondary structure is often the first step to determining the structure of RNA. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> approaches have historically avoided searching for pseudoknots because of the extreme combinatorial and time complexity of the problem. Yet neglecting pseudoknots limits the utility of such approaches. Here, an algorithm utilizing structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and thermodynamics is introduced for RNA pseudoknot <span class="hlt">prediction</span> that finds the minimum free energy and identifies information about the flexibility of the RNA. The heuristic approach takes advantage of the 5′ to 3′ folding direction of many biological RNA molecules and is consistent with the hierarchical folding hypothesis and the contact order model. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> methods are used to build and analyze the folded structure for pseudoknots and to add important 3D structural considerations. The program can <span class="hlt">predict</span> some well known pseudoknot structures correctly. The results of this study suggest that many functional RNA sequences are optimized for proper folding. They also suggest directions we can proceed in the future to achieve even better results. PMID:17878940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PMB....53..203C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PMB....53..203C"><span id="translatedtitle">Using patient data similarities to <span class="hlt">predict</span> radiation pneumonitis via a self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Shifeng; Zhou, Sumin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Marks, Lawrence B.; Das, Shiva K.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This work investigates the use of the self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span> (SOM) technique for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> lung radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk. SOM is an effective method for projecting and visualizing high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space (<span class="hlt">map</span>). By projecting patients with similar data (dose and non-dose factors) onto the same region of the <span class="hlt">map</span>, commonalities in their outcomes can be visualized and categorized. Once built, the SOM may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> pneumonitis risk by identifying the region of the <span class="hlt">map</span> that is most similar to a patient's characteristics. Two SOM models were developed from a database of 219 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (34 clinically diagnosed with Grade 2+ pneumonitis). The models were: SOMall built from all dose and non-dose factors and, for comparison, SOMdose built from dose factors alone. Both models were tested using ten-fold cross validation and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. Models SOMall and SOMdose yielded ten-fold cross-validated ROC areas of 0.73 (sensitivity/specificity = 71%/68%) and 0.67 (sensitivity/specificity = 63%/66%), respectively. The significant difference between the cross-validated ROC areas of these two models (p < 0.05) implies that non-dose features add important information toward <span class="hlt">predicting</span> RP risk. Among the input features selected by model SOMall, the two with highest impact for increasing RP risk were: (a) higher mean lung dose and (b) chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy. The SOM model developed here may not be extrapolated to treatment techniques outside that used in our database, such as several-field lung intensity modulated radiation therapy or gated radiation therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.457L.127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.457L.127B"><span id="translatedtitle">The high-redshift star <span class="hlt">formation</span> history from carbon-monoxide intensity <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Breysse, Patrick C.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We demonstrate how cosmic star <span class="hlt">formation</span> history can be measured with one-point statistics of carbon-monoxide intensity <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Using a P(D) analysis, the luminosity function of CO-emitting sources can be inferred from the measured one-point intensity PDF. The star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate density (SFRD) can then be obtained, at several redshifts, from the CO luminosity density. We study the effects of instrumental noise, line foregrounds, and target redshift, and obtain constraints on the CO luminosity density of the order of 10 per cent. We show that the SFRD uncertainty is dominated by that of the model connecting CO luminosity and star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. For pessimistic estimates of this model uncertainty, we obtain an error of the order of 50 per cent on SFRD for surveys targeting redshifts between two and seven with reasonable noise and foregrounds included. However, comparisons between intensity <span class="hlt">maps</span> and galaxies could substantially reduce this model uncertainty. In this case, our constraints on SFRD at these redshifts improve to roughly 5 - 10 per cent, which is highly competitive with current measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..495..293M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..495..293M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Map</span>-making for Large-<span class="hlt">Format</span> Detector Arrays on CCAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marsden, G.; Jenness, T.; Scott, D.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>CCAT is a large submillimetre telescope to be built near the ALMA site in northern Chile. A large-<span class="hlt">format</span> KID camera, with up to 48,000 detectors at a single waveband sampled at ˜1 kHz, will have a data rate ˜50 times larger than SCUBA-2, the largest existing submillimetre camera. Creating a <span class="hlt">map</span> from this volume of data will be a challenge, both in terms of memory and processing time required. We investigate how to extend SMURF, the iterative <span class="hlt">map</span>-maker used for reducing SCUBA-2 observations, to a distributed-node parallel system, and estimate how the processing time scales with the number of nodes in the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086877','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086877"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Multiple Model Switching Control with the Self-Organizing <span class="hlt">Map</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Motter, Mark A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">predictive</span>, multiple model control strategy is developed by extension of self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span> (SOM) local dynamic modeling of nonlinear autonomous systems to a control framework. Multiple SOMs collectively model the global response of a nonautonomous system to a finite set of representative prototype controls. Each SOM provides a codebook representation of the dynamics corresponding to a prototype control. Different dynamic regimes are organized into topological neighborhoods where the adjacent entries in the codebook represent the global minimization of a similarity metric. The SOM is additionally employed to identify the local dynamical regime, and consequently implements a switching scheme that selects the best available model for the applied control. SOM based linear models are used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the response to a larger family of control sequences which are clustered on the representative prototypes. The control sequence which corresponds to the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> that best satisfies the requirements on the system output is applied as the external driving signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000031721','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000031721"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Age of Comets: <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Physical and Chemical Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Dust grains in Herbig Ae/Be stars are continuously replenished by infalling comets. The IR spectra of these cometary grains appear to evolve temporally from initially amorphous astronomical silicates in young protostars to crystalline olivine in much older sources. Crystalline olivine can only be produced from amorphous silicates on a time scale of months-to-years via thermal annealing at temperatures near 1000 K. Since such sustained high temperatures only occur near the central star, dust annealed at 1000 K in inner nebular regions must be continuously transported beyond the nebular snowline to be incorporated into the next generation of cometesimals. The average <span class="hlt">formation</span> age of a comet can therefore be measured as a ratio of the annealed crystalline olivine dust component to the total dust content of the comet. Comets formed from nearly pristine interstellar materials early in the protostellar nebula stage will contain very little crystalline dust whereas comets formed towards the end of the accretion period will incorporate a much higher percentage of annealed silicate. It is unlikely that only dust grains circulate from the inner to the outer nebula; the gas associated with such dust should also find its way beyond the snowline. Since this gas and dust will have equilibrated in the higher pressure-temperature regime of the inner nebula, it will contain a much higher proportion of hydrocarbons and ammonia than more pristine interstellar ices. Therefore, in addition to a higher fraction of crystalline dust, later forming comets should also contain higher ratios of hydrocarbons to CO and ammonia to N2 than do those formed early in the history of the nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..967S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..967S"><span id="translatedtitle">Urban <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Growth <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Pune, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivakumar, V.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This study aims to <span class="hlt">map</span> the urban area in and around Pune region between the year 1991 and 2010, and <span class="hlt">predict</span> its probable future growth using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of 1991, 2001 and 2010 were used for analyzing urban land use class. Urban class was extracted / <span class="hlt">mapped</span> using supervised classification technique with maximum likelihood classifier. The accuracy assessment was carried out for classified <span class="hlt">maps</span>. The achieved overall accuracy and Kappa statistics were 86.33 % & 0.76 respectively. Transition probability matrix and area change were obtained using different classified images. A plug-in was developed in QGIS software (open source) based on Markov Chain model algorithm for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> probable urban growth for the future year 2021. Based on available data set, the result shows that urban area is expected to grow much higher in the year 2021 when compared to 2010. This study provides an insight into understanding of urban growth and aids in subsequent infrastructure planning, management and decision-making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22422048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22422048"><span id="translatedtitle">Gis <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Northern State, Sudan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamed Bashier, E; Salih, I; Khatir Sam, A</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>This study presents the evaluation of absorbed dose in air due to gamma-emitting nuclides from (238)U and (232)Th series, (40)K and (137)Cs and the corresponding geographical information system (GIS) <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> for the Northern State. Activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th , (40)K and (137)Cs in soil samples collected from different locations have been measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. On  average, activity concentrations were 19±4 ((238)U), 47±11 ((232)Th), 317±65 ((40)K) and 2.26 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above ground surface was calculated using seven sets of dose rate conversion factors (DRCFs) and the corresponding annual effective dose was estimated. On average, the values obtained fall within a narrow range of 44 and 53 nGy h(-1), indicating that the variation in absorbed dose rate is insignificant for different DRCFs. The corresponding annual effective dose ranged from 53 to 65 µSv y(-1). Using GIS, <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> for concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were produced. Also, a <span class="hlt">map</span> for absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was produced, which showed a trend of increasing from the west towards south-east of the State. PMID:22422048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119955"><span id="translatedtitle">SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional <span class="hlt">maps</span> in a radial gel <span class="hlt">format</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Millioni, Renato; Miuzzo, Manuela; Antonioli, Paolo; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Iori, Elisabetta; Dosselli, Ryan; Puricelli, Lucia; Kolbe, Markus; Tessari, Paolo; Righetti, Pier Giorgio</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A novel method for performing 2-D <span class="hlt">map</span> analysis is here reported, consisting in a modification of the second dimension run, which is performed not in a conventional square- or rectangular-size gel, but in a radial surface. This has the advantage of permitting resolution of closely adjacent bands, representing strings of isoforms of similar or identical mass but of closely spaced isoelectric points. When used in a mono-dimensional, SDS-PAGE <span class="hlt">format</span>, this system allows the simultaneous running of 62 sample tracks. Examples are given of separation of plasma and urinary proteins. PMID:20119955</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.200..421C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.200..421C"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">predictive</span> equations and site amplification estimates for the next-generation Swiss Shake<span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cauzzi, Carlo; Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat; Clinton, John; Wiemer, Stefan; Kästli, Philipp; Cua, Georgia; Giardini, Domenico</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a comprehensive scientific and technical update of the Swiss customization of United States Geological Survey Shake<span class="hlt">Map</span>, in use at the Swiss Seismological Service since 2007. The new Swiss Shake<span class="hlt">Maps</span> are based on <span class="hlt">predictive</span> equations for peak ground-motions and response spectra derived from stochastic simulations tailored to Swiss seismicity. Using synthetics allows overcoming the difficulties posed by: (i) the paucity of strong-motion data recordings in Switzerland; (ii) the regional dependence of shear wave energy attenuation and focal depth distribution in the Swiss Alps and foreland; (iii) the depth dependence of stress parameters suggested by macroseismic and instrumental observations. In the new Swiss Shake<span class="hlt">Maps</span>, VS,30 is no longer used as proxy for site amplification at regional scale, and is replaced by macroseismic intensity increments for different soil classes, based on the recently revised earthquake catalogue of Switzerland (ECOS-09). The new implementation converts ground-motion levels into macroseismic intensity by means of ground-motion to intensity conversion equations based on the Italian strong-motion and intensity databanks and is therefore well constrained for intensities larger than VII. The new Swiss Shake<span class="hlt">Maps</span> show a satisfactory agreement with the macroseimic fields of both large historical events and recent well-recorded earthquakes of moderate magnitude. The new implementation is now fully consistent with the state-of-the-art in engineering seismology in Switzerland.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438363','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438363"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographical information system and <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.4237B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.4237B"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring, <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of ionospheric scintillation over the Brazilian equatorial and low latitude regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker-Guedes, Fabio; de Paula, E. R.; de Rezende, L. F. C.; Stephany, S.; Kantor, I. J.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Siqueira, P. M.; Correa, K. S.; Dutra, A. P.; Guedes, C.; Takahashi, H.; Silva, J. D. S.</p> <p></p> <p>It is well known, today, that equatorial ionospheric scintillations affect performance of GPS receivers. Scintillation occurs when a radio wave crosses the ionosphere and suffers distortion in phase and amplitude. It also contributes to loss of lock of GPS receivers, resulting decrease of the number of available satellites and consequently yielding poor satellite geometry. Therefore, the required accuracy and positioning precision for aerial navigation are affected. Among other activities, EMBRACE, the space weather program of INPE, is monitoring and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the ionospheric scintillation over the South American equatorial and low latitude region in real time. This <span class="hlt">mapping</span> is available in the internet by means of computer programs that retrieve data from a network of GPS receivers distributed in Brazil. These data are also being used to survey and <span class="hlt">predict</span> the occurrence of ionospheric scintillation through data mining techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21072585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21072585"><span id="translatedtitle">Decision-Tree-based data mining and rule induction for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> soil bacterial diversity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Kangsuk; Yoo, Keunje; Ki, Dongwon; Son, Il Suh; Oh, Kyong Joo; Park, Joonhong</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Soilmicrobial ecology plays a significant role in global ecosystems. Nevertheless, methods of model <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> have yet to be established for soil microbial ecology. The present study was undertaken to develop an artificial-intelligence- and geographical information system (GIS)-integrated framework for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> soil bacterial diversity using pre-existing environmental geospatial database information, and to further evaluate the applicability of soil bacterial diversity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> for planning construction of eco-friendly roads. Using a stratified random sampling, soil bacterial diversity was measured in 196 soil samples in a forest area where construction of an eco-friendly road was planned. Model accuracy, coherence analyses, and tree analysis were systematically performed, and four-class discretized decision tree (DT) with ordinary pair-wise partitioning (OPP) was selected as the optimal model among tested five DT model variants. GIS-based simulations of the optimal DT model with varying weights assigned to soil ecological quality showed that the inclusion of soil ecology in environmental components, which are considered in environmental impact assessment, significantly affects the spatial distributions of overall environmental quality values as well as the determination of an environmentally optimized road route. This work suggests a guideline to use systematic accuracy, coherence, and tree analyses in selecting an optimal DT model from multiple candidate model variants, and demonstrates the applicability of the OPP-improved DT integrated with GIS in rule induction for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> bacterial diversity. These findings also provide implication on the significance of soil microbial ecology in environmental impact assessment and eco-friendly construction planning. PMID:21072585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726791','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726791"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Factors and Risk <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Munyua, Peninah M.; Murithi, R. Mbabu; Ithondeka, Peter; Hightower, Allen; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Anyangu, Samuel A.; Kiplimo, Jusper; Bett, Bernard; Vrieling, Anton; Breiman, Robert F.; Njenga, M. Kariuki</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background To-date, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have occurred in 38 of the 69 administrative districts in Kenya. Using surveillance records collected between 1951 and 2007, we determined the risk of exposure and outcome of an RVF outbreak, examined the ecological and climatic factors associated with the outbreaks, and used these data to develop an RVF risk <span class="hlt">map</span> for Kenya. Methods Exposure to RVF was evaluated as the proportion of the total outbreak years that each district was involved in prior epizootics, whereas risk of outcome was assessed as severity of observed disease in humans and animals for each district. A probability-impact weighted score (1 to 9) of the combined exposure and outcome risks was used to classify a district as high (score ≥ 5) or medium (score ≥2 - <5) risk, a classification that was subsequently subjected to expert group analysis for final risk level determination at the division levels (total = 391 divisions). Divisions that never reported RVF disease (score < 2) were classified as low risk. Using data from the 2006/07 RVF outbreak, the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk factors for an RVF outbreak were identified. The <span class="hlt">predictive</span> probabilities from the model were further used to develop an RVF risk <span class="hlt">map</span> for Kenya. Results The final output was a RVF risk <span class="hlt">map</span> that classified 101 of 391 divisions (26%) located in 21 districts as high risk, and 100 of 391 divisions (26%) located in 35 districts as medium risk and 190 divisions (48%) as low risk, including all 97 divisions in Nyanza and Western provinces. The risk of RVF was positively associated with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), low altitude below 1000m and high precipitation in areas with solonertz, luvisols and vertisols soil types (p <0.05). Conclusion RVF risk <span class="hlt">map</span> serves as an important tool for developing and deploying prevention and control measures against the disease. PMID:26808021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20413617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20413617"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the information content of RNA structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data for secondary structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quarrier, Scott; Martin, Joshua S; Davis-Neulander, Lauren; Beauregard, Arthur; Laederach, Alain</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> experiments (using probes such as dimethyl sulfate [DMS], kethoxal, and T1 and V1 RNases) are used to determine the secondary structures of RNA molecules. The process is iterative, combining the results of several probes with constrained minimum free-energy calculations to produce a model of the structure. We aim to evaluate whether particular probes provide more structural information, and specifically, how noise in the data affects the <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. Our approach involves generating "decoy" RNA structures (using the sFold Boltzmann sampling procedure) and evaluating whether we are able to identify the correct structure from this ensemble of structures. We show that with perfect information, we are always able to identify the optimal structure for five RNAs of known structure. We then collected orthogonal structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data (DMS and RNase T1 digest) under several solution conditions using our high-throughput capillary automated footprinting analysis (CAFA) technique on two group I introns of known structure. Analysis of these data reveals the error rates in the data under optimal (low salt) and suboptimal solution conditions (high MgCl(2)). We show that despite these errors, our computational approach is less sensitive to experimental noise than traditional constraint-based structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> algorithms. Finally, we propose a novel approach for visualizing the interaction of chemical and enzymatic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data with RNA structure. We project the data onto the first two dimensions of a multidimensional scaling of the sFold-generated decoy structures. We are able to directly visualize the structural information content of structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data and reconcile multiple data sets. PMID:20413617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3741112','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3741112"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span>, Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Spatial <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Lymphatic Filariasis Prevalence in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing interest to control or eradicate the major neglected tropical diseases. Accurate modelling of the geographic distributions of parasitic infections will be crucial to this endeavour. We used 664 community level infection prevalence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with eight environmental variables, altitude and population density, and a multivariate Bayesian generalized linear spatial model that allows explicit accounting for spatial autocorrelation and incorporation of uncertainty in input data and model parameters, to construct the first spatially-explicit <span class="hlt">map</span> describing LF prevalence distribution in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against <span class="hlt">predictions</span> made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA climate models for 2050 to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the likely distributions of LF under future climate and population changes. We show that LF prevalence is strongly influenced by spatial autocorrelation between locations but is only weakly associated with environmental covariates. Infection prevalence, however, is found to be related to variations in population density. All associations with key environmental/demographic variables appear to be complex and non-linear. LF prevalence is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to be highly heterogenous across Africa, with high prevalences (>20%) estimated to occur primarily along coastal West and East Africa, and lowest prevalences <span class="hlt">predicted</span> for the central part of the continent. Error <span class="hlt">maps</span>, however, indicate a need for further surveys to overcome problems with data scarcity in the latter and other regions. Analysis of future changes in prevalence indicates that population growth rather than climate change per se will represent the dominant factor in the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> increase/decrease and spread of LF on the continent. We indicate that these results could play an important role in aiding the development of strategies that are best able to achieve the goals of parasite elimination locally and globally in a manner that may also account</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2106N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2106N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of soil properties at high resolution by component wise gradient boosting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nussbaum, Madlene; Papritz, Andreas; Fraefel, Marielle; Baltensweiler, Andri; Keller, Armin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Accurate spatial information on soils is crucial for sustainable usage of the resource soil. Spatial planning, agriculture, forestry or natural hazards management need high resolution <span class="hlt">maps</span> of potentials of soils for particular functions (e. g. water storage, nutrient supply). Soil functions are derived from basic soil properties like soil organic carbon or soil texture. For many regions precise <span class="hlt">maps</span> of basic soil properties are missing. Hence, as a prerequisite for digital soil function <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, <span class="hlt">maps</span> of soil properties must be created with the desired resolution. A wide range of statistical approaches (linear and additive models, external drift kriging, Random Forest) were used for this in the past. When numerous environmental covariates (e. g. hyper-spectral remote sensing data) are available the selection of the model with best <span class="hlt">predictive</span> power is challenging. Besides the issue of covariate selection, one should allow for non-linear effects of covariates on soil properties. To handle these difficulties we used a gradient boosting approach that included besides categorical covariates linear and smooth non-linear terms of continuous covariates as base learners. Residual auto-correlation and non-stationary relationships were modeled by smooth spatial surfaces. Gradient boosting of this flavor selects relevant covariates in a slow learning procedure and inherently models non-linear dependencies on covariates during the fitting process. The restriction to linear and smoothing spline base learners retains the interpretability of the fitted <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models. The number of boosting iterations is the main tuning parameter and was determined by tenfold cross validation. To explore the feasibility of the gradient boosting approach we <span class="hlt">mapped</span> pH of forest topsoils in Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, at high (50 m) spatial resolution. Legacy pH measurements were available from 1200 sites in the in the forests of Canton of Zurich. Gradient boosting selected a sparse model with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nevada+AND+geology&id=EJ195296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nevada+AND+geology&id=EJ195296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The area of geological <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological <span class="hlt">maps</span> were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PApGe.tmp...25W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PApGe.tmp...25W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geospatial <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modelling for Climate <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Selected Severe Weather Phenomena Over Poland: A Methodological Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walawender, Ewelina; Walawender, Jakub P.; Ustrnul, Zbigniew</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the study is to introduce methods for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the spatial distribution of the occurrence of selected atmospheric phenomena (thunderstorms, fog, glaze and rime) over Poland from 1966 to 2010 (45 years). Limited in situ observations as well the discontinuous and location-dependent nature of these phenomena make traditional interpolation inappropriate. Spatially continuous <span class="hlt">maps</span> were created with the use of geospatial <span class="hlt">predictive</span> modelling techniques. For each given phenomenon, an algorithm identifying its favourable meteorological and environmental conditions was created on the basis of observations recorded at 61 weather stations in Poland. Annual frequency <span class="hlt">maps</span> presenting the probability of a day with a thunderstorm, fog, glaze or rime were created with the use of a modelled, gridded dataset by implementing predefined algorithms. Relevant explanatory variables were derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and downscaled with the use of a Regional Climate Model. The resulting <span class="hlt">maps</span> of favourable meteorological conditions were found to be valuable and representative on the country scale but at different correlation (r) strength against in situ data (from r = 0.84 for thunderstorms to r = 0.15 for fog). A weak correlation between gridded estimates of fog occurrence and observations data indicated the very local nature of this phenomenon. For this reason, additional environmental predictors of fog occurrence were also examined. Topographic parameters derived from the SRTM elevation model and reclassified CORINE Land Cover data were used as the external, explanatory variables for the multiple linear regression kriging used to obtain the final <span class="hlt">map</span>. The regression model explained 89 % of annual frequency of fog variability in the study area. Regression residuals were interpolated via simple kriging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9697E..28U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9697E..28U"><span id="translatedtitle">Depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture <span class="hlt">mapping</span> for early <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of cancer progression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; LaFace, Justin; Hartman, Douglas J.; Liu, Yang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Effective management of patients who are at risk of developing invasive cancer is a primary challenge in early cancer detection. Techniques that can help establish clear-cut protocols for successful triaging of at-risk patients have the potential of providing critical help in improving patient care while simultaneously reducing patient cost. We have developed such a technique for early <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of cancer progression that uses unstained tissue sections to provide depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (nanoNAM) of heterogeneity in optical density alterations manifested in precancerous lesions during cancer progression. We present nanoNAM and its application to <span class="hlt">predicting</span> cancer progression in a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis: ApcMin/+ mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/968429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/968429"><span id="translatedtitle">Remotely <span class="hlt">mapping</span> river water quality using multivariate regression with <span class="hlt">prediction</span> validation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stork, Christopher Lyle; Autry, Bradley C.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to <span class="hlt">predict</span> river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were <span class="hlt">predicted</span> in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality <span class="hlt">maps</span>. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.456.4533M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.456.4533M"><span id="translatedtitle">KROSS: <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the Hα emission across the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> sequence at z ≈ 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magdis, Georgios E.; Bureau, Martin; Stott, J. P.; Tiley, A.; Swinbank, A. M.; Bower, R.; Bunker, A. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Johnson, Helen; Sharples, Ray</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present first results from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Redshift One Spectroscopic Survey, an ongoing large kinematical survey of a thousand, z ˜ 1 star-forming galaxies, with VLT KMOS. Out of the targeted galaxies (˜500 so far), we detect and spatially resolve Hα emission in ˜90 and 77 per cent of the sample, respectively. Based on the integrated Hα flux measurements and the spatially resolved <span class="hlt">maps</span>, we derive a median star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate (SFR) of ˜7.0 M⊙ yr-1 and a median physical size of <r^' }_1/2> = 5.1 kpc. We combine the inferred SFRs and effective radii measurements to derive the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> surface densities (ΣSFR) and present a `resolved' version of the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> main sequence (MS) that appears to hold at subgalactic scales, with similar slope and scatter as the one inferred from galaxy-integrated properties. Our data also yield a trend between ΣSFR and Δ(sSFR) (distance from the MS) suggesting that galaxies with higher sSFR are characterized by denser star <span class="hlt">formation</span> activity. Similarly, we find evidence for an anticorrelation between the gas phase metallicity (Z) and the Δ(sSFR), suggesting a 0.2 dex variation in the metal content of galaxies within the MS and significantly lower metallicities for galaxies above it. The origin of the observed trends between ΣSFR-Δ(sSFR) and Z-Δ(sSFR) could be driven by an interplay between variations of the gas fraction or the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> efficiency of the galaxies along and off the MS. To address this, follow-up observations of our sample that will allow gas mass estimates are necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.B23B1078M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.B23B1078M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modeling and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Fish Distributions in Small Streams of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCleary, R. J.; Hassan, M. A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>An automated procedure was developed to model spatial fish distributions within small streams in the Foothills of Alberta. Native fish populations and their habitats are susceptible to impacts arising from both industrial forestry and rapid development of petroleum resources in the region. Knowledge of fish distributions and the effects of industrial activities on their habitats is required to help conserve native fish populations. Resource selection function (RSF) models were used to explain presence/absence of fish in small streams. Target species were bull trout, rainbow trout and non-native brook trout. Using GIS, the drainage network was divided into reaches with uniform slope and drainage area and then polygons for each reach were created. Predictor variables described stream size, stream energy, climate and land-use. We identified a set of candidate models and selected the best model using a standard Akaike Information Criteria approach. The best models were validated with two external data sets. Drainage area and basin slope parameters were included in all best models. This finding emphasizes the importance of controlling for the energy dimension at the basin scale in investigations into the effects of land-use on aquatic resources in this transitional landscape between the mountains and plains. The best model for bull trout indicated a relation between the presence of artificial migration barriers in downstream areas and the extirpation of the species from headwater reaches. We produced reach-scale <span class="hlt">maps</span> by species and summarized this information within all small catchments across the 12,000 km2 study area. These <span class="hlt">maps</span> had included three categories based on <span class="hlt">predicted</span> probability of capture for individual reaches. The high probability category had a 78 percent accuracy for correctly <span class="hlt">predicting</span> both fish present and fish not-present reaches. Basin scale <span class="hlt">maps</span> highlight specific watersheds likely to support both native bull trout and invasive brook trout, while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677525"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span>-for-CompAction: navigation in social environments using generalized cognitive <span class="hlt">maps</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A; Calvo, Carlos; Makarov, Valeri A</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The ultimate navigation efficiency of mobile robots in human environments will depend on how we will appraise them: merely as impersonal machines or as human-like agents. In the latter case, an agent may take advantage of the cooperative collision avoidance, given that it possesses recursive cognition, i.e., the agent's decisions depend on the decisions made by humans that in turn depend on the agent's decisions. To deal with this high-level cognitive skill, we propose a neural network architecture implementing <span class="hlt">Prediction</span>-for-CompAction paradigm. The network <span class="hlt">predicts</span> possible human-agent collisions and compacts the time dimension by projecting a given dynamic situation into a static <span class="hlt">map</span>. Thereby emerging compact cognitive <span class="hlt">map</span> can be readily used as a "dynamic GPS" for planning actions or mental evaluation of the convenience of cooperation in a given context. We provide numerical evidence that cooperation yields additional room for more efficient navigation in cluttered pedestrian flows, and the agent can choose path to the target significantly shorter than a robot treated by humans as a functional machine. Moreover, the navigation safety, i.e., the chances to avoid accidental collisions, increases under cooperation. Remarkably, these benefits yield no additional load to the mean society effort. Thus, the proposed strategy is socially compliant, and the humanoid agent can behave as "one of us." PMID:25677525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9196E..0DD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9196E..0DD"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Profiler Suite: using mission performance data to refine <span class="hlt">predictive</span> contamination modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Devaud, Genevieve; Jaross, Glen</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>On October 28, 2011, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite launched at Vandenberg Air Force base aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket. Included among the five instruments was the Ozone <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Profiler Suite (OMPS), an advanced suite of three hyperspectral instruments built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Molecular transport modeling is used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> optical throughput changes due to contaminant accumulation to ensure performance margin to End Of Life. The OMPS Nadir Profiler, operating at the lowest wavelengths of 250 - 310 nm, is most sensitive to contaminant accumulation. Geometry, thermal profile and material properties must be accurately modeled in order to have confidence in the results, yet it is well known that the complex chemistry and process dependent variability of aerospace materials presents a substantial challenge to the modeler. Assumptions about the absorption coefficients, desorption and diffusion kinetics of outgassing species from polymeric materials dramatically affect the model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, yet it is rare indeed that on-mission data is analyzed at a later date as a means to compare with modeling results. Optical throughput measurements for the Ozone and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Profiler Suite on the Suomi NPP Satellite indicate that optical throughput degradation between day 145 and day 858 is less than 0.5%. We will show how assumptions about outgassing rates and desorption energies, in particular, dramatically affect the modeled optical throughput and what assumptions represent the on-orbit data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSemi..36l4006Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSemi..36l4006Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of four-contact vertical Hall-devices using a conformal <span class="hlt">mapping</span> technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Huang; Yue, Xu; Yufeng, Guo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Instead of the conventional design with five contacts in the sensor active area, innovative vertical Hall devices (VHDs) with four contacts and six contacts are asymmetrical in structural design but symmetrical in the current flow that can be well fit for the spinning current technique for offset elimination. In this article, a conformal <span class="hlt">mapping</span> calculation method is used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the performance of asymmetrical VHD embedded in a deep n-well with four contacts. Furthermore, to make the calculation more accurate, the junction field effect is also involved into the conformal <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method. The error between calculated and simulated results is less than 5% for the current-related sensitivity, and approximately 13% for the voltage-related sensitivity. This proves that such calculations can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the optimal structure of the vertical Hall-devices. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Nos. BK20131379, BK20141431) and the Graduate Research and Innovation Projects of Jiangsu Province (No. SJLX_0373).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9394E..0JG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9394E..0JG"><span id="translatedtitle">Feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> driven no-reference image quality <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of authentically distorted images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Bovik, Alan C.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Current blind image quality <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models rely on benchmark databases comprised of singly and synthetically distorted images, thereby learning image features that are only adequate to <span class="hlt">predict</span> human perceived visual quality on such inauthentic distortions. However, real world images often contain complex mixtures of multiple distortions. Rather than a) discounting the effect of these mixtures of distortions on an image's perceptual quality and considering only the dominant distortion or b) using features that are only proven to be efficient for singly distorted images, we deeply study the natural scene statistics of authentically distorted images, in different color spaces and transform domains. We propose a feature-<span class="hlt">maps</span>-driven statistical approach which avoids any latent assumptions about the type of distortion(s) contained in an image, and focuses instead on modeling the remarkable consistencies in the scene statistics of real world images in the absence of distortions. We design a deep belief network that takes model-based statistical image features derived from a very large database of authentically distorted images as input and discovers good feature representations by generalizing over different distortion types, mixtures, and severities, which are later used to learn a regressor for quality <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. We demonstrate the remarkable competence of our features for improving automatic perceptual quality <span class="hlt">prediction</span> on a benchmark database and on the newly designed LIVE Authentic Image Quality Challenge Database and show that our approach of combining robust statistical features and the deep belief network dramatically outperforms the state-of-the-art.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1538830','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1538830"><span id="translatedtitle">AlgPred: <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of allergenic proteins and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of IgE epitopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saha, Sudipto; Raghava, G. P. S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this study a systematic attempt has been made to integrate various approaches in order to <span class="hlt">predict</span> allergenic proteins with high accuracy. The dataset used for testing and training consists of 578 allergens and 700 non-allergens obtained from A. K. Bjorklund, D. Soeria-Atmadja, A. Zorzet, U. Hammerling and M. G. Gustafsson (2005) Bioinformatics, 21, 39–50. First, we developed methods based on support vector machine using amino acid and dipeptide composition and achieved an accuracy of 85.02 and 84.00%, respectively. Second, a motif-based method has been developed using MEME/MAST software that achieved sensitivity of 93.94 with 33.34% specificity. Third, a database of known IgE epitopes was searched and this <span class="hlt">predicted</span> allergenic proteins with 17.47% sensitivity at specificity of 98.14%. Fourth, we <span class="hlt">predicted</span> allergenic proteins by performing BLAST search against allergen representative peptides. Finally hybrid approaches have been developed, which combine two or more than two approaches. The performance of all these algorithms has been evaluated on an independent dataset of 323 allergens and on 101 725 non-allergens obtained from Swiss-Prot. A web server AlgPred has been developed for the <span class="hlt">predicting</span> allergenic proteins and for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> IgE epitopes on allergenic proteins (). AlgPred is available at . PMID:16844994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1725b0059P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1725b0059P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of 3D chip <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the facing cutting with lathe machine using FEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prasetyo, Yudhi; Tauviqirrahman, Mohamad; Rusnaldy</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper presents the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the chip <span class="hlt">formation</span> at the machining process using a lathe machine in a more specific way focusing on facing cutting (face turning). The main purpose is to propose a new approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the chip <span class="hlt">formation</span> with the variation of the cutting directions i.e., the backward and forward direction. In addition, the interaction between stress analysis and chip <span class="hlt">formation</span> on cutting process was also investigated. The simulations were conducted using three dimensional (3D) finite element method based on ABAQUS software with aluminum and high speed steel (HSS) as the workpiece and the tool materials, respectively. The simulation result showed that the chip resulted using a backward direction depicts a better <span class="hlt">formation</span> than that using a conventional (forward) direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138743','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138743"><span id="translatedtitle">LRR Conservation <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Functional Sites within Protein Leucine-Rich Repeat Domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Helft, Laura; Reddy, Vignyan; Chen, Xiyang; Koller, Teresa; Federici, Luca; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Gupta, Rishabh; Bent, Andrew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Computational <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of protein functional sites can be a critical first step for analysis of large or complex proteins. Contemporary methods often require several homologous sequences and/or a known protein structure, but these resources are not available for many proteins. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are ligand interaction domains found in numerous proteins across all taxonomic kingdoms, including immune system receptors in plants and animals. We devised Repeat Conservation <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> (RCM), a computational method that <span class="hlt">predicts</span> functional sites of LRR domains. RCM utilizes two or more homologous sequences and a generic representation of the LRR structure to identify conserved or diversified patches of amino acids on the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> surface of the LRR. RCM was validated using solved LRR+ligand structures from multiple taxa, identifying ligand interaction sites. RCM was then used for de novo dissection of two plant microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptors, EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) and FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2). In vivo testing of Arabidopsis thaliana EFR and FLS2 receptors mutagenized at sites identified by RCM demonstrated previously unknown functional sites. The RCM <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for EFR, FLS2 and a third plant LRR protein, PGIP, compared favorably to <span class="hlt">predictions</span> from ODA (optimal docking area), Consurf, and PAML (positive selection) analyses, but RCM also made valid functional site <span class="hlt">predictions</span> not available from these other bioinformatic approaches. RCM analyses can be conducted with any LRR-containing proteins at www.plantpath.wisc.edu/RCM, and the approach should be modifiable for use with other types of repeat protein domains. PMID:21789174</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA..tmp..240M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA..tmp..240M"><span id="translatedtitle">A Thermodynamic Approach to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47.3761M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47.3761M"><span id="translatedtitle">A Thermodynamic Approach to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110833"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current <span class="hlt">Predictions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two <span class="hlt">predictive</span> approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally <span class="hlt">predicted</span> soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4482144','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4482144"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current <span class="hlt">Predictions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Shepherd, Keith D.; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two <span class="hlt">predictive</span> approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally <span class="hlt">predicted</span> soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398358','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398358"><span id="translatedtitle">A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Strategic Noise <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Occupational Noise Exposure Using the Random Walk Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haron, Zaiton; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could <span class="hlt">predict</span> strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875019"><span id="translatedtitle">A stochastic simulation framework for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and occupational noise exposure using the random walk approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Lim Ming; Haron, Zaiton; Yahya, Khairulzan; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could <span class="hlt">predict</span> strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22717474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22717474"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> areas of giant molybdenum blue clusters: a spectroscopic study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Botar, Bogdan; Ellern, Arkady; Kögerler, Paul</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The self-assembly of soluble molybdenum blue species from simple molybdate solutions has primarily been associated with giant mixed-valent wheel-shaped cluster anions, derived from the {Mo(V/VI)(154/176)} archetypes, and a {Mo(V/VI)(368)} lemon-shaped cluster. The combined use of Raman spectroscopy and kinetic precipitation as self-assembly monitoring techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction is key to <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the realm of molybdenum blue species by establishing spherical {Mo(V/VI)(102)}-type Keplerates as an important giant molybdenum blue-type species. We additionally rationalize the empirical effect of reducing agent concentration on the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of all three relevant skeletal types: wheel, lemon and spheres. Whereas both wheels and the lemon-shaped {Mo(V/VI)(368)} cluster are obtained from weakly reduced molybdenum blue solutions, considerably higher reduced solutions lead to {Mo(V/VI)(102)}-type Keplerates. PMID:22717474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1052063','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1052063"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> areas of giant molybdenum blue clusters: a spectroscopic study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Botar, Bogdan; Ellern, Arkady; Kogerler, Paul</p> <p>2012-05-18</p> <p>The self-assembly of soluble molybdenum blue species from simple molybdate solutions has primarily been associated with giant mixed-valent wheel-shaped cluster anions, derived from the {MoV/VI154/176} archetypes, and a {MoV/VI368} lemon-shaped cluster. The combined use of Raman spectroscopy and kinetic precipitation as self-assembly monitoring techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction is key to <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the realm of molybdenum blue species by establishing spherical {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates as an important giant molybdenum blue-type species. We additionally rationalize the empirical effect of reducing agent concentration on the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of all three relevant skeletal types: wheel, lemon and spheres. Whereas both wheels and the lemon-shaped {MoV/VI368} cluster are obtained from weakly reduced molybdenum blue solutions, considerably higher reduced solutions lead to {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhRvL.111g3002F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhRvL.111g3002F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of Hollow Atom <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Intense X-Ray Pulses Probed by Partial Covariance <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frasinski, L. J.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Mucke, M.; Squibb, R. J.; Siano, M.; Eland, J. H. D.; Linusson, P.; v. d. Meulen, P.; Salén, P.; Thomas, R. D.; Larsson, M.; Foucar, L.; Ullrich, J.; Motomura, K.; Mondal, S.; Ueda, K.; Osipov, T.; Fang, L.; Murphy, B. F.; Berrah, N.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Schorb, S.; Messerschmidt, M.; Glownia, J. M.; Cryan, J. P.; Coffee, R. N.; Takahashi, O.; Wada, S.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.; Feifel, R.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>When exposed to ultraintense x-radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) the innermost electronic shell can efficiently be emptied, creating a transient hollow atom or molecule. Understanding the femtosecond dynamics of such systems is fundamental to achieving atomic resolution in flash diffraction imaging of noncrystallized complex biological samples. We demonstrate the capacity of a correlation method called “partial covariance mapping” to probe the electron dynamics of neon atoms exposed to intense 8 fs pulses of 1062 eV photons. A complete picture of ionization processes competing in hollow atom <span class="hlt">formation</span> and decay is visualized with unprecedented ease and the <span class="hlt">map</span> reveals hitherto unobserved nonlinear sequences of photoionization and Auger events. The technique is particularly well suited to the high counting rate inherent in FEL experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4519547','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4519547"><span id="translatedtitle">Decoding the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of New Semantics: MVPA Investigation of Rapid Neocortical Plasticity during Associative Encoding through Fast <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Atir-Sharon, Tali; Gilboa, Asaf; Hazan, Hananel; Koilis, Ester; Manevitz, Larry M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Neocortical structures typically only support slow acquisition of declarative memory; however, learning through fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> may facilitate rapid learning-induced cortical plasticity and hippocampal-independent integration of novel associations into existing semantic networks. During fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the meaning of new words and concepts is inferred, and durable novel associations are incidentally formed, a process thought to support early childhood's exuberant learning. The anterior temporal lobe, a cortical semantic memory hub, may critically support such learning. We investigated encoding of semantic associations through fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis. Subsequent memory performance following fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> was more efficiently <span class="hlt">predicted</span> using anterior temporal lobe than hippocampal voxels, while standard explicit encoding was best <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by hippocampal activity. Searchlight algorithms revealed additional activity patterns that <span class="hlt">predicted</span> successful fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> semantic learning located in lateral occipitotemporal and parietotemporal neocortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. By contrast, successful explicit encoding could be classified by activity in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal and parahippocampal cortices. We propose that fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> promotes incidental rapid integration of new associations into existing neocortical semantic networks by activating related, nonoverlapping conceptual knowledge. In healthy adults, this is better captured by unique anterior and lateral temporal lobe activity patterns, while hippocampal involvement is less <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of this kind of learning. PMID:26257961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24372936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24372936"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> potential Whooping Crane stopover habitat to guide site selection for wind energy projects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belaire, J Amy; Kreakie, Betty J; Keitt, Timothy; Minor, Emily</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Migratory stopover habitats are often not part of planning for conservation or new development projects. We identified potential stopover habitats within an avian migratory flyway and demonstrated how this information can guide the site-selection process for new development. We used the random forests modeling approach to <span class="hlt">map</span> the distribution of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> stopover habitat for the Whooping Crane (Grus americana), an endangered species whose migratory flyway overlaps with an area where wind energy development is expected to become increasingly important. We then used this information to identify areas for potential wind power development in a U.S. state within the flyway (Nebraska) that minimize conflicts between Whooping Crane stopover habitat and the development of clean, renewable energy sources. Up to 54% of our study area was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to be unsuitable as Whooping Crane stopover habitat and could be considered relatively low risk for conflicts between Whooping Cranes and wind energy development. We suggest that this type of analysis be incorporated into the habitat conservation planning process in areas where incidental take permits are being considered for Whooping Cranes or other species of concern. Field surveys should always be conducted prior to construction to verify model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and understand baseline conditions. PMID:24372936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3122974','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3122974"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Saskatchewan horses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Epp, Tasha Y.; Waldner, Cheryl; Berke, Olaf</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to develop a model using equine data from geographically limited surveillance locations to <span class="hlt">predict</span> risk categories for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in horses in all geographic locations across the province of Saskatchewan. The province was divided geographically into low-, medium-, or high-risk categories for WNV, based on available serology information from 923 horses obtained through 4 studies of WNV infection in horse populations in Saskatchewan. Discriminant analysis was used to build models using the observed risk of WNV in horses and geographic division-specific environmental data as well as to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the risk category for all areas, including those beyond the surveillance zones. High-risk areas were indicated by relatively lower rainfall, higher temperatures, and a lower percentage of area covered in trees, water, and wetland. These conditions were most often identified in the southwest corner of the province. Environmental conditions can be used to identify those areas that are at highest risk for WNV. Public health managers could use <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span>, which are based on animal or human information and developed from annual early season meteorological information, to guide ongoing decisions about when and where to focus intervention strategies for WNV. PMID:22210991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1143694','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1143694"><span id="translatedtitle">A universally applicable method of operon <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> on minimally annotated genomes using conserved genomic context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Edwards, Martin T.; Rison, Stuart C. G.; Stoker, Neil G.; Wernisch, Lorenz</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>An important step in understanding the regulation of a prokaryotic genome is the generation of its transcription unit <span class="hlt">map</span>. The current strongest operon predictor depends on the distributions of intergenic distances (IGD) separating adjacent genes within and between operons. Unfortunately, experimental data on these distance distributions are limited to Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We suggest a new graph algorithmic approach based on comparative genomics to identify clusters of conserved genes independent of IGD and conservation of gene order. As a consequence, distance distributions of operon pairs for any arbitrary prokaryotic genome can be inferred. For E.coli, the algorithm <span class="hlt">predicts</span> 854 conserved adjacent pairs with a precision of 85%. The IGD distribution for these pairs is virtually identical to the E.coli operon pair distribution. Statistical analysis of the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> pair IGD distribution allows estimation of a genome-specific operon IGD cut-off, obviating the requirement for a training set in IGD-based operon <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. We apply the method to a representative set of eight genomes, and show that these genome-specific IGD distributions differ considerably from each other and from the distribution in E.coli. PMID:15942028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3952952','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3952952"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of accuracy and efficiency for RNA secondary structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> by sequence segmentation and <span class="hlt">Map</span>Reduce</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play important roles in many biological processes including gene expression and regulation. Their secondary structures are crucial for the RNA functionality, and the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the secondary structures is widely studied. Our previous research shows that cutting long sequences into shorter chunks, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> secondary structures of the chunks independently using thermodynamic methods, and reconstructing the entire secondary structure from the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> chunk structures can yield better accuracy than <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the secondary structure using the RNA sequence as a whole. The chunking, <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, and reconstruction processes can use different methods and parameters, some of which produce more accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> than others. In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy and efficiency of three different chunking methods using seven popular secondary structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> programs that apply to two datasets of RNA with known secondary structures, which include both pseudoknotted and non-pseudoknotted sequences, as well as a family of viral genome RNAs whose structures have not been <span class="hlt">predicted</span> before. Our modularized <span class="hlt">Map</span>Reduce framework based on Hadoop allows us to study the problem in a parallel and robust environment. Results On average, the maximum accuracy retention values are larger than one for our chunking methods and the seven <span class="hlt">prediction</span> programs over 50 non-pseudoknotted sequences, meaning that the secondary structure <span class="hlt">predicted</span> using chunking is more similar to the real structure than the secondary structure <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by using the whole sequence. We observe similar results for the 23 pseudoknotted sequences, except for the NUPACK program using the centered chunking method. The performance analysis for 14 long RNA sequences from the Nodaviridae virus family outlines how the coarse-grained <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of chunking and <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in the <span class="hlt">Map</span>Reduce framework exhibits shorter turnaround times for short RNA sequences. However</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4288957','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4288957"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Ambulance Time of Arrival to the Emergency Department Using Global Positioning System and Google <span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fleischman, Ross J.; Lundquist, Mark; Jui, Jonathan; Newgard, Craig D.; Warden, Craig</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective To derive and validate a model that accurately <span class="hlt">predicts</span> ambulance arrival time that could be implemented as a Google <span class="hlt">Maps</span> web application. Methods This was a retrospective study of all scene transports in Multnomah County, Oregon, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Scene and destination hospital addresses were converted to coordinates. ArcGIS Network Analyst was used to estimate transport times based on street network speed limits. We then created a linear regression model to improve the accuracy of these street network estimates using weather, patient characteristics, use of lights and sirens, daylight, and rush-hour intervals. The model was derived from a 50% sample and validated on the remainder. Significance of the covariates was determined by p < 0.05 for a t-test of the model coefficients. Accuracy was quantified by the proportion of estimates that were within 5 minutes of the actual transport times recorded by computer-aided dispatch. We then built a Google <span class="hlt">Maps</span>-based web application to demonstrate application in real-world EMS operations. Results There were 48,308 included transports. Street network estimates of transport time were accurate within 5 minutes of actual transport time less than 16% of the time. Actual transport times were longer during daylight and rush-hour intervals and shorter with use of lights and sirens. Age under 18 years, gender, wet weather, and trauma system entry were not significant predictors of transport time. Our model <span class="hlt">predicted</span> arrival time within 5 minutes 73% of the time. For lights and sirens transports, accuracy was within 5 minutes 77% of the time. Accuracy was identical in the validation dataset. Lights and sirens saved an average of 3.1 minutes for transports under 8.8 minutes, and 5.3 minutes for longer transports. Conclusions An estimate of transport time based only on a street network significantly underestimated transport times. A simple model incorporating few variables can <span class="hlt">predict</span> ambulance time of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPRS..108...80A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPRS..108...80A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody <span class="hlt">formations</span> in southeastern Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody <span class="hlt">formations</span>, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native <span class="hlt">formations</span>. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=indecision&pg=7&id=EJ590828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=indecision&pg=7&id=EJ590828"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Career Indecision in College Students: The Roles of Identity <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and Parental Relationship Factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Guerra, Antonia L.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Investigates students' identity <span class="hlt">formation</span> and perceptions of parental acceptance and encouragement of independence as predictors of career indecision. Four measurements were administered to 169 undergraduate students for the study. Results show career indecision was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by higher identity moratorium, less maternal acceptance, and fewer years…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16300883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16300883"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> and related parameters of high energy materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Talawar, M B; Anniyappan, M; Venugopalan, S</p> <p>2006-05-20</p> <p>Heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> is one of the most important parameters in the performance <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of explosive and propellant formulations and their individual ingredients. This paper reports the development of user-friendly computer code for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> based on two approaches. In first methodology, the logic of Benson's Group additivity method and in the second method, the logic of Pedley method was used for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of high energy materials (HEMs). The <span class="hlt">predicted</span> heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> by Benson method for various classes of high energy materials gave deviation in the range of 2-10%, whereas nearly 10-15% deviation was observed using Pedley methodology in comparison to experimental values. The linear regression coefficient values (R(2)) of 0.9947 and 0.9637 are obtained for heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> values <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by this code using methodologies I and II, respectively. The newly developed code LOTUSES (version 1.3) has been validated by calculating the heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of standard explosives such as TNT, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), RDX, HMX, etc., To the best of our knowledge, no such code is reported in literature which can <span class="hlt">predict</span> heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> values integrated with performance parameters of HEMs belonging to all categories of organic compounds viz. aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic materials. The code can also be used to obtain parameters such as velocity of detonation, C-J pressure, volume of explosion products, power index, temperature of explosion and oxygen balance of HEMs. The code has been developed in Visual Basic having enhanced Windows environment. This software namely LOTUSES 1.3 is an updated version of the earlier ones namely LOTUSES 1.1 and 1.2 which do not cater for the calculation of heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> and temperature of explosion of HEMs. LOTUSES 1.3 is, therefore, a totally integrated software for computing most of the vital parameters of HEMs requiring mainly the molecular structural</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395710','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395710"><span id="translatedtitle">A Neural Field Model of the Somatosensory Cortex: <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Maintenance and Reorganization of Ordered Topographic <span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Detorakis, Georgios Is.; Rougier, Nicolas P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">formation</span> and maintenance of ordered topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> in the primary somatosensory cortex as well as the reorganization of representations after sensory deprivation or cortical lesion. We consider both the critical period (postnatal) where representations are shaped and the post-critical period where representations are maintained and possibly reorganized. We hypothesize that feed-forward thalamocortical connections are an adequate site of plasticity while cortico-cortical connections are believed to drive a competitive mechanism that is critical for learning. We model a small skin patch located on the distal phalangeal surface of a digit as a set of 256 Merkel ending complexes (MEC) that feed a computational model of the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b). This model is a two-dimensional neural field where spatially localized solutions (a.k.a. bumps) drive cortical plasticity through a Hebbian-like learning rule. Simulations explain the initial <span class="hlt">formation</span> of ordered representations following repetitive and random stimulations of the skin patch. Skin lesions as well as cortical lesions are also studied and results confirm the possibility to reorganize representations using the same learning rule and depending on the type of the lesion. For severe lesions, the model suggests that cortico-cortical connections may play an important role in complete recovery. PMID:22808127</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310012','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAPPING</span> CHILDREN’S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children’s geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively “always already” positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or “rational” speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children’s political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children’s politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau’s notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children’s representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and <span class="hlt">formation</span>, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10–13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, <span class="hlt">mapped</span>, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their <span class="hlt">formation</span> as political actors. PMID:25642017</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6894709','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6894709"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of dose and field <span class="hlt">mapping</span> around a shielded plutonium fuel fabrication glovebox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Strode, J.N.; Soldat, K.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.</p> <p>1984-04-25</p> <p>Westinghouse Hanford Company, as the Department of Energy's (DOE) prime contractor for the operation of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), is responsible for the development of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Line which is to be installed in the recently constructed Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The SAF Line will fabricate mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at an annual throughput rate of six (6) metric tons (MT) of MOX. The SAF Line will also demonstrate the automated manufacture of fuel pins on a production-scale. This paper describes some of the techniques used to reduce personnel exposure on the SAF Line, as well as the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and field <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of doses from a shielded fuel fabrication glovebox. Tables are also presented from which exposure rate estimates can be made for plutonium recovered from fuels having different isotopic compositions as a result of varied burnup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.W3008M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.W3008M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> modeling of multicellular structure <span class="hlt">formation</span> by using Cellular Particle Dynamics simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCune, Matthew; Shafiee, Ashkan; Forgacs, Gabor; Kosztin, Ioan</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) is an effective computational method for describing and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the time evolution of biomechanical relaxation processes of multicellular systems. A typical example is the fusion of spheroidal bioink particles during post bioprinting structure <span class="hlt">formation</span>. In CPD cells are modeled as an ensemble of cellular particles (CPs) that interact via short-range contact interactions, characterized by an attractive (adhesive interaction) and a repulsive (excluded volume interaction) component. The time evolution of the spatial conformation of the multicellular system is determined by following the trajectories of all CPs through integration of their equations of motion. CPD was successfully applied to describe and <span class="hlt">predict</span> the fusion of 3D tissue construct involving identical spherical aggregates. Here, we demonstrate that CPD can also <span class="hlt">predict</span> tissue <span class="hlt">formation</span> involving uneven spherical aggregates whose volumes decrease during the fusion process. Work supported by NSF [PHY-0957914]. Computer time provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8795E..1PG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8795E..1PG"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> sinkholes by integration of remote sensing and spectroscopy methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldshleger, N.; Basson, U.; Azaria, I.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The Dead Sea coastal area is exposed to the destructive process of sinkhole collapse. The increase in sinkhole activity in the last two decades has been substantial, resulting from the continuous decrease in the Dead Sea's level, with more than 1,000 sinkholes developing as a result of upper layer collapse. Large sinkholes can reach 25 m in diameter. They are concentrated mainly in clusters in several dozens of sites with different characteristics. In this research, methods for <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, monitoring and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> sinkholes were developed using active and passive remote-sensing methods: field spectrometer, geophysical ground penetration radar (GPR) and a frequency domain electromagnetic instrument (FDEM). The research was conducted in three stages: 1) literature review and data collection; 2) <span class="hlt">mapping</span> regions abundant with sinkholes in various stages and regions vulnerable to sinkholes; 3) analyzing the data and translating it into cognitive and accessible scientific information. Field spectrometry enabled a comparison between the spectral signatures of soil samples collected near active or progressing sinkholes, and those collected in regions with no visual sign of sinkhole occurrence. FDEM and GPR investigations showed that electrical conductivity and soil moisture are higher in regions affected by sinkholes. Measurements taken at different time points over several seasons allowed monitoring the progress of an 'embryonic' sinkhole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3154328','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3154328"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Human Risk for West Nile Virus (WNV) Based on Environmental and Socioeconomic Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rochlin, Ilia; Turbow, David; Gomez, Frank; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Campbell, Scott R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A West Nile virus (WNV) human risk <span class="hlt">map</span> was developed for Suffolk County, New York utilizing a case-control approach to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic variables derived from publically available datasets. Results of logistic regression modeling for the time period between 2000 and 2004 revealed that higher proportion of population with college education, increased habitat fragmentation, and proximity to WNV positive mosquito pools were strongly associated with WNV human risk. Similar to previous investigations from north-central US, this study identified middle class suburban neighborhoods as the areas with the highest WNV human risk. These results contrast with similar studies from the southern and western US, where the highest WNV risk was associated with low income areas. This discrepancy may be due to regional differences in vector ecology, urban environment, or human behavior. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analytical tools were used to integrate the risk factors in the 2000–2004 logistic regression model generating WNV human risk <span class="hlt">map</span>. In 2005–2010, 41 out of 46 (89%) of WNV human cases occurred either inside of (30 cases) or in close proximity (11 cases) to the WNV high risk areas <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the 2000–2004 model. The novel approach employed by this study may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases. PMID:21853103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3480464','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3480464"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modeling and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) Distribution Using Maximum Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nazeri, Mona; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Madani, Nima; Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Bahman, Abdul Rani; Kumar, Lalit</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One of the available tools for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the geographical distribution and potential suitable habitats is species distribution models. These techniques are very helpful for finding poorly known distributions of species in poorly sampled areas, such as the tropics. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is a recently developed modeling method that can be successfully calibrated using a relatively small number of records. In this research, the MaxEnt model was applied to describe the distribution and identify the key factors shaping the potential distribution of the vulnerable Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) in one of the main remaining habitats in Peninsular Malaysia. MaxEnt results showed that even though Malaysian sun bear habitat is tied with tropical evergreen forests, it lives in a marginal threshold of bio-climatic variables. On the other hand, current protected area networks within Peninsular Malaysia do not cover most of the sun bears potential suitable habitats. Assuming that the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> suitability <span class="hlt">map</span> covers sun bears actual distribution, future climate change, forest degradation and illegal hunting could potentially severely affect the sun bear’s population. PMID:23110182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110182"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) distribution using maximum entropy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nazeri, Mona; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Madani, Nima; Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Bahman, Abdul Rani; Kumar, Lalit</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One of the available tools for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the geographical distribution and potential suitable habitats is species distribution models. These techniques are very helpful for finding poorly known distributions of species in poorly sampled areas, such as the tropics. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is a recently developed modeling method that can be successfully calibrated using a relatively small number of records. In this research, the MaxEnt model was applied to describe the distribution and identify the key factors shaping the potential distribution of the vulnerable Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) in one of the main remaining habitats in Peninsular Malaysia. MaxEnt results showed that even though Malaysian sun bear habitat is tied with tropical evergreen forests, it lives in a marginal threshold of bio-climatic variables. On the other hand, current protected area networks within Peninsular Malaysia do not cover most of the sun bears potential suitable habitats. Assuming that the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> suitability <span class="hlt">map</span> covers sun bears actual distribution, future climate change, forest degradation and illegal hunting could potentially severely affect the sun bear's population. PMID:23110182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4300010','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4300010"><span id="translatedtitle">Brain metabolic <span class="hlt">maps</span> in Mild Cognitive Impairment <span class="hlt">predict</span> heterogeneity of progression to dementia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cerami, Chiara; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Magnani, Giuseppe; Santangelo, Roberto; Marcone, Alessandra; Cappa, Stefano F.; Perani, Daniela</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>[18F]FDG-PET imaging has been recognized as a crucial diagnostic marker in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), supporting the presence or the exclusion of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology. A clinical heterogeneity, however, underlies MCI definition. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> role of single-subject voxel-based <span class="hlt">maps</span> of [18F]FDG distribution generated through statistical parametric <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (SPM) in the progression to different dementia subtypes in a sample of 45 MCI. Their scans were compared to a large normal reference dataset developed and validated for comparison at single-subject level. Additionally, Aβ42 and Tau CSF values were available in 34 MCI subjects. Clinical follow-up (mean 28.5 ± 7.8 months) assessed subsequent progression to AD or non-AD dementias. The SPM analysis showed: 1) normal brain metabolism in 14 MCI cases, none of them progressing to dementia; 2) the typical temporo-parietal pattern suggestive for prodromal AD in 15 cases, 11 of them progressing to AD; 3) brain hypometabolism suggestive of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) subtypes in 7 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in 2 subjects (all fulfilled FTLD or DLB clinical criteria at follow-up); and 4) 7 MCI cases showed a selective unilateral or bilateral temporo-medial hypometabolism without the typical AD pattern, and they all remained stable. In our sample, objective voxel-based analysis of [18F]FDG-PET scans showed high <span class="hlt">predictive</span> prognostic value, by identifying either normal brain metabolism or hypometabolic patterns suggestive of different underlying pathologies, as confirmed by progression at follow-up. These data support the potential usefulness of this SPM [18F]FDG PET analysis in the early dementia diagnosis and for improving subject selection in clinical trials based on MCI definition. PMID:25610780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.H14A..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.H14A..06K"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Electrical Conductivity <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> by Soil Moisture and Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Techniques: Implication for Landmine Detection Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katsube, J.; McNairn, H.; Keating, P. K.; Das, Y.; Dyke, L.; Best, M. E.; Singhroy, V.; Connell-Madore, S.; Hunter, J.; Klassen, R.; Dilabio, R.; Moore, A.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Electrical conductivity (EC) can be a source of significant signal interference in landmine detection, implying that there is a necessity for soil EC <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in order to carry out safe demining operations in landmine affected countries in the world. A fundamental study on soil EC mechanisms and their relationship to moisture content has been carried out in order to increase the soil EC <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy when using data from various sensors, such as remote sensing, airborne and surficial electromagnetic (EM) methods. Results indicate that soil moisture consists of free water filling pore spaces and bound water which forms adsorbed water layers on the grain surfaces. The response of these two water phases to drying rates and EC are very different, to the extent that a moist clay poor soil may have low EC but a dry clay rich soil may have higher EC. This is a result of not only the bound water layers being a significant source of EC, but of the capillary component of the free water reacting differently to the different grain-sizes of the soil. The capillary water forms important electrical conductive bridges between the adsorbed water layers on the grains that constitute the soil. This implies that information on soil texture, mineralogy and their distribution are required for accurate EC <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Whereas information on these soil characteristics may be acquired by remote sensing and soil <span class="hlt">maps</span>, soil moisture content is likely to vary from the time of data acquisition to that of demining operations, implying methods to <span class="hlt">predict</span> these changes are required. In addition, soil type inhomogeniety, such as vertical and horizontal variation can also be a source of inaccuracies in moisture and EC <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. However, these investigations also indicate that a wide band electrical frequency signal may have the possibility of providing information on, not only metallic mineral content, but on pore space, clay mineral type and water content. In addition, applications of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......153C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......153C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Salient <span class="hlt">Map</span> Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method: Powerful potential as a <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment in the biomedical sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cathcart, Laura Anne</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation consists of two studies: 1) development and characterization of the Salient <span class="hlt">Map</span> Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method as a <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment tool and 2) a case study exploring how a paramedic instructor's beliefs about learners affect her utilization of the SMART method and vice versa. The first study explored: How can a novel concept <span class="hlt">map</span> analysis method be designed as an effective <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment tool? The SMART method improves upon existing concept <span class="hlt">map</span> analysis methods because it does not require hierarchically structured concept <span class="hlt">maps</span> and it preserves the rich content of the <span class="hlt">maps</span> instead of reducing each <span class="hlt">map</span> down to a numerical score. The SMART method is performed by comparing a set of students' <span class="hlt">maps</span> to each other and to an instructor's <span class="hlt">map</span>. The resulting composite <span class="hlt">map</span> depicts, in percentages and highlighted colors, the similarities and differences between all of the <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Some advantages of the SMART method as a <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment tool include its ability to highlight changes across time, problematic or alternative conceptions, and patterns of student responses at a glance. Study two explored: How do a paramedic instructor's beliefs about students and learning affect---and become affected by---her use of the SMART method as a <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment tool? This case study of Angel, an expert paramedic instructor, begins to address a gap in the emergency medical services (EMS) education literature, which contains almost no research on teachers or pedagogy. Angel and I worked together as participant co-researchers (Heron & Reason, 1997) exploring the affordances of the SMART method. This study, based on those interactions with Angel, involved using open coding to identify themes (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) from Angel's views of students and use of the SMART method. Angel views learning as a sense-making process. She has a multi-faceted view of her students as novices and invests substantial time trying to understand their concept</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858648','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858648"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiomic Texture Analysis <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Areas of True Functional MRI Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to <span class="hlt">predict</span> areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional <span class="hlt">maps</span> were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21443276','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21443276"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAPPING</span> THE RECENT STAR <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span> HISTORY OF THE DISK OF M51</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaleida, Catherine; Scowen, Paul A. E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.ed</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>Using data acquired as part of a unique Hubble Heritage imaging program of broadband colors of the interacting spiral system M51/NGC 5195, we have conducted a photometric study of the stellar associations across the entire disk of the galaxy in order to assess trends in size, luminosity, and local environment associated with the recent star <span class="hlt">formation</span> (SF) activity in the system. Starting with a sample of over 900 potential associations, we have produced color-magnitude and color-color diagrams for the 120 associations that were deemed to be single-aged. It has been found that main-sequence (MS) turnoffs are not evident for the vast majority of the stellar associations in our set, potentially due to the overlap of isochronal tracks at the high mass end of the MS, and the limited depth of our images at the distance of M51. In order to obtain ages for more of our sample, we produced model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to fit to the data from the GALEXEV simple stellar population models of Bruzual and Charlot. These SEDs can be used to determine age, size, mass, metallicity, and dust content of each association via a simple {chi}{sup 2} minimization to each association's B-, V-, and I-band fluxes. The derived association properties are <span class="hlt">mapped</span> as a function of location, and recent trends in SF history of the galaxy are explored in light of these results. This work is the first phase in a program that will compare these stellar systems with their environments using ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and infrared data from Spitzer, and ultimately we plan to apply the same stellar population <span class="hlt">mapping</span> methodology to other nearby face-on spiral galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4608698','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4608698"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G.; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to <span class="hlt">predict</span> SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> accuracy. PMID:26473739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=212243','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=212243"><span id="translatedtitle">A linkage <span class="hlt">map</span> of maize x teosinte zea luxurians and identification of qtls controlling root aerenchyma <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One-hundred and ninety five F2 individuals, derived from a cross between maize inbred line B73 x Zea luxurians, were subjected to a 107 SSR marker based QTL analysis for aerenchyma cell <span class="hlt">formation</span> that covered 1,331 cM across all ten maize and Zea luxurians chromosomes. Composite interval <span class="hlt">mapping</span> a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1920.7033B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1920.7033B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Sand Types and Dune Morphologies in the Aeolis Dorsa Region, Western Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyd, A. S.; Burr, D. M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Preliminary <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of low- and high-albedo sand deposits in the Aeolis Dorsa region, Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> (MFF), suggests sand transport from the north, consistent with sand source(s) in Elysium Mons, the Cerberus plains, or the MFF itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310464"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Northern Ireland radon <span class="hlt">maps</span> based on indoor radon measurements and geology with <span class="hlt">maps</span> derived by <span class="hlt">predictive</span> modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Young, M</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential <span class="hlt">map</span> generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the <span class="hlt">map</span> based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-<span class="hlt">prediction</span> could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air. PMID:21310464</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1005752','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1005752"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Bioinformatics-Based <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Exceptional Selectivity of p38 <span class="hlt">MAP</span> Kinase Inhibitor PH-797804</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xing, Li; Shieh, Huey S.; Selness, Shaun R.; Devraj, Rajesh V.; Walker, John K.; Devadas, Balekudru; Hope, Heidi R.; Compton, Robert P.; Schindler, John F.; Hirsch, Jeffrey L.; Benson, Alan G.; Kurumbail, Ravi G.; Stegeman, Roderick A.; Williams, Jennifer M.; Broadus, Richard M.; Walden, Zara; Monahan, Joseph B.; Pfizer</p> <p>2009-07-24</p> <p>PH-797804 is a diarylpyridinone inhibitor of p38{alpha} mitogen-activated protein (<span class="hlt">MAP</span>) kinase derived from a racemic mixture as the more potent atropisomer (aS), first proposed by molecular modeling and subsequently confirmed by experiments. On the basis of structural comparison with a different biaryl pyrazole template and supported by dozens of high-resolution crystal structures of p38{alpha} inhibitor complexes, PH-797804 is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to possess a high level of specificity across the broad human kinase genome. We used a structural bioinformatics approach to identify two selectivity elements encoded by the TXXXG sequence motif on the p38{alpha} kinase hinge: (i) Thr106 that serves as the gatekeeper to the buried hydrophobic pocket occupied by 2,4-difluorophenyl of PH-797804 and (ii) the bidentate hydrogen bonds formed by the pyridinone moiety with the kinase hinge requiring an induced 180{sup o} rotation of the Met109-Gly110 peptide bond. The peptide flip occurs in p38{alpha} kinase due to the critical glycine residue marked by its conformational flexibility. Kinome-wide sequence mining revealed rare presentation of the selectivity motif. Corroboratively, PH-797804 exhibited exceptionally high specificity against <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinases and the related kinases. No cross-reactivity was observed in large panels of kinase screens (selectivity ratio of >500-fold). In cellular assays, PH-797804 demonstrated superior potency and selectivity consistent with the biochemical measurements. PH-797804 has met safety criteria in human phase I studies and is under clinical development for several inflammatory conditions. Understanding the rationale for selectivity at the molecular level helps elucidate the biological function and design of specific p38{alpha} kinase inhibitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PRP.....1...63M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PRP.....1...63M"><span id="translatedtitle">Unsupervised and self-<span class="hlt">mapping</span> category <span class="hlt">formation</span> and semantic object recognition for mobile robot vision used in an actual environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madokoro, H.; Tsukada, M.; Sato, K.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>This paper presents an unsupervised learning-based object category <span class="hlt">formation</span> and recognition method for mobile robot vision. Our method has the following features: detection of feature points and description of features using a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), selection of target feature points using one class support vector machines (OC-SVMs), generation of visual words using self-organizing <span class="hlt">maps</span> (SOMs), <span class="hlt">formation</span> of labels using adaptive resonance theory 2 (ART-2), and creation and classification of categories on a category <span class="hlt">map</span> of counter propagation networks (CPNs) for visualizing spatial relations between categories. Classification results of dynamic images using time-series images obtained using two different-size robots and according to movements respectively demonstrate that our method can visualize spatial relations of categories while maintaining time-series characteristics. Moreover, we emphasize the effectiveness of our method for category <span class="hlt">formation</span> of appearance changes of objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1142/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1142/"><span id="translatedtitle">A program for the conversion of The National <span class="hlt">Map</span> data from proprietary <span class="hlt">format</span> to resource description framework (RDF)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bulen, Andrew; Carter, Jonathan J.; Varanka, Dalia E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To expand data functionality and capabilities for users of The National <span class="hlt">Map</span> of the U.S. Geological Survey, data sets for six watersheds and three urban areas were converted from the Best Practices vector data model <span class="hlt">formats</span> to Semantic Web data <span class="hlt">formats</span>. This report describes and documents the conver-sion process. The report begins with an introduction to basic Semantic Web standards and the background of The National <span class="hlt">Map</span>. Data were converted from a proprietary <span class="hlt">format</span> to Geog-raphy Markup Language to capture the geometric footprint of topographic data features. Configuration files were designed to eliminate redundancy and make the conversion more efficient. A SPARQL endpoint was established for data validation and queries. The report concludes by describing the results of the conversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH51A1228F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH51A1228F"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuzzy Cognitive <span class="hlt">Maps</span> for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive <span class="hlt">Maps</span> (FCM) as an AI tool for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to <span class="hlt">predicting</span> hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22055452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22055452"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors affecting paddy soil arsenic concentration in Bangladesh: <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and uncertainty of geostatistical risk <span class="hlt">mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Zia U; Panaullah, Golam M; DeGloria, Stephen D; Duxbury, John M</p> <p>2011-12-15</p> <p>Knowledge of the spatial correlation of soil arsenic (As) concentrations with environmental variables is needed to assess the nature and extent of the risk of As contamination from irrigation water in Bangladesh. We analyzed 263 paired groundwater and paddy soil samples covering highland (HL) and medium highland-1 (MHL-1) land types for geostatistical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of soil As and delineation of As contaminated areas in Tala Upazilla, Satkhira district. We also collected 74 non-rice soil samples to assess the baseline concentration of soil As for this area. The mean soil As concentrations (mg/kg) for different land types under rice and non-rice crops were: rice-MHL-1 (21.2)>rice-HL (14.1)>non-rice-MHL-1 (11.9)>non-rice-HL (7.2). Multiple regression analyses showed that irrigation water As, Fe, land elevation and years of tubewell operation are the important factors affecting the concentrations of As in HL paddy soils. Only years of tubewell operation affected As concentration in the MHL-1 paddy soils. Quantitatively similar increases in soil As above the estimated baseline-As concentration were observed for rice soils on HL and MHL-1 after 6-8 years of groundwater irrigation, implying strong retention of As added in irrigation water in both land types. Application of single geostatistical methods with secondary variables such as regression kriging (RK) and ordinary co-kriging (OCK) gave little improvement in <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of soil As over ordinary kriging (OK). Comparing single <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods, kriging within strata (KWS), the combination of RK for HL and OCK for MHL-1, gave more accurate soil As <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and showed the lowest misclassification of declaring a location "contaminated" with respect to 14.8 mg As/kg, the highest value obtained for the baseline soil As concentration. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of soil As buildup over time indicated that 75% or the soils cropped to rice would contain at least 30 mg/L As by the year 2020. PMID:22055452</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7188J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7188J"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Solar Resources <span class="hlt">Map</span> using Satellites and Numerical <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Data on Korean Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jee, J.-B.; Jeon, S.-H.; Choi, Y.-J.; Lee, K.-T.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Solar energy is attenuated by absorbing gases (ozone, aerosol, water vapor and mixed gas) and cloud in the atmosphere and ambient topography. That energy is measured with solar instruments (pyranometer and phyheliometer) which are installed on the surface. However, solar energy based on observation is insufficient to represent detailed energy distribution, because the distributions of solar instruments are spatially limited. If input data of solar radiation model is accurate, the solar energy reaching at the surface can be calculated reasonably. In this study, input data of solar radiation model used satellites data and reanalysis data of numerical model <span class="hlt">prediction</span> from 2000 to 2010. Recently, a variety of satellite measurements from TERA/AQUA (MODIS), AURA (OMI) and geostationary satellites (GMS-5, GOES-9, MTSAT-1R, MTSAT-2 and COMS) has been made available. Input data of solar radiation model can use aerosols and surface albedo data from MODIS, total ozone amount data from OMI and cloud fraction data from meteorological geostationary satellites. Also, reanalysis data of numerical <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model is good to use as an input of solar radiation model. Several outputs can be used with surface temperature, pressure and total precipitable water of RDAPS (Regional Data Assimilation <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System) and KLAPS (Korean Local Assimilation <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System) models from KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). In addition, the solar radiation model is equipped with topographic effect, which is the result of terrain shading or shielding the solar energy. Korean peninsula is composed of very complicated terrains. Therefore, considering the topographic effect is very important to calculate the solar energy at the surface. The hi-resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is required to calculate the topographic effect. The solar radiation reaching at the surface is calculated by hour in temporal and 4 km × 4 km in spatial using solar radiation model and input data. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGE....12..527G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGE....12..527G"><span id="translatedtitle">Rock physics model-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of shear wave velocity in the Barnett Shale <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Zhiqi; Li, Xiang-Yang</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> S-wave velocity is important for reservoir characterization and fluid identification in unconventional resources. A rock physics model-based method is developed for estimating pore aspect ratio and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> shear wave velocity Vs from the information of P-wave velocity, porosity and mineralogy in a borehole. Statistical distribution of pore geometry is considered in the rock physics models. In the application to the Barnett <span class="hlt">formation</span>, we compare the high frequency self-consistent approximation (SCA) method that corresponds to isolated pore spaces, and the low frequency SCA-Gassmann method that describes well-connected pore spaces. Inversion results indicate that compared to the surroundings, the Barnett Shale shows less fluctuation in the pore aspect ratio in spite of complex constituents in the shale. The high frequency method provides a more robust and accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of Vs for all the three intervals in the Barnett <span class="hlt">formation</span>, while the low frequency method collapses for the Barnett Shale interval. Possible causes for this discrepancy can be explained by the fact that poor in situ pore connectivity and low permeability make well-log sonic frequencies act as high frequencies and thus invalidate the low frequency assumption of the Gassmann theory. In comparison, for the overlying Marble Falls and underlying Ellenburger carbonates, both the high and low frequency methods <span class="hlt">predict</span> Vs with reasonable accuracy, which may reveal that sonic frequencies are within the transition frequencies zone due to higher pore connectivity in the surroundings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040999','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040999"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> on Mars (MC-8 SE and MC-23 NW) and the Northern Lowlands of Venus (V-16 and V-15)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimbelman, J. R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the status of a <span class="hlt">mapping</span> project supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, funding for which became available on July 18, focusing on the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> (MFF) on Mars. The report also briefly discusses the status of <span class="hlt">maps</span> of Venus and Ascraeus Mons, begun under previous NASA grants but which are still in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028409','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028409"><span id="translatedtitle">Using self-organizing <span class="hlt">maps</span> to determine observation threshold limit <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in highly variant data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paganoni, C.A.; Chang, K.C.; Robblee, M.B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A significant data quality challenge for highly variant systems surrounds the limited ability to quantify operationally reasonable limits on the data elements being collected and provide reasonable threshold <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. In many instances, the number of influences that drive a resulting value or operational range is too large to enable physical sampling for each influencer, or is too complicated to accurately model in an explicit simulation. An alternative method to determine reasonable observation thresholds is to employ an automation algorithm that would emulate a human analyst visually inspecting data for limits. Using the visualization technique of self-organizing <span class="hlt">maps</span> (SOM) on data having poorly understood relationships, a methodology for determining threshold limits was developed. To illustrate this approach, analysis of environmental influences that drive the abundance of a target indicator species (the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum) provided a real example of applicability. The relationship between salinity and temperature and abundance of F. duorarum is well documented, but the effect of changes in water quality upstream on pink shrimp abundance is not well understood. The highly variant nature surrounding catch of a specific number of organisms in the wild, and the data available from up-stream hydrology measures for salinity and temperature, made this an ideal candidate for the approach to provide a determination about the influence of changes in hydrology on populations of organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19301137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19301137"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategic noise <span class="hlt">map</span> of a major road carried out with two environmental <span class="hlt">prediction</span> software packages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arana, M; San Martin, R; San Martin, M L; Aramendía, E</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The main objective of this study is to analyze the differences found in the results of noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using two of the most popular software techniques for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of environmental noise. The location selected to conduct the comparative study is an area encompassed by the ring road that surrounds the city of Pamplona and on a grid, with a total of 6 x 10(5) points, approximately. In fact, and as the Environmental Noise Directive points out, it is a major road designated by a Member State (Spain). Configuration of the calculation parameters (discretization of the sources, ground absorption, reflection order, etc.) was as equivalent as possible as far as programs allow. In spite of that, a great number of differences appear in the findings. Although in 95.5% of the points the difference in the noise level calculated from the two programs was less than 3 dB, this general statistic result concealed some great differences. These are due to the various algorithms that programs implement to evaluate noise levels. Most differences pertain to highly screened receivers or remote ones. In the former, the algorithm of visibility is the main cause of such differences. In the latter, differences are mainly brought about by a different implementation of the propagation under homogeneous and favorable atmospheric conditions from both software systems. PMID:19301137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280334','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280334"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis with Bioavailable Iron Content in the Bituminous Coals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Xi; Li, Weihong; Attfield, Michael D.; Nádas, Arthur; Frenkel, Krystyna; Finkelman, Robert B.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron’s bioavailability. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and <span class="hlt">mapped</span> the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> coal’s toxicity, even before large-scale mining. PMID:16079064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4327527','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4327527"><span id="translatedtitle">Event-related potentials during word <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to object shape <span class="hlt">predict</span> toddlers' vocabulary size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences <span class="hlt">predicted</span> productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029470','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029470"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and <span class="hlt">mapped</span> the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010adap.prop..110T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010adap.prop..110T"><span id="translatedtitle">Shadows and Dust: Mid-Infrared Extinction <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Initial Conditions of Massive Star and Star Cluster <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Jonathan</p> <p></p> <p>We describe a research plan to develop and extend the mid-infrared (MIR) extinction <span class="hlt">mapping</span> technique presented by Butler & Tan (2009), who studied Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 8 micron images. This method has the ability to probe the detailed spatial structure of very high column density regions, i.e. the gas clouds thought to represent the initial conditions for massive star and star cluster <span class="hlt">formation</span>. We will analyze the data Spitzer obtained at other wavelengths, i.e. the IRAC bands at 3.6, 4.5 and 5.8 microns, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) bands, especially at 24 microns. This will allow us to measure the dust extinction law across the MIR and search for evidence of dust grain evolution, e.g. grain growth and ice mantle <span class="hlt">formation</span>, as a function of gas density and column density. We will also study the detailed structure of the extinction features, including individual cores that may form single stars or close binaries, especially focusing on those cores that may form massive stars. By studying independent dark cores in a given IRDC, we will be able to test if they have a common minimum observed intensity, which we will then attribute to the foreground. This is a new method that should allow us to more accurately <span class="hlt">map</span> distant, high column density IRDCs, probing more extreme regimes of star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. We will combine MIR extinction <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, which works best at high column densities, with near- IR <span class="hlt">mapping</span> based on 2MASS images of star fields, which is most useful at lower columns that probe the extended giant molecular cloud structure. This information is crucial to help understand the <span class="hlt">formation</span> process of IRDCs, which may be the rate limiting step for global galactic star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates. We will use our new extinction <span class="hlt">mapping</span> methods to analyze large samples of IRDCs and thus search the Galaxy for the most extreme examples of high column density cores and assess the global star <span class="hlt">formation</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030869','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030869"><span id="translatedtitle">First USGS urban seismic hazard <span class="hlt">maps</span> <span class="hlt">predict</span> the effects of soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cramer, C.H.; Gomberg, J.S.; Schweig, E.S.; Waldron, B.A.; Tucker, K.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Probabilistic and scenario urban seismic hazard <span class="hlt">maps</span> have been produced for Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee covering a six-quadrangle area of the city. The nine probabilistic <span class="hlt">maps</span> are for peak ground acceleration and 0.2 s and 1.0 s spectral acceleration and for 10%, 5%, and 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Six scenario <span class="hlt">maps</span> for these three ground motions have also been generated for both an M7.7 and M6.2 on the southwest arm of the New Madrid seismic zone ending at Marked Tree, Arkansas. All <span class="hlt">maps</span> include the effect of local geology. Relative to the national seismic hazard <span class="hlt">maps</span>, the effect of the thick sediments beneath Memphis is to decrease 0.2 s probabilistic ground motions by 0-30% and increase 1.0 s probabilistic ground motions by ???100%. Probabilistic peak ground accelerations remain at levels similar to the national <span class="hlt">maps</span>, although the ground motion gradient across Shelby County is reduced and ground motions are more uniform within the county. The M7.7 scenario <span class="hlt">maps</span> show ground motions similar to the 5%-in-50-year probabilistic <span class="hlt">maps</span>. As an effect of local geology, both M7.7 and M6.2 scenario <span class="hlt">maps</span> show a more uniform seismic ground-motion hazard across Shelby County than scenario <span class="hlt">maps</span> with constant site conditions (i.e., NEHRP B/C boundary).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1413992R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1413992R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional scale soil thickness <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using digital terrain modeling and seismic data: application to erosion hazard <span class="hlt">mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rochat, A.; Grandjean, G.; Cerdan, O.; Samyn, K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Empirical laws derived from terrain parameters - such as DTM - and calibrated with in-situ borehole data are widely used for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> soil thickness at regional scale. But with this approach, economical and practical constrains due to drilling requires to work on limited area (typically a few ten km2). Yet, seismic methods using surface waves, recently used for subsurface issue, showed a great interest for measuring soil thickness along profiles or in 3D (parcel <span class="hlt">mapping</span>) which is more convenient for spacializing using empirical law calibration. Thus, to accurately <span class="hlt">map</span> soil thickness over a 400km2 large area, we suggest to match measurement provided by SASW method (spectral analysis of surface waves) with an empirical law derived from terrain attributes. For this study, S-waves velocity has been measured along 10 profiles and after calibration with penetrometrics sounding, the value Vs=300 m/s was considered as a threshold between fertile soil (loess) and consolidated material (clay) leading to define the soil thickness. Comparison between measured soil thickness and the empirical index related to soil depth has shown significant results (R2=0.58). After index calibration, soil thickness was <span class="hlt">mapped</span> over the catchment basin using a regression law between soil depth index and measured thickness. Finally, the French soil databank (BSS®) was used for the <span class="hlt">map</span> validation: loess depths reported by geotechnical interpretation (drilling and sounding from BSS®) fit closely to depths <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the thickness <span class="hlt">map</span>. The test zone was located within the Cailly Aubette-Robec catchment area, in the Northern part of France. The region has the particularity to be severely affected by erosion processes with dramatic farming issues. So, to valorize this soil thickness <span class="hlt">mapping</span> methodology, results were exploited in term of erosion hazard characterization by coupling the thickness <span class="hlt">map</span> with a soil loss rate <span class="hlt">map</span> (in t/ha/year), leading to provide temporal information about erosion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12550792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12550792"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigations on the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of glassy solid solutions of drugs in sugar alcohols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langer, M; Höltje, M; Urbanetz, N A; Brandt, B; Höltje, H-D; Lippold, B C</p> <p>2003-02-18</p> <p>A prerequisite for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of glassy solid solutions prepared by the melting method is the miscibility of the respective drug and the carrier in the molten state. As could be shown experimentally, all investigated drug/sugar alcohol combinations miscible in the molten state form to some extent glassy solid solutions, dependent on their tendency to recrystallize during preparation. Therefore, the present study focuses on the evaluation of factors that govern the miscibility of molten drugs and sugar alcohols as carriers. In this context, solubility parameters are discussed as a means of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> miscibility in comparison to a new approach, using calculated interaction parameters derived from molecular dynamics (MD) studies. There is evidence that a Coulomb interaction term C(SR), comprising short-range electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding energy is essential for the miscibility of drug and carrier in the molten state. To relate C(SR) to the molecular volume, a non-dimensional parameter P(i) is defined. For this parameter, a limiting value for miscibility exists. Contrary, calculated solubility parameter differences between drug and sugar alcohol in the range of 8-15 MPa(1/2) are not suitable for a <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of miscibility or immiscibility, since the mixtures deviate from regular solution behavior. In irregular mixtures of drugs and sugar alcohols, an excess entropy and the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of hydrogen bonds between unlike molecules favor miscibility, that cannot be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by regular solution theory. PMID:12550792</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3482406','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3482406"><span id="translatedtitle">The Amber ff99 Force Field <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Relative Free Energy Changes for RNA Helix <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Spasic, Aleksandar; Serafini, John; Mathews, David H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The ability of the Amber ff99 force field to <span class="hlt">predict</span> relative free energies of RNA helix <span class="hlt">formation</span> was investigated. The test systems were three hexaloop RNA hairpins with identical loops and varying stems. The potential of mean force of stretching the hairpins from the native state to an extended conformation was calculated with umbrella sampling. Because the hairpins have identical loop sequence, the differences in free energy changes are only from the stem composition. The Amber ff99 force field was able to correctly <span class="hlt">predict</span> the order of stabilities of the hairpins, although the magnitude of the free energy change is larger than that determined by optical melting experiments. The two measurements cannot be compared directly because the unfolded state in the optical melting experiments is a random coil, while the end state in the umbrella sampling simulations was an elongated chain. The calculations can be compared to reference data by using a thermodynamic cycle. By applying the thermodynamic cycle to the transitions between the hairpins using simulations and nearest neighbor data, agreement was found to be within the sampling error of simulations, thus demonstrating that ff99 force field is able to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> relative free energies of RNA helix <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:23112748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4359004','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4359004"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAPping</span> the Ndc80 loop in cancer: A possible link between Ndc80/Hec1 overproduction and cancer <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tang, Ngang Heok; Toda, Takashi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mis-regulation (e.g. overproduction) of the human Ndc80/Hec1 outer kinetochore protein has been associated with aneuploidy and tumourigenesis, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Recent studies have identified the ubiquitous Ndc80 internal loop as a protein-protein interaction platform. Binding partners include the Ska complex, the replication licensing factor Cdt1, the Dam1 complex, TACC-TOG microtubule-associated proteins (<span class="hlt">MAPs</span>) and kinesin motors. We review the field and propose that the overproduction of Ndc80 may unfavourably absorb these interactors through the internal loop domain and lead to a change in the equilibrium of <span class="hlt">MAPs</span> and motors in the cells. This sequestration will disrupt microtubule dynamics and the proper segregation of chromosomes in mitosis, leading to aneuploid <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Further investigation of Ndc80 internal loop-<span class="hlt">MAPs</span> interactions will bring new insights into their roles in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and tumourigenesis. PMID:25557589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED417055.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED417055.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Art of Teaching <span class="hlt">Map</span> and Compass: Instructional Techniques, Curricular <span class="hlt">Formats</span> and Practical Field Exercises.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watters, Ron</p> <p></p> <p>This paper discusses the value of teaching <span class="hlt">map</span> and compass skills in the classroom or an outdoor situation. Navigation is the most basic of all outdoor skills. A <span class="hlt">map</span> and compass curriculum can be taught to anyone, is inexpensive, and is easily incorporated in a variety of educational situations. General teaching principles are outlined: (1) start…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2095R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2095R"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and analysis towards a local scale <span class="hlt">predictive</span> modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to <span class="hlt">map</span> and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk model of the disease in Malaysia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........88B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........88B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> brittle zones in the Bakken <span class="hlt">Formation</span> using well logs and seismic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beecher, Michael E.</p> <p></p> <p>The oil-in-place estimate for the Bakken <span class="hlt">Formation</span> has varied from 10 billion barrels in 1974 to 503 billion barrels in 1999. However, only a small fraction of this estimate is recoverable due to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> having very low porosity and permeability. Implementation of hydraulic fracture stages along horizontal wells in the Bakken has been productive. Recently, identification of zones where the <span class="hlt">formation</span> is brittle has been used to improve hydraulic fracture stimulation efficiency in an effort to improve production. The first goal for this thesis is to identify a correlation between brittleness and production data by using elastic moduli and normalized production values. The hypothesis for this study is that rock with a low Poisson's ratio and high Young's modulus will be more brittle and will ultimately produce a higher amount of oil than more ductile rock. The next goal was to create and test a method to identify brittle zones with high normalized production in a 3D seismic data set without well control using producing wells from outside the survey with dipole sonic logs from the Bakken <span class="hlt">Formation</span>. Correlations between normalized production values and elastic moduli were subsequently identified. Cumulative first-four-months' production was found to have the best correlation to the elastic moduli. Correlations of normalized production values and Poisson's ratio showed that sections of the middle Bakken with low Poisson's ratio yield higher normalized production values. Correlations of Young's modulus and normalized production showed that middle Bakken zones with low Young's modulus have higher normalized production values. However, when using additional wells that were not used for well-to-3D seismic correlations, the correlation shows that higher Young's modulus yield higher normalized production. The correlation with additional wells best represented the data and agrees with the initial hypothesis. Brittle zones were <span class="hlt">mapped</span> in a 3D seismic data set by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1421341W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1421341W"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel methods for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> gas-particle partitioning during the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of secondary organic aerosol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wania, F.; Lei, Y. D.; Wang, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Goss, K.-U.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Several methods have been presented in the literature to <span class="hlt">predict</span> an organic chemical's equilibrium partitioning between the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) component of aerosol and the gas phase, Ki, WIOM as a function of temperature. They include (i) polyparameter linear free energy relationships calibrated with empirical aerosol sorption data, as well as (ii) the solvation models implemented in SPARC and (iii) the quantum-chemical software Cosmotherm, which <span class="hlt">predict</span> solvation equilibria from molecular structure alone. We demonstrate that these methods can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> Ki, WIOM for large numbers of individual molecules implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span>, including those with multiple functional groups. Although very different in their theoretical foundations, these methods give remarkably consistent results for the products of the reaction of normal alkanes with OH, i.e. their partition coefficients Ki, WIOM generally agree within one order of magnitude over a range of more than ten orders of magnitude. This level of agreement is much better than that achieved by different vapour pressure estimation methods that are more commonly used in the SOA community. Also, in contrast to the agreement between vapour pressure estimates, that between the Ki, WIOM estimates does not deteriorate with increasing number of functional groups. Furthermore, these partitioning coefficients Ki, WIOM are found to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the SOA mass yield in chamber experiments of the oxidation of normal alkanes as good or better than a vapour pressure based method. If a Ki, WIOM <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method was based on one or more surrogate molecules representing the solvation properties of the mixed OM phase of SOA, the choice of those molecule(s) was found to have a relatively minor effect on the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> Ki, WIOM, as long as the molecule(s) are not very polar. This suggests that a single surrogate molecule, such as 1-octanol or a hypothetical SOA structure proposed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1413189W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1413189W"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel methods for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> gas-particle partitioning during the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of secondary organic aerosol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wania, F.; Lei, Y. D.; Wang, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Goss, K.-U.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Several methods have been presented in the literature to <span class="hlt">predict</span> an organic chemical's equilibrium partitioning between the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) component of aerosol and the gas phase, Ki,WIOM, as a function of temperature. They include (i) polyparameter linear free energy relationships calibrated with empirical aerosol sorption data, as well as (ii) the solvation models implemented in SPARC and (iii) the quantum-chemical software COSMOtherm, which <span class="hlt">predict</span> solvation equilibria from molecular structure alone. We demonstrate that these methods can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> Ki,WIOM for large numbers of individual molecules implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span>, including those with multiple functional groups. Although very different in their theoretical foundations, these methods give remarkably consistent results for the products of the reaction of normal alkanes with OH, i.e. their partition coefficients Ki,WIOM generally agree within one order of magnitude over a range of more than ten orders of magnitude. This level of agreement is much better than that achieved by different vapour pressure estimation methods that are more commonly used in the SOA community. Also, in contrast to the agreement between vapour pressure estimates, the agreement between the Ki,WIOM estimates does not deteriorate with increasing number of functional groups. Furthermore, these partitioning coefficients Ki,WIOM <span class="hlt">predicted</span> SOA mass yields in agreement with those measured in chamber experiments of the oxidation of normal alkanes. If a Ki,WIOM <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method was based on one or more surrogate molecules representing the solvation properties of the mixed OM phase of SOA, the choice of those molecule(s) was found to have a relatively minor effect on the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> Ki,WIOM, as long as the molecule(s) are not very polar. This suggests that a single surrogate molecule, such as 1-octanol or a hypothetical SOA structure proposed by Kalberer et al. (2004), may often be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031659&hterms=maple&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmaple','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031659&hterms=maple&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmaple"><span id="translatedtitle">A thermodynamic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for microporosity <span class="hlt">formation</span> in aluminum-rich Al-Cu alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Poirier, D. R.; Yeum, K.; Maples, A. L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A computer model is used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> and degree of microporosity in a directionally solidified Al-4.5 wt pct Cu alloy, considering the interplay between solidification shrinkage and gas porosity. Macrosegregation theory is used to determine the local pressure within the interdendritic liquid. Results show interdendritic porosity for initial hydrogen contents in the 0.03-1 ppm range, and none below contents of 0.03. An increase in either the thermal gradient or the solidification rate is show to decrease the amount of interdendritic porosity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcGeo..63.1231P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcGeo..63.1231P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of the Shear Wave Velocity from Compressional Wave Velocity for Gachsaran <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parvizi, Saeed; Kharrat, Riyaz; Asef, Mohammad R.; Jahangiry, Bijan; Hashemi, Abdolnabi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Shear and compressional wave velocities, coupled with other petrophysical data, are very important for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. In situ shear wave velocity (Vs) is measured by some sonic logging tools. Shear velocity coupled with compressional velocity is vitally important in determining geomechanical parameters, identifying the lithology, mud weight design, hydraulic fracturing, geophysical studies such as VSP, etc. In this paper, a correlation between compressional and shear wave velocity is obtained for Gachsaran <span class="hlt">formation</span> in Maroon oil field. Real data were used to examine the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> equation. Moreover, the genetic algorithm was used to obtain the optimal value for constants of the suggested equation. Furthermore, artificial neural network was used to inspect the reliability of this method. These investigations verify the notion that the suggested equation could be considered as an efficient, fast, and cost-effective method for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> Vs from Vp.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S51B1265J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S51B1265J"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-Dimensional Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Northern California: A Foundation for Earthquake Simulations and Other <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jachens, R. C.; Simpson, R. W.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.; Brocher, T. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Detailed, realistic models of the subsurface are needed for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> damage patterns from future earthquakes and simulating other phenomena affecting human safety and well being. The simple models used in the past are no longer adequate. In support of a planned simulation of the ground shaking from the Great 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we constructed a three-dimensional (3D) geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of northern California that consists of specific geologic units separated by discrete boundaries. It is based on a century of geologic <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, 50 years of gravity and magnetic surveying, double-difference relocated seismicity, seismic soundings, P-wave tomography, and well logs. The <span class="hlt">map</span> is a rules-based construction composed of faults that break the <span class="hlt">map</span> volume into fault blocks, which in turn are populated with geologic units defined by surfaces that represent their tops. The rules define how the faults and tops truncate one another. The <span class="hlt">map</span> is easily updated as new information becomes available. The 3D <span class="hlt">map</span> is made up of two related parts. An inner detailed <span class="hlt">map</span> of central California centered on San Francisco extends from Clear Lake to Monterey, from the edge of the continental shelf to the western Great Valley, and to a depth of 45 km. This is embedded in a less detailed regional <span class="hlt">map</span> that extends from north of Cape Mendocino to Parkfield, from the ocean basin to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges, and also to a depth of 45 km. The detailed <span class="hlt">map</span> volume is broken by 25 major faults including the active San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras faults. The fault blocks are populated with geologic units in the following groups: water, Plio-Quaternary deposits, Tertiary (or undifferentiated Cenozoic) sedimentary and volcanic deposits, Mesozoic sedimentary or plutonic rocks, mafic lower crust, and mantle rocks. The primary purpose of the regional <span class="hlt">map</span> is: 1) to provide coverage of the entire reach of the San Andreas Fault that ruptured in 1906 (including the major</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.2574K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.2574K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> rates, stability and reactivity of sulfuric acid - amine clusters <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by computational chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurtén, Theo; Ortega, Ismael; Kupiainen, Oona; Olenius, Tinja; Loukonen, Ville; Reiman, Heidi; McGrath, Matthew; Vehkamäki, Hanna</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Despite the importance of atmospheric particle <span class="hlt">formation</span> for both climate and air quality, both experiments and non-empirical models using e.g. sulfuric acid, ammonia and water as condensing vapors have so far been unable to reproduce atmospheric observations using realistic trace gas concentrations. Recent experimental and theoretical evidence has shown that this mystery is likely resolved by amines. Combining first-principles evaporation rates for sulfuric acid - dimethylamine clusters with cluster kinetic modeling, we show that even sub-ppt concentrations of amines, together with atmospherically realistic concentrations of sulfuric acid, result in <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates close to those observed in the atmosphere. Our simulated cluster <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates are also close to, though somewhat larger than, those measured at the CLOUD experiment in CERN for both sulfuric acid - ammonia and sulfuric acid - dimethylamine systems. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the remaining discrepancy for the sulfuric acid - amine particle <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates is likely caused by steric hindrances to cluster <span class="hlt">formation</span> (due to alkyl groups of the amine molecules) rather than by significant errors in the evaporation rates. First-principles molecular dynamic and reaction kinetic modeling shed further light on the microscopic physics and chemistry of sulfuric acid - amine clusters. For example, while the number and type of hydrogen bonds in the clusters typically reach their equilibrium values on a picosecond timescale, and the overall bonding patterns <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by traditional "static" quantum chemical calculations seem to be stable, the individual atoms participating in the hydrogen bonds continuously change at atmospherically realistic temperatures. From a chemical reactivity perspective, we have also discovered a surprising phenomenon: clustering with sulfuric acid molecules slightly increases the activation energy required for the abstraction of alkyl hydrogens from amine molecules. This implies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255078','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255078"><span id="translatedtitle">A bridge-functional-based classical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the correlation functions of uniform electron gases at finite temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong</p> <p>2014-02-28</p> <p>Efficient and accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the correlation functions of uniform electron gases is of great importance for both practical and theoretical applications. This paper presents a bridge-functional-based classical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method for calculating the correlation functions of uniform spin-unpolarized electron gases at finite temperature. The bridge functional is formulated by following Rosenfeld's universality ansatz in combination with the modified fundamental measure theory. The theoretical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are in good agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo results but with negligible computational cost, and the accuracy is better than a previous attempt based on the hypernetted-chain approximation. We find that the classical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method is most accurate if the effective mass of electrons increases as the density falls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.446..651W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.446..651W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> galaxy star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates via the co-evolution of galaxies and haloes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.; van den Bosch, Frank C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate (SFR) of a galaxy of fixed stellar mass is determined by its dark matter halo <span class="hlt">formation</span> history, e.g. more quiescent galaxies reside in older haloes. We present new Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star-forming galaxy samples to test this simple model. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also find that our model is able to <span class="hlt">predict</span>: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an ˜r-.15 slope, independent of environment. These accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are intriguing given that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...622147C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...622147C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Excessive Autophagy Induced by Mechanical Overload in Vein Graft Neointima <span class="hlt">Formation</span>: <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Shao-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Ming-Jer; Li, Yi-Shuan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, Kirk K.; Chien, Shu; Wu, Chia-Ching</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Little is known regarding the interplays between the mechanical and molecular bases for vein graft restenosis. We elucidated the stenosis initiation using a high-frequency ultrasonic (HFU) echogenicity platform and estimated the endothelium yield stress from von-Mises stress computation to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the damage locations in living rats over time. The venous-arterial transition induced the molecular cascades for autophagy and apoptosis in venous endothelial cells (ECs) to cause neointimal hyperplasia, which correlated with the high echogenicity in HFU images and the large mechanical stress that exceeded the yield strength. The ex vivo perfusion of arterial laminar shear stress to isolated veins further confirmed the correlation. EC damage can be rescued by inhibiting autophagy <span class="hlt">formation</span> using 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Pretreatment of veins with 3-MA prior to grafting reduced the pathological increases of echogenicity and neointima <span class="hlt">formation</span> in rats. Therefore, this platform provides non-invasive temporal spatial measurement and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of restenosis after venous-arterial transition as well as monitoring the progression of the treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768319','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768319"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Excessive Autophagy Induced by Mechanical Overload in Vein Graft Neointima <span class="hlt">Formation</span>: <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Shao-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Ming-Jer; Li, Yi-Shuan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, Kirk K.; Chien, Shu; Wu, Chia-Ching</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Little is known regarding the interplays between the mechanical and molecular bases for vein graft restenosis. We elucidated the stenosis initiation using a high-frequency ultrasonic (HFU) echogenicity platform and estimated the endothelium yield stress from von-Mises stress computation to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the damage locations in living rats over time. The venous-arterial transition induced the molecular cascades for autophagy and apoptosis in venous endothelial cells (ECs) to cause neointimal hyperplasia, which correlated with the high echogenicity in HFU images and the large mechanical stress that exceeded the yield strength. The ex vivo perfusion of arterial laminar shear stress to isolated veins further confirmed the correlation. EC damage can be rescued by inhibiting autophagy <span class="hlt">formation</span> using 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Pretreatment of veins with 3-MA prior to grafting reduced the pathological increases of echogenicity and neointima <span class="hlt">formation</span> in rats. Therefore, this platform provides non-invasive temporal spatial measurement and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of restenosis after venous-arterial transition as well as monitoring the progression of the treatments. PMID:26915560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6174028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6174028"><span id="translatedtitle">A global model of thunderstorm electricity and the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of whistler duct <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stansbery, E.K.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A two-dimensional numerical model is created to calculate the electric field and current that flow from a thunderstorm source into the global electrical circuit. The model includes a hemisphere in which the thunderstorm is located, an equalization layer, and a passive magnetic conjugate hemisphere. To maintain the fair weather electric field, the output current from the thunderstorm is allowed to spread out in the ionosphere or flow along the magnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere. The vertical current is constant up to approximately 65 km, decays and is redirected horizontally in the ionosphere. Approximately half of the current that reaches the ionosphere flows along magnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere while the rest is spread out in the ionosphere and redirected to the fair weather portion of the storm hemisphere. Our results show that it is important to include a realistic model of the equalization layer to evaluate the role of thunderstorm charging of the global circuit. The <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of thunderstorm electric fields at middle and subauroral latitudes into the magnetic equatorial plane is studied. The geomagnetic field lines are assumed to be dipolar above approximately 150 km. The horizontal electric field computed in the ionosphere by our model is of sufficient size and shape for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of electron density irregularities in the magnetosphere. The mechanism involves a localized convection of ionization tubes by ExB drift. It is shown that the horizontal range of the electric field disturbance in the ionosphere must be within approximately 160 km to produce density irregularities necessary for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of whistler ducts. Although the electric field strength at ionospheric heights depends sensitively on the conductivity profile, the results presented show that whistler duct <span class="hlt">formation</span> is possible by thunderstorm generated electric fields.*</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960360"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of Salmonella Virchow with respect to temperature and pH.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ariafar, M Nima; Buzrul, Sencer; Akçelik, Nefise</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of Salmonella Virchow was monitored with respect to time at three different temperature (20, 25 and 27.5 °C) and pH (5.2, 5.9 and 6.6) values. As the temperature increased at a constant pH level, biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> decreased while as the pH level increased at a constant temperature, biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> increased. Modified Gompertz equation with high adjusted determination coefficient (Radj(2)) and low mean square error (MSE) values produced reasonable fits for the biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> under all conditions. Parameters of the modified Gompertz equation could be described in terms of temperature and pH by use of a second order polynomial function. In general, as temperature increased maximum biofilm quantity, maximum biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate and time of acceleration of biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> decreased; whereas, as pH increased; maximum biofilm quantity, maximum biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate and time of acceleration of biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> increased. Two temperature (23 and 26 °C) and pH (5.3 and 6.3) values were used up to 24 h to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of S. Virchow. Although the <span class="hlt">predictions</span> did not perfectly match with the data, reasonable estimates were obtained. In principle, modeling and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of different microorganisms on different surfaces under various conditions could be possible. PMID:26960360</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015WRR....51.6672R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015WRR....51.6672R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> permeability from the characteristic relaxation time and intrinsic <span class="hlt">formation</span> factor of complex conductivity spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Revil, A.; Binley, A.; Mejus, L.; Kessouri, P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Low-frequency quadrature conductivity spectra of siliclastic materials exhibit typically a characteristic relaxation time, which either corresponds to the peak frequency of the phase or the quadrature conductivity or a typical corner frequency, at which the quadrature conductivity starts to decrease rapidly toward lower frequencies. This characteristic relaxation time can be combined with the (intrinsic) <span class="hlt">formation</span> factor and a diffusion coefficient to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the permeability to flow of porous materials at saturation. The intrinsic <span class="hlt">formation</span> factor can either be determined at several salinities using an electrical conductivity model or at a single salinity using a relationship between the surface and quadrature conductivities. The diffusion coefficient entering into the relationship between the permeability, the characteristic relaxation time, and the <span class="hlt">formation</span> factor takes only two distinct values for isothermal conditions. For pure silica, the diffusion coefficient of cations, like sodium or potassium, in the Stern layer is equal to the diffusion coefficient of these ions in the bulk pore water, indicating weak sorption of these couterions. For clayey materials and clean sands and sandstones whose surface have been exposed to alumina (possibly iron), the diffusion coefficient of the cations in the Stern layer appears to be 350 times smaller than the diffusion coefficient of the same cations in the pore water. These values are consistent with the values of the ionic mobilities used to determine the amplitude of the low and high-frequency quadrature conductivities and surface conductivity. The database used to test the model comprises a total of 202 samples. Our analysis reveals that permeability <span class="hlt">prediction</span> with the proposed model is usually within an order of magnitude from the measured value above 0.1 mD. We also discuss the relationship between the different time constants that have been considered in previous works as characteristic relaxation time, including</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818227','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818227"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of a <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin Required for Biofilm <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Burkholderia pseudomallei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lazar Adler, Natalie R.; Dean, Rachel E.; Saint, Richard J.; Stevens, Mark P.; Prior, Joann L.; Atkins, Timothy P.; Galyov, Edouard E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The autotransporters are a large and diverse family of bacterial secreted and outer membrane proteins, which are present in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and play a role in numerous environmental and virulence-associated interactions. As part of a larger systematic study on the autotransporters of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, we have constructed an insertion mutant in the bpss1439 gene encoding an unstudied <span class="hlt">predicted</span> trimeric autotransporter adhesin. The bpss1439 mutant demonstrated a significant reduction in biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> at 48 hours in comparison to its parent 10276 wild-type strain. This phenotype was complemented to wild-type levels by the introduction of a full-length copy of the bpss1439 gene in trans. Examination of the wild-type and bpss1439 mutant strains under biofilm-inducing conditions by microscopy after 48 hours confirmed that the bpss1439 mutant produced less biofilm compared to wild-type. Additionally, it was observed that this phenotype was due to low levels of bacterial adhesion to the abiotic surface as well as reduced microcolony <span class="hlt">formation</span>. In a murine melioidosis model, the bpss1439 mutant strain demonstrated a moderate attenuation for virulence compared to the wild-type strain. This attenuation was abrogated by in trans complementation, suggesting that bpss1439 plays a subtle role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. Taken together, these studies indicate that BPSS1439 is a novel <span class="hlt">predicted</span> autotransporter involved in biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of B. pseudomallei; hence, this factor was named BbfA, Burkholderia biofilm factor A. PMID:24223950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1941721','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1941721"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of microdamage <span class="hlt">formation</span> using a mineral-collagen composite model of bone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaodu; Qian, Chunjiang</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Age-related changes in bone quality are mainly manifested in the reduced toughness. Since the post-yield deformation of bone is realized through microdamage <span class="hlt">formation</span> (e.g., microcracking and diffuse damage), it is necessary to understand the mechanism of microdamage <span class="hlt">formation</span> in bone in order to elucidate underlying mechanisms of age-related bone fractures. In this study, a two-dimensional shear lag model was developed to <span class="hlt">predict</span> stress concentration fields around an initial crack in a mineral-collagen composite. In this model, non-linear elasticity was assumed for the collagen phase, and linear elasticity for the mineral. Based on the pattern of the stress concentration fields, the condition for microdamage <span class="hlt">formation</span> was discussed. The results of our analyses indicate that: (1) an initial crack formed in mineral phase may cause stress concentration in the adjacent mineral layers; (2) the pattern of stress concentration fields depends not only on the spatial but also mechanical properties of the collagen and mineral phases; (3) the pattern of the stress concentration fields could determine either coalescence or scattering of nano cracks around the initial crack. PMID:16439230</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505432"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular dynamics of single-particle impacts <span class="hlt">predicts</span> phase diagrams for large scale pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norris, Scott A; Samela, Juha; Bukonte, Laura; Backman, Marie; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai; Madi, Charbel S; Brenner, Michael P; Aziz, Michael J</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Energetic particle irradiation can cause surface ultra-smoothening, self-organized nanoscale pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> or degradation of the structural integrity of nuclear reactor components. A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms governing the selection among these outcomes has been elusive. Here we <span class="hlt">predict</span> the mechanism governing the transition from pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> to flatness using only parameter-free molecular dynamics simulations of single-ion impacts as input into a multiscale analysis, obtaining good agreement with experiment. Our results overturn the paradigm attributing these phenomena to the removal of target atoms via sputter erosion: the mechanism dominating both stability and instability is the impact-induced redistribution of target atoms that are not sputtered away, with erosive effects being essentially irrelevant. We discuss the potential implications for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of a mysterious nanoscale topography, leading to surface degradation, of tungsten plasma-facing fusion reactor walls. Consideration of impact-induced redistribution processes may lead to a new design criterion for stability under irradiation. PMID:21505432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJC....89..960E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJC....89..960E"><span id="translatedtitle">A distributed model <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control (MPC) fault reconfiguration strategy for <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esfahani, N. R.; Khorasani, K.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, an active distributed (also referred to as semi-decentralised) fault recovery control scheme is proposed that employs inaccurate and unreliable fault information into a model-<span class="hlt">predictive</span>-control-based design. The objective is to compensate for the identified actuator faults that are subject to uncertainties and detection time delays, in the attitude control subsystems of <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying satellites. The proposed distributed fault recovery scheme is developed through a two-level hierarchical framework. In the first level, or the agent level, the fault is recovered locally to maintain as much as possible the design specifications, feasibility, and tracking performance of all the agents. In the second level, or the <span class="hlt">formation</span> level, the recovery is carried out by enhancing the entire team performance. The fault recovery performance of our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) scheme is compared with two other alternative schemes, namely the centralised and the decentralised fault recovery schemes. It is shown that the distributed (semi-decentralised) fault recovery scheme satisfies the recovery design specifications and also imposes lower fault compensation control effort cost and communication bandwidth requirements as compared to the centralised scheme. Our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) scheme also outperforms the achievable performance capabilities of the decentralised scheme. Simulation results corresponding to a network of four precision <span class="hlt">formation</span> flight satellites are also provided to demonstrate and illustrate the advantages of our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) fault recovery strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348475"><span id="translatedtitle">The precision of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> between number words and the approximate number system <span class="hlt">predicts</span> children's formal math abilities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Libertus, Melissa E; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive approximate number system (ANS) and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Furthermore, by the time they are 5years old, children can <span class="hlt">map</span> between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> between approximate and exact numbers relate to children's math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation-<span class="hlt">mapping</span> accuracy and variability-might each relate to math performance. Here, we addressed these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, <span class="hlt">predicted</span> formal math abilities, even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word <span class="hlt">mapping</span> may be especially important for formal math abilities. PMID:27348475</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128816','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128816"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Galaxy Star <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Rates via the Co-evolution of Galaxies and Halos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.</p> <p>2014-03-06</p> <p>In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate (SFR) of a galaxy is determined by its dark matter halo <span class="hlt">formation</span> history, and as such, that more quiescent galaxies reside in older halos. This simple model has been remarkably successful at <span class="hlt">predicting</span> color-based galaxy statistics at low redshift as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To further test this method with observations, we present new SDSS measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star forming galaxy samples. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also employ a galaxy group finder and show that our model is able to <span class="hlt">predict</span>: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR-dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an approx r<sup>-.15</sup> slope, independent of environment. The accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for the spatial distribution of satellites is intriguing given the fact that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite, contrary to most galaxy evolution models. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23.1867D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23.1867D"><span id="translatedtitle">The GIS layers of the "International Hydrogeological <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Europe 1:1,500,000" in a vector <span class="hlt">format</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duscher, Klaus; Günther, Andreas; Richts, Andrea; Clos, Patrick; Philipp, Uta; Struckmeier, Wilhelm</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">map</span> series of the International Hydrogeological <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Europe at a scale of 1:1,500,000 (IHME1500) has been completed by the publication of the last two <span class="hlt">map</span> sheets in August 2013. Altogether, the 25 sheets of the IHME1500 provide the first coherent overview of groundwater resources in Europe. The <span class="hlt">map</span> displays productivity and lithology of potential aquifer systems. Some of the additional <span class="hlt">map</span> contents relating to groundwater are presented only regionally. The most relevant features of IHME1500 are compiled in two seamless geographic information system (GIS) layers in shapefile <span class="hlt">format</span>: (1) showing groundwater resources characterised by a basic aquifer typology, including a lithological description and areas of seawater intrusion, and (2) reproducing major tectonic fractures. The superficial lithology information was harmonised by implementing a lithological taxonomy and a multi-step aggregation. An enhancement of the GIS layers is envisaged through the release of updates, which will be distinguished by consecutive version numbers. The continent-wide harmonised presentation of contents constitutes the main feature of the IHME1500 GIS layers. This qualifies the spatial dataset as a basic tool for hydrogeological assessments aiming primarily at transboundary issues. <span class="hlt">Map</span> scale and the manufacture date of the analogue base impose restrictions on the application of the IHME1500 vector data. A set of examples describes the initial use of the GIS layers in research projects and illustrates potential fields of application. The IHME1500 lithology layer establishes a spatial dataset suitable for the continent-wide evaluation of geological surface processes like the susceptibility to landslides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110776"><span id="translatedtitle">Parasol cell mosaics are unlikely to drive the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of structured orientation <span class="hlt">maps</span> in primary visual cortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hore, Victoria R A; Troy, John B; Eglen, Stephen J</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The receptive fields of on- and off-center parasol cell mosaics independently tile the retina to ensure efficient sampling of visual space. A recent theoretical model represented the on- and off-center mosaics by noisy hexagonal lattices of slightly different density. When the two lattices are overlaid, long-range Moiré interference patterns are generated. These Moiré interference patterns have been suggested to drive the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of highly structured orientation <span class="hlt">maps</span> in visual cortex. Here, we show that noisy hexagonal lattices do not capture the spatial statistics of parasol cell mosaics. An alternative model based upon local exclusion zones, termed as the pairwise interaction point process (PIPP) model, generates patterns that are statistically indistinguishable from parasol cell mosaics. A key difference between the PIPP model and the hexagonal lattice model is that the PIPP model does not generate Moiré interference patterns, and hence stimulated orientation <span class="hlt">maps</span> do not show any hexagonal structure. Finally, we estimate the spatial extent of spatial correlations in parasol cell mosaics to be only 200-350 μm, far less than that required to generate Moiré interference. We conclude that parasol cell mosaics are too disordered to drive the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of highly structured orientation <span class="hlt">maps</span> in visual cortex. PMID:23110776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....78...53T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....78...53T"><span id="translatedtitle">Cell Based Associations: A procedure for considering scarce and mixed mineral occurrences in <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tourlière, Bruno; Pakyuz-Charrier, Evren; Cassard, Daniel; Barbanson, Luc; Gumiaux, Charles</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Cell Based Association is an innovative mineral favorability procedure designed to answer special needs of the mining industry in data wise critical situations where usual favorability methods may not yield satisfactory results. Those situations relate to input data quality (e.g. clustered points, mixed and scarce data, approximate location) or some assumptions that are considered unreasonable (e.g. <span class="hlt">map</span> areas relevance, conditional independence). The principle of CBA consists in replacing polygons of geological units with a square cell grid (hence the 'cell-based'). Each cell contains a range of units ('association') that are binary coded in terms of their presence (1) or absence (0) within study area. The loss of resolution inherent to this procedure is compensated by the enriched information contained in each cell owing to the notion of (lithological) association. Lithological associations are considered as binary spectra and as such are classified using Ascendant Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) thus obtaining a synthetic <span class="hlt">map</span> of lithological associations. The prospectivity <span class="hlt">map</span> shows as favourable the cells of the same AHC classes that the ones including mineral occurrences. It was observed that CBA can distinguish between different ore deposit varieties from a blended mineral occurrences data set. CBA can theoretically include any spatialized data (e.g. geophysics, structural data) as an extra variable to specify classification and narrow favourable areas. Doing so would make it an independent favorability <span class="hlt">mapping</span> procedure and is still under development. Cell size in a grid is a critical parameter of the procedure; it must be compatible with the looked-for phenomena and should have a sufficient lithological variability. In addition to its use for producing favorability <span class="hlt">maps</span>, a CBA-derived <span class="hlt">map</span> could help in understanding the background information contained in geological <span class="hlt">maps</span>. CBA can also be applied to other fields, such as agriculture and urban planning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67b6217H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67b6217H"><span id="translatedtitle">Information capacity and pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> in a tent <span class="hlt">map</span> network featuring statistical periodicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hauptmann, C.; Touchette, H.; Mackey, M. C.</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>We provide quantitative support to the observation that lattices of coupled <span class="hlt">maps</span> are “efficient” information coding devices. It has been suggested recently that lattices of coupled <span class="hlt">maps</span> may provide a model of information coding in the nervous system because of their ability to create structured and stimulus-dependent activity patterns which have the potential to be used for storing information. In this paper, we give an upper bound to the effective number of patterns that can be used to store information in the lattice by evaluating numerically its information capacity or information rate as a function of the coupling strength between the <span class="hlt">maps</span>. We also estimate the time taken by the lattice to establish a limiting activity pattern.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33E0230C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33E0230C"><span id="translatedtitle">Rice crop <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and change <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using multi-temporal satellite images in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The rice cropping systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) has been undergoing major changes to cope with developing agro-economics, increasing population and changing climate. Information on rice cropping practices and changes in cropping systems is critical for policymakers to devise successful strategies to ensure food security and rice grain exports for the country. The primary objective of this research is to <span class="hlt">map</span> rice cropping systems and <span class="hlt">predict</span> future dynamics of rice cropping systems using the MODIS time-series data of 2002, 2006, and 2010. First, a phenology-based classification approach was applied for the classification and assessment of rice cropping systems in study region. Second, the Cellular Automata-Markov (CA-Markov) models was used to simulate the rice-cropping system <span class="hlt">map</span> of VMD for 2010. The comparisons between the classification <span class="hlt">maps</span> and the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients, respectively, of 81.4% and 0.75 for 2002, 80.6% and 0.74 for 2006 and 85.5% and 0.81 for 2010. The simulated <span class="hlt">map</span> of rice cropping system for 2010 was extrapolated by CA-Markov model based on the trend of rice cropping systems during 2002~2006. The comparison between <span class="hlt">predicted</span> scenario and classification <span class="hlt">map</span> for 2010 presents a reasonably closer agreement. In conclusion, the CA-Markov model performs a powerful tool for the dynamic modeling of changes in rice cropping systems, and the results obtained demonstrate that the approach produces satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, quantitative forecast and spatial pattern changes. Meanwhile, the projections of the future changes would provide useful inputs to the agricultural policy for effective management of the rice cropping practices in VMD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23793601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23793601"><span id="translatedtitle">Providing access to risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tools via the HL7 XML-<span class="hlt">formatted</span> risk web service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chipman, Jonathan; Drohan, Brian; Blackford, Amanda; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Hughes, Kevin; Bosinoff, Phil</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Cancer risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tools provide valuable information to clinicians but remain computationally challenging. Many clinics find that CaGene or HughesRiskApps fit their needs for easy- and ready-to-use software to obtain cancer risks; however, these resources may not fit all clinics' needs. The HughesRiskApps Group and BayesMendel Lab therefore developed a web service, called "Risk Service", which may be integrated into any client software to quickly obtain standardized and up-to-date risk <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for BayesMendel tools (BRCAPRO, MMRpro, PancPRO, and MelaPRO), the Tyrer-Cuzick IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, and the Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. Software clients that can convert their local structured data into the HL7 XML-<span class="hlt">formatted</span> family and clinical patient history (Pedigree model) may integrate with the Risk Service. The Risk Service uses Apache Tomcat and Apache Axis2 technologies to provide an all Java web service. The software client sends HL7 XML information containing anonymized family and clinical history to a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) server, where it is parsed, interpreted, and processed by multiple risk tools. The Risk Service then <span class="hlt">formats</span> the results into an HL7 style message and returns the risk <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to the originating software client. Upon consent, users may allow DFCI to maintain the data for future research. The Risk Service implementation is exemplified through HughesRiskApps. The Risk Service broadens the availability of valuable, up-to-date cancer risk tools and allows clinics and researchers to integrate risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tools into their own software interface designed for their needs. Each software package can collect risk data using its own interface, and display the results using its own interface, while using a central, up-to-date risk calculator. This allows users to choose from multiple interfaces while always getting the latest risk calculations. Consenting users contribute their data for future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458917"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of the condensed phase heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of energetic compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>A new reliable simple model is presented for estimating the condensed phase heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of important classes of energetic compounds including polynitro arene, polynitro heteroarene, acyclic and cyclic nitramine, nitrate ester and nitroaliphatic compounds. For CHNO energetic compounds, elemental compositions as well as increasing and decreasing energy content parameters are used in the new method. The novel correlation is tested for 192 organic compounds containing complex molecular structures with at least one nitro, nitramine or nitrate energetic functional groups. This work improves the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> ability of previous empirical correlations for a wide range of energetic compounds. For those energetic compounds where group additivity method can be applied and outputs of quantum mechanical computations were available, it is shown that the root mean square (rms) deviation of the new method is lower. PMID:21458917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572655"><span id="translatedtitle">Brief Report: Fast <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Differences in Concurrent and Later Language Abilities Among Children with ASD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Venker, Courtney E; Kover, Sara T; Ellis Weismer, Susan</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This study investigated whether the ability to learn word-object associations following minimal exposure (i.e., fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span>) was associated with concurrent and later language abilities in children with ASD. Children who were poor learners at age 3½ had significantly lower receptive language abilities than children who successfully learned the new words, both concurrently (n = 59) and 2 years later (n = 53), lending ecological validity to experimental fast-<span class="hlt">mapping</span> tasks. Fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> comprehension at age 3½ was associated with better language outcomes regardless of whether children had produced the new words. These findings highlight the importance of investigating processes of language learning in children with ASD. Understanding these processes will enable the development of maximally effective strategies for supporting word learning. PMID:26572655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24452604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24452604"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing "economic value": symbolic-number <span class="hlt">mappings</span> <span class="hlt">predict</span> risky and riskless valuations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schley, Dan R; Peters, Ellen</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Diminishing marginal utility (DMU) is a basic tenet of economic and psychological models of judgment and choice, but its determinants are little understood. In the research reported here, we tested whether insensitivities in valuations of dollar amounts (e.g., $40, $100) may be due to inexact <span class="hlt">mappings</span> of symbolic numbers (i.e., "40," "100") onto mental magnitudes. In three studies, we demonstrated that inexact <span class="hlt">mappings</span> appear to guide valuation and mediate numeracy's relations with riskless valuations (Studies 1 and 1a) and risky choices (Study 2). The results highlight the fundamental notion that individuals' valuations of $100 depend critically on how individuals perceive and <span class="hlt">map</span> the symbolic quantity "100." This notion has implications for conceptualizations of value, risk aversion, intertemporal choice, and dual-process theories of decision making. Normative implications are also briefly discussed. PMID:24452604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710121H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710121H"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach for improving flood model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> based on the sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hostache, Renaud; Corato, Giovanni; Chini, Marco; Wood, Melissa; Giustarini, Laura; Matgen, Patrick</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrodynamic models represent an important component in flood <span class="hlt">prediction</span> systems. However, providing reliable model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and reducing the associated uncertainties remain challenging, especially in poorly gauged river basins. As Synthetic Aperture Radar-derived flood image databases are significant (and expected to grow rapidly with contributions from new satellites such as Sentinel-1) there are emerging opportunities for using these data collections to improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. In this context our aim is to contribute to the development of a global and near real-time remote sensing-based service that delivers flood <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to support flood management. The study takes advantage of recently developed efficient, rapid and automatic algorithms for the delineation of flood extent using SAR images. The main objective of the study is to show how near real-time sequential assimilation of SAR derived flood extents can improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. As a test case we use the July 2007 flood event of the river Severn (UK) and the February 2007 flood event of the lower Zambezi (Mozambique). We use the Lisflood-FP hydraulic model and we adopt a particle filter-based assimilation scheme. An important issue in the framework of the assimilation of remote sensing-derived information is to quantify observation uncertainty. To do so we introduce for the first time an image processing approach that assigns to each pixel a 'probability to be flooded' based on its backscatter values. The sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent <span class="hlt">maps</span> shows a significant improvement in the hydraulic model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. The main achievement of the study is that model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are clearly improved by the assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent not only in terms of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> flooded areas but also in terms of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> discharge and water level surface elevation hydrographs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33M..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33M..04H"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach for improving flood model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> based on the sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hostache, R.; Corato, G.; Chini, M.; Wood, M.; Giustarini, L.; Matgen, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydrodynamic models represent an important component in flood <span class="hlt">prediction</span> systems. Unfortunately, providing reliable model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and reducing the associated uncertainties remain challenging; especially for poorly gauged river basins. As SAR flood image databases are significant (and expected to grow rapidly with contributions from new satellites such as Sentinel-1) there are obvious opportunities to use these flood images to improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. In this context our aim is to contribute to the development of a global and near real-time remote sensing service that delivers flood <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to support flood management around the globe. The study takes advantage of recently developed efficient, rapid and automatic algorithms for the delineation of flood extent using SAR images. The main objective of the study is to show how near real-time sequential assimilation of SAR derived flood extents can improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. As a test case we use the July 2007 flood event of the river Severn (UK) and the February 2007 flood event of the lower river Zambezi (Mozambique). We use the Lisflood-FP hydraulic model and we adopt the particle filter as assimilation technique. An important issue in the framework of the assimilation of remote sensing-derived information is to quantify observation uncertainty. To do so we introduce an original image processing approach that assigns to each pixel a 'probability to be flooded' based on its backscatter values. The sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent <span class="hlt">maps</span> show a significant improvement in the hydraulic model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> although the addition of sequences of images with similar flood extents has some limit. The main achievement of the study is that model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are clearly improved by the assimilation of SAR derived flood extent not only in terms of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> flooded areas but also in terms of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> discharge and water level hydrographs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26992749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26992749"><span id="translatedtitle">A-DROP: A <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of oil particle aggregates (OPAs).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; Geng, Xiaolong; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Faith</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Oil-particle interactions play a major role in removal of free oil from the water column. We present a new conceptual-numerical model, A-DROP, to <span class="hlt">predict</span> oil amount trapped in oil-particle aggregates. A new conceptual formulation of oil-particle coagulation efficiency is introduced to account for the effects of oil stabilization by particles, particle hydrophobicity, and oil-particle size ratio on OPA <span class="hlt">formation</span>. A-DROP was able to closely reproduce the oil trapping efficiency reported in experimental studies. The model was then used to simulate the OPA <span class="hlt">formation</span> in a typical nearshore environment. Modeling results indicate that the increase of particle concentration in the swash zone would speed up the oil-particle interaction process; but the oil amount trapped in OPAs did not correspond to the increase of particle concentration. The developed A-DROP model could become an important tool in understanding the natural removal of oil and developing oil spill countermeasures by means of oil-particle aggregation. PMID:26992749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.U11A0007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.U11A0007B"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury's core fraction and ancient crustal composition: <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> from planetary <span class="hlt">formation</span> under extremely reducing conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, S. M.; Elkins-Tanton, L.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the paradox of Mercury's large core, which is on the order of sixty percent of the mass of the planet and recently demonstrated to be at least partially molten. Here we suggest that extremely reducing conditions in the earliest stages of planetary accretion nearest to the Sun may have produced the unusual metallic iron fraction by reducing iron otherwise bound into silicates. We demonstrate the <span class="hlt">formation</span> conditions necessary for various meteoritic bulk compositions to produce the core/mantle ratio of Mercury. During this hypothetical core <span class="hlt">formation</span>, we assume the remaining silicate fraction of Mercury (now largely lacking iron) has been heated to produce a magma ocean. The resulting cumulate mantle composition is calculated in a Matlab simulation of magma ocean solidification using a CMAS system adapted for Mercury. Plagioclase flotation, frequently cited as the necessary signature of a magma ocean, is highly dependent upon initial bulk composition. We demonstrate the initial silicate iron content of the magma ocean necessary to make plagioclase buoyant and thus produce a plagioclase flotation crust as seen on the Moon. In addition, over a range of bulk compositions the solidified mantle cumulates are unstable to gravitational overturn. During overturn hot cumulates rise from depth and may cross their solidi and melt, producing an earliest planetary crust. This crust may still exist on Mercury. With the first flyby results of the MESSENGER mission coming this winter, <span class="hlt">predictions</span> from these models can be compared with initial ground measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2928751','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2928751"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Experimental Verification of New <span class="hlt">MAP</span> Kinase Docking Sites and Substrates Including Gli Transcription Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Whisenant, Thomas C.; Ho, David T.; Benz, Ryan W.; Rogers, Jeffrey S.; Kaake, Robyn M.; Gordon, Elizabeth A.; Huang, Lan; Baldi, Pierre; Bardwell, Lee</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In order to fully understand protein kinase networks, new methods are needed to identify regulators and substrates of kinases, especially for weakly expressed proteins. Here we have developed a hybrid computational search algorithm that combines machine learning and expert knowledge to identify kinase docking sites, and used this algorithm to search the human genome for novel <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase substrates and regulators focused on the JNK family of <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinases. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> were tested by peptide array followed by rigorous biochemical verification with in vitro binding and kinase assays on wild-type and mutant proteins. Using this procedure, we found new ‘D-site’ class docking sites in previously known JNK substrates (hnRNP-K, PPM1J/PP2Czeta), as well as new JNK-interacting proteins (MLL4, NEIL1). Finally, we identified new D-site-dependent MAPK substrates, including the hedgehog-regulated transcription factors Gli1 and Gli3, suggesting that a direct connection between <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase and hedgehog signaling may occur at the level of these key regulators. These results demonstrate that a genome-wide search for <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase docking sites can be used to find new docking sites and substrates. PMID:20865152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4478133','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4478133"><span id="translatedtitle">Protein pheromone expression levels <span class="hlt">predict</span> and respond to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of social dominance networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nelson, Adam C.; Cunningham, Christopher B.; Ruff, James S.; Potts, Wayne K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Communication signals are key regulators of social networks, and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odors of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behavior, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network <span class="hlt">formation</span> and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analyzing expression levels before, during, and after competition for reproductive resources over three days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species. PMID:25867293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4586352','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4586352"><span id="translatedtitle">Becoming popular: interpersonal emotion regulation <span class="hlt">predicts</span> relationship <span class="hlt">formation</span> in real life social networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others’ feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies <span class="hlt">predicted</span> growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members’ reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from <span class="hlt">formation</span> of their accounts revealed that use of IER <span class="hlt">predicted</span> greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person’s thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes. PMID:26483718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483718"><span id="translatedtitle">Becoming popular: interpersonal emotion regulation <span class="hlt">predicts</span> relationship <span class="hlt">formation</span> in real life social networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others' feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies <span class="hlt">predicted</span> growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members' reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from <span class="hlt">formation</span> of their accounts revealed that use of IER <span class="hlt">predicted</span> greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person's thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes. PMID:26483718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+neural+AND+artificial&pg=4&id=EJ578878','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+neural+AND+artificial&pg=4&id=EJ578878"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Career Counselor Decisions with Artificial Neural Networks: <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> of Fit across a Comprehensive Occupational <span class="hlt">Map</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carson, Andrew D.; Bizot, Elizabeth B.; Hendershot, Peggy E.; Barton, Margaret G.; Garvin, Mary K.; Kraemer, Barbara</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Career recommendations were made based on aptitude scores of 335 high school freshmen. Artificial neural networks were used to <span class="hlt">map</span> recommendations to 12 occupational clusters. Overall accuracy of neural networks (.80) approached that of discriminant function analysis (.84). The two methods had different strengths and weaknesses. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+learn+AND+children&pg=3&id=EJ1090421','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+learn+AND+children&pg=3&id=EJ1090421"><span id="translatedtitle">Brief Report: Fast <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Differences in Concurrent and Later Language Abilities among Children with ASD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated whether the ability to learn word-object associations following minimal exposure (i.e., fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span>) was associated with concurrent and later language abilities in children with ASD. Children who were poor learners at age 3½ had significantly lower receptive language abilities than children who successfully learned the new…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813659C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813659C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of En<span class="hlt">MAP</span> spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of common surface soil properties and expected accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chabrillat, Sabine; Foerster, Saskia; Steinberg, Andreas; Stevens, Antoine; Segl, Karl</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>There is a renewed awareness of the finite nature of the world's soil resources, growing concern about soil security, and significant uncertainties about the carrying capacity of the planet. As a consequence, soil scientists are being challenged to provide regular assessments of soil conditions from local through to global scales. However, only a few countries have the necessary survey and monitoring programs to meet these new needs and existing global data sets are out-of-date. A particular issue is the clear demand for a new area-wide regional to global coverage with accurate, up-to-date, and spatially referenced soil information as expressed by the modeling scientific community, farmers and land users, and policy and decision makers. Soil spectroscopy from remote sensing observations based on studies from the laboratory scale to the airborne scale has been shown to be a proven method for the quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of key soil surface properties in local areas for exposed soils in appropriate surface conditions such as low vegetation cover and low water content. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellite sensors in the next 3 to 5 years (En<span class="hlt">MAP</span>, HISUI, PRISMA, SHALOM), a great potential for the global <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and monitoring of soil properties is appearing. Nevertheless, the capabilities to extend the soil properties current spectral modeling from local to regional scales are still to be demonstrated using robust methods. In particular, three central questions are at the forefront of research nowadays: a) methodological developments toward improved algorithms and operational tools for the extraction of soil properties, b) up scaling from the laboratory into space domain, and c) demonstration of the potential of upcoming satellite systems and expected accuracy of soil <span class="hlt">maps</span>. In this study, airborne imaging spectroscopy data from several test sites are used to simulate En<span class="hlt">MAP</span> satellite images at 30 m scale. Then, different soil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384976','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384976"><span id="translatedtitle">The Choice between <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man and Gene Ontology for Automated Gene Function <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> in Plant Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klie, Sebastian; Nikoloski, Zoran</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Since the introduction of the Gene Ontology (GO), the analysis of high-throughput data has become tightly coupled with the use of ontologies to establish associations between knowledge and data in an automated fashion. Ontologies provide a systematic description of knowledge by a controlled vocabulary of defined structure in which ontological concepts are connected by pre-defined relationships. In plant science, <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man and GO offer two alternatives for ontology-driven analyses. Unlike GO, initially developed to characterize microbial systems, <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man was specifically designed to cover plant-specific pathways and processes. While the dependencies between concepts in <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man are modeled as a tree, in GO these are captured in a directed acyclic graph. Therefore, the difference in ontologies may cause discrepancies in data reduction, visualization, and hypothesis generation. Here provide the first systematic comparative analysis of GO and <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man for the case of the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with respect to their structural properties and difference in distributions of information content. In addition, we investigate the effect of the two ontologies on the specificity and sensitivity of automated gene function <span class="hlt">prediction</span> via the coupling of co-expression networks and the guilt-by-association principle. Automated gene function <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is particularly needed for the model plant Arabidopsis in which only half of genes have been functionally annotated based on sequence similarity to known genes. The results highlight the need for structured representation of species-specific biological knowledge, and warrants caution in the design principles employed in future ontologies. PMID:22754563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=302548','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=302548"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint multiple family QTL analysis <span class="hlt">predicts</span> within-family variation better than single family analysis of the maize nested association <span class="hlt">mapping</span> population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Quantitative trait loci (QTL) <span class="hlt">mapping</span> has been used to dissect the genetic architecture of a trait and <span class="hlt">predict</span> phenotypes for marker-assisted selection. Many QTL <span class="hlt">mapping</span> studies in plants have been limited to one biparental family population. Joint analysis of multiple biparental families offers an ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4595278','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4595278"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary Visual Cortex as a Saliency <span class="hlt">Map</span>: A Parameter-Free <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Its Test by Behavioral Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhaoping, Li; Zhe, Li</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>It has been hypothesized that neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) represent a saliency <span class="hlt">map</span> of the visual field to exogenously guide attention. This hypothesis has so far provided only qualitative <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and their confirmations. We report this hypothesis’ first quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, derived without free parameters, and its confirmation by human behavioral data. The hypothesis provides a direct link between V1 neural responses to a visual location and the saliency of that location to guide attention exogenously. In a visual input containing many bars, one of them saliently different from all the other bars which are identical to each other, saliency at the singleton’s location can be measured by the shortness of the reaction time in a visual search for singletons. The hypothesis <span class="hlt">predicts</span> quantitatively the whole distribution of the reaction times to find a singleton unique in color, orientation, and motion direction from the reaction times to find other types of singletons. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> matches human reaction time data. A requirement for this successful <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is a data-motivated assumption that V1 lacks neurons tuned simultaneously to color, orientation, and motion direction of visual inputs. Since evidence suggests that extrastriate cortices do have such neurons, we discuss the possibility that the extrastriate cortices play no role in guiding exogenous attention so that they can be devoted to other functions like visual decoding and endogenous attention. PMID:26441341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441341"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary Visual Cortex as a Saliency <span class="hlt">Map</span>: A Parameter-Free <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Its Test by Behavioral Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhaoping, Li; Zhe, Li</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>It has been hypothesized that neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) represent a saliency <span class="hlt">map</span> of the visual field to exogenously guide attention. This hypothesis has so far provided only qualitative <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and their confirmations. We report this hypothesis' first quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, derived without free parameters, and its confirmation by human behavioral data. The hypothesis provides a direct link between V1 neural responses to a visual location and the saliency of that location to guide attention exogenously. In a visual input containing many bars, one of them saliently different from all the other bars which are identical to each other, saliency at the singleton's location can be measured by the shortness of the reaction time in a visual search for singletons. The hypothesis <span class="hlt">predicts</span> quantitatively the whole distribution of the reaction times to find a singleton unique in color, orientation, and motion direction from the reaction times to find other types of singletons. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> matches human reaction time data. A requirement for this successful <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is a data-motivated assumption that V1 lacks neurons tuned simultaneously to color, orientation, and motion direction of visual inputs. Since evidence suggests that extrastriate cortices do have such neurons, we discuss the possibility that the extrastriate cortices play no role in guiding exogenous attention so that they can be devoted to other functions like visual decoding and endogenous attention. PMID:26441341</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/892230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/892230"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Physical <span class="hlt">Formats</span> to Logical Models to Extract Data and Metadata: The Defuddle Parsing Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Talbott, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.; Myers, James D.</p> <p>2006-07-25</p> <p>Scientists, fueled by the desire for systems-level understanding of phenomena, increasingly need to share their results across multiple disciplines. Accomplishing this requires data to be annotated, contextualized, and readily searchable and translated into other <span class="hlt">formats</span>. While these requirements can be addressed by custom programming or obviated by community standardization, neither approach has ‘solved’ the problem. In this paper, we describe a complementary approach – a general capability for articulating the <span class="hlt">format</span> of arbitrary textual and binary data using a logical data model, expressed in XML-Schema, which can be used to provide annotation and context, extract metadata, and enable translation. This work is based on the draft specification for the Data <span class="hlt">Format</span> Description Language and our open source “Defuddle” parser. We present an overview of the specification, detail the design of Defuddle, and discuss the benefits and challenges of this general approach to enabling discovery and sharing of diverse data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.V13C4792D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.V13C4792D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Lava Tube <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Mechanisms Using Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>, and Viscosity Modeling: Lava Beds National Monument, California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dedecker, J.; Gant, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study explores the relationships between lava tube morphology, lava effusion rate estimates, and the mechanism of lava tube <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Effusion rate estimates for extinct lava tubes were calculated using a combination of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of lava tube caves, and viscosity models utilizing whole-rock compositions (Giordano et al., 2008, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.), and petrographic data (Harris and Allen, 2008, J. Geophys. Res.). The mechanism of lava tube <span class="hlt">formation</span> was evaluated using measured tube lengths and effusion rate estimates and comparing these data with observations from Hawaiian channel- and tube-fed flows (Pinkerton and Wilson, 1994, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res.). Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">map</span> data for lava tube caves were collected using a laser rangefinder to measure the cross-sectional shape and down-tube distance, and a tandem compass/inclinometer to measure the azimuth and inclination between survey stations in the tube. Total tube length consists of the <span class="hlt">mapped</span> tube length plus the distance between collapse pits and trenches along the trend of the tube. Effusion rates were estimated using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, measured mean cross-sectional radii and slope of lava tubes, and estimated effective viscosities of rock samples collected from <span class="hlt">mapped</span> tubes at temperatures between 1080-1160 °C and water contents of 0-1 wt.%. A lava density of 1560 g/cm3was used for 0.40 vesicle fraction basalt. There is a positive correlation between measured tube lengths and cross-sectional radii (Fig. 1). We propose that this relationship reflects the positive correlation between flow lengths and effusion rates in active Hawaiian channel-fed flows. Measured tube lengths vs. effusion rate estimates were compared with data for Hawaiian channel-fed flows (Fig. 2). The two data sets overlap and have parallel trends. These results suggest that the lava tube caves studied formed by the roofing-over of channel-fed flows or had segments of channel-fed flow. We propose</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25314498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25314498"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictable</span> nonwandering localization of covariant Lyapunov vectors and cluster synchronization in scale-free networks of chaotic <span class="hlt">maps</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuptsov, Pavel V; Kuptsova, Anna V</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Covariant Lyapunov vectors for scale-free networks of Hénon <span class="hlt">maps</span> are highly localized. We revealed two mechanisms of the localization related to full and phase cluster synchronization of network nodes. In both cases the localization nodes remain unaltered in the course of the dynamics, i.e., the localization is nonwandering. Moreover, this is <span class="hlt">predictable</span>: The localization nodes are found to have specific dynamical and topological properties and they can be found without computing of the covariant vectors. This is an example of explicit relations between the system topology, its phase-space dynamics, and the associated tangent-space dynamics of covariant Lyapunov vectors. PMID:25314498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21030292','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21030292"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of refrigerant void fraction in horizontal tubes using probabilistic flow regime <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jassim, E.W.; Newell, T.A.; Chato, J.C.</p> <p>2008-04-15</p> <p>A state of the art review of two-phase void fraction models in smooth horizontal tubes is provided and a probabilistic two-phase flow regime <span class="hlt">map</span> void fraction model is developed for refrigerants under condensation, adiabatic, and evaporation conditions in smooth, horizontal tubes. Time fraction information from a generalized probabilistic two-phase flow <span class="hlt">map</span> is used to provide a physically based weighting of void fraction models for different flow regimes. The present model and void fraction models in the literature are compared to data from multiple sources including R11, R12, R134a, R22, R410A refrigerants, 4.26-9.58 mm diameter tubes, mass fluxes from 70 to 900 kg/m{sup 2} s, and a full quality range. The present model has a mean absolute deviation of 3.5% when compared to the collected database. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/53387','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/53387"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of lightning strike distributions associated with synoptic <span class="hlt">map</span> types over Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reap, R.M.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>The temporal and spatial distributions of lightning activity associated with specific synoptic regimes of low-level wind flow were analyzed as part of an experiment to develop improved statistical thunderstorm forecasts for Florida. The synoptic regimes were identified by means of a linear correlation technique that was used to perform pattern classification or `<span class="hlt">map</span> typing` of 18- and 30-h sea level pressure forecasts from the National Meteorological Center`s Nested Grid Model (NGM). Lightning location data for the 1987-90 warm seasons were subsequently analyzed on a 12-km grid to determine the thunderstorm distribution for each of the predetermined <span class="hlt">map</span> types. The analysis revealed organized coastal maxima in lightning activity related to land-sea-breeze convergence zones that form in direct response to the low-level wind flow. Surface effects were also indicated by the persistent minima in lightning activity over Lake Okeechobee and by the lightning maxima found in regions with shoreline curvature favoring localized convergence. Experimental thunderstorm probability equations for Florida were subsequently developed from climatological lightning frequencies and NGM forecast fields. The lightning frequencies were combined with the K stability index to form interactive predictors that take into account the temporal and spatial variations in lightning occurrence for each <span class="hlt">map</span> type but modulate the climatology in response to the daily large-scale synoptic situation. The statistical forecast equations were developed for each <span class="hlt">map</span> type in an attempt to simulate the effects of small-scale processes, such as land-sea-breeze convergence zones, on the subsequent development of peninsular-scale convection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208167','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208167"><span id="translatedtitle">QTL <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of root aerenchyma <span class="hlt">formation</span> in seedlings of a rare teosinte, Zeanicaraguenis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Aerenchyma cell <span class="hlt">formation</span> in plant root systems is considered to be among one of the most important physiological root characteristics affecting flooding tolerance in species possessing such structures. In some species, aerenchyma cell development is an induced response, occurring shortly following...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27235308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27235308"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomic <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> for Quantitative Traits Is Improved by <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Variants to Gene Ontology Categories in Drosophila melanogaster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edwards, Stefan M; Sørensen, Izel F; Sarup, Pernille; Mackay, Trudy F C; Sørensen, Peter</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> individual quantitative trait phenotypes from high-resolution genomic polymorphism data is important for personalized medicine in humans, plant and animal breeding, and adaptive evolution. However, this is difficult for populations of unrelated individuals when the number of causal variants is low relative to the total number of polymorphisms and causal variants individually have small effects on the traits. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">mapping</span> molecular polymorphisms to genomic features such as genes and their gene ontology categories could increase the accuracy of genomic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models. We developed a genomic feature best linear unbiased <span class="hlt">prediction</span> (GFBLUP) model that implements this strategy and applied it to three quantitative traits (startle response, starvation resistance, and chill coma recovery) in the unrelated, sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel. Our results indicate that subsetting markers based on genomic features increases the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> ability relative to the standard genomic best linear unbiased <span class="hlt">prediction</span> (GBLUP) model. Both models use all markers, but GFBLUP allows differential weighting of the individual genetic marker relationships, whereas GBLUP weighs the genetic marker relationships equally. Simulation studies show that it is possible to further increase the accuracy of genomic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for complex traits using this model, provided the genomic features are enriched for causal variants. Our GFBLUP model using prior information on genomic features enriched for causal variants can increase the accuracy of genomic <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in populations of unrelated individuals and provides a formal statistical framework for leveraging and evaluating information across multiple experimental studies to provide novel insights into the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:27235308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16729243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16729243"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential effects of two types of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> performance of first-year medical students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krasne, Sally; Wimmers, Paul F; Relan, Anju; Drake, Thomas A</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Formative</span> assessments are systematically designed instructional interventions to assess and provide feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses in the course of teaching and learning. Despite their known benefits to student attitudes and learning, medical school curricula have been slow to integrate such assessments into the curriculum. This study investigates how performance on two different modes of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment relate to each other and to performance on summative assessments in an integrated, medical-school environment. Two types of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment were administered to 146 first-year medical students each week over 8 weeks: a timed, closed-book component to assess factual recall and image recognition, and an un-timed, open-book component to assess higher order reasoning including the ability to identify and access appropriate resources and to integrate and apply knowledge. Analogous summative assessments were administered in the ninth week. Models relating <span class="hlt">formative</span> and summative assessment performance were tested using Structural Equation Modeling. Two latent variables underlying achievement on <span class="hlt">formative</span> and summative assessments could be identified; a "<span class="hlt">formative</span>-assessment factor" and a "summative-assessment factor," with the former <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the latter. A latent variable underlying achievement on open-book <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessments was highly <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of achievement on both open- and closed-book summative assessments, whereas a latent variable underlying closed-book assessments only <span class="hlt">predicted</span> performance on the closed-book summative assessment. <span class="hlt">Formative</span> assessments can be used as effective <span class="hlt">predictive</span> tools of summative performance in medical school. Open-book, un-timed assessments of higher order processes appeared to be better predictors of overall summative performance than closed-book, timed assessments of factual recall and image recognition. PMID:16729243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_68345.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_68345.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of the Peach Orchard Flat quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming, and descriptions of new stratigraphic units in the Upper Cretaceous Lance <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and Paleocene Fort Union <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, eastern Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming-Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Honey, J.D.; Hettinger, R.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This report provides a geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of the Peach Orchard Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic <span class="hlt">formations</span> and individual coal beds were <span class="hlt">mapped</span> at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. In addition, four lithostratigraphic units were named: the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, and the China Butte, Blue Gap, and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union <span class="hlt">Formation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120002780&hterms=Hurricanes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DHurricanes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120002780&hterms=Hurricanes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DHurricanes"><span id="translatedtitle">Genesis of Pre-Hurricane Felix (2007). Part 2; Warm Core <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Precipitation Evolution, and <span class="hlt">Predictability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, zhuo; Montgomery M. T.; Dunkerton, T. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This is the second of a two-part study examining the simulated <span class="hlt">formation</span> of Atlantic Hurricane Felix (2007) in a cloud-representing framework. Here several open issues are addressed concerning the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of the storm's warm core, the evolution and respective contribution of stratiform versus convective precipitation within the parent wave's pouch, and the sensitivity of the development pathway reported in Part I to different model physics options and initial conditions. All but one of the experiments include ice microphysics as represented by one of several parameterizations, and the partition of convective versus stratiform precipitation is accomplished using a standard numerical technique based on the high-resolution control experiment. The transition to a warm-core tropical cyclone from an initially cold-core, lower tropospheric wave disturbance is analyzed first. As part of this transformation process, it is shown that deep moist convection is sustained near the pouch center. Both convective and stratiform precipitation rates increase with time. While stratiform precipitation occupies a larger area even at the tropical storm stage, deep moist convection makes a comparable contribution to the total rain rate at the pregenesis stage, and a larger contribution than stratiform processes at the storm stage. The convergence profile averaged near the pouch center is found to become dominantly convective with increasing deep moist convective activity there. Low-level convergence forced by interior diabatic heating plays a key role in forming and intensifying the near-surface closed circulation, while the midlevel convergence associated with stratiform precipitation helps to increase the midlevel circulation and thereby contributes to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> and upward extension of a tropospheric-deep cyclonic vortex. Sensitivity tests with different model physics options and initial conditions demonstrate a similar pregenesis evolution. These tests suggest that the genesis</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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