Science.gov

Sample records for formation predictability maps

  1. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  2. Compressor map prediction tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Arjun; Sznajder, Lukasz; Bennett, Ian

    2015-08-01

    Shell Global Solutions uses an in-house developed system for remote condition monitoring of centrifugal compressors. It requires field process data collected during operation to calculate and assess the machine's performance. Performance is assessed by comparing live results of polytropic head and efficiency versus design compressor curves provided by the Manufacturer. Typically, these design curves are given for specific suction conditions. The further these conditions on site deviate from those prescribed at design, the less accurate the health assessment of the compressor becomes. To address this specified problem, a compressor map prediction tool is proposed. The original performance curves of polytropic head against volumetric flow for varying rotational speeds are used as an input to define a range of Mach numbers within which the non-dimensional invariant performance curve of head and volume flow coefficient is generated. The new performance curves of polytropic head vs. flow for desired set of inlet conditions are then back calculated using the invariant non-dimensional curve. Within the range of Mach numbers calculated from design data, the proposed methodology can predict polytropic head curves at a new set of inlet conditions within an estimated 3% accuracy. The presented methodology does not require knowledge of detailed impeller geometry such as throat areas, blade number, blade angles, thicknesses nor other aspects of the aerodynamic design - diffusion levels, flow angles, etc. The only required mechanical design feature is the first impeller tip diameter. Described method makes centrifugal compressor surveillance activities more accurate, enabling precise problem isolation affecting machine's performance.

  3. Maximum likelihood topographic map formation.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Marc M

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a new unsupervised learning algorithm for kernel-based topographic map formation of heteroscedastic gaussian mixtures that allows for a unified account of distortion error (vector quantization), log-likelihood, and Kullback-Leibler divergence. PMID:15802004

  4. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  5. Spatial predictive mapping using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, S.; Knobloch, A.; Etzold, S. H.; Barth, A.; Kallmeier, E.

    2014-11-01

    The modelling or prediction of complex geospatial phenomena (like formation of geo-hazards) is one of the most important tasks for geoscientists. But in practice it faces various difficulties, caused mainly by the complexity of relationships between the phenomena itself and the controlling parameters, as well by limitations of our knowledge about the nature of physical/ mathematical relationships and by restrictions regarding accuracy and availability of data. In this situation methods of artificial intelligence, like artificial neural networks (ANN) offer a meaningful alternative modelling approach compared to the exact mathematical modelling. In the past, the application of ANN technologies in geosciences was primarily limited due to difficulties to integrate it into geo-data processing algorithms. In consideration of this background, the software advangeo® was developed to provide a normal GIS user with a powerful tool to use ANNs for prediction mapping and data preparation within his standard ESRI ArcGIS environment. In many case studies, such as land use planning, geo-hazards analysis and prevention, mineral potential mapping, agriculture & forestry advangeo® has shown its capabilities and strengths. The approach is able to add considerable value to existing data.

  6. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed. PMID:24064605

  7. Crop biometric maps: the key to prediction.

    PubMed

    Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular "identity." This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed. PMID:24064605

  8. Galaxy Interactions with FIRE: Mapping Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a suite of 75 simulations of galaxies in idealised major mergers (stellar mass ratio ~2.5:1), with a wide range of orbital parameters, to investigate the spatial extent of interaction-induced star formation. Two versions are used, one based on a Kennicult-like subgrid model (Gadget, Springel & Hernquist 2003); the other based on the new Feedback In Realistic Environments model (FIRE, Hopkins et al. 2014). Although the total star formation in galaxy encounters is generally elevated relative to isolated galaxies, we find that this elevation is a combination of intense enhancements within the central kpc and moderately suppressed activity at large galacto-centric radii. This effect appears to be stronger in the older Gadget model. Suppression is the disk is also found in the FIRE runs, but at larger scales. This is because tidal torques are weaker in the newer FIRE model, leading to a more extended nuclear starburt. Our predictions of the radial dependence of triggered star formation, and specifically the suppression of star formation beyond kpc-scales, will be testable with the next generation of integral-field spectroscopic surveys.

  9. Preparation and Presentation of Digital Maps in Raster Format

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, K.; Batson, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A set of algorithms has been developed at USGS Flagstaff for displaying digital map data in raster format. The set includes: FILLIN, which assigns a specified attribute code to units of a map which have been outlined on a digitizer and converted to raster format; FILBND, which removes the outlines; ZIP, which adds patterns to the map units; and COLOR, which provides a simplified process for creating color separation plates for either photographic or lithographic reproduction. - Authors

  10. Predicting Droplet Formation on Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, Jacob Alfred

    Centrifugal microfluidics is a widely known research tool for biological sample and water quality analysis. Currently, the standard equipment used for such diagnostic applications include slow, bulky machines controlled by multiple operators. These machines can be condensed into a smaller, faster benchtop sample-to-answer system. Sample processing is an important step taken to extract, isolate, and convert biological factors, such as nucleic acids or proteins, from a raw sample to an analyzable solution. Volume definition is one such step. The focus of this thesis is the development of a model predicting monodispersed droplet formation and the application of droplets as a technique for volume definition. First, a background of droplet microfluidic platforms is presented, along with current biological analysis technologies and the advantages of integrating such technologies onto microfluidic platforms. Second, background and theories of centrifugal microfluidics is given, followed by theories relevant to droplet emulsions. Third, fabrication techniques for centrifugal microfluidic designs are discussed. Finally, the development of a model for predicting droplet formation on the centrifugal microfluidic platform are presented for the rest of the thesis. Predicting droplet formation analytically based on the volumetric flow rates of the continuous and dispersed phases, the ratios of these two flow rates, and the interfacial tension between the continuous and dispersed phases presented many challenges, which will be discussed in this work. Experimental validation was completed using continuous phase solutions of different interfacial tensions. To conclude, prospective applications are discussed with expected challenges.

  11. Accuracy, resolution, and cost comparisons between small format and mapping cameras for environmental mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras providing acceptable photographs within cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required only large format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be better. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  12. Prediction of collective opinion in consensus formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Jianguo; Pan, Xue; Song, Wen-Jun; Li, Xu-Dong

    2014-12-01

    In the consensus formation dynamics, the effect of leaders and interventions have been widely studied for it has many applications such as in politics and commerce. However, the problem is how to know if it is necessary for one to make an intervention. In this paper, we theoretically propose a method for predicting the tendency and final state of collective opinion. By giving each agent a conviction ci which measures the ability to insist on his opinion, we present an opinion formation model in which agents with high convictions naturally show up properties of the opinion leaders. Results reveal that, although each agent initially gets an opinion evenly distributed in the range [-1, 1], the collective opinion of the steady-state may deviate to the positive or negative direction because of the initial bias of the leaders' opinions. We further get the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship between the collective opinion and the initial bias according to both the experimental and theoretical analysis. Thus, we could predict the final state at the very beginning of the dynamic only if we get the opinions of a small portion of the population. The prediction would afford us more time and opportunities to make reactions and interventions.

  13. Bilingual Knowledge Maps (BiK Maps) as a Presentation Format: Delayed Recall and Training Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, G. Sussane; Dansereau, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    The use of bilingual graphic organizers (bilingual knowledge maps [BiK maps]) as a presentation format was investigated for the acquisition of foreign language vocabulary. Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 conditions for the task of studying 32 German-English word pairs. Participants in each condition were trained on either lists or BiK maps…

  14. Can Selforganizing Maps Accurately Predict Photometric Redshifts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Michael J.; Klose, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-map (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using delta(z) = z(sub phot) - z(sub spec)) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods

  15. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    gradients but are insufficient to maintain them because the stress perturbations will dissipate with deformation. Metamorphism can unquestionably cause sufficient rheological change, but only in certain rock types: for example, granitoids have much less capacity for metamorphically induced rheologic change than do mafic rocks. The magnitude of phase geometry variation observed in natural systems suggests that morphological change (e.g., interconnection of weak phases) likely has little direct affect on strength changes, although other textural factors related to diffusion paths and crystallographic orientation could play a significant role. Thermal perturbation, mainly in the form of shear heating, remains potentially powerful but inconclusive. Taken together, these observations indicate that a simple algorithm predicting shear zone formation will not succeed in many geologically relevant instances. One significant reason may be that the inherent lithologic variation at the km scale, such as observed in the Central Gneiss belt, prevents the development of self-organized strain patterns that would form in more rheologically uniform systems.

  16. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  17. Bifurcation of learning and structure formation in neuronal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschler, Christian; Faust-Ellsässer, Carmen; Starke, Jens; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-11-01

    Most learning processes in neuronal networks happen on a much longer time scale than that of the underlying neuronal dynamics. It is therefore useful to analyze slowly varying macroscopic order parameters to explore a network's learning ability. We study the synaptic learning process giving rise to map formation in the laminar nucleus of the barn owl's auditory system. Using equation-free methods, we perform a bifurcation analysis of spatio-temporal structure formation in the associated synaptic-weight matrix. This enables us to analyze learning as a bifurcation process and follow the unstable states as well. A simple time translation of the learning window function shifts the bifurcation point of structure formation and goes along with traveling waves in the map, without changing the animal's sound localization performance.

  18. Temporal Map Formation in the Barn Owl's Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibold, Christian; Kempter, Richard; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2001-12-01

    Barn owls provide an experimentally well-specified example of a temporal map, a neuronal representation of the outside world in the brain by means of time. Their laminar nucleus exhibits a place code of interaural time differences, a cue which is used to determine the azimuthal location of a sound stimulus, e.g., prey. We analyze a model of synaptic plasticity that explains the formation of such a representation in the young bird and show how in a large parameter regime a combination of local and nonlocal synaptic plasticity yields the temporal map as found experimentally. Our analysis includes the effect of nonlinearities as well as the influence of neuronal noise.

  19. Evaluating the Quality of Predictive Geological Maps Produced using Self-Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter-McAuslan, Angela; Farquharson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    With increased data collection, extraction of useful information from large, often multi-dimensional (where each dimension is a unique data-type), datasets becomes a challenge. Associated with the problem of extracting usable information is the need to evaluate the information extracted to determine its validity. Traditionally, geophysical data has been interpreted in map or profile form one data-type at a time using primarily visual inspection by the interpreter. This approach become increasingly difficult as the dimensionality (e.g. number of data-types) of the dataset is increased. As such, new methods for discovering patterns in multi-dimensional geophysical datasets need to be investigated. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) are a class of unsupervised artificial neural network algorithm which are used to cluster multi-dimensional data while preserving the overall topology of the original dataset. As geophysical responses measured in the field are closely linked to the local geology it is postulated that SOMs can be employed to cluster multi-dimensional geophysical data in order to produce predictive geological maps. In the development of an effective work flow for creating predictive geological maps using SOMs, synthetic and real world test cases are used so that the predictive maps can be compared to a known geology. This comparison can be done through visual inspection. However, quantitative measures of clustering quality are also desired. In this project three different types of cluster quality measures are investigated: cluster morphology measures (e.g. the Quantization Error and the Dunn Index); class/cluster concatenation measures (e.g. Cluster Purity and Normalized Mutual Information); and decision-based measures (e.g. the Rand Index and F-Measure). SOM predictive mapping was applied to mapping the Baie Verte Peninsula on the north coast of the island of Newfoundland, Canada. The Baie Verte Peninsula is a region of complex geology with good regional

  20. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  1. Neural map formation and sensory coding in the vomeronasal system.

    PubMed

    Brignall, Alexandra C; Cloutier, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Sensory systems enable us to encode a clear representation of our environment in the nervous system by spatially organizing sensory stimuli being received. The organization of neural circuitry to form a map of sensory activation is critical for the interpretation of these sensory stimuli. In rodents, social communication relies strongly on the detection of chemosignals by the vomeronasal system, which regulates a wide array of behaviours, including mate recognition, reproduction, and aggression. The binding of these chemosignals to receptors on vomeronasal sensory neurons leads to activation of second-order neurons within glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, vomeronasal receptor activation by a stimulus is organized into maps of glomerular activation that represent phenotypic qualities of the stimuli detected. Genetic, electrophysiological and imaging studies have shed light on the principles underlying cell connectivity and sensory map formation in the vomeronasal system, and have revealed important differences in sensory coding between the vomeronasal and main olfactory system. In this review, we summarize the key factors and mechanisms that dictate circuit formation and sensory coding logic in the vomeronasal system, emphasizing differences with the main olfactory system. Furthermore, we discuss how detection of chemosignals by the vomeronasal system regulates social behaviour in mice, specifically aggression. PMID:26329476

  2. Predictions from star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2010-03-15

    We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10x10{sup 9} years) after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed and marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central 2{sigma} of nearly all probability distributions we compute, and always within 3{sigma}. This success is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.

  3. The Dokuchaev hypothesis as a basis for predictive digital soil mapping (on the 125th anniversary of its publication)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinsky, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    Predictive digital soil mapping is widely used in soil science. Its objective is the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil taxonomic units and quantitative soil properties via the analysis of spatially distributed quantitative characteristics of soil-forming factors. Western pedometrists stress the scientific priority and principal importance of Hans Jenny's book (1941) for the emergence and development of predictive soil mapping. In this paper, we demonstrate that Vasily Dokuchaev explicitly defined the central idea and statement of the problem of contemporary predictive soil mapping in the year 1886. Then, we reconstruct the history of the soil formation equation from 1899 to 1941. We argue that Jenny adopted the soil formation equation from Sergey Zakharov, who published it in a well-known fundamental textbook in 1927. It is encouraging that this issue was clarified in 2011, the anniversary year for publications of Dokuchaev and Jenny.

  4. Advancements in predictive plasma formation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, Michael A.; Schafgans, Alexander; Brown, Daniel J. W.; Fomenkov, Igor; Rafac, Rob; Brown, Josh; Tao, Yezheng; Rokitski, Slava; Abraham, Mathew; Vargas, Mike; Rich, Spencer; Taylor, Ted; Brandt, David; Pirati, Alberto; Fisher, Aaron; Scott, Howard; Koniges, Alice; Eder, David; Wilks, Scott; Link, Anthony; Langer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    We present highlights from plasma simulations performed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Labs. This modeling is performed to advance the rate of learning about optimal EUV generation for laser produced plasmas and to provide insights where experimental results are not currently available. The goal is to identify key physical processes necessary for an accurate and predictive model capable of simulating a wide range of conditions. This modeling will help to drive source performance scaling in support of the EUV Lithography roadmap. The model simulates pre-pulse laser interaction with the tin droplet and follows the droplet expansion into the main pulse target zone. Next, the interaction of the expanded droplet with the main laser pulse is simulated. We demonstrate the predictive nature of the code and provide comparison with experimental results.

  5. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at -10 and -1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at -10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils. PMID:23646290

  6. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suk Young; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils. PMID:23646290

  7. Dynamical formation of stable irregular transients in discontinuous map systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hailin; Guan, Shuguang; Lai, C.-H.

    2009-10-01

    Stable chaos refers to the long irregular transients, with a negative largest Lyapunov exponent, which is usually observed in certain high-dimensional dynamical systems. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been well studied so far. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical formation of stable irregular transients in coupled discontinuous map systems. Interestingly, it is found that the transient dynamics has a hidden pattern in the phase space: it repeatedly approaches a basin boundary and then jumps from the boundary to a remote region in the phase space. This pattern can be clearly visualized by measuring the distance sequences between the trajectory and the basin boundary. The dynamical formation of stable chaos originates from the intersection points of the discontinuous boundaries and their images. We carry out numerical experiments to verify this mechanism.

  8. Mapping of Estimations and Prediction Intervals Using Extreme Learning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    Due to the large amount and complexity of data available nowadays in environmental sciences, we face the need to apply more robust methodology allowing analyses and understanding of the phenomena under study. One particular but very important aspect of this understanding is the reliability of generated prediction models. From the data collection to the prediction map, several sources of error can occur and affect the final result. Theses sources are mainly identified as uncertainty in data (data noise), and uncertainty in the model. Their combination leads to the so-called prediction interval. Quantifying these two categories of uncertainty allows a finer understanding of phenomena under study and a better assessment of the prediction accuracy. The present research deals with a methodology combining a machine learning algorithm (ELM - Extreme Learning Machine) with a bootstrap-based procedure. Developed by G.-B. Huang et al. (2006), ELM is an artificial neural network following the structure of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) with one single hidden layer. Compared to classical MLP, ELM has the ability to learn faster without loss of accuracy, and need only one hyper-parameter to be fitted (that is the number of nodes in the hidden layer). The key steps of the proposed method are as following: sample from the original data a variety of subsets using bootstrapping; from these subsets, train and validate ELM models; and compute residuals. Then, the same procedure is performed a second time with only the squared training residuals. Finally, taking into account the two modeling levels allows developing the mean prediction map, the model uncertainty variance, and the data noise variance. The proposed approach is illustrated using geospatial data. References Efron B., and Tibshirani R. 1986, Bootstrap Methods for Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Other Measures of Statistical accuracy, Statistical Science, vol. 1: 54-75. Huang G.-B., Zhu Q.-Y., and Siew C.-K. 2006

  9. CpG island mapping by epigenome prediction.

    PubMed

    Bock, Christoph; Walter, Jörn; Paulsen, Martina; Lengauer, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    CpG islands were originally identified by epigenetic and functional properties, namely, absence of DNA methylation and frequent promoter association. However, this concept was quickly replaced by simple DNA sequence criteria, which allowed for genome-wide annotation of CpG islands in the absence of large-scale epigenetic datasets. Although widely used, the current CpG island criteria incur significant disadvantages: (1) reliance on arbitrary threshold parameters that bear little biological justification, (2) failure to account for widespread heterogeneity among CpG islands, and (3) apparent lack of specificity when applied to the human genome. This study is driven by the idea that a quantitative score of "CpG island strength" that incorporates epigenetic and functional aspects can help resolve these issues. We construct an epigenome prediction pipeline that links the DNA sequence of CpG islands to their epigenetic states, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility. By training support vector machines on epigenetic data for CpG islands on human Chromosomes 21 and 22, we identify informative DNA attributes that correlate with open versus compact chromatin structures. These DNA attributes are used to predict the epigenetic states of all CpG islands genome-wide. Combining predictions for multiple epigenetic features, we estimate the inherent CpG island strength for each CpG island in the human genome, i.e., its inherent tendency to exhibit an open and transcriptionally competent chromatin structure. We extensively validate our results on independent datasets, showing that the CpG island strength predictions are applicable and informative across different tissues and cell types, and we derive improved maps of predicted "bona fide" CpG islands. The mapping of CpG islands by epigenome prediction is conceptually superior to identifying CpG islands by widely used sequence criteria since it links CpG island detection to their characteristic

  10. Formation and evolution of Lakshmi Planum, Venus: Assessment of models using observations from geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Detailed geological analysis of the Lakshmi Planum region of western Ishtar Terra results in the establishment of the sequence of major events during the formation and evolution of western Ishtar Terra, an important and somewhat unique area on Venus characterized by a raised volcanic plateau surrounded by distinctive folded mountain belts, such as Maxwell Montes. These mapping results and the stratigraphic and structural relationships provide a basis for addressing the complicated problem of Lakshmi Planum formation and for testing the suite of models previously proposed to explain this structure. We review and classify previous models of formation for western Ishtar Terra into "downwelling" models (generally involving convergence and underthrusting) and "upwelling" models (generally involving plume-like upwelling and divergence). The interpreted nature of units and the sequence of events derived from geological mapping are in contrast to the predictions of the divergent models. The major contradictions are as follows: (1) The very likely presence of an ancient (craton-like) tessera massif in the core of Lakshmi, which is inconsistent with the model of formation of Lakshmi due to rise and collapse of a mantle diapir; (2) The absence of rift zones in the interior of Lakshmi that are predicted by the divergent models; (3) The apparent migration of volcanic activity toward the center of Lakshmi, whereas divergent models predict the opposite trend; (4) The abrupt cessation of ridges of the mountain ranges at the edge of Lakshmi Planum and propagation of these ridges over hundreds of kilometers outside Lakshmi; the divergent models predict the opposite progression in the development of major contractional features. In contrast, convergent models of formation and evolution of Lakshmi Planum appear to be more consistent with the observations and explain this structure by collision and underthrusting/subduction of lower-lying plains with the elevated and rigid block of

  11. Evaluation of current statistical approaches for predictive geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miska, Luoto; Jan, Hjort

    2005-04-01

    Predictive models are increasingly used in geomorphology, but systematic evaluations of novel statistical techniques are still limited. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of generalized linear models (GLM), generalized additive models (GAM), classification tree analysis (CTA), neural networks (ANN) and multiple adaptive regression splines (MARS) in predictive geomorphological modelling. Five different distribution models both for non-sorted and sorted patterned ground were constructed on the basis of four terrain parameters and four soil variables. To evaluate the models, the original data set of 9997 squares of 1 ha in size was randomly divided into model training (70%, n=6998) and model evaluation sets (30%, n=2999). In general, active sorted patterned ground is clearly defined in upper fell areas with high slope angle and till soils. Active non-sorted patterned ground is more common in valleys with higher soil moisture and fine-scale concave topography. The predictive performance of each model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Kappa value. The relatively high discrimination capacity of all models, AUC=0.85 0.88 and Kappa=0.49 0.56, implies that the model's predictions provide an acceptable index of sorted and non-sorted patterned ground occurrence. The best performance for model calibration data for both data sets was achieved by the CTA. However, when the predictive mapping ability was explored through the evaluation data set, the model accuracies of CTA decreased clearly compared to the other modelling techniques. For model evaluation data MARS performed marginally best. Our results show that the digital elevation model and soil data can be used to predict relatively robustly the activity of patterned ground in fine scale in a subarctic landscape. This indicates that predictive geomorphological modelling has the advantage of providing relevant and useful information on earth surface

  12. Magnetite deformation mechanism maps for better prediction of strain partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis of existing experimental deformation data for magnetite and other spinel-structured ferrites reveals that previously published flow laws are inadequate to describe the general deformation behavior of magnetite. Using updated rate equations for oxygen diffusion in magnetite, we present new flow laws that closely <span class="hlt">predict</span> creep rates similar to those found in deformation experiments and that can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> strain partitioning between cubic Fe oxides and other phases in the Earth's crust. New deformation mechanism <span class="hlt">maps</span> for magnetite have been constructed as functions of temperature and grain size. Using the revised creep parameters, estimates of strain partitioning between magnetite, ilmenite, and plagioclase indicate that concentrated zones of Fe-Ti oxides in oceanic crust near slow-spreading ridges could accommodate significant amounts of strain at moderate temperatures and may contribute to aseismic creep along spreading-segment faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2716K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2716K"><span id="translatedtitle">Using dominant eigenvalue analysis to <span class="hlt">predict</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> of alternans in the heart</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kakade, Virendra; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Tolkacheva, Elena G.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Ventricular fibrillation at the whole heart level is often preceded by the alternation of action potential duration (APD), i.e., alternans, at the cellular level. As proven in many experiments, traditional approaches based on the slope of the restitution curve have not been successful in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> alternans <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Recently, a technique has been theoretically developed based on dominant eigenvalue analysis to <span class="hlt">predict</span> alternans <span class="hlt">formation</span> in isolated cardiac myocytes. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that this technique can be applied to <span class="hlt">predict</span> alternans <span class="hlt">formation</span> at the whole heart level. Optical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> was performed in Langendorff-perfused hearts from New Zealand white rabbits (n = 4), which were paced at decreasing basic cycle lengths to introduce APD alternans. In each heart, the basic cycle length corresponding to the local onset of alternans, Bonset, was determined and two regions of the heart were identified at Bonset: one region which exhibited alternans (1:1alt) and one which did not (1:1). Corresponding two-dimensional eigenvalue (λ) <span class="hlt">maps</span> were generated using principal component analysis by analyzing action potentials after short perturbations from the steady state, and mean eigenvalues (λ¯) were calculated separately for the 1:1 and 1:1alt regions. We demonstrated that λ¯ calculated at Bonset was significantly different (p<0.05) between the two regions. Our results suggest that this dominant eigenvalue technique can be used to successfully <span class="hlt">predict</span> the local alternans <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the heart.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MS%26E..136a2084M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MS%26E..136a2084M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood Water Level <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Due to Dam Failures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation <span class="hlt">maps</span> have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these <span class="hlt">maps</span>, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood <span class="hlt">map</span> was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to <span class="hlt">predict</span> and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.B41A0170H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.B41A0170H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Detailed forest <span class="hlt">formation</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in the land cover <span class="hlt">map</span> series for the Caribbean islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Forest <span class="hlt">formation</span> and land cover <span class="hlt">maps</span> for several Caribbean islands were developed from Landsat ETM+ imagery as part of a multi-organizational project. The spatially explicit data on forest <span class="hlt">formation</span> types will permit more refined estimates of some forest attributes. The woody vegetation classification scheme relates closely to that of Areces-Malea et al. (1), who classify Caribbean vegetation according to standards of the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 1997), with modifications similar to those in Helmer et al. (2). For several of the islands, we developed image mosaics that filled cloudy parts of scenes with data from other scene dates after using regression tree normalization (3). The regression tree procedure permitted us to develop mosaics for wet and drought seasons for a few of the islands. The resulting multiseason imagery facilitated separation between classes such as seasonal evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest (including semi-evergreen forest), and drought deciduous forest or woodland <span class="hlt">formations</span>. We used decision tree classification methods to classify the Landsat image mosaics to detailed forest <span class="hlt">formations</span> and land cover for Puerto Rico (4), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada. The decision trees classified a stack of raster layers for each <span class="hlt">mapping</span> area that included the Landsat image bands and various ancillary raster data layers. For Puerto Rico, for example, the ancillary data included climate parameters (5). For some islands, the ancillary data included topographic derivatives such as aspect, slope and slope position, SRTM (6) or other topographic data. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> forest <span class="hlt">formations</span> with decision tree classifiers, ancillary geospatial data, and cloud-free image mosaics, accurately distinguished spectrally similar forest <span class="hlt">formations</span>, without the aid of ecological zone <span class="hlt">maps</span>, on the islands where the approach was used. The approach resulted in <span class="hlt">maps</span> of forest <span class="hlt">formations</span> with comparable or better detail</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......137C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......137C"><span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous <span class="hlt">formation</span> flight of helicopters: Model <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Hoam</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Formation</span> flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight <span class="hlt">formations</span> and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter <span class="hlt">formations</span> is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter <span class="hlt">formation</span> flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level <span class="hlt">formation</span> management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe <span class="hlt">formations</span>. The starting point for safe autonomous <span class="hlt">formation</span> flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a <span class="hlt">formation</span>, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous <span class="hlt">formations</span>, our decentralized model <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a <span class="hlt">formation</span>. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter <span class="hlt">formations</span> comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a <span class="hlt">formation</span> manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The <span class="hlt">formation</span> manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the <span class="hlt">formation</span> manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266672"><span id="translatedtitle">Literal grid <span class="hlt">map</span> models for animal navigation: Assumptions and <span class="hlt">predictions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turner, Rebecca M; Walker, Michael M; Postlethwaite, Claire M</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Many animals can navigate from unfamiliar locations to a familiar target location with no outward route information or direct sensory contact with the target or any familiar landmarks. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, one possibility being a literal interpretation of a grid <span class="hlt">map</span>. In this paper we systematically compare four such models, which we label: Correct Bicoordinate navigation, both Target and Release site based, Approximate Bicoordinate navigation, and Directional navigation. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> of spatial patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies depend on a combination of assumptions about the navigation mechanism and the geometry of the environmental coordinate fields used as model inputs. When coordinates axes are orthogonal at the target the <span class="hlt">predictions</span> from the Correct Bicoordinate (Target based) model and Approximate Bicoordinate model are identical. However, if the coordinate axes are non-orthogonal different regional patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies can be expected from these two models. Field anomalies produce high magnitudes of orientation errors close to the target, while region-wide nonlinearity leads to orientation errors increasing with distance from the target. In general, initial orientation error patterns are more useful for distinguishing between different assumption combinations than efficiencies. We discuss how consideration of model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> may be helpful in the design of experiments. PMID:27266672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950037046&hterms=Close+source&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DClose%2Bsource','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950037046&hterms=Close+source&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DClose%2Bsource"><span id="translatedtitle">Heliospheric current sheet inclinations <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from source surface <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shodhan, S.; Crooker, N. U.; Hughes, W. J.; Siscoe, G. L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The inclinations of the neutral line at the ecliptic plane derived from source surface model <span class="hlt">maps</span> of coronal fields are measured for the interval from June 1976 to March 1992. The mean and median values of 53 deg and 57 deg are close to the average inclinations determined earlier from minimum variance analyses of solar wind measurements at sector boundaries, but the mode falls in the 80 deg - 90 deg bin. This result, which is based on the model assumptions implicit in deriving the source surface <span class="hlt">maps</span>, <span class="hlt">predicts</span> that the heliospheric current sheet typically intersects the ecliptic plane nearly at right angles, even without steepening by stream interaction regions. High inclinations dominate the solar cycle for about 7 years around solar maximum. Dips to lower inclination occur near solar minimum, but high variance admits a wide range of inclinations throughout the cycle. Compared to the smooth solar cycle variation of the maximum latitudinal excursion of the neutral line, often treated as the tilt angle of a flat heliospheric current sheet, the noisy variation of the inclinations reflects the degree to which the neutral line deviates from a sine wave, implying warps and corrugations in the current sheet. About a third of the time the neutral line so deviates that it doubles back in longitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220945"><span id="translatedtitle">nu<span class="hlt">Map</span>: a web platform for accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of nucleosome positioning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alharbi, Bader A; Alshammari, Thamir H; Felton, Nathan L; Zhurkin, Victor B; Cui, Feng</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Nucleosome positioning is critical for gene expression and of major biological interest. The high cost of experimentally <span class="hlt">mapping</span> nucleosomal arrangement signifies the need for computational approaches to <span class="hlt">predict</span> nucleosome positions at high resolution. Here, we present a web-based application to fulfill this need by implementing two models, YR and W/S schemes, for the translational and rotational positioning of nucleosomes, respectively. Our methods are based on sequence-dependent anisotropic bending that dictates how DNA is wrapped around a histone octamer. This application allows users to specify a number of options such as schemes and parameters for threading calculation and provides multiple layout <span class="hlt">formats</span>. The nu<span class="hlt">Map</span> is implemented in Java/Perl/MySQL and is freely available for public use at http://numap.rit.edu. The user manual, implementation notes, description of the methodology and examples are available at the site. PMID:25220945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...817..169L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...817..169L"><span id="translatedtitle">Connecting CO Intensity <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> to Molecular Gas and Star <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in the Epoch of Galaxy Assembly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for the intensity <span class="hlt">map</span> and power spectrum of the CO(1-0) line from galaxies at z˜ 2.4-2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy-halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial <span class="hlt">prediction</span> should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the {L}{IR}-{L}{CO} relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. By probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in high-redshift galaxies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1257726-connecting-co-intensity-mapping-molecular-gas-star-formation-epoch-galaxy-assembly','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1257726-connecting-co-intensity-mapping-molecular-gas-star-formation-epoch-galaxy-assembly"><span id="translatedtitle">Connecting CO intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to molecular gas and star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the epoch of galaxy assembly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah E.</p> <p>2016-01-29</p> <p>Intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for the intensity <span class="hlt">map</span> and power spectrum of the CO(1–0) line from galaxies atmore » $$z\\sim 2.4$$–2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy–halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial <span class="hlt">prediction</span> should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the $${L}_{\\mathrm{IR}}$$–$${L}_{\\mathrm{CO}}$$ relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. Furthermore, by probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in high-redshift galaxies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009JHyd..373...57S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009JHyd..373...57S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the natural flow regimes of France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Snelder, Ton H.; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Leathwick, John R.; Pella, Hervé; Sauquet, Eric; Shankar, Ude</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>SummaryHydrologic variability is important in sustaining a variety of ecological processes in streams and rivers. Natural flow regime classifications group streams and rivers that are relatively homogeneous with respect to flow variability and have been promoted as a method of defining units for management of river flows. Although there has been considerable interest in classifying natural flow regimes, there has been less emphasis given to developing accurate methods of extrapolating these classifications to locations without flow data. We developed a method of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> flow regime classes using boosted regression trees (BRT) that automatically fits non-linear functions and interactions between explanatory variables of flow regimes, both of which can be expected when comparing responses between complex systems such as watersheds. A natural flow regimes classification of continental France was developed from cluster analysis of 157 hydrological indices derived from 763 gauging stations representing unmodified flows. BRT models were used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the likelihood of gauging stations belonging to each class based on the watershed characteristics. These models were used to extrapolate the natural flow regime classification to all segments of a national river network. The performance of the BRT models were compared with other methods of assigning locations to flow regime classes, including the use of geographically contiguous regions, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification and regression trees (CART). The "fitted" misclassification rate (associated with model fits) for assignment based on the BRT models was 13% whereas the fitted misclassification rates for geographically contiguous regions, LDA and CART were 52%, 44% and 39% respectively. A "<span class="hlt">predictive</span>" misclassification rate (calculated for new cases) was estimated for assignments based on the BRT, LDA and CART models using cross validation analysis. For assignment based on the BRT models, the mean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JAfES..99..666H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JAfES..99..666H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of prospectivity for orogenic gold in Uganda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herbert, Sarah; Woldai, Tsehaie; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>-driven multi-class index overlay method was used to integrate predictor layers representing those processes in order to model orogenic gold prospectivity into a single <span class="hlt">map</span>. Weighting of the predictor layers, prior to integration, occurs at the level of the critical process and takes into account the relative importance of the critical process mineralisation, the representativeness of a proxy and the accuracy of the proxy. The resultant prospectivity model shows that 83% of all gold occurrences are delineated within <span class="hlt">predicted</span> prospective areas covering 30% of the study area. Eight sub-areas, covering 2500 km2, have been recommended for follow-up exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899285"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> model for ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> on superhydrophobic surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bahadur, Vaibhav; Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Taylor, J Ashley; Aizenberg, Joanna; Krupenkin, Tom</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The prevention and control of ice accumulation has important applications in aviation, building construction, and energy conversion devices. One area of active research concerns the use of superhydrophobic surfaces for preventing ice <span class="hlt">formation</span>. The present work develops a physics-based modeling framework to <span class="hlt">predict</span> ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> on cooled superhydrophobic surfaces resulting from the impact of supercooled water droplets. This modeling approach analyzes the multiple phenomena influencing ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> on superhydrophobic surfaces through the development of submodels describing droplet impact dynamics, heat transfer, and heterogeneous ice nucleation. These models are then integrated together to achieve a comprehensive understanding of ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> upon impact of liquid droplets at freezing conditions. The accuracy of this model is validated by its successful <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the experimental findings that demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces can fully prevent the freezing of impacting water droplets down to surface temperatures of as low as -20 to -25 °C. The model can be used to study the influence of surface morphology, surface chemistry, and fluid and thermal properties on dynamic ice <span class="hlt">formation</span> and identify parameters critical to achieving icephobic surfaces. The framework of the present work is the first detailed modeling tool developed for the design and analysis of surfaces for various ice prevention/reduction strategies. PMID:21899285</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7241E..16B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7241E..16B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the performance of a spatial gamut <span class="hlt">mapping</span> algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bakke, Arne M.; Farup, Ivar; Hardeberg, Jon Y.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Gamut <span class="hlt">mapping</span> algorithms are currently being developed to take advantage of the spatial information in an image to improve the utilization of the destination gamut. These algorithms try to preserve the spatial information between neighboring pixels in the image, such as edges and gradients, without sacrificing global contrast. Experiments have shown that such algorithms can result in significantly improved reproduction of some images compared with non-spatial methods. However, due to the spatial processing of images, they introduce unwanted artifacts when used on certain types of images. In this paper we perform basic image analysis to <span class="hlt">predict</span> whether a spatial algorithm is likely to perform better or worse than a good, non-spatial algorithm. Our approach starts by detecting the relative amount of areas in the image that are made up of uniformly colored pixels, as well as the amount of areas that contain details in out-of-gamut areas. A weighted difference is computed from these numbers, and we show that the result has a high correlation with the observed performance of the spatial algorithm in a previously conducted psychophysical experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27208861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27208861"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power <span class="hlt">predicts</span> human memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Rugg, Michael D</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Pre-stimulus theta (4-8Hz) power in the hippocampus and neocortex <span class="hlt">predicts</span> whether a memory for a subsequent event will be formed. Anatomical studies reveal thalamus-hippocampal connectivity, and lesion, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies show that memory processing involves the dorsomedial (DMTN) and anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN). The small size and deep location of these nuclei have limited real-time study of their activity, however, and it is unknown whether pre-stimulus theta power <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of successful memory <span class="hlt">formation</span> is also found in these subcortical structures. We recorded human electrophysiological data from the DMTN and ATN of 7 patients receiving deep brain stimulation for refractory epilepsy. We found that greater pre-stimulus theta power in the right DMTN was associated with successful memory encoding, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> both behavioral outcome and post-stimulus correlates of successful memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>. In particular, significant correlations were observed between right DMTN theta power and both frontal theta and right ATN gamma (32-50Hz) phase alignment, and frontal-ATN theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling. We draw the following primary conclusions. Our results provide direct electrophysiological evidence in humans of a role for the DMTN as well as the ATN in memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of subsequent memory performance by pre-stimulus thalamic oscillations provides evidence that post-stimulus differences in thalamic activity that index successful and unsuccessful encoding reflect brain processes specifically underpinning memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Finally, the findings broaden the understanding of brain states that facilitate memory encoding to include subcortical as well as cortical structures. PMID:27208861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3692305','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3692305"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Standard Enthalpy of <span class="hlt">Formation</span> by a QSPR Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vatani, Ali; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Gharagheizi, Farhad</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The standard enthalpy of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of 1115 compounds from all chemical groups, were <span class="hlt">predicted</span> using genetic algorithm-based multivariate linear regression (GA-MLR). The obtained multivariate linear five descriptors model by GA-MLR has correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9830). All molecular descriptors which have entered in this model are calculated from chemical structure of any molecule. As a result, application of this model for any compound is easy and accurate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16831858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16831858"><span id="translatedtitle">Hippocampal and neocortical gamma oscillations <span class="hlt">predict</span> memory <span class="hlt">formation</span> in humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sederberg, Per B; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Madsen, Joseph R; Bromfield, Edward B; McCarthy, David C; Brandt, Armin; Tully, Michele S; Kahana, Michael J</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human brain has shown that the hippocampus and the left temporal and frontal cortices play a key role in the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of new verbal memories. We recorded electrical activity from 2349 surgically implanted intracranial electrodes in epilepsy patients while they studied and later recalled lists of common words. Using these recordings, we demonstrate that gamma oscillations (44-64 Hz) in the hippocampus and the left temporal and frontal cortices <span class="hlt">predict</span> successful encoding of new verbal memories. This increase in gamma oscillations was not seen in other frequency bands, whose activity generally decreased during successful memory <span class="hlt">formation</span>. These findings identify a role for gamma oscillations in verbal memory <span class="hlt">formation</span> with the hippocampus and the left temporal and frontal cortices, the same regions implicated using noninvasive fMRI recording methods. PMID:16831858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100017204','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100017204"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimbelman, J. R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the status of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of portions of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geo-logic <span class="hlt">maps</span>, generated under an earlier PGG <span class="hlt">mapping</span> grant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110002771','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110002771"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimbelman, J. R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the status of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of portions of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geologic <span class="hlt">maps</span>, generated under an earlier PGG <span class="hlt">mapping</span> grant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524629','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524629"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Peptide and Protein Propensity for Amyloid <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Família, Carlos; Dennison, Sarah R.; Quintas, Alexandre; Phoenix, David A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Understanding which peptides and proteins have the potential to undergo amyloid <span class="hlt">formation</span> and what driving forces are responsible for amyloid-like fiber <span class="hlt">formation</span> and stabilization remains limited. This is mainly because proteins that can undergo structural changes, which lead to amyloid <span class="hlt">formation</span>, are quite diverse and share no obvious sequence or structural homology, despite the structural similarity found in the fibrils. To address these issues, a novel approach based on recursive feature selection and feed-forward neural networks was undertaken to identify key features highly correlated with the self-assembly problem. This approach allowed the identification of seven physicochemical and biochemical properties of the amino acids highly associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid-like fibrils (normalized frequency of β-sheet, normalized frequency of β-sheet from LG, weights for β-sheet at the window position of 1, isoelectric point, atom-based hydrophobic moment, helix termination parameter at position j+1 and ΔG° values for peptides extrapolated in 0 M urea). Moreover, these features enabled the development of a new predictor (available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/appnn/index.html) capable of accurately and reliably <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the amyloidogenic propensity from the polypeptide sequence alone with a <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy of 84.9 % against an external validation dataset of sequences with experimental in vitro, evidence of amyloid <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:26241652</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H41C0814P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H41C0814P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ensemble <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Flood <span class="hlt">Maps</span> Under Uncertain Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Rodríguez-Rincón, J. P.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydro-meteorological hazards can have cascading effects and far-reaching implications on water security, with socio-economic and environmental consequences. Worldwide the magnitude of recent floods highlight the necessity to generate a better understanding on their causes and associated risk. An improved flood risk strategy should incorporate the communication of uncertain research results to decision-makers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to generate a robust framework that enables its quantification. The purpose of this study is to investigate the propagation of meteorological uncertainty within a cascade modelling approach to flood <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. The methodology is comprised of a Numerical Weather <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Model (NWP), a distributed rainfall-runoff model and a standard 2D hydrodynamic model. The cascade of models is used to reproduce an extreme flood event that took place in Southern Mexico, during September 2013. The event is selected as high quality field data (e.g. LiDAR; rain gauges) and satellite imagery are available. Uncertainty in the meteorological model (Weather Research and Forecasting model) is evaluated through the use of a multi-physics ensemble technique, which considers twelve parameterisation schemes to determine a given precipitation. The resulting precipitation fields are used as input in a distributed hydrological model, enabling the determination of different hydrographs associated to this event. Lastly, by means of a standard 2D hydrodynamic model, resulting hydrographs are used as forcing conditions to study the propagation of the meteorological uncertainty to an estimated flooded area. Results show the utility of the selected modelling approach to investigate error propagation within a cascade of models. Moreover, the error associated to the determination of the runoff, is showed to be lower than that obtained in the precipitation estimation suggesting that uncertainty do not necessarily increase within a model cascade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=68404&keyword=cross+AND+fit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=62105528&CFTOKEN=57288801','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=68404&keyword=cross+AND+fit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=62105528&CFTOKEN=57288801"><span id="translatedtitle">POSTERIOR <span class="hlt">PREDICTIVE</span> MODEL CHECKS FOR DISEASE <span class="hlt">MAPPING</span> MODELS. (R827257)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Disease incidence or disease mortality rates for small areas are often displayed on <span class="hlt">maps</span>. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of raw rates, disease counts divided by the total population at risk, have been criticized as unreliable due to non-constant variance associated with heterogeneity in base population si...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5260418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5260418"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictability</span> of <span class="hlt">formation</span> damage: An assessment study and generalized models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Civan, F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The project objective is to develop improved generalized <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models to be used for investigation of reservoir <span class="hlt">formation</span> damage and control for various fluid and rock conditions and to account for these effects in reservoir simulation. To accomplish its objective the proposed study will first critically study and evaluate the previous modeling efforts and the experimental studies reported in the literature. Then, generalized <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models will be formulated by combining the previous attempts and by improving and generalizing the modeling approaches to accommodate for a wide variety of conditions encountered in actual field applications. A critical review of the previous work addressing their theoretical basis, assumptions and limitations, and the generalized and improved model developed in this study will be presented in a systematic manner in terms of a standardized definition and nomenclature for direct comparison. Case studies with the generalized model will be presented to demonstrate its capacity and validity. User friendly computer programs implementing the improved modeling approaches will also be supplied. This study will form an assessment of the presently available models and methods for evaluating and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> damage and present improved models. Therefore, it will be an important reference for the petroleum industry. 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862913','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862913"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic wave method for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> subterranean earth <span class="hlt">formations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Shuck, Lowell Z.; Fasching, George E.; Balanis, Constantine A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The present invention is directed to a method for remotely <span class="hlt">mapping</span> subterranean coal beds prior to and during in situ gasification operations. This method is achieved by emplacing highly directional electromagnetic wave transmitters and receivers in bore holes penetrating the coal beds and then <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the anomalies surrounding each bore hole by selectively rotating and vertically displacing the directional transmitter in a transmitting mode within the bore hole, and thereafter, initiating the gasification of the coal at bore holes separate from those containing the transmitters and receivers and then utilizing the latter for monitoring the burn front as it progresses toward the transmitters and receivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4360766','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4360766"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">formative</span> quizzes <span class="hlt">predict</span> or improve summative exam performance?*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N.R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective Despite wide use, the value of <span class="hlt">formative</span> exams remains unclear. We evaluated the possible benefits of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessments in a physical examination course at our chiropractic college. Methods Three hypotheses were examined: (1) Receiving <span class="hlt">formative</span> quizzes (FQs) will increase summative exam (SX) scores, (2) writing FQ questions will further increase SE scores, and (3) FQs can <span class="hlt">predict</span> SX scores. Hypotheses were tested across three separate iterations of the class. Results The SX scores for the control group (Class 3) were significantly less than those of Classes 1 and 2, but writing quiz questions and taking FQs (Class 1) did not produce significantly higher SX scores than only taking FQs (Class 2). The FQ scores were significant predictors of SX scores, accounting for 52% of the SX score. Sex, age, academic degrees, and ethnicity were not significant copredictors. Conclusion Our results support the assertion that FQs can improve written SX performance, but students producing quiz questions didn't further increase SX scores. We concluded that nonthreatening FQs may be used to enhance student learning and suggest that they also may serve to identify students who, without additional remediation, will perform poorly on subsequent summative written exams. PMID:25517737</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....80....9H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....80....9H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> lithological <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of Canada's North using Random Forest classification applied to geophysical and geochemical data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, J. R.; Grunsky, E. C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A recent method for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> lithology which involves the Random Forest (RF) machine classification algorithm is evaluated. Random Forests, a supervised classifier, requires training data representative of each lithology to produce a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> or classified <span class="hlt">map</span>. We use two training strategies, one based on the location of lake sediment geochemical samples where the rock type is recorded from a legacy geology <span class="hlt">map</span> at each sample station and the second strategy is based on lithology recorded from field stations derived from reconnaissance field <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. We apply the classification to interpolated major and minor lake sediment geochemical data as well as airborne total field magnetic and gamma ray spectrometer data. Using this method we produce <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the lithology of a large section of the Hearne Archean - Paleoproterozoic tectonic domain, in northern Canada. The results indicate that meaningful <span class="hlt">predictive</span> lithologic <span class="hlt">maps</span> can be produced using RF classification for both training strategies. The best results were achieved when all data were used; however, the geochemical and gamma ray data were the strongest predictors of the various lithologies. The <span class="hlt">maps</span> generated from this research can be used to compliment field <span class="hlt">mapping</span> activities by focusing field work on areas where the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> geology and legacy geology do not match and as first order geological <span class="hlt">maps</span> in poorly <span class="hlt">mapped</span> areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8955858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8955858"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept <span class="hlt">formation</span> vs. logistic regression: <span class="hlt">predicting</span> death in trauma patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hadzikadic, M; Hakenewerth, A; Bohren, B; Norton, J; Mehta, B; Andrews, C</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>This study compares two classification models used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> survival of injured patients entering the emergency department. Concept <span class="hlt">formation</span> is a machine learning technique that summarizes known examples cases in the form of a tree. After the tree is constructed, it can then be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the classification of new cases. Logistic regression, on the other hand, is a statistical model that allows for a quantitative relationship for a dichotomous event with several independent variables. The outcome (dependent) variable must have only two choices, e.g. does or does not occur, alive or dead, etc. The result of this model is an equation which is then used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the probability of class membership of a new case. The two models were evaluated on a trauma registry database composed of information on all trauma patients admitted in 1992 to a Level I trauma center. A total of 2155 records. representing all trauma patients admitted for more than 24 h or who died in the Emergency Department, were grouped into two databases as follows: (1) discharge status of 'died' (containing 151 records), and (2) any discharge status other than 'died' (containing 2004 records). Both databases contained the same variables. PMID:8955858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975995"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale Model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection <span class="hlt">Maps</span> Metabolite and Gene Perturbations to Granuloma Sterilization <span class="hlt">Predictions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pienaar, Elsje; Matern, William M; Linderman, Jennifer J; Bader, Joel S; Kirschner, Denise E</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Granulomas are a hallmark of tuberculosis. Inside granulomas, the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis may enter a metabolically inactive state that is less susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding M. tuberculosis metabolism within granulomas could contribute to reducing the lengthy treatment required for tuberculosis and provide additional targets for new drugs. Two key adaptations of M. tuberculosis are a nonreplicating phenotype and accumulation of lipid inclusions in response to hypoxic conditions. To explore how these adaptations influence granuloma-scale outcomes in vivo, we present a multiscale in silico model of granuloma <span class="hlt">formation</span> in tuberculosis. The model comprises host immunity, M. tuberculosis metabolism, M. tuberculosis growth adaptation to hypoxia, and nutrient diffusion. We calibrated our model to in vivo data from nonhuman primates and rabbits and apply the model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> M. tuberculosis population dynamics and heterogeneity within granulomas. We found that bacterial populations are highly dynamic throughout infection in response to changing oxygen levels and host immunity pressures. Our results indicate that a nonreplicating phenotype, but not lipid inclusion <span class="hlt">formation</span>, is important for long-term M. tuberculosis survival in granulomas. We used virtual M. tuberculosis knockouts to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the impact of both metabolic enzyme inhibitors and metabolic pathways exploited to overcome inhibition. Results indicate that knockouts whose growth rates are below ∼66% of the wild-type growth rate in a culture medium featuring lipid as the only carbon source are unable to sustain infections in granulomas. By <span class="hlt">mapping</span> metabolite- and gene-scale perturbations to granuloma-scale outcomes and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> mechanisms of sterilization, our method provides a powerful tool for hypothesis testing and guiding experimental searches for novel antituberculosis interventions. PMID:26975995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012750','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012750"><span id="translatedtitle">Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 8: Satellite snow <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and runoff <span class="hlt">prediction</span> handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowley, C. J.; Barnes, J. C.; Rango, A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the handbook is to update the various snowcover interpretation techniques, document the snow <span class="hlt">mapping</span> techniques used in the various ASVT study areas, and describe the ways snowcover data have been applied to runoff <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Through documentation in handbook form, the methodology developed in the Snow <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> ASVT can be applied to other areas.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nonverbal+AND+gesture&pg=4&id=EJ734386','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nonverbal+AND+gesture&pg=4&id=EJ734386"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the Client's Perspective on Counseling Alliance <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bedi, Robinder P.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study was to identify, categorize, and model clients' understanding of early counseling alliance <span class="hlt">formation</span> factors. Forty participants who had received counseling services were interviewed and asked about what observable behaviors and verbalizations they thought had helped establish the alliance with their counselor.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvL..92a8101C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvL..92a8101C"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding Visual <span class="hlt">Map</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> through Vortex Dynamics of Spin Hamiltonian Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Myoung Won; Kim, Seunghwan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> in orientation and ocular dominance columns is one of the most investigated problems in the brain. From a known cortical structure, we build spinlike Hamiltonian models with long-range interactions of the Mexican hat type. These Hamiltonian models allow a coherent interpretation of the diverse phenomena in the visual <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> with the help of relaxation dynamics of spin systems. In particular, we explain various phenomena of self-organization in orientation and ocular dominance <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> including the pinwheel annihilation and its dependency on the columnar wave vector and boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..118a2029S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..118a2029S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Austenite <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schulze, P.; Schmidl, E.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>For the modeling and design of heat treatments, in consideration of the development/ transformation of the microstructure, different material data depending on the chemical composition, the respective microstructure/phases and the temperature are necessary. Material data are, e.g. the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal expansion and transformation data etc. The quality of thermal simulations strongly depends on the accuracy of the material data. For many materials, the required data - in particular for different microstructures and temperatures - are rare in the literature. In addition, a different chemical composition within the permitted limits of the considered steel alloy cannot be <span class="hlt">predicted</span>. A solution for this problem is provided by the calculation of material data using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In the present study, the start and finish temperatures of the transformation from the bcc lattice to the fcc lattice structure of hypoeutectoid steels are calculated using an Artificial Neural Network. An appropriate database containing different transformation temperatures (austenite <span class="hlt">formation</span> temperatures) to train the ANN is selected from the literature. In order to find a suitable feedforward network, the network topologies as well as the activation functions of the hidden layers are varied and subsequently evaluated in terms of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy. The transformation temperatures calculated by the ANN exhibit a very good compliance compared to the experimental data. The results show that the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance is even higher compared to classical empirical equations such as Andrews or Brandis. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presented ANN is a convenient tool to distinguish between bcc and fcc phases in hypoeutectoid steels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016DSRI..113...80R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016DSRI..113...80R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate <span class="hlt">mapping</span> techniques. <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest <span class="hlt">predictive</span> performances. Spatial <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble <span class="hlt">mapping</span> techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for <span class="hlt">predictive</span> habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to <span class="hlt">prediction</span> outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble <span class="hlt">mapping</span> approaches have clear value for spatial management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6932"><span id="translatedtitle">Machine and Process System Diagnostics Using One-Step <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> <span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Breeding, J.E.; Damiano, B.; Tucker, R.W., Jr.</p> <p>1999-05-10</p> <p>This paper describes a method for machine or process system diagnostics that uses one-step <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span>. The method uses nonlinear time series analysis techniques to form a one-step <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">map</span> that estimates the next time series data point when given a sequence of previously measured time series data point. The difference between the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> and measured time series values is a measure of the <span class="hlt">map</span> error. The average value of this error should remain within some bound as long as both the dynamic system and its operating condition remain unchanged. However, changes in the dynamic system or operating condition will cause an increase in average <span class="hlt">map</span> error. Thus, for a constant operating condition, monitoring the average <span class="hlt">map</span> error over time should indicate when a change has occurred in the dynamic system. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">map</span> error itself forms a time series that can be analyzed to detect changes in system dynamics. The paper provides technical background in the nonlinear analysis techniques used in the diagnostic method, describes the creation of one-step <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> and their application to machine or process system diagnostics, and then presents results obtained from applying the diagnostic method to simulated and measured data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402608"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Interaction between Neural Activity and Molecular Cues in the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Topographic <span class="hlt">Maps</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Owens, Melinda T; Feldheim, David A; Stryker, Michael P; Triplett, Jason W</p> <p>2015-09-23</p> <p>Topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> in visual processing areas maintain the spatial order of the visual world. Molecular cues and neuronal activity both play critical roles in <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>, but their interaction remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that when molecular- and activity-dependent cues are rendered nearly equal in force, they drive topographic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> stochastically. The functional and anatomical representation of azimuth in the superior colliculus of heterozygous Islet2-EphA3 knockin (Isl2(EphA3/+)) mice is variable: <span class="hlt">maps</span> may be single, duplicated, or a combination of the two. This heterogeneity is not due to genetic differences, since <span class="hlt">map</span> organizations in individual mutant animals often differ between colliculi. Disruption of spontaneous waves of retinal activity resulted in uniform <span class="hlt">map</span> organization in Isl2(EphA3/+) mice, demonstrating that correlated spontaneous activity is required for <span class="hlt">map</span> heterogeneity. Computational modeling replicates this heterogeneity, revealing that molecular- and activity-dependent forces interact simultaneously and stochastically during topographic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:26402608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010022239','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010022239"><span id="translatedtitle">Vector Topographic <span class="hlt">Map</span> Data over the BOREAS NSA and SSA in SIF <span class="hlt">Format</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This data set contains vector contours and other features of individual topographic <span class="hlt">map</span> sheets from the National Topographic Series (NTS). The <span class="hlt">map</span> sheet files were received in Standard Interchange <span class="hlt">Format</span> (SIF) and cover the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. The individual files are stored in compressed Unix tar archives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25367067','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25367067"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative assessment of computational models for retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hjorth, J J Johannes; Sterratt, David C; Cutts, Catherine S; Willshaw, David J; Eglen, Stephen J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Molecular and activity-based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus (SC) to form an ordered <span class="hlt">map</span> of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have developed a framework within which existing computational models can be assessed in an unbiased and quantitative manner against a set of experimental data curated from the mouse retinocollicular system. Our framework facilitates comparison between models, testing new models against known phenotypes and simulating new phenotypes in existing models. We have used this framework to assess four representative models that combine Eph/ephrin gradients and/or activity-based mechanisms and competition. Two of the models were updated from their original form to fit into our framework. The models were tested against five different phenotypes: wild type, Isl2-EphA3(ki/ki), Isl2-EphA3(ki/+), ephrin-A2,A3,A5 triple knock-out (TKO), and Math5(-/-) (Atoh7). Two models successfully reproduced the extent of the Math5(-/-) anteromedial projection, but only one of those could account for the collapse point in Isl2-EphA3(ki/+). The models needed a weak anteroposterior gradient in the SC to reproduce the residual order in the ephrin-A2,A3,A5 TKO phenotype, suggesting either an incomplete knock-out or the presence of another guidance molecule. Our article demonstrates the importance of testing retinotopic models against as full a range of phenotypes as possible, and we have made available MATLAB software, we wrote to facilitate this process. PMID:25367067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497816','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497816"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative assessment of computational models for retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sterratt, David C; Cutts, Catherine S; Willshaw, David J; Eglen, Stephen J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Molecular and activity‐based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus (SC) to form an ordered <span class="hlt">map</span> of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have developed a framework within which existing computational models can be assessed in an unbiased and quantitative manner against a set of experimental data curated from the mouse retinocollicular system. Our framework facilitates comparison between models, testing new models against known phenotypes and simulating new phenotypes in existing models. We have used this framework to assess four representative models that combine Eph/ephrin gradients and/or activity‐based mechanisms and competition. Two of the models were updated from their original form to fit into our framework. The models were tested against five different phenotypes: wild type, Isl2‐EphA3 ki/ki, Isl2‐EphA3 ki/+, ephrin‐A2,A3,A5 triple knock‐out (TKO), and Math5 −/− (Atoh7). Two models successfully reproduced the extent of the Math5 −/− anteromedial projection, but only one of those could account for the collapse point in Isl2‐EphA3 ki/+. The models needed a weak anteroposterior gradient in the SC to reproduce the residual order in the ephrin‐A2,A3,A5 TKO phenotype, suggesting either an incomplete knock‐out or the presence of another guidance molecule. Our article demonstrates the importance of testing retinotopic models against as full a range of phenotypes as possible, and we have made available MATLAB software, we wrote to facilitate this process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 641–666, 2015 PMID:25367067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498166"><span id="translatedtitle">Traction force dynamics <span class="hlt">predict</span> gap <span class="hlt">formation</span> in activated endothelium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valent, Erik T; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Hordijk, Peter L</p> <p>2016-09-10</p> <p>In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability. Simultaneously, information about endothelial monolayer integrity, adherens junctions and cytoskeletal proteins (F-actin) were captured. This revealed a heterogeneous distribution of traction forces, with nuclear areas showing lower and cell-cell junctions higher traction forces than the whole-monolayer average. Moreover, junctional forces were asymmetrically distributed among neighboring cells. Force vector orientation analysis showed a good correlation with the alignment of F-actin and revealed contractile forces in newly formed filopodia and lamellipodia-like protrusions within the monolayer. Finally, unstable areas, showing high force fluctuations within the monolayer were prone to form inter-endothelial gaps upon stimulation with thrombin. To conclude, contractile traction forces are heterogeneously distributed within endothelial monolayers and force instability, rather than force magnitude, <span class="hlt">predicts</span> the stimulus-induced <span class="hlt">formation</span> of intercellular gaps. PMID:27498166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PASP..124..274W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PASP..124..274W"><span id="translatedtitle">Can Self-Organizing <span class="hlt">Maps</span> Accurately <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Photometric Redshifts?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Way, M. J.; Klose, C. D.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-<span class="hlt">map</span> (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using Δz = zphot - zspec) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11274439','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11274439"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> of temporal-feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> by axonal propagation of synaptic learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kempter, R; Leibold, C; Wagner, H; van Hemmen, J L</p> <p>2001-03-27</p> <p>Computational <span class="hlt">maps</span> are of central importance to a neuronal representation of the outside world. In a <span class="hlt">map</span>, neighboring neurons respond to similar sensory features. A well studied example is the computational <span class="hlt">map</span> of interaural time differences (ITDs), which is essential to sound localization in a variety of species and allows resolution of ITDs of the order of 10 micros. Nevertheless, it is unclear how such an orderly representation of temporal features arises. We address this problem by modeling the ontogenetic development of an ITD <span class="hlt">map</span> in the laminar nucleus of the barn owl. We show how the owl's ITD <span class="hlt">map</span> can emerge from a combined action of homosynaptic spike-based Hebbian learning and its propagation along the presynaptic axon. In spike-based Hebbian learning, synaptic strengths are modified according to the timing of pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. In unspecific axonal learning, a synapse's modification gives rise to a factor that propagates along the presynaptic axon and affects the properties of synapses at neighboring neurons. Our results indicate that both Hebbian learning and its presynaptic propagation are necessary for <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the laminar nucleus, but the latter can be orders of magnitude weaker than the former. We argue that the algorithm is important for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of computational <span class="hlt">maps</span>, when, in particular, time plays a key role. PMID:11274439</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2991422','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2991422"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Genes that <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Treatment Outcome in Admixed Populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baye, Tesfaye M.; Wilke, Russell A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There is great interest in characterizing the genetic architecture underlying drug response. For many drugs, gene-based dosing models explain a considerable amount of the overall variation in treatment outcome. As such, prescription drug labels are increasingly being modified to contain pharmacogenetic information. Genetic data must, however, be interpreted within the context of relevant clinical covariates. Even the most <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models improve with the addition of data related to biogeographical ancestry. The current review explores analytical strategies that leverage population structure to more fully characterize genetic determinants of outcome in large clinical practice-based cohorts. The success of this approach will depend upon several key factors: (1) the availability of outcome data from groups of admixed individuals (i.e., populations recombined over multiple generations), (2) a measurable difference in treatment outcome (i.e., efficacy and toxicity endpoints), and (3) a measurable difference in allele frequency between the ancestral populations. PMID:20921971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......151R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......151R"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploration of very high spatial resolution data for vegetation <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using cartographic ontologies: Identifying life forms to <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">formations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez-Gallegos, Hugo Benigno</p> <p></p> <p>Vegetation <span class="hlt">mapping</span> is often considered the process of identifying landscape patterns of individuals or clusters of species or life forms (LF). At the landscape scale, the larger pattern represented by individuals or clusters represents the conceptualization of "vegetation <span class="hlt">mapping</span>" and can be used as a building block to describe an ecosystem. To represent these building blocks or LF a "common entity (CE)" concept is introduced to represent the components of <span class="hlt">Formations</span> as described by the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) system. The NVC has established protocols to consistently represent plant communities and promote coordinated management, particularly across jurisdictional boundaries. However, it is not a universal standard and the methods of producing detailed <span class="hlt">maps</span> of vegetation CE from very high spatial resolution (VHR) remote sensing data are important research questions. This research addressed how best to understand and represent plant cover in arid regions, the most effective methods of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> vegetation cover using high spatial resolution data, how to assess the accuracy of these <span class="hlt">maps</span>, and their value in establishing more standardized <span class="hlt">mapping</span> protocols across ecosystems. Utilizing VHR products from the IKONOS and QuickBird sensors the study focused on the Coronado National Memorial and Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona and Los Ajos and Pinacate - Grand Desierto Biosphere Reserves in Mexico. Individual CE were semi-automatically <span class="hlt">mapped</span> incorporating spectral, textural and geostatistical variables. The results were evaluated across sensors, study sites, and input variables. In addition, multiple methods of acquiring field data for accuracy assessment were evaluated and then an evaluation was made of a semi-automatic determination of <span class="hlt">Formation</span> based on CE. The results of the study suggest consistency across study sites using the IKONOS data. A comparison between VHR products from the same place is feasible but sensor spectral differences may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1060..174J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1060..174J"><span id="translatedtitle">Two States <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Based Time Series Neural Network Model for Compensation <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Residual Error</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Insung; Koo, Lockjo; Wang, Gi-Nam</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper was to design a model of human bio signal data <span class="hlt">prediction</span> system for decreasing of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> error using two states <span class="hlt">mapping</span> based time series neural network BP (back-propagation) model. Normally, a lot of the industry has been applied neural network model by training them in a supervised manner with the error back-propagation algorithm for time series <span class="hlt">prediction</span> systems. However, it still has got a residual error between real value and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> result. Therefore, we designed two states of neural network model for compensation residual error which is possible to use in the prevention of sudden death and metabolic syndrome disease such as hypertension disease and obesity. We determined that most of the simulation cases were satisfied by the two states <span class="hlt">mapping</span> based time series <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model. In particular, small sample size of times series were more accurate than the standard MLP model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484139"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> environmental risk: A road <span class="hlt">map</span> for the future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jager, Tjalling</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Frameworks for environmental risk assessment (ERA) focus on comparing results from separate exposure and effect assessments. Exposure assessment generally relies on mechanistic fate models, whereas the effects assessment is anchored in standard test protocols and descriptive statistics. This discrepancy prevents a useful link between these two pillars of ERA, and jeopardizes the realism and efficacy of the entire process. Similar to exposure assessment, effects assessment requires a mechanistic approach to translate the output of fate models into <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for impacts on populations and food webs. The aim of this study was to discuss (1) the central importance of the individual level, (2) different strategies of dealing with biological complexity, and (3) the role that toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models, energy budgets, and molecular biology play in a mechanistic revision of the ERA framework. Consequently, an outline for a risk assessment paradigm was developed that incorporates a mechanistic effects assessment in a consistent manner, and a "roadmap for the future." Such a roadmap may play a critical role to eventually arrive at a more scientific and efficient ERA process, and needs to be used to shape our long-term research agendas. PMID:27484139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6135386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6135386"><span id="translatedtitle">Impervious cover <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and runoff <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in a Dallas watershed using Landsat TM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Singletary, K.L.; Morgan, K.M.; Busbey, A.B.; Newland, L.W. . Dept. of Geology)</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>As urban development increases in metropolitan areas, the amount of impervious cover also increases and directly affects stormwater runoff volume. Techniques are needed by planning agencies to monitor urban changes and update flood <span class="hlt">maps</span>. In this study, the six 30 meter resolution bands of Landsat TM were analyzed to determine which wavelength(s) could be used to <span class="hlt">map</span> impervious cover in a watershed near Dallas. The resulting information was utilized in a runoff equation and compared to actual stormwater flow recorded at a U.S.G.S. gauge station. Accuracies of the image <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">predicted</span> runoff are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20774932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20774932"><span id="translatedtitle">Classical <span class="hlt">predictability</span> and coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's <span class="hlt">map</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scherer, Artur; Soklakov, Andrei N.; Schack, Ruediger</p> <p>2006-06-15</p> <p>We investigate how classical <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of the coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's <span class="hlt">map</span> depends on the character of the coarse-graining. Our analysis extends earlier work by Brun and Hartle [Phys. Rev. D 60, 123503 (1999)] to the case of a chaotic <span class="hlt">map</span>. To quantify <span class="hlt">predictability</span>, we compare the rate of entropy increase for a family of coarse-grainings in the decoherent histories formalism. We find that the rate of entropy increase is dominated by the number of scales characterizing the coarse-graining.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MAR.Y3002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MAR.Y3002K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> of temporal-feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> in the barn owl's auditory system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kempter, Richard</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>Computational <span class="hlt">maps</span> are of central importance to the brain's representation of the outside world. The question of how <span class="hlt">maps</span> are formed during ontogenetic development is a subject of intense research (Hubel & Wiesel, Proc R Soc B 198:1, 1977; Buonomano & Merzenich, Annu Rev Neurosci 21:149, 1998). The development in the primary visual cortex is in principle well explained compared to that in the auditory system, partly because the mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of temporal-feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> are hardly understood (Carr, Annu Rev Neurosci 16:223, 1993). Through a modelling study based on computer simulations in a system of spiking neurons a solution is offered to the problem of how a <span class="hlt">map</span> of interaural time differences is set up in the nucleus laminaris of the barn owl, as a typical example. An array of neurons is able to represent interaural time differences in an orderly manner, viz., a <span class="hlt">map</span>, if homosynaptic spike-based Hebbian learning (Gerstner et al, Nature 383:76, 1996; <A HREF=http://keck.ucsf.edu/ kempter/Publications/>Kempter et al, Phys Rev E 59:4498, 1999</A>) is combined with a presynaptic propagation of synaptic modifications (Fitzsimonds & Poo, Physiol Rev 78:143, 1998). The latter may be orders of magnitude weaker than the former. The algorithm is a key mechanism to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of temporal-feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> on a submillisecond time scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Professional+AND+identity&pg=7&id=EJ928710','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Professional+AND+identity&pg=7&id=EJ928710"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of Korean EFL Student Teachers' Autobiographical Reflections on Their Professional Identity <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lim, Hyun-Woo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study utilizes a concept <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method to explore the underlying structure and dimensionality of Korean student teachers' autobiographical reflections on their professional identity <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Participants consist of 90 students enrolled in bachelor's and master's degree programs in English teacher education. The study results imply core…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..499..235G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..499..235G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the Innermost Regions of Massive Stars in <span class="hlt">Formation</span> through Millimeter Recombination Lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galván-Madrid, R.; Liu, H. B.; Hernández-Gómez, A.; Carrasco-González, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Millimeter (mm) recombination lines (RLs) are intrinsically brighter than centimeter RLs and are free of pressure broadening. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> mm RLs in massive star <span class="hlt">formation</span> (MSF) regions would trace the dynamics of the innermost volume where stars more massive than 10 or 20 ⊙ are forming. We report on our search using ALMA for mm RL emission in two MSF regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=211536','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=211536"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Potential for Ephemeral Gully <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Agricultural Watersheds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Erosion associated with ephemeral gullies in cultivated areas is known to contribute significantly to soil loss and sediment yield from arable watersheds. Despite this, no automated method currently exists for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the potential for ephemeral gully <span class="hlt">formation</span>. This study identifies that the capabi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/ofr-92-0507/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/ofr-92-0507/"><span id="translatedtitle">The digital geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of Colorado in ARC/INFO <span class="hlt">format</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, Gregory N.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> was prepared as a part of a study of digital methods and techniques as applied to complex geologic <span class="hlt">maps</span>. The geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> was digitized from the original scribe sheets used to prepare the published Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Colorado (Tweto 1979). Consequently the digital version is at 1:500,000 scale using the Lambert Conformal Conic <span class="hlt">map</span> projection parameters of the state base <span class="hlt">map</span>. Stable base contact prints of the scribe sheets were scanned on a Tektronix 4991 digital scanner. The scanner automatically converts the scanned image to an ASCII vector <span class="hlt">format</span>. These vectors were transferred to a VAX minicomputer, where they were then loaded into ARC/INFO. Each vector and polygon was given attributes derived from the original 1979 geologic <span class="hlt">map</span>. This database was developed on a MicroVAX computer system using VAX V 5.4 nd ARC/INFO 5.0 software. UPDATE: April 1995, The update was done solely for the purpose of adding the abilitly to plot to an HP650c plotter. Two new ARC/INFO plot AMLs along with a lineset and shadeset for the HP650C design jet printer have been included. These new files are COLORADO.650, INDEX.650, TWETOLIN.E00 and TWETOSHD.E00. These files were created on a UNIX platform with ARC/INFO 6.1.2. Updated versions of INDEX.E00, CONTACT.E00, LINE.E00, DECO.E00 and BORDER.E00 files that included the newly defined HP650c items are also included. * Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Descriptors: The Digital Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Colorado in ARC/INFO <span class="hlt">Format</span> Open-File Report 92-050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/0507a/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1992/0507a/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The digital geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of Colorado in ARC/INFO <span class="hlt">format</span>, Part A. Documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, Gregory N.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> was prepared as a part of a study of digital methods and techniques as applied to complex geologic <span class="hlt">maps</span>. The geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> was digitized from the original scribe sheets used to prepare the published Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Colorado (Tweto 1979). Consequently the digital version is at 1:500,000 scale using the Lambert Conformal Conic <span class="hlt">map</span> projection parameters of the state base <span class="hlt">map</span>. Stable base contact prints of the scribe sheets were scanned on a Tektronix 4991 digital scanner. The scanner automatically converts the scanned image to an ASCII vector <span class="hlt">format</span>. These vectors were transferred to a VAX minicomputer, where they were then loaded into ARC/INFO. Each vector and polygon was given attributes derived from the original 1979 geologic <span class="hlt">map</span>. This database was developed on a MicroVAX computer system using VAX V 5.4 nd ARC/INFO 5.0 software. UPDATE: April 1995, The update was done solely for the purpose of adding the abilitly to plot to an HP650c plotter. Two new ARC/INFO plot AMLs along with a lineset and shadeset for the HP650C design jet printer have been included. These new files are COLORADO.650, INDEX.650, TWETOLIN.E00 and TWETOSHD.E00. These files were created on a UNIX platform with ARC/INFO 6.1.2. Updated versions of INDEX.E00, CONTACT.E00, LINE.E00, DECO.E00 and BORDER.E00 files that included the newly defined HP650c items are also included. * Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Descriptors: The Digital Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Colorado in ARC/INFO <span class="hlt">Format</span> Open-File Report 92-050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA42B..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA42B..07P"><span id="translatedtitle">3-D or median <span class="hlt">map</span>? Earthquake scenario ground-motion <span class="hlt">maps</span> from physics-based models versus <span class="hlt">maps</span> from ground-motion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There are two common ways to create a ground-motion <span class="hlt">map</span> for a hypothetical earthquake: using ground motion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> equations (by far the more common of the two) and using 3-D physics-based modeling. The former is very familiar to engineers, the latter much less so, and the difference can present a problem because engineers tend to trust the familiar and distrust novelty. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> for essentially the same hypothetical earthquake using the two different methods can look very different, while appearing to present the same information. Using one or the other can lead an engineer or disaster planner to very different estimates of damage and risk. The reasons have to do with depiction of variability, spatial correlation of shaking, the skewed distribution of real-world shaking, and the upward-curving relationship between shaking and damage. The scientists who develop the two kinds of <span class="hlt">map</span> tend to specialize in one or the other and seem to defend their turf, which can aggravate the problem of clearly communicating with engineers.The USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) HayWired scenario has addressed the challenge of explaining to engineers the differences between the two <span class="hlt">maps</span>, and why, in a disaster planning scenario, one might want to use the less-familiar 3-D <span class="hlt">map</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934879','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934879"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of Initial Value on Pattern <span class="hlt">Formation</span> for a Logistic Coupled <span class="hlt">Map</span> Lattice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Li; Zhang, Guang; Cui, Haoyue</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The logistic coupled <span class="hlt">map</span> lattices (LCML) have been widely investigated as well as their pattern dynamics. The patterns <span class="hlt">formation</span> may depend on not only fluctuations of system parameters, but variation of the initial conditions. However, the mathematical discussion is quite few for the effect of initial values so far. The present paper is concerned with the pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> for a two-dimensional Logistic coupled <span class="hlt">map</span> lattice, where any initial value can be linear expressed by corresponding eigenvectors, and patterns <span class="hlt">formation</span> can be determined by selecting the corresponding eigenvectors. A set of simulations are conducted whose results demonstrate the fact. The method utilized in the present paper could be applied to other discrete systems as well. PMID:27382964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23920744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23920744"><span id="translatedtitle">Fostering ontology alignment sharing: a general-purpose RDF <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">format</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anguita, Alberto; Escrich, Ana; Maojo, Victor</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>RDF has established in the last years as the language for describing, publishing and sharing biomedical resources. Following this trend, a great amount of RDF-based data sources, as well as ontologies, have appeared. Using a common language as RDF has provided a unified syntactic for sharing resources, but the semantics remain as the main cause of heterogeneity, hampering data integration and homogenization efforts. To overcome this issue, ontology alignment based solutions have been typically used. However, alignment information is usually codified using ad-hoc <span class="hlt">formats</span>. In this paper, we present a general purpose ontology <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">format</span>, totally independent from the homogenization approach to be applied. The <span class="hlt">format</span> is accompanied with a Java API that offers <span class="hlt">mapping</span> construction and parsing features, as well as some basic algorithms for applying it to data translation solutions. PMID:23920744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CG.....36..355L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CG.....36..355L"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing spatial uncertainty in <span class="hlt">predictive</span> geomorphological <span class="hlt">mapping</span>: A multi-modelling approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luoto, Miska; Marmion, Mathieu; Hjort, Jan</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Maps</span> of earth surface processes and the potential distribution of landforms make an important contribution to theoretical and applied geomorphology. Because decision making often depends on information based on spatial models, there is a great need to develop methodology to evaluate the spatial uncertainty resulting from those models. In this study we developed a new method to produce <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the uncertainty of <span class="hlt">predictions</span> provided by ten state-of-the-art modelling techniques for sorted (SP) and non-sorted (NSP) patterned ground in subarctic Finland at a 1.0-ha resolution. Six uncertainty classes represent the modelling agreement between the different modelling techniques. The resulting uncertainty <span class="hlt">maps</span> reflect the reliability of the estimates for the studied periglacial landforms in the modelled area. Our results showed a significant negative correlation between the degree of uncertainty and the accuracy of the modelling techniques. On average, when all ten models agreed, the mean area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.904 (NSP) and 0.896 (SP), these values decreased to 0.416 (NSP) and 0.518 (SP), respectively, when only five models agreed. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the uncertainty of <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in geomorphology can help scientists to improve the reliability of their data and modelling results. The <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> can be interpreted simultaneously with the uncertainty information, improving understanding of the potential pitfalls of the modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17013379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17013379"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic shifts in the owl's auditory space <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">predict</span> moving sound location.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Witten, Ilana B; Bergan, Joseph F; Knudsen, Eric I</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>The optic tectum of the barn owl contains a <span class="hlt">map</span> of auditory space. We found that, in response to moving sounds, the locations of receptive fields that make up the <span class="hlt">map</span> shifted toward the approaching sound. The magnitude of the receptive field shifts increased systematically with increasing stimulus velocity and, therefore, was appropriate to compensate for sensory and motor delays inherent to auditory orienting behavior. Thus, the auditory space <span class="hlt">map</span> is not static, but shifts adaptively and dynamically in response to stimulus motion. We provide a computational model to account for these results. Because the model derives <span class="hlt">predictive</span> responses from processes that are known to occur commonly in neural networks, we hypothesize that analogous <span class="hlt">predictive</span> responses will be found to exist widely in the central nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with perceptions of stimulus motion in humans for many sensory parameters. PMID:17013379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2667968','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2667968"><span id="translatedtitle">Bone morphogenetic proteins, eye patterning, and retinocollicular <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the mouse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Plas, Daniel T.; Dhande, Onkar; Lopez, Joshua E.; Murali, Deepa; Thaller, Christina; Henkemeyer, Mark; Furuta, Yasuhide; Overbeek, Paul; Crair, Michael C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Patterning events during early eye <span class="hlt">formation</span> determine retinal cell fate and can dictate the behavior of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons as they navigate toward central brain targets. The temporally and spatially regulated expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors in the retina are thought to play a key role in this process, initiating gene expression cascades that distinguish different regions of the retina, particularly along the dorsoventral axis. Here, we examine the role of BMP and a potential downstream effector, EphB, in retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC). RGC axon behaviors during retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in wild type mice are compared with those in several strains of mice with engineered defects of BMP and EphB signaling. Normal RGC axon sorting produces axon order in the optic tract that reflects the dorsoventral position of the parent RGCs in the eye. A dramatic consequence of disrupting BMP signaling is a missorting of RGC axons as they exit the optic chiasm. This sorting is not dependent on EphB. When BMP signaling in the developing eye is genetically modified, RGC order in the optic tract and targeting in the LGN and SC are correspondingly disrupted. These experiments show that BMP signaling regulates dorsoventral RGC cell fate, RGC axon behavior in the ascending optic tract and retinotopic <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the LGN and SC through mechanisms that are in part distinct from EphB signaling in the LGN and SC. PMID:18614674</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..450..609W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..450..609W"><span id="translatedtitle">Link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> based on hyperbolic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> with community structure for complex networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zuxi; Wu, Yao; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is becoming a concerned topic in the complex network field in recent years. However, the existing link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods are unsatisfactory for processing topological information and have high time complexity. This paper presents a novel method of Link <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> with Community Structure (LPCS) based on hyperbolic <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. Different from the existing link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods, to utilize global structure information of the network, LPCS deals with the network from an overall perspective. LPCS takes full advantage of the community structure and its hierarchical organization to <span class="hlt">map</span> networks into hyperbolic space, and obtains the hyperbolic coordinates which depict the global structure information of the network, then uses hyperbolic distance to describe the similarity between the nodes, finally <span class="hlt">predicts</span> missing links according to the degree of the similarity between unconnected node pairs. The combination of the hyperbolic geometry framework and the community structure makes LPCS perform well in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> missing links, and the time complexity of LPCS is linear, which makes LPCS can be applied to handle large scale networks in acceptable time. LPCS outperforms many state-of-the-art link <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods in the networks obeying power-law degree distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140547','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140547"><span id="translatedtitle">Landscape <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of game fish biomass, an ecosystem service of Michigan rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Esselman, Peter C.; Stevenson, R Jan; Lupi, Frank; Riseng, Catherine M.; Wiley, Michael J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The increased integration of ecosystem service concepts into natural resource management places renewed emphasis on <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of fish biomass as a major provisioning service of rivers. The goals of this study were to <span class="hlt">predict</span> and <span class="hlt">map</span> patterns of fish biomass as a proxy for the availability of catchable fish for anglers in rivers and to identify the strongest landscape constraints on fish productivity. We examined hypotheses about fish responses to total phosphorus (TP), as TP is a growth-limiting nutrient known to cause increases (subsidy response) and/or decreases (stress response) in fish biomass depending on its concentration and the species being considered. Boosted regression trees were used to define nonlinear functions that <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the standing crops of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu, panfishes (seven centrarchid species), and Walleye Sander vitreus by using landscape and modeled local-scale predictors. Fitted models were highly significant and explained 22–56% of the variation in validation data sets. Nonlinear and threshold responses were apparent for numerous predictors, including TP concentration, which had significant effects on all except the Walleye fishery. Brook Trout and Smallmouth Bass exhibited both subsidy and stress responses, panfish biomass exhibited a subsidy response only, and Brown Trout exhibited a stress response. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of reach-specific standing crop <span class="hlt">predictions</span> showed patterns of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> fish biomass that corresponded to spatial patterns in catchment area, water temperature, land cover, and nutrient availability. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> illustrated <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of higher trout biomass in coldwater streams draining glacial till in northern Michigan, higher Smallmouth Bass and panfish biomasses in warmwater systems of southern Michigan, and high Walleye biomass in large main-stem rivers throughout the state. Our results allow fisheries managers to examine the biomass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361640"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of schistosomiasis in Brazil using Bayesian geostatistical models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Gosoniu, Laura; Malone, John B; Chammartin, Frédérique; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. A national control programme was initiated in Brazil in the mid-1970s and proved successful in terms of morbidity control, as the number of cases with hepato-splenic involvement was reduced significantly. To consolidate control and move towards elimination, there is a need for reliable <span class="hlt">maps</span> on the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis, so that interventions can target communities at highest risk. The purpose of this study was to <span class="hlt">map</span> the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. We utilized readily available prevalence data from the national schistosomiasis control programme for the years 2005-2009, derived remotely sensed climatic and environmental data and obtained socioeconomic data from various sources. Data were collated into a geographical information system and Bayesian geostatistical models were developed. Model-based <span class="hlt">maps</span> identified important risk factors related to the transmission of S. mansoni and confirmed that environmental variables are closely associated with indices of poverty. Our smoothed <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">map</span>, including uncertainty, highlights priority areas for intervention, namely the northern parts of North and Southeast regions and the eastern part of Northeast region. Our <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">map</span> provides a useful tool for to strengthen existing surveillance-response mechanisms. PMID:24361640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005JGRD..110.7S17R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005JGRD..110.7S17R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> secondary organic aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates in southeast Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Matthew; Allen, David T.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Rates of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span>, due to the reactions of aromatics and monoterpenes, were estimated for southeast Texas by incorporating a modified version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center's chemical mechanism (SAPRC99) into the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx version 3.10). The model included explicit representation of the reactions of five SOA precursors (α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, d-limonene, and Δ3-carene). Reactions of each SOA precursor with O3, OH radical, and NO3 radical were included. The model also included separate reactions for low- and high-SOA-yield aromatic groups with the OH radical. SOA yields in the mechanisms were estimated using compound-specific yield information (ΔSOA/ΔHC) derived from smog chamber experiments conducted by J. R. Odum and colleagues and R. J. Griffin and colleagues. The form of the SOA yield model was based on the work of J. R. Odum and colleagues and is a function of existing organic aerosol concentrations. Existing organic aerosol concentrations were estimated on the basis of ambient measurements of total organic carbon in southeast Texas. The reactions of monoterpenes (predominantly α-pinene and β-pinene) with ozone led to the most regional SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span>, followed by monoterpenes with the nitrate radical. Aromatic-OH reactions led to less regional SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> compared to monoterpenes; however, this <span class="hlt">formation</span> occurs close to the urban and industrial areas of Houston. In contrast, SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> due to the reactions of monoterpenes occurred in the forested areas north of the urban area. The results of this study are in qualitative agreement with estimates of SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> based on ambient data from the same time period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCAP...11..028M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCAP...11..028M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> signal for multi-J CO lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mashian, Natalie; Sternberg, Amiel; Loeb, Abraham</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We present a novel approach to estimating the intensity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> signal of any CO rotational line emitted during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Our approach is based on large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling, a radiative transfer modeling technique that generates the full CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for a specified gas kinetic temperature, volume density, velocity gradient, molecular abundance, and column density. These parameters, which drive the physics of CO transitions and ultimately dictate the shape and amplitude of the CO SLED, can be linked to the global properties of the host galaxy, mainly the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate (SFR) and the SFR surface density. By further employing an empirically derived SFR-M relation for high redshift galaxies, we can express the LVG parameters, and thus the specific intensity of any CO rotational transition, as functions of the host halo mass M and redshift z. Integrating over the range of halo masses expected to host CO-luminous galaxies, we <span class="hlt">predict</span> a mean CO(1-0) brightness temperature ranging from ~ 0.6 μK at z = 6 to ~ 0.03 μK at z = 10 with brightness temperature fluctuations of ΔCO2 ~ 0.1 and 0.005 μK respectively, at k = 0.1 Mpc-1. In this model, the CO emission signal remains strong for higher rotational levels at z = 6, with langle TCO rangle ~ 0.3 and 0.05 μK for the CO J = 6arrow5 and CO J = 10arrow9 transitions respectively. Including the effects of CO photodissociation in these molecular clouds, especially at low metallicities, results in the overall reduction in the amplitude of the CO signal, with the low- and high-J lines weakening by 2-20% and 10-45%, respectively, over the redshift range 4 < z < 10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26920129','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26920129"><span id="translatedtitle">The effectiveness of digital soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to <span class="hlt">predict</span> soil properties over low-relief areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mosleh, Zohreh; Salehi, Mohammad Hassan; Jafari, Azam; Borujeni, Isa Esfandiarpoor; Mehnatkesh, Abdolmohammad</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This study investigates the ability of different digital soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (DSM) approaches to <span class="hlt">predict</span> some of physical and chemical topsoil properties in the Shahrekord plain of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, Iran. According to a semi-detailed soil survey, 120 soil samples were collected from 0 to 30 cm depth with approximate distance of 750 m. Particle size distribution, coarse fragments (CFs), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, organic carbon (OC), and calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) were determined. Four machine learning techniques, namely, artificial neural networks (ANNs), boosted regression tree (BRT), generalized linear model (GLM), and multiple linear regression (MLR), were used to identify the relationship between soil properties and auxiliary information (terrain attributes, remote sensing indices, geology <span class="hlt">map</span>, existing soil <span class="hlt">map</span>, and geomorphology <span class="hlt">map</span>). Root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean error (ME) were considered to determine the performance of the models. Among the studied models, GLM showed the highest performance to <span class="hlt">predict</span> pH, EC, clay, silt, sand, and CCE, whereas the best model is not necessarily able to make accurate estimation. According to RMSE%, DSM has a good efficiency to <span class="hlt">predict</span> soil properties with low and moderate variabilities. Terrain attributes were the main predictors among different studied auxiliary information. The accuracy of the estimations with more observations is recommended to give a better understanding about the performance of DSM approach over low-relief areas. PMID:26920129</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415417','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415417"><span id="translatedtitle">A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial <span class="hlt">Map</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Using Persistent Homology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dabaghian, Y.; Mémoli, F.; Frank, L.; Carlsson, G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>An animal's ability to navigate through space rests on its ability to create a mental <span class="hlt">map</span> of its environment. The hippocampus is the brain region centrally responsible for such <span class="hlt">maps</span>, and it has been assumed to encode geometric information (distances, angles). Given, however, that hippocampal output consists of patterns of spiking across many neurons, and downstream regions must be able to translate those patterns into accurate information about an animal's spatial environment, we hypothesized that 1) the temporal pattern of neuronal firing, particularly co-firing, is key to decoding spatial information, and 2) since co-firing implies spatial overlap of place fields, a <span class="hlt">map</span> encoded by co-firing will be based on connectivity and adjacency, i.e., it will be a topological <span class="hlt">map</span>. Here we test this topological hypothesis with a simple model of hippocampal activity, varying three parameters (firing rate, place field size, and number of neurons) in computer simulations of rat trajectories in three topologically and geometrically distinct test environments. Using a computational algorithm based on recently developed tools from Persistent Homology theory in the field of algebraic topology, we find that the patterns of neuronal co-firing can, in fact, convey topological information about the environment in a biologically realistic length of time. Furthermore, our simulations reveal a “learning region” that highlights the interplay between the parameters in combining to produce hippocampal states that are more or less adept at <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>. For example, within the learning region a lower number of neurons firing can be compensated by adjustments in firing rate or place field size, but beyond a certain point <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> begins to fail. We propose that this learning region provides a coherent theoretical lens through which to view conditions that impair spatial learning by altering place cell firing rates or spatial specificity. PMID:22912564</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22103421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22103421"><span id="translatedtitle">Axon-axon interactions in neuronal circuit assembly: lessons from olfactory <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Imai, Takeshi; Sakano, Hitoshi</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>During the development of the nervous system, neurons often connect axons and dendrites over long distances, which are navigated by chemical cues. During the past few decades, studies on axon guidance have focused on chemical cues provided by the axonal target or intermediate target. However, recent studies have shed light on the roles and mechanisms underlying axon-axon interactions during neuronal circuit assembly. The roles of axon-axon interactions are best exemplified in recent studies on olfactory <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> in vertebrates. Pioneer-follower interaction is essential for the axonal pathfinding process. Pre-target axon sorting establishes the anterior-posterior <span class="hlt">map</span> order. The temporal order of axonal projection is converted to dorsal-ventral topography with the aid of secreted molecules provided by early-arriving axons. An activity-dependent process to form a discrete <span class="hlt">map</span> also depends on axon sorting. Thus, an emerging principle of olfactory <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> is the 'self-organisation' of axons rather than the 'lock and key' matching between axons and targets. In this review, we discuss how axon-axon interactions contribute to neuronal circuit assembly. PMID:22103421</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000033157','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000033157"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Age of Comets: <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Physical and Chemical Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nuth, Joesph A., III; Hill, H. G. M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The chemical composition of a comet has always been considered to be a function of where it formed in the nebula. We suggest that the most important factor in determining a comet's chemistry might actually be when it formed. We present specific <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of correlations between the dust and volatile components to test our hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.448.1107M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.448.1107M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> galaxy encounters in numerical simulations: the spatial extent of induced star <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno, Jorge; Torrey, Paul; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.; Bluck, Asa F. L.; Bansal, Gunjan; Hernquist, Lars</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We employ a suite of 75 simulations of galaxies in idealized major mergers (stellar mass ratio ˜2.5:1), with a wide range of orbital parameters, to investigate the spatial extent of interaction-induced star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Although the total star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in galaxy encounters is generally elevated relative to isolated galaxies, we find that this elevation is a combination of intense enhancements within the central kpc and moderately suppressed activity at larger galactocentric radii. The radial dependence of the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> enhancement is stronger in the less massive galaxy than in the primary, and is also more pronounced in mergers of more closely aligned disc spin orientations. Conversely, these trends are almost entirely independent of the encounter's impact parameter and orbital eccentricity. Our <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the radial dependence of triggered star <span class="hlt">formation</span>, and specifically the suppression of star <span class="hlt">formation</span> beyond kpc-scales, will be testable with the next generation of integral-field spectroscopic surveys.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7120157','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7120157"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> weed migration from soil and climate <span class="hlt">maps</span>. [Centaurea maculosa Lam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation <span class="hlt">map</span> of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration <span class="hlt">prediction</span> technique shows promise for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6879990','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6879990"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and experimental observations of genomic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> by anchoring random clones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grigoriev, A.V. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>Genome <span class="hlt">mapping</span> by anchoring random clones has recently been the subject of intensive theoretical study. In this paper, differences between published <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of properties of anchored groups of clones ( contigs') are analyzed and simplifications of the mathematical formulae describing these properties are presented. The theoretical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are compared with the experimental results from the physical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the genome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Information about the number of genome sections with no anchored clone on them ( oceans') and the number of undetected overlaps between the contigs at a given stage of the experiment is required for the decision to change from the random strategy to that of a directed closure of gaps. We demonstrate that the expected number of oceans can be approximated by the number of groups of clones anchored by a single probe ( singletons'), as can the expected number of undetected overlaps between contigs by the number of contigs containing more than one anchor. 14 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5162033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5162033"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformation and fracture <span class="hlt">map</span> methodology for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> cladding behavior during dry storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chin, B.A.; Khan, M.A.; Tarn, J.C.L.</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>The licensing of interim dry storage of light-water reactor spent fuel requires assurance that release limits of radioactive materials are not exceeded. The extent to which Zircaloy cladding can be relied upon as a barrier to prevent release of radioactive spent fuel and fission products depends upon its integrity. The internal pressure from helium and fission gases could become a source of hoop stress for creep rupture if pressures and temperatures were sufficiently high. Consequently, it is of interest to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the condition of spent fuel cladding during interim storage for periods up to 40 years. To develop this <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, deformation and fracture theories were used to develop <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Where available, experimental deformation and fracture data were used to test the validity of the <span class="hlt">maps</span>. <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> equations were then developed and cumulative damage methodology was used to take credit for the declining temperature of spent fuel during storage. This methodology was then used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> storage temperatures below which creep rupture would not be expected to occur except in fuel rods with pre-existing flaws. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> were also made and compared with results from tests conducted under abnormal conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25320819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25320819"><span id="translatedtitle">A universal and efficient method to compute <span class="hlt">maps</span> from image-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabuncu, Mert R</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Discriminative supervised learning algorithms, such as Support Vector Machines, are becoming increasingly popular in biomedical image computing. One of their main uses is to construct image-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models, e.g., for computer aided diagnosis or "mind reading." A major challenge in these applications is the biological interpretation of the machine learning models, which can be arbitrarily complex functions of the input features (e.g., as induced by kernel-based methods). Recent work has proposed several strategies for deriving <span class="hlt">maps</span> that highlight regions relevant for accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Yet most of these methods o n strong assumptions about t he <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model (e.g., linearity, sparsity) and/or data (e.g., Gaussianity), or fail to exploit the covariance structure in the data. In this work, we propose a computationally efficient and universal framework for quantifying associations captured by black box machine learning models. Furthermore, our theoretical perspective reveals that examining associations with <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, in the absence of ground truth labels, can be very informative. We apply the proposed method to machine learning models trained to <span class="hlt">predict</span> cognitive impairment from structural neuroimaging data. We demonstrate that our approach yields biologically meaningful <span class="hlt">maps</span> of association. PMID:25320819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213352-predictive-modeling-synergistic-effects-nanoscale-ion-track-formation','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213352-predictive-modeling-synergistic-effects-nanoscale-ion-track-formation"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.</p> <p>2015-08-05</p> <p>Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track <span class="hlt">formation</span> occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192555"><span id="translatedtitle">A thermodynamic approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> apparent contact angles on microstructures using surface polygonal <span class="hlt">maps</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Calvimontes, A</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The thermodynamic model of wetting developed and tested in this work allows the understanding and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of apparent contact angles on topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> of real and digitally-generated microstructures. The model considers the solid component as a set of finite areal elements in the form of a polygonal <span class="hlt">map</span>. Liquid and gas components are instead evaluated as continuous and incompressible volumes. In this study, the concept of the wetting topographic spectrum (WTS) is proposed to simulate the changes in the liquid-solid contact areas and of the interfacial energies while wetting the microstructure from the top to the bottom of the topographic <span class="hlt">map</span>, passing through various states of metastable equilibrium, to find a stable configuration. The model was successfully applied to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the wetting apparent contact angles on randomly micro-structured polypropylene (PP) surfaces and on a superhydrophobic and superoleophobic transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure previously presented as a communication in this journal by other authors. The method presented in this study can be used to design and <span class="hlt">predict</span> the geometry of microstructures with special wetting characteristics. PMID:25192555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041007','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041007"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Lakshmi Planum is a high-standing plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing crustal plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes and played an important role in Venus geologic history. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 and Magellan data, resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual topographic and morphologic characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, <span class="hlt">formation</span> of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of <span class="hlt">formation</span> and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about the type and sequence of major events during <span class="hlt">formation</span> and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological <span class="hlt">mapping</span> can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (the V-7 quadrangle, 50-75degN, 300-360degE; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213352','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213352"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.</p> <p>2015-08-05</p> <p>Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO<sub>3</sub>. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track <span class="hlt">formation</span> occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23973561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23973561"><span id="translatedtitle">Using global <span class="hlt">maps</span> to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the risk of dengue in Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogers, David J; Suk, Jonathan E; Semenza, Jan C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article attempts to quantify the risk to Europe of dengue, following the arrival and spread there of one of dengue's vector species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus. A global risk <span class="hlt">map</span> for dengue is presented, based on a global database of the occurrence of this disease, derived from electronic literature searches. Remotely sensed satellite data (from NASA's MODIS series), interpolated meteorological data, <span class="hlt">predicted</span> distribution <span class="hlt">maps</span> of dengue's two main vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, a digital elevation surface and human population density data were all used as potential predictor variables in a non-linear discriminant analysis modelling framework. One hundred bootstrap models were produced by randomly sub-sampling three different training sets for dengue fever, severe dengue (i.e. dengue haemorrhagic fever, DHF) and all-dengue, and output <span class="hlt">predictions</span> were averaged to produce a single global risk <span class="hlt">map</span> for each type of dengue. This paper concentrates on the all-dengue models. Key predictor variables were various thermal data layers, including both day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature, human population density, and a variety of rainfall variables. The relative importance of each may be shown visually using rainbow files and quantitatively using a ranking system. Vegetation Index variables (a common proxy for humidity or saturation deficit) were rarely chosen in the models. The kappa index of agreement indicated an excellent (dengue haemorrhagic fever, Cohen's kappa=0.79 ± 0.028, AUC=0.96 ± 0.007) or good fit of the top ten models in each series to the data (Cohen's kappa=0.73 ± 0.018, AUC=0.94 ± 0.007 for dengue fever and 0.74 ± 0.017, AUC=0.95 ± 0.005 for all dengue). The global risk <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">predicts</span> widespread dengue risk in SE Asia and India, in Central America and parts of coastal South America, but in relatively few regions of Africa. In many cases these are less extensive <span class="hlt">predictions</span> than those of other published dengue risk <span class="hlt">maps</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2999403','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2999403"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Distribution <span class="hlt">Map</span> for the Giant Tropical Ant, Paraponera clavata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Murphy, Christina M.; Breed, Michael D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Paraponera clavata (Fabricius 1775) (Formicidae: Paraponerinae) is a widely distributed Neotropical ant whose large size has attracted the attention of numerous collectors. Working from museum specimens, a georeferenced database of collection localities was developed. This database then served as the source for computer generated <span class="hlt">predictive</span> distribution <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Annual rainfall was the most important variable chosen by the computer model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the distribution of P. clavata, both on the scale of the neotropics and at a finer scale at the northern end its distribution in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. When the model was forced to use vegetation as the first <span class="hlt">predictive</span> variable, the Neotropical model used temperature and rainfall variance as additional variables, while the Mesoamerican model used both climatic and soils variables. Overall, the modeling suggests that P. clavata is more sensitive to abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature, soils) than to biotic factors (vegetation type) in its distribution, although this conclusion comes with the caveat that the vegetation types used in the model are quite generalized. <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> distribution <span class="hlt">mapping</span> holds great promise for generating more precise representations of insect distributions, thereby allowing better tests of the extent of distribution overlaps and other community relationships. PMID:20334591</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1975678','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1975678"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of RNA Pseudoknots Using Heuristic Modeling with <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Sequential Folding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dawson, Wayne K.; Fujiwara, Kazuya; Kawai, Gota</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> RNA secondary structure is often the first step to determining the structure of RNA. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> approaches have historically avoided searching for pseudoknots because of the extreme combinatorial and time complexity of the problem. Yet neglecting pseudoknots limits the utility of such approaches. Here, an algorithm utilizing structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and thermodynamics is introduced for RNA pseudoknot <span class="hlt">prediction</span> that finds the minimum free energy and identifies information about the flexibility of the RNA. The heuristic approach takes advantage of the 5′ to 3′ folding direction of many biological RNA molecules and is consistent with the hierarchical folding hypothesis and the contact order model. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> methods are used to build and analyze the folded structure for pseudoknots and to add important 3D structural considerations. The program can <span class="hlt">predict</span> some well known pseudoknot structures correctly. The results of this study suggest that many functional RNA sequences are optimized for proper folding. They also suggest directions we can proceed in the future to achieve even better results. PMID:17878940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PMB....53..203C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PMB....53..203C"><span id="translatedtitle">Using patient data similarities to <span class="hlt">predict</span> radiation pneumonitis via a self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Shifeng; Zhou, Sumin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Marks, Lawrence B.; Das, Shiva K.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This work investigates the use of the self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span> (SOM) technique for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> lung radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk. SOM is an effective method for projecting and visualizing high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space (<span class="hlt">map</span>). By projecting patients with similar data (dose and non-dose factors) onto the same region of the <span class="hlt">map</span>, commonalities in their outcomes can be visualized and categorized. Once built, the SOM may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> pneumonitis risk by identifying the region of the <span class="hlt">map</span> that is most similar to a patient's characteristics. Two SOM models were developed from a database of 219 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (34 clinically diagnosed with Grade 2+ pneumonitis). The models were: SOMall built from all dose and non-dose factors and, for comparison, SOMdose built from dose factors alone. Both models were tested using ten-fold cross validation and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. Models SOMall and SOMdose yielded ten-fold cross-validated ROC areas of 0.73 (sensitivity/specificity = 71%/68%) and 0.67 (sensitivity/specificity = 63%/66%), respectively. The significant difference between the cross-validated ROC areas of these two models (p < 0.05) implies that non-dose features add important information toward <span class="hlt">predicting</span> RP risk. Among the input features selected by model SOMall, the two with highest impact for increasing RP risk were: (a) higher mean lung dose and (b) chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy. The SOM model developed here may not be extrapolated to treatment techniques outside that used in our database, such as several-field lung intensity modulated radiation therapy or gated radiation therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.457L.127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.457L.127B"><span id="translatedtitle">The high-redshift star <span class="hlt">formation</span> history from carbon-monoxide intensity <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Breysse, Patrick C.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We demonstrate how cosmic star <span class="hlt">formation</span> history can be measured with one-point statistics of carbon-monoxide intensity <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Using a P(D) analysis, the luminosity function of CO-emitting sources can be inferred from the measured one-point intensity PDF. The star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate density (SFRD) can then be obtained, at several redshifts, from the CO luminosity density. We study the effects of instrumental noise, line foregrounds, and target redshift, and obtain constraints on the CO luminosity density of the order of 10 per cent. We show that the SFRD uncertainty is dominated by that of the model connecting CO luminosity and star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. For pessimistic estimates of this model uncertainty, we obtain an error of the order of 50 per cent on SFRD for surveys targeting redshifts between two and seven with reasonable noise and foregrounds included. However, comparisons between intensity <span class="hlt">maps</span> and galaxies could substantially reduce this model uncertainty. In this case, our constraints on SFRD at these redshifts improve to roughly 5 - 10 per cent, which is highly competitive with current measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..495..293M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..495..293M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Map</span>-making for Large-<span class="hlt">Format</span> Detector Arrays on CCAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marsden, G.; Jenness, T.; Scott, D.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>CCAT is a large submillimetre telescope to be built near the ALMA site in northern Chile. A large-<span class="hlt">format</span> KID camera, with up to 48,000 detectors at a single waveband sampled at ˜1 kHz, will have a data rate ˜50 times larger than SCUBA-2, the largest existing submillimetre camera. Creating a <span class="hlt">map</span> from this volume of data will be a challenge, both in terms of memory and processing time required. We investigate how to extend SMURF, the iterative <span class="hlt">map</span>-maker used for reducing SCUBA-2 observations, to a distributed-node parallel system, and estimate how the processing time scales with the number of nodes in the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086877','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086877"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Multiple Model Switching Control with the Self-Organizing <span class="hlt">Map</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Motter, Mark A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">predictive</span>, multiple model control strategy is developed by extension of self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span> (SOM) local dynamic modeling of nonlinear autonomous systems to a control framework. Multiple SOMs collectively model the global response of a nonautonomous system to a finite set of representative prototype controls. Each SOM provides a codebook representation of the dynamics corresponding to a prototype control. Different dynamic regimes are organized into topological neighborhoods where the adjacent entries in the codebook represent the global minimization of a similarity metric. The SOM is additionally employed to identify the local dynamical regime, and consequently implements a switching scheme that selects the best available model for the applied control. SOM based linear models are used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the response to a larger family of control sequences which are clustered on the representative prototypes. The control sequence which corresponds to the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> that best satisfies the requirements on the system output is applied as the external driving signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000031721','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000031721"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Age of Comets: <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Physical and Chemical Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Dust grains in Herbig Ae/Be stars are continuously replenished by infalling comets. The IR spectra of these cometary grains appear to evolve temporally from initially amorphous astronomical silicates in young protostars to crystalline olivine in much older sources. Crystalline olivine can only be produced from amorphous silicates on a time scale of months-to-years via thermal annealing at temperatures near 1000 K. Since such sustained high temperatures only occur near the central star, dust annealed at 1000 K in inner nebular regions must be continuously transported beyond the nebular snowline to be incorporated into the next generation of cometesimals. The average <span class="hlt">formation</span> age of a comet can therefore be measured as a ratio of the annealed crystalline olivine dust component to the total dust content of the comet. Comets formed from nearly pristine interstellar materials early in the protostellar nebula stage will contain very little crystalline dust whereas comets formed towards the end of the accretion period will incorporate a much higher percentage of annealed silicate. It is unlikely that only dust grains circulate from the inner to the outer nebula; the gas associated with such dust should also find its way beyond the snowline. Since this gas and dust will have equilibrated in the higher pressure-temperature regime of the inner nebula, it will contain a much higher proportion of hydrocarbons and ammonia than more pristine interstellar ices. Therefore, in addition to a higher fraction of crystalline dust, later forming comets should also contain higher ratios of hydrocarbons to CO and ammonia to N2 than do those formed early in the history of the nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22422048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22422048"><span id="translatedtitle">Gis <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Northern State, Sudan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamed Bashier, E; Salih, I; Khatir Sam, A</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>This study presents the evaluation of absorbed dose in air due to gamma-emitting nuclides from (238)U and (232)Th series, (40)K and (137)Cs and the corresponding geographical information system (GIS) <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> for the Northern State. Activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th , (40)K and (137)Cs in soil samples collected from different locations have been measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. On  average, activity concentrations were 19±4 ((238)U), 47±11 ((232)Th), 317±65 ((40)K) and 2.26 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above ground surface was calculated using seven sets of dose rate conversion factors (DRCFs) and the corresponding annual effective dose was estimated. On average, the values obtained fall within a narrow range of 44 and 53 nGy h(-1), indicating that the variation in absorbed dose rate is insignificant for different DRCFs. The corresponding annual effective dose ranged from 53 to 65 µSv y(-1). Using GIS, <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> for concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were produced. Also, a <span class="hlt">map</span> for absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was produced, which showed a trend of increasing from the west towards south-east of the State. PMID:22422048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..967S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..967S"><span id="translatedtitle">Urban <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Growth <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Pune, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivakumar, V.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This study aims to <span class="hlt">map</span> the urban area in and around Pune region between the year 1991 and 2010, and <span class="hlt">predict</span> its probable future growth using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of 1991, 2001 and 2010 were used for analyzing urban land use class. Urban class was extracted / <span class="hlt">mapped</span> using supervised classification technique with maximum likelihood classifier. The accuracy assessment was carried out for classified <span class="hlt">maps</span>. The achieved overall accuracy and Kappa statistics were 86.33 % & 0.76 respectively. Transition probability matrix and area change were obtained using different classified images. A plug-in was developed in QGIS software (open source) based on Markov Chain model algorithm for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> probable urban growth for the future year 2021. Based on available data set, the result shows that urban area is expected to grow much higher in the year 2021 when compared to 2010. This study provides an insight into understanding of urban growth and aids in subsequent infrastructure planning, management and decision-making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119955"><span id="translatedtitle">SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional <span class="hlt">maps</span> in a radial gel <span class="hlt">format</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Millioni, Renato; Miuzzo, Manuela; Antonioli, Paolo; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Iori, Elisabetta; Dosselli, Ryan; Puricelli, Lucia; Kolbe, Markus; Tessari, Paolo; Righetti, Pier Giorgio</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A novel method for performing 2-D <span class="hlt">map</span> analysis is here reported, consisting in a modification of the second dimension run, which is performed not in a conventional square- or rectangular-size gel, but in a radial surface. This has the advantage of permitting resolution of closely adjacent bands, representing strings of isoforms of similar or identical mass but of closely spaced isoelectric points. When used in a mono-dimensional, SDS-PAGE <span class="hlt">format</span>, this system allows the simultaneous running of 62 sample tracks. Examples are given of separation of plasma and urinary proteins. PMID:20119955</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.200..421C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.200..421C"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">predictive</span> equations and site amplification estimates for the next-generation Swiss Shake<span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cauzzi, Carlo; Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat; Clinton, John; Wiemer, Stefan; Kästli, Philipp; Cua, Georgia; Giardini, Domenico</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a comprehensive scientific and technical update of the Swiss customization of United States Geological Survey Shake<span class="hlt">Map</span>, in use at the Swiss Seismological Service since 2007. The new Swiss Shake<span class="hlt">Maps</span> are based on <span class="hlt">predictive</span> equations for peak ground-motions and response spectra derived from stochastic simulations tailored to Swiss seismicity. Using synthetics allows overcoming the difficulties posed by: (i) the paucity of strong-motion data recordings in Switzerland; (ii) the regional dependence of shear wave energy attenuation and focal depth distribution in the Swiss Alps and foreland; (iii) the depth dependence of stress parameters suggested by macroseismic and instrumental observations. In the new Swiss Shake<span class="hlt">Maps</span>, VS,30 is no longer used as proxy for site amplification at regional scale, and is replaced by macroseismic intensity increments for different soil classes, based on the recently revised earthquake catalogue of Switzerland (ECOS-09). The new implementation converts ground-motion levels into macroseismic intensity by means of ground-motion to intensity conversion equations based on the Italian strong-motion and intensity databanks and is therefore well constrained for intensities larger than VII. The new Swiss Shake<span class="hlt">Maps</span> show a satisfactory agreement with the macroseimic fields of both large historical events and recent well-recorded earthquakes of moderate magnitude. The new implementation is now fully consistent with the state-of-the-art in engineering seismology in Switzerland.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438363','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438363"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographical information system and <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.4237B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.4237B"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring, <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of ionospheric scintillation over the Brazilian equatorial and low latitude regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker-Guedes, Fabio; de Paula, E. R.; de Rezende, L. F. C.; Stephany, S.; Kantor, I. J.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Siqueira, P. M.; Correa, K. S.; Dutra, A. P.; Guedes, C.; Takahashi, H.; Silva, J. D. S.</p> <p></p> <p>It is well known, today, that equatorial ionospheric scintillations affect performance of GPS receivers. Scintillation occurs when a radio wave crosses the ionosphere and suffers distortion in phase and amplitude. It also contributes to loss of lock of GPS receivers, resulting decrease of the number of available satellites and consequently yielding poor satellite geometry. Therefore, the required accuracy and positioning precision for aerial navigation are affected. Among other activities, EMBRACE, the space weather program of INPE, is monitoring and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the ionospheric scintillation over the South American equatorial and low latitude region in real time. This <span class="hlt">mapping</span> is available in the internet by means of computer programs that retrieve data from a network of GPS receivers distributed in Brazil. These data are also being used to survey and <span class="hlt">predict</span> the occurrence of ionospheric scintillation through data mining techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726791','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726791"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Factors and Risk <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Munyua, Peninah M.; Murithi, R. Mbabu; Ithondeka, Peter; Hightower, Allen; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Anyangu, Samuel A.; Kiplimo, Jusper; Bett, Bernard; Vrieling, Anton; Breiman, Robert F.; Njenga, M. Kariuki</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background To-date, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have occurred in 38 of the 69 administrative districts in Kenya. Using surveillance records collected between 1951 and 2007, we determined the risk of exposure and outcome of an RVF outbreak, examined the ecological and climatic factors associated with the outbreaks, and used these data to develop an RVF risk <span class="hlt">map</span> for Kenya. Methods Exposure to RVF was evaluated as the proportion of the total outbreak years that each district was involved in prior epizootics, whereas risk of outcome was assessed as severity of observed disease in humans and animals for each district. A probability-impact weighted score (1 to 9) of the combined exposure and outcome risks was used to classify a district as high (score ≥ 5) or medium (score ≥2 - <5) risk, a classification that was subsequently subjected to expert group analysis for final risk level determination at the division levels (total = 391 divisions). Divisions that never reported RVF disease (score < 2) were classified as low risk. Using data from the 2006/07 RVF outbreak, the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk factors for an RVF outbreak were identified. The <span class="hlt">predictive</span> probabilities from the model were further used to develop an RVF risk <span class="hlt">map</span> for Kenya. Results The final output was a RVF risk <span class="hlt">map</span> that classified 101 of 391 divisions (26%) located in 21 districts as high risk, and 100 of 391 divisions (26%) located in 35 districts as medium risk and 190 divisions (48%) as low risk, including all 97 divisions in Nyanza and Western provinces. The risk of RVF was positively associated with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), low altitude below 1000m and high precipitation in areas with solonertz, luvisols and vertisols soil types (p <0.05). Conclusion RVF risk <span class="hlt">map</span> serves as an important tool for developing and deploying prevention and control measures against the disease. PMID:26808021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21072585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21072585"><span id="translatedtitle">Decision-Tree-based data mining and rule induction for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> soil bacterial diversity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Kangsuk; Yoo, Keunje; Ki, Dongwon; Son, Il Suh; Oh, Kyong Joo; Park, Joonhong</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Soilmicrobial ecology plays a significant role in global ecosystems. Nevertheless, methods of model <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> have yet to be established for soil microbial ecology. The present study was undertaken to develop an artificial-intelligence- and geographical information system (GIS)-integrated framework for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> soil bacterial diversity using pre-existing environmental geospatial database information, and to further evaluate the applicability of soil bacterial diversity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> for planning construction of eco-friendly roads. Using a stratified random sampling, soil bacterial diversity was measured in 196 soil samples in a forest area where construction of an eco-friendly road was planned. Model accuracy, coherence analyses, and tree analysis were systematically performed, and four-class discretized decision tree (DT) with ordinary pair-wise partitioning (OPP) was selected as the optimal model among tested five DT model variants. GIS-based simulations of the optimal DT model with varying weights assigned to soil ecological quality showed that the inclusion of soil ecology in environmental components, which are considered in environmental impact assessment, significantly affects the spatial distributions of overall environmental quality values as well as the determination of an environmentally optimized road route. This work suggests a guideline to use systematic accuracy, coherence, and tree analyses in selecting an optimal DT model from multiple candidate model variants, and demonstrates the applicability of the OPP-improved DT integrated with GIS in rule induction for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> bacterial diversity. These findings also provide implication on the significance of soil microbial ecology in environmental impact assessment and eco-friendly construction planning. PMID:21072585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20413617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20413617"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the information content of RNA structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data for secondary structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quarrier, Scott; Martin, Joshua S; Davis-Neulander, Lauren; Beauregard, Arthur; Laederach, Alain</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> experiments (using probes such as dimethyl sulfate [DMS], kethoxal, and T1 and V1 RNases) are used to determine the secondary structures of RNA molecules. The process is iterative, combining the results of several probes with constrained minimum free-energy calculations to produce a model of the structure. We aim to evaluate whether particular probes provide more structural information, and specifically, how noise in the data affects the <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. Our approach involves generating "decoy" RNA structures (using the sFold Boltzmann sampling procedure) and evaluating whether we are able to identify the correct structure from this ensemble of structures. We show that with perfect information, we are always able to identify the optimal structure for five RNAs of known structure. We then collected orthogonal structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data (DMS and RNase T1 digest) under several solution conditions using our high-throughput capillary automated footprinting analysis (CAFA) technique on two group I introns of known structure. Analysis of these data reveals the error rates in the data under optimal (low salt) and suboptimal solution conditions (high MgCl(2)). We show that despite these errors, our computational approach is less sensitive to experimental noise than traditional constraint-based structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> algorithms. Finally, we propose a novel approach for visualizing the interaction of chemical and enzymatic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data with RNA structure. We project the data onto the first two dimensions of a multidimensional scaling of the sFold-generated decoy structures. We are able to directly visualize the structural information content of structure <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data and reconcile multiple data sets. PMID:20413617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3741112','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3741112"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span>, Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Spatial <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Lymphatic Filariasis Prevalence in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing interest to control or eradicate the major neglected tropical diseases. Accurate modelling of the geographic distributions of parasitic infections will be crucial to this endeavour. We used 664 community level infection prevalence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with eight environmental variables, altitude and population density, and a multivariate Bayesian generalized linear spatial model that allows explicit accounting for spatial autocorrelation and incorporation of uncertainty in input data and model parameters, to construct the first spatially-explicit <span class="hlt">map</span> describing LF prevalence distribution in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against <span class="hlt">predictions</span> made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA climate models for 2050 to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the likely distributions of LF under future climate and population changes. We show that LF prevalence is strongly influenced by spatial autocorrelation between locations but is only weakly associated with environmental covariates. Infection prevalence, however, is found to be related to variations in population density. All associations with key environmental/demographic variables appear to be complex and non-linear. LF prevalence is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to be highly heterogenous across Africa, with high prevalences (>20%) estimated to occur primarily along coastal West and East Africa, and lowest prevalences <span class="hlt">predicted</span> for the central part of the continent. Error <span class="hlt">maps</span>, however, indicate a need for further surveys to overcome problems with data scarcity in the latter and other regions. Analysis of future changes in prevalence indicates that population growth rather than climate change per se will represent the dominant factor in the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> increase/decrease and spread of LF on the continent. We indicate that these results could play an important role in aiding the development of strategies that are best able to achieve the goals of parasite elimination locally and globally in a manner that may also account</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2106N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2106N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of soil properties at high resolution by component wise gradient boosting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nussbaum, Madlene; Papritz, Andreas; Fraefel, Marielle; Baltensweiler, Andri; Keller, Armin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Accurate spatial information on soils is crucial for sustainable usage of the resource soil. Spatial planning, agriculture, forestry or natural hazards management need high resolution <span class="hlt">maps</span> of potentials of soils for particular functions (e. g. water storage, nutrient supply). Soil functions are derived from basic soil properties like soil organic carbon or soil texture. For many regions precise <span class="hlt">maps</span> of basic soil properties are missing. Hence, as a prerequisite for digital soil function <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, <span class="hlt">maps</span> of soil properties must be created with the desired resolution. A wide range of statistical approaches (linear and additive models, external drift kriging, Random Forest) were used for this in the past. When numerous environmental covariates (e. g. hyper-spectral remote sensing data) are available the selection of the model with best <span class="hlt">predictive</span> power is challenging. Besides the issue of covariate selection, one should allow for non-linear effects of covariates on soil properties. To handle these difficulties we used a gradient boosting approach that included besides categorical covariates linear and smooth non-linear terms of continuous covariates as base learners. Residual auto-correlation and non-stationary relationships were modeled by smooth spatial surfaces. Gradient boosting of this flavor selects relevant covariates in a slow learning procedure and inherently models non-linear dependencies on covariates during the fitting process. The restriction to linear and smoothing spline base learners retains the interpretability of the fitted <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models. The number of boosting iterations is the main tuning parameter and was determined by tenfold cross validation. To explore the feasibility of the gradient boosting approach we <span class="hlt">mapped</span> pH of forest topsoils in Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, at high (50 m) spatial resolution. Legacy pH measurements were available from 1200 sites in the in the forests of Canton of Zurich. Gradient boosting selected a sparse model with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nevada+AND+geology&id=EJ195296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nevada+AND+geology&id=EJ195296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The area of geological <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological <span class="hlt">maps</span> were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PApGe.tmp...25W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PApGe.tmp...25W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geospatial <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modelling for Climate <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Selected Severe Weather Phenomena Over Poland: A Methodological Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walawender, Ewelina; Walawender, Jakub P.; Ustrnul, Zbigniew</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the study is to introduce methods for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the spatial distribution of the occurrence of selected atmospheric phenomena (thunderstorms, fog, glaze and rime) over Poland from 1966 to 2010 (45 years). Limited in situ observations as well the discontinuous and location-dependent nature of these phenomena make traditional interpolation inappropriate. Spatially continuous <span class="hlt">maps</span> were created with the use of geospatial <span class="hlt">predictive</span> modelling techniques. For each given phenomenon, an algorithm identifying its favourable meteorological and environmental conditions was created on the basis of observations recorded at 61 weather stations in Poland. Annual frequency <span class="hlt">maps</span> presenting the probability of a day with a thunderstorm, fog, glaze or rime were created with the use of a modelled, gridded dataset by implementing predefined algorithms. Relevant explanatory variables were derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and downscaled with the use of a Regional Climate Model. The resulting <span class="hlt">maps</span> of favourable meteorological conditions were found to be valuable and representative on the country scale but at different correlation (r) strength against in situ data (from r = 0.84 for thunderstorms to r = 0.15 for fog). A weak correlation between gridded estimates of fog occurrence and observations data indicated the very local nature of this phenomenon. For this reason, additional environmental predictors of fog occurrence were also examined. Topographic parameters derived from the SRTM elevation model and reclassified CORINE Land Cover data were used as the external, explanatory variables for the multiple linear regression kriging used to obtain the final <span class="hlt">map</span>. The regression model explained 89 % of annual frequency of fog variability in the study area. Regression residuals were interpolated via simple kriging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9697E..28U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9697E..28U"><span id="translatedtitle">Depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture <span class="hlt">mapping</span> for early <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of cancer progression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; LaFace, Justin; Hartman, Douglas J.; Liu, Yang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Effective management of patients who are at risk of developing invasive cancer is a primary challenge in early cancer detection. Techniques that can help establish clear-cut protocols for successful triaging of at-risk patients have the potential of providing critical help in improving patient care while simultaneously reducing patient cost. We have developed such a technique for early <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of cancer progression that uses unstained tissue sections to provide depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (nanoNAM) of heterogeneity in optical density alterations manifested in precancerous lesions during cancer progression. We present nanoNAM and its application to <span class="hlt">predicting</span> cancer progression in a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis: ApcMin/+ mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/968429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/968429"><span id="translatedtitle">Remotely <span class="hlt">mapping</span> river water quality using multivariate regression with <span class="hlt">prediction</span> validation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stork, Christopher Lyle; Autry, Bradley C.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to <span class="hlt">predict</span> river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were <span class="hlt">predicted</span> in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality <span class="hlt">maps</span>. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.456.4533M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.456.4533M"><span id="translatedtitle">KROSS: <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the Hα emission across the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> sequence at z ≈ 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magdis, Georgios E.; Bureau, Martin; Stott, J. P.; Tiley, A.; Swinbank, A. M.; Bower, R.; Bunker, A. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Johnson, Helen; Sharples, Ray</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present first results from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Redshift One Spectroscopic Survey, an ongoing large kinematical survey of a thousand, z ˜ 1 star-forming galaxies, with VLT KMOS. Out of the targeted galaxies (˜500 so far), we detect and spatially resolve Hα emission in ˜90 and 77 per cent of the sample, respectively. Based on the integrated Hα flux measurements and the spatially resolved <span class="hlt">maps</span>, we derive a median star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate (SFR) of ˜7.0 M⊙ yr-1 and a median physical size of <r^' }_1/2> = 5.1 kpc. We combine the inferred SFRs and effective radii measurements to derive the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> surface densities (ΣSFR) and present a `resolved' version of the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> main sequence (MS) that appears to hold at subgalactic scales, with similar slope and scatter as the one inferred from galaxy-integrated properties. Our data also yield a trend between ΣSFR and Δ(sSFR) (distance from the MS) suggesting that galaxies with higher sSFR are characterized by denser star <span class="hlt">formation</span> activity. Similarly, we find evidence for an anticorrelation between the gas phase metallicity (Z) and the Δ(sSFR), suggesting a 0.2 dex variation in the metal content of galaxies within the MS and significantly lower metallicities for galaxies above it. The origin of the observed trends between ΣSFR-Δ(sSFR) and Z-Δ(sSFR) could be driven by an interplay between variations of the gas fraction or the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> efficiency of the galaxies along and off the MS. To address this, follow-up observations of our sample that will allow gas mass estimates are necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.B23B1078M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.B23B1078M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modeling and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Fish Distributions in Small Streams of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCleary, R. J.; Hassan, M. A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>An automated procedure was developed to model spatial fish distributions within small streams in the Foothills of Alberta. Native fish populations and their habitats are susceptible to impacts arising from both industrial forestry and rapid development of petroleum resources in the region. Knowledge of fish distributions and the effects of industrial activities on their habitats is required to help conserve native fish populations. Resource selection function (RSF) models were used to explain presence/absence of fish in small streams. Target species were bull trout, rainbow trout and non-native brook trout. Using GIS, the drainage network was divided into reaches with uniform slope and drainage area and then polygons for each reach were created. Predictor variables described stream size, stream energy, climate and land-use. We identified a set of candidate models and selected the best model using a standard Akaike Information Criteria approach. The best models were validated with two external data sets. Drainage area and basin slope parameters were included in all best models. This finding emphasizes the importance of controlling for the energy dimension at the basin scale in investigations into the effects of land-use on aquatic resources in this transitional landscape between the mountains and plains. The best model for bull trout indicated a relation between the presence of artificial migration barriers in downstream areas and the extirpation of the species from headwater reaches. We produced reach-scale <span class="hlt">maps</span> by species and summarized this information within all small catchments across the 12,000 km2 study area. These <span class="hlt">maps</span> had included three categories based on <span class="hlt">predicted</span> probability of capture for individual reaches. The high probability category had a 78 percent accuracy for correctly <span class="hlt">predicting</span> both fish present and fish not-present reaches. Basin scale <span class="hlt">maps</span> highlight specific watersheds likely to support both native bull trout and invasive brook trout, while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677525"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span>-for-CompAction: navigation in social environments using generalized cognitive <span class="hlt">maps</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A; Calvo, Carlos; Makarov, Valeri A</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The ultimate navigation efficiency of mobile robots in human environments will depend on how we will appraise them: merely as impersonal machines or as human-like agents. In the latter case, an agent may take advantage of the cooperative collision avoidance, given that it possesses recursive cognition, i.e., the agent's decisions depend on the decisions made by humans that in turn depend on the agent's decisions. To deal with this high-level cognitive skill, we propose a neural network architecture implementing <span class="hlt">Prediction</span>-for-CompAction paradigm. The network <span class="hlt">predicts</span> possible human-agent collisions and compacts the time dimension by projecting a given dynamic situation into a static <span class="hlt">map</span>. Thereby emerging compact cognitive <span class="hlt">map</span> can be readily used as a "dynamic GPS" for planning actions or mental evaluation of the convenience of cooperation in a given context. We provide numerical evidence that cooperation yields additional room for more efficient navigation in cluttered pedestrian flows, and the agent can choose path to the target significantly shorter than a robot treated by humans as a functional machine. Moreover, the navigation safety, i.e., the chances to avoid accidental collisions, increases under cooperation. Remarkably, these benefits yield no additional load to the mean society effort. Thus, the proposed strategy is socially compliant, and the humanoid agent can behave as "one of us." PMID:25677525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9196E..0DD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9196E..0DD"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Profiler Suite: using mission performance data to refine <span class="hlt">predictive</span> contamination modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Devaud, Genevieve; Jaross, Glen</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>On October 28, 2011, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite launched at Vandenberg Air Force base aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket. Included among the five instruments was the Ozone <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Profiler Suite (OMPS), an advanced suite of three hyperspectral instruments built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Molecular transport modeling is used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> optical throughput changes due to contaminant accumulation to ensure performance margin to End Of Life. The OMPS Nadir Profiler, operating at the lowest wavelengths of 250 - 310 nm, is most sensitive to contaminant accumulation. Geometry, thermal profile and material properties must be accurately modeled in order to have confidence in the results, yet it is well known that the complex chemistry and process dependent variability of aerospace materials presents a substantial challenge to the modeler. Assumptions about the absorption coefficients, desorption and diffusion kinetics of outgassing species from polymeric materials dramatically affect the model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, yet it is rare indeed that on-mission data is analyzed at a later date as a means to compare with modeling results. Optical throughput measurements for the Ozone and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Profiler Suite on the Suomi NPP Satellite indicate that optical throughput degradation between day 145 and day 858 is less than 0.5%. We will show how assumptions about outgassing rates and desorption energies, in particular, dramatically affect the modeled optical throughput and what assumptions represent the on-orbit data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSemi..36l4006Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSemi..36l4006Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of four-contact vertical Hall-devices using a conformal <span class="hlt">mapping</span> technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Huang; Yue, Xu; Yufeng, Guo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Instead of the conventional design with five contacts in the sensor active area, innovative vertical Hall devices (VHDs) with four contacts and six contacts are asymmetrical in structural design but symmetrical in the current flow that can be well fit for the spinning current technique for offset elimination. In this article, a conformal <span class="hlt">mapping</span> calculation method is used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the performance of asymmetrical VHD embedded in a deep n-well with four contacts. Furthermore, to make the calculation more accurate, the junction field effect is also involved into the conformal <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method. The error between calculated and simulated results is less than 5% for the current-related sensitivity, and approximately 13% for the voltage-related sensitivity. This proves that such calculations can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the optimal structure of the vertical Hall-devices. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Nos. BK20131379, BK20141431) and the Graduate Research and Innovation Projects of Jiangsu Province (No. SJLX_0373).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1538830','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1538830"><span id="translatedtitle">AlgPred: <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of allergenic proteins and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of IgE epitopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saha, Sudipto; Raghava, G. P. S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this study a systematic attempt has been made to integrate various approaches in order to <span class="hlt">predict</span> allergenic proteins with high accuracy. The dataset used for testing and training consists of 578 allergens and 700 non-allergens obtained from A. K. Bjorklund, D. Soeria-Atmadja, A. Zorzet, U. Hammerling and M. G. Gustafsson (2005) Bioinformatics, 21, 39–50. First, we developed methods based on support vector machine using amino acid and dipeptide composition and achieved an accuracy of 85.02 and 84.00%, respectively. Second, a motif-based method has been developed using MEME/MAST software that achieved sensitivity of 93.94 with 33.34% specificity. Third, a database of known IgE epitopes was searched and this <span class="hlt">predicted</span> allergenic proteins with 17.47% sensitivity at specificity of 98.14%. Fourth, we <span class="hlt">predicted</span> allergenic proteins by performing BLAST search against allergen representative peptides. Finally hybrid approaches have been developed, which combine two or more than two approaches. The performance of all these algorithms has been evaluated on an independent dataset of 323 allergens and on 101 725 non-allergens obtained from Swiss-Prot. A web server AlgPred has been developed for the <span class="hlt">predicting</span> allergenic proteins and for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> IgE epitopes on allergenic proteins (). AlgPred is available at . PMID:16844994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9394E..0JG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9394E..0JG"><span id="translatedtitle">Feature <span class="hlt">maps</span> driven no-reference image quality <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of authentically distorted images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Bovik, Alan C.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Current blind image quality <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models rely on benchmark databases comprised of singly and synthetically distorted images, thereby learning image features that are only adequate to <span class="hlt">predict</span> human perceived visual quality on such inauthentic distortions. However, real world images often contain complex mixtures of multiple distortions. Rather than a) discounting the effect of these mixtures of distortions on an image's perceptual quality and considering only the dominant distortion or b) using features that are only proven to be efficient for singly distorted images, we deeply study the natural scene statistics of authentically distorted images, in different color spaces and transform domains. We propose a feature-<span class="hlt">maps</span>-driven statistical approach which avoids any latent assumptions about the type of distortion(s) contained in an image, and focuses instead on modeling the remarkable consistencies in the scene statistics of real world images in the absence of distortions. We design a deep belief network that takes model-based statistical image features derived from a very large database of authentically distorted images as input and discovers good feature representations by generalizing over different distortion types, mixtures, and severities, which are later used to learn a regressor for quality <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. We demonstrate the remarkable competence of our features for improving automatic perceptual quality <span class="hlt">prediction</span> on a benchmark database and on the newly designed LIVE Authentic Image Quality Challenge Database and show that our approach of combining robust statistical features and the deep belief network dramatically outperforms the state-of-the-art.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1725b0059P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1725b0059P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of 3D chip <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the facing cutting with lathe machine using FEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prasetyo, Yudhi; Tauviqirrahman, Mohamad; Rusnaldy</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper presents the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the chip <span class="hlt">formation</span> at the machining process using a lathe machine in a more specific way focusing on facing cutting (face turning). The main purpose is to propose a new approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the chip <span class="hlt">formation</span> with the variation of the cutting directions i.e., the backward and forward direction. In addition, the interaction between stress analysis and chip <span class="hlt">formation</span> on cutting process was also investigated. The simulations were conducted using three dimensional (3D) finite element method based on ABAQUS software with aluminum and high speed steel (HSS) as the workpiece and the tool materials, respectively. The simulation result showed that the chip resulted using a backward direction depicts a better <span class="hlt">formation</span> than that using a conventional (forward) direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138743','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138743"><span id="translatedtitle">LRR Conservation <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Functional Sites within Protein Leucine-Rich Repeat Domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Helft, Laura; Reddy, Vignyan; Chen, Xiyang; Koller, Teresa; Federici, Luca; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Gupta, Rishabh; Bent, Andrew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Computational <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of protein functional sites can be a critical first step for analysis of large or complex proteins. Contemporary methods often require several homologous sequences and/or a known protein structure, but these resources are not available for many proteins. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are ligand interaction domains found in numerous proteins across all taxonomic kingdoms, including immune system receptors in plants and animals. We devised Repeat Conservation <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> (RCM), a computational method that <span class="hlt">predicts</span> functional sites of LRR domains. RCM utilizes two or more homologous sequences and a generic representation of the LRR structure to identify conserved or diversified patches of amino acids on the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> surface of the LRR. RCM was validated using solved LRR+ligand structures from multiple taxa, identifying ligand interaction sites. RCM was then used for de novo dissection of two plant microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptors, EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) and FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2). In vivo testing of Arabidopsis thaliana EFR and FLS2 receptors mutagenized at sites identified by RCM demonstrated previously unknown functional sites. The RCM <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for EFR, FLS2 and a third plant LRR protein, PGIP, compared favorably to <span class="hlt">predictions</span> from ODA (optimal docking area), Consurf, and PAML (positive selection) analyses, but RCM also made valid functional site <span class="hlt">predictions</span> not available from these other bioinformatic approaches. RCM analyses can be conducted with any LRR-containing proteins at www.plantpath.wisc.edu/RCM, and the approach should be modifiable for use with other types of repeat protein domains. PMID:21789174</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA..tmp..240M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA..tmp..240M"><span id="translatedtitle">A Thermodynamic Approach to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47.3761M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47.3761M"><span id="translatedtitle">A Thermodynamic Approach to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4482144','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4482144"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current <span class="hlt">Predictions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Shepherd, Keith D.; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two <span class="hlt">predictive</span> approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally <span class="hlt">predicted</span> soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110833"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current <span class="hlt">Predictions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two <span class="hlt">predictive</span> approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally <span class="hlt">predicted</span> soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875019"><span id="translatedtitle">A stochastic simulation framework for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and occupational noise exposure using the random walk approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Lim Ming; Haron, Zaiton; Yahya, Khairulzan; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could <span class="hlt">predict</span> strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398358','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398358"><span id="translatedtitle">A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Strategic Noise <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Occupational Noise Exposure Using the Random Walk Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haron, Zaiton; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could <span class="hlt">predict</span> strategic noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1052063','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1052063"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> areas of giant molybdenum blue clusters: a spectroscopic study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Botar, Bogdan; Ellern, Arkady; Kogerler, Paul</p> <p>2012-05-18</p> <p>The self-assembly of soluble molybdenum blue species from simple molybdate solutions has primarily been associated with giant mixed-valent wheel-shaped cluster anions, derived from the {MoV/VI154/176} archetypes, and a {MoV/VI368} lemon-shaped cluster. The combined use of Raman spectroscopy and kinetic precipitation as self-assembly monitoring techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction is key to <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the realm of molybdenum blue species by establishing spherical {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates as an important giant molybdenum blue-type species. We additionally rationalize the empirical effect of reducing agent concentration on the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of all three relevant skeletal types: wheel, lemon and spheres. Whereas both wheels and the lemon-shaped {MoV/VI368} cluster are obtained from weakly reduced molybdenum blue solutions, considerably higher reduced solutions lead to {MoV/VI102}-type Keplerates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22717474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22717474"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> areas of giant molybdenum blue clusters: a spectroscopic study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Botar, Bogdan; Ellern, Arkady; Kögerler, Paul</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The self-assembly of soluble molybdenum blue species from simple molybdate solutions has primarily been associated with giant mixed-valent wheel-shaped cluster anions, derived from the {Mo(V/VI)(154/176)} archetypes, and a {Mo(V/VI)(368)} lemon-shaped cluster. The combined use of Raman spectroscopy and kinetic precipitation as self-assembly monitoring techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffraction is key to <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the realm of molybdenum blue species by establishing spherical {Mo(V/VI)(102)}-type Keplerates as an important giant molybdenum blue-type species. We additionally rationalize the empirical effect of reducing agent concentration on the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of all three relevant skeletal types: wheel, lemon and spheres. Whereas both wheels and the lemon-shaped {Mo(V/VI)(368)} cluster are obtained from weakly reduced molybdenum blue solutions, considerably higher reduced solutions lead to {Mo(V/VI)(102)}-type Keplerates. PMID:22717474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhRvL.111g3002F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhRvL.111g3002F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of Hollow Atom <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Intense X-Ray Pulses Probed by Partial Covariance <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frasinski, L. J.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Mucke, M.; Squibb, R. J.; Siano, M.; Eland, J. H. D.; Linusson, P.; v. d. Meulen, P.; Salén, P.; Thomas, R. D.; Larsson, M.; Foucar, L.; Ullrich, J.; Motomura, K.; Mondal, S.; Ueda, K.; Osipov, T.; Fang, L.; Murphy, B. F.; Berrah, N.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Schorb, S.; Messerschmidt, M.; Glownia, J. M.; Cryan, J. P.; Coffee, R. N.; Takahashi, O.; Wada, S.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.; Feifel, R.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>When exposed to ultraintense x-radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) the innermost electronic shell can efficiently be emptied, creating a transient hollow atom or molecule. Understanding the femtosecond dynamics of such systems is fundamental to achieving atomic resolution in flash diffraction imaging of noncrystallized complex biological samples. We demonstrate the capacity of a correlation method called “partial covariance mapping” to probe the electron dynamics of neon atoms exposed to intense 8 fs pulses of 1062 eV photons. A complete picture of ionization processes competing in hollow atom <span class="hlt">formation</span> and decay is visualized with unprecedented ease and the <span class="hlt">map</span> reveals hitherto unobserved nonlinear sequences of photoionization and Auger events. The technique is particularly well suited to the high counting rate inherent in FEL experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4519547','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4519547"><span id="translatedtitle">Decoding the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of New Semantics: MVPA Investigation of Rapid Neocortical Plasticity during Associative Encoding through Fast <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Atir-Sharon, Tali; Gilboa, Asaf; Hazan, Hananel; Koilis, Ester; Manevitz, Larry M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Neocortical structures typically only support slow acquisition of declarative memory; however, learning through fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> may facilitate rapid learning-induced cortical plasticity and hippocampal-independent integration of novel associations into existing semantic networks. During fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the meaning of new words and concepts is inferred, and durable novel associations are incidentally formed, a process thought to support early childhood's exuberant learning. The anterior temporal lobe, a cortical semantic memory hub, may critically support such learning. We investigated encoding of semantic associations through fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis. Subsequent memory performance following fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> was more efficiently <span class="hlt">predicted</span> using anterior temporal lobe than hippocampal voxels, while standard explicit encoding was best <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by hippocampal activity. Searchlight algorithms revealed additional activity patterns that <span class="hlt">predicted</span> successful fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> semantic learning located in lateral occipitotemporal and parietotemporal neocortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. By contrast, successful explicit encoding could be classified by activity in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal and parahippocampal cortices. We propose that fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> promotes incidental rapid integration of new associations into existing neocortical semantic networks by activating related, nonoverlapping conceptual knowledge. In healthy adults, this is better captured by unique anterior and lateral temporal lobe activity patterns, while hippocampal involvement is less <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of this kind of learning. PMID:26257961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3122974','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3122974"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Saskatchewan horses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Epp, Tasha Y.; Waldner, Cheryl; Berke, Olaf</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to develop a model using equine data from geographically limited surveillance locations to <span class="hlt">predict</span> risk categories for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in horses in all geographic locations across the province of Saskatchewan. The province was divided geographically into low-, medium-, or high-risk categories for WNV, based on available serology information from 923 horses obtained through 4 studies of WNV infection in horse populations in Saskatchewan. Discriminant analysis was used to build models using the observed risk of WNV in horses and geographic division-specific environmental data as well as to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the risk category for all areas, including those beyond the surveillance zones. High-risk areas were indicated by relatively lower rainfall, higher temperatures, and a lower percentage of area covered in trees, water, and wetland. These conditions were most often identified in the southwest corner of the province. Environmental conditions can be used to identify those areas that are at highest risk for WNV. Public health managers could use <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span>, which are based on animal or human information and developed from annual early season meteorological information, to guide ongoing decisions about when and where to focus intervention strategies for WNV. PMID:22210991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1143694','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1143694"><span id="translatedtitle">A universally applicable method of operon <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> on minimally annotated genomes using conserved genomic context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Edwards, Martin T.; Rison, Stuart C. G.; Stoker, Neil G.; Wernisch, Lorenz</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>An important step in understanding the regulation of a prokaryotic genome is the generation of its transcription unit <span class="hlt">map</span>. The current strongest operon predictor depends on the distributions of intergenic distances (IGD) separating adjacent genes within and between operons. Unfortunately, experimental data on these distance distributions are limited to Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We suggest a new graph algorithmic approach based on comparative genomics to identify clusters of conserved genes independent of IGD and conservation of gene order. As a consequence, distance distributions of operon pairs for any arbitrary prokaryotic genome can be inferred. For E.coli, the algorithm <span class="hlt">predicts</span> 854 conserved adjacent pairs with a precision of 85%. The IGD distribution for these pairs is virtually identical to the E.coli operon pair distribution. Statistical analysis of the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> pair IGD distribution allows estimation of a genome-specific operon IGD cut-off, obviating the requirement for a training set in IGD-based operon <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. We apply the method to a representative set of eight genomes, and show that these genome-specific IGD distributions differ considerably from each other and from the distribution in E.coli. PMID:15942028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24372936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24372936"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> potential Whooping Crane stopover habitat to guide site selection for wind energy projects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belaire, J Amy; Kreakie, Betty J; Keitt, Timothy; Minor, Emily</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Migratory stopover habitats are often not part of planning for conservation or new development projects. We identified potential stopover habitats within an avian migratory flyway and demonstrated how this information can guide the site-selection process for new development. We used the random forests modeling approach to <span class="hlt">map</span> the distribution of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> stopover habitat for the Whooping Crane (Grus americana), an endangered species whose migratory flyway overlaps with an area where wind energy development is expected to become increasingly important. We then used this information to identify areas for potential wind power development in a U.S. state within the flyway (Nebraska) that minimize conflicts between Whooping Crane stopover habitat and the development of clean, renewable energy sources. Up to 54% of our study area was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to be unsuitable as Whooping Crane stopover habitat and could be considered relatively low risk for conflicts between Whooping Cranes and wind energy development. We suggest that this type of analysis be incorporated into the habitat conservation planning process in areas where incidental take permits are being considered for Whooping Cranes or other species of concern. Field surveys should always be conducted prior to construction to verify model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and understand baseline conditions. PMID:24372936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3952952','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3952952"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of accuracy and efficiency for RNA secondary structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> by sequence segmentation and <span class="hlt">Map</span>Reduce</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play important roles in many biological processes including gene expression and regulation. Their secondary structures are crucial for the RNA functionality, and the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the secondary structures is widely studied. Our previous research shows that cutting long sequences into shorter chunks, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> secondary structures of the chunks independently using thermodynamic methods, and reconstructing the entire secondary structure from the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> chunk structures can yield better accuracy than <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the secondary structure using the RNA sequence as a whole. The chunking, <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, and reconstruction processes can use different methods and parameters, some of which produce more accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> than others. In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy and efficiency of three different chunking methods using seven popular secondary structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> programs that apply to two datasets of RNA with known secondary structures, which include both pseudoknotted and non-pseudoknotted sequences, as well as a family of viral genome RNAs whose structures have not been <span class="hlt">predicted</span> before. Our modularized <span class="hlt">Map</span>Reduce framework based on Hadoop allows us to study the problem in a parallel and robust environment. Results On average, the maximum accuracy retention values are larger than one for our chunking methods and the seven <span class="hlt">prediction</span> programs over 50 non-pseudoknotted sequences, meaning that the secondary structure <span class="hlt">predicted</span> using chunking is more similar to the real structure than the secondary structure <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by using the whole sequence. We observe similar results for the 23 pseudoknotted sequences, except for the NUPACK program using the centered chunking method. The performance analysis for 14 long RNA sequences from the Nodaviridae virus family outlines how the coarse-grained <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of chunking and <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in the <span class="hlt">Map</span>Reduce framework exhibits shorter turnaround times for short RNA sequences. However</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4288957','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4288957"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Ambulance Time of Arrival to the Emergency Department Using Global Positioning System and Google <span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fleischman, Ross J.; Lundquist, Mark; Jui, Jonathan; Newgard, Craig D.; Warden, Craig</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective To derive and validate a model that accurately <span class="hlt">predicts</span> ambulance arrival time that could be implemented as a Google <span class="hlt">Maps</span> web application. Methods This was a retrospective study of all scene transports in Multnomah County, Oregon, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Scene and destination hospital addresses were converted to coordinates. ArcGIS Network Analyst was used to estimate transport times based on street network speed limits. We then created a linear regression model to improve the accuracy of these street network estimates using weather, patient characteristics, use of lights and sirens, daylight, and rush-hour intervals. The model was derived from a 50% sample and validated on the remainder. Significance of the covariates was determined by p < 0.05 for a t-test of the model coefficients. Accuracy was quantified by the proportion of estimates that were within 5 minutes of the actual transport times recorded by computer-aided dispatch. We then built a Google <span class="hlt">Maps</span>-based web application to demonstrate application in real-world EMS operations. Results There were 48,308 included transports. Street network estimates of transport time were accurate within 5 minutes of actual transport time less than 16% of the time. Actual transport times were longer during daylight and rush-hour intervals and shorter with use of lights and sirens. Age under 18 years, gender, wet weather, and trauma system entry were not significant predictors of transport time. Our model <span class="hlt">predicted</span> arrival time within 5 minutes 73% of the time. For lights and sirens transports, accuracy was within 5 minutes 77% of the time. Accuracy was identical in the validation dataset. Lights and sirens saved an average of 3.1 minutes for transports under 8.8 minutes, and 5.3 minutes for longer transports. Conclusions An estimate of transport time based only on a street network significantly underestimated transport times. A simple model incorporating few variables can <span class="hlt">predict</span> ambulance time of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPRS..108...80A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPRS..108...80A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody <span class="hlt">formations</span> in southeastern Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody <span class="hlt">formations</span>, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native <span class="hlt">formations</span>. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=indecision&pg=7&id=EJ590828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=indecision&pg=7&id=EJ590828"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Career Indecision in College Students: The Roles of Identity <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and Parental Relationship Factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Guerra, Antonia L.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Investigates students' identity <span class="hlt">formation</span> and perceptions of parental acceptance and encouragement of independence as predictors of career indecision. Four measurements were administered to 169 undergraduate students for the study. Results show career indecision was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by higher identity moratorium, less maternal acceptance, and fewer years…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395710','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395710"><span id="translatedtitle">A Neural Field Model of the Somatosensory Cortex: <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Maintenance and Reorganization of Ordered Topographic <span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Detorakis, Georgios Is.; Rougier, Nicolas P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">formation</span> and maintenance of ordered topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> in the primary somatosensory cortex as well as the reorganization of representations after sensory deprivation or cortical lesion. We consider both the critical period (postnatal) where representations are shaped and the post-critical period where representations are maintained and possibly reorganized. We hypothesize that feed-forward thalamocortical connections are an adequate site of plasticity while cortico-cortical connections are believed to drive a competitive mechanism that is critical for learning. We model a small skin patch located on the distal phalangeal surface of a digit as a set of 256 Merkel ending complexes (MEC) that feed a computational model of the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b). This model is a two-dimensional neural field where spatially localized solutions (a.k.a. bumps) drive cortical plasticity through a Hebbian-like learning rule. Simulations explain the initial <span class="hlt">formation</span> of ordered representations following repetitive and random stimulations of the skin patch. Skin lesions as well as cortical lesions are also studied and results confirm the possibility to reorganize representations using the same learning rule and depending on the type of the lesion. For severe lesions, the model suggests that cortico-cortical connections may play an important role in complete recovery. PMID:22808127</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310012','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAPPING</span> CHILDREN’S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children’s geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively “always already” positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or “rational” speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children’s political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children’s politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau’s notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children’s representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and <span class="hlt">formation</span>, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10–13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, <span class="hlt">mapped</span>, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their <span class="hlt">formation</span> as political actors. PMID:25642017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16300883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16300883"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> and related parameters of high energy materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Talawar, M B; Anniyappan, M; Venugopalan, S</p> <p>2006-05-20</p> <p>Heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> is one of the most important parameters in the performance <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of explosive and propellant formulations and their individual ingredients. This paper reports the development of user-friendly computer code for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> based on two approaches. In first methodology, the logic of Benson's Group additivity method and in the second method, the logic of Pedley method was used for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of high energy materials (HEMs). The <span class="hlt">predicted</span> heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> by Benson method for various classes of high energy materials gave deviation in the range of 2-10%, whereas nearly 10-15% deviation was observed using Pedley methodology in comparison to experimental values. The linear regression coefficient values (R(2)) of 0.9947 and 0.9637 are obtained for heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> values <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by this code using methodologies I and II, respectively. The newly developed code LOTUSES (version 1.3) has been validated by calculating the heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of standard explosives such as TNT, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), RDX, HMX, etc., To the best of our knowledge, no such code is reported in literature which can <span class="hlt">predict</span> heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> values integrated with performance parameters of HEMs belonging to all categories of organic compounds viz. aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic materials. The code can also be used to obtain parameters such as velocity of detonation, C-J pressure, volume of explosion products, power index, temperature of explosion and oxygen balance of HEMs. The code has been developed in Visual Basic having enhanced Windows environment. This software namely LOTUSES 1.3 is an updated version of the earlier ones namely LOTUSES 1.1 and 1.2 which do not cater for the calculation of heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> and temperature of explosion of HEMs. LOTUSES 1.3 is, therefore, a totally integrated software for computing most of the vital parameters of HEMs requiring mainly the molecular structural</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6894709','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6894709"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of dose and field <span class="hlt">mapping</span> around a shielded plutonium fuel fabrication glovebox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Strode, J.N.; Soldat, K.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.</p> <p>1984-04-25</p> <p>Westinghouse Hanford Company, as the Department of Energy's (DOE) prime contractor for the operation of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), is responsible for the development of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Line which is to be installed in the recently constructed Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The SAF Line will fabricate mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at an annual throughput rate of six (6) metric tons (MT) of MOX. The SAF Line will also demonstrate the automated manufacture of fuel pins on a production-scale. This paper describes some of the techniques used to reduce personnel exposure on the SAF Line, as well as the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and field <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of doses from a shielded fuel fabrication glovebox. Tables are also presented from which exposure rate estimates can be made for plutonium recovered from fuels having different isotopic compositions as a result of varied burnup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3154328','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3154328"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Human Risk for West Nile Virus (WNV) Based on Environmental and Socioeconomic Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rochlin, Ilia; Turbow, David; Gomez, Frank; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Campbell, Scott R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A West Nile virus (WNV) human risk <span class="hlt">map</span> was developed for Suffolk County, New York utilizing a case-control approach to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic variables derived from publically available datasets. Results of logistic regression modeling for the time period between 2000 and 2004 revealed that higher proportion of population with college education, increased habitat fragmentation, and proximity to WNV positive mosquito pools were strongly associated with WNV human risk. Similar to previous investigations from north-central US, this study identified middle class suburban neighborhoods as the areas with the highest WNV human risk. These results contrast with similar studies from the southern and western US, where the highest WNV risk was associated with low income areas. This discrepancy may be due to regional differences in vector ecology, urban environment, or human behavior. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analytical tools were used to integrate the risk factors in the 2000–2004 logistic regression model generating WNV human risk <span class="hlt">map</span>. In 2005–2010, 41 out of 46 (89%) of WNV human cases occurred either inside of (30 cases) or in close proximity (11 cases) to the WNV high risk areas <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the 2000–2004 model. The novel approach employed by this study may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases. PMID:21853103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3480464','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3480464"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modeling and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) Distribution Using Maximum Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nazeri, Mona; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Madani, Nima; Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Bahman, Abdul Rani; Kumar, Lalit</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One of the available tools for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the geographical distribution and potential suitable habitats is species distribution models. These techniques are very helpful for finding poorly known distributions of species in poorly sampled areas, such as the tropics. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is a recently developed modeling method that can be successfully calibrated using a relatively small number of records. In this research, the MaxEnt model was applied to describe the distribution and identify the key factors shaping the potential distribution of the vulnerable Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) in one of the main remaining habitats in Peninsular Malaysia. MaxEnt results showed that even though Malaysian sun bear habitat is tied with tropical evergreen forests, it lives in a marginal threshold of bio-climatic variables. On the other hand, current protected area networks within Peninsular Malaysia do not cover most of the sun bears potential suitable habitats. Assuming that the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> suitability <span class="hlt">map</span> covers sun bears actual distribution, future climate change, forest degradation and illegal hunting could potentially severely affect the sun bear’s population. PMID:23110182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110182"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) distribution using maximum entropy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nazeri, Mona; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Madani, Nima; Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Bahman, Abdul Rani; Kumar, Lalit</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>One of the available tools for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the geographical distribution and potential suitable habitats is species distribution models. These techniques are very helpful for finding poorly known distributions of species in poorly sampled areas, such as the tropics. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is a recently developed modeling method that can be successfully calibrated using a relatively small number of records. In this research, the MaxEnt model was applied to describe the distribution and identify the key factors shaping the potential distribution of the vulnerable Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) in one of the main remaining habitats in Peninsular Malaysia. MaxEnt results showed that even though Malaysian sun bear habitat is tied with tropical evergreen forests, it lives in a marginal threshold of bio-climatic variables. On the other hand, current protected area networks within Peninsular Malaysia do not cover most of the sun bears potential suitable habitats. Assuming that the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> suitability <span class="hlt">map</span> covers sun bears actual distribution, future climate change, forest degradation and illegal hunting could potentially severely affect the sun bear's population. PMID:23110182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8795E..1PG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8795E..1PG"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> sinkholes by integration of remote sensing and spectroscopy methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldshleger, N.; Basson, U.; Azaria, I.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The Dead Sea coastal area is exposed to the destructive process of sinkhole collapse. The increase in sinkhole activity in the last two decades has been substantial, resulting from the continuous decrease in the Dead Sea's level, with more than 1,000 sinkholes developing as a result of upper layer collapse. Large sinkholes can reach 25 m in diameter. They are concentrated mainly in clusters in several dozens of sites with different characteristics. In this research, methods for <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, monitoring and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> sinkholes were developed using active and passive remote-sensing methods: field spectrometer, geophysical ground penetration radar (GPR) and a frequency domain electromagnetic instrument (FDEM). The research was conducted in three stages: 1) literature review and data collection; 2) <span class="hlt">mapping</span> regions abundant with sinkholes in various stages and regions vulnerable to sinkholes; 3) analyzing the data and translating it into cognitive and accessible scientific information. Field spectrometry enabled a comparison between the spectral signatures of soil samples collected near active or progressing sinkholes, and those collected in regions with no visual sign of sinkhole occurrence. FDEM and GPR investigations showed that electrical conductivity and soil moisture are higher in regions affected by sinkholes. Measurements taken at different time points over several seasons allowed monitoring the progress of an 'embryonic' sinkhole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.W3008M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.W3008M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> modeling of multicellular structure <span class="hlt">formation</span> by using Cellular Particle Dynamics simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCune, Matthew; Shafiee, Ashkan; Forgacs, Gabor; Kosztin, Ioan</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) is an effective computational method for describing and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the time evolution of biomechanical relaxation processes of multicellular systems. A typical example is the fusion of spheroidal bioink particles during post bioprinting structure <span class="hlt">formation</span>. In CPD cells are modeled as an ensemble of cellular particles (CPs) that interact via short-range contact interactions, characterized by an attractive (adhesive interaction) and a repulsive (excluded volume interaction) component. The time evolution of the spatial conformation of the multicellular system is determined by following the trajectories of all CPs through integration of their equations of motion. CPD was successfully applied to describe and <span class="hlt">predict</span> the fusion of 3D tissue construct involving identical spherical aggregates. Here, we demonstrate that CPD can also <span class="hlt">predict</span> tissue <span class="hlt">formation</span> involving uneven spherical aggregates whose volumes decrease during the fusion process. Work supported by NSF [PHY-0957914]. Computer time provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4300010','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4300010"><span id="translatedtitle">Brain metabolic <span class="hlt">maps</span> in Mild Cognitive Impairment <span class="hlt">predict</span> heterogeneity of progression to dementia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cerami, Chiara; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Magnani, Giuseppe; Santangelo, Roberto; Marcone, Alessandra; Cappa, Stefano F.; Perani, Daniela</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>[18F]FDG-PET imaging has been recognized as a crucial diagnostic marker in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), supporting the presence or the exclusion of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology. A clinical heterogeneity, however, underlies MCI definition. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> role of single-subject voxel-based <span class="hlt">maps</span> of [18F]FDG distribution generated through statistical parametric <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (SPM) in the progression to different dementia subtypes in a sample of 45 MCI. Their scans were compared to a large normal reference dataset developed and validated for comparison at single-subject level. Additionally, Aβ42 and Tau CSF values were available in 34 MCI subjects. Clinical follow-up (mean 28.5 ± 7.8 months) assessed subsequent progression to AD or non-AD dementias. The SPM analysis showed: 1) normal brain metabolism in 14 MCI cases, none of them progressing to dementia; 2) the typical temporo-parietal pattern suggestive for prodromal AD in 15 cases, 11 of them progressing to AD; 3) brain hypometabolism suggestive of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) subtypes in 7 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in 2 subjects (all fulfilled FTLD or DLB clinical criteria at follow-up); and 4) 7 MCI cases showed a selective unilateral or bilateral temporo-medial hypometabolism without the typical AD pattern, and they all remained stable. In our sample, objective voxel-based analysis of [18F]FDG-PET scans showed high <span class="hlt">predictive</span> prognostic value, by identifying either normal brain metabolism or hypometabolic patterns suggestive of different underlying pathologies, as confirmed by progression at follow-up. These data support the potential usefulness of this SPM [18F]FDG PET analysis in the early dementia diagnosis and for improving subject selection in clinical trials based on MCI definition. PMID:25610780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.H14A..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.H14A..06K"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Electrical Conductivity <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> by Soil Moisture and Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Techniques: Implication for Landmine Detection Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katsube, J.; McNairn, H.; Keating, P. K.; Das, Y.; Dyke, L.; Best, M. E.; Singhroy, V.; Connell-Madore, S.; Hunter, J.; Klassen, R.; Dilabio, R.; Moore, A.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Electrical conductivity (EC) can be a source of significant signal interference in landmine detection, implying that there is a necessity for soil EC <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in order to carry out safe demining operations in landmine affected countries in the world. A fundamental study on soil EC mechanisms and their relationship to moisture content has been carried out in order to increase the soil EC <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy when using data from various sensors, such as remote sensing, airborne and surficial electromagnetic (EM) methods. Results indicate that soil moisture consists of free water filling pore spaces and bound water which forms adsorbed water layers on the grain surfaces. The response of these two water phases to drying rates and EC are very different, to the extent that a moist clay poor soil may have low EC but a dry clay rich soil may have higher EC. This is a result of not only the bound water layers being a significant source of EC, but of the capillary component of the free water reacting differently to the different grain-sizes of the soil. The capillary water forms important electrical conductive bridges between the adsorbed water layers on the grains that constitute the soil. This implies that information on soil texture, mineralogy and their distribution are required for accurate EC <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Whereas information on these soil characteristics may be acquired by remote sensing and soil <span class="hlt">maps</span>, soil moisture content is likely to vary from the time of data acquisition to that of demining operations, implying methods to <span class="hlt">predict</span> these changes are required. In addition, soil type inhomogeniety, such as vertical and horizontal variation can also be a source of inaccuracies in moisture and EC <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. However, these investigations also indicate that a wide band electrical frequency signal may have the possibility of providing information on, not only metallic mineral content, but on pore space, clay mineral type and water content. In addition, applications of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......153C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......153C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Salient <span class="hlt">Map</span> Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method: Powerful potential as a <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment in the biomedical sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cathcart, Laura Anne</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation consists of two studies: 1) development and characterization of the Salient <span class="hlt">Map</span> Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method as a <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment tool and 2) a case study exploring how a paramedic instructor's beliefs about learners affect her utilization of the SMART method and vice versa. The first study explored: How can a novel concept <span class="hlt">map</span> analysis method be designed as an effective <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment tool? The SMART method improves upon existing concept <span class="hlt">map</span> analysis methods because it does not require hierarchically structured concept <span class="hlt">maps</span> and it preserves the rich content of the <span class="hlt">maps</span> instead of reducing each <span class="hlt">map</span> down to a numerical score. The SMART method is performed by comparing a set of students' <span class="hlt">maps</span> to each other and to an instructor's <span class="hlt">map</span>. The resulting composite <span class="hlt">map</span> depicts, in percentages and highlighted colors, the similarities and differences between all of the <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Some advantages of the SMART method as a <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment tool include its ability to highlight changes across time, problematic or alternative conceptions, and patterns of student responses at a glance. Study two explored: How do a paramedic instructor's beliefs about students and learning affect---and become affected by---her use of the SMART method as a <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment tool? This case study of Angel, an expert paramedic instructor, begins to address a gap in the emergency medical services (EMS) education literature, which contains almost no research on teachers or pedagogy. Angel and I worked together as participant co-researchers (Heron & Reason, 1997) exploring the affordances of the SMART method. This study, based on those interactions with Angel, involved using open coding to identify themes (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) from Angel's views of students and use of the SMART method. Angel views learning as a sense-making process. She has a multi-faceted view of her students as novices and invests substantial time trying to understand their concept</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858648','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858648"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiomic Texture Analysis <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Areas of True Functional MRI Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to <span class="hlt">predict</span> areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional <span class="hlt">maps</span> were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21443276','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21443276"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAPPING</span> THE RECENT STAR <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span> HISTORY OF THE DISK OF M51</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaleida, Catherine; Scowen, Paul A. E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.ed</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>Using data acquired as part of a unique Hubble Heritage imaging program of broadband colors of the interacting spiral system M51/NGC 5195, we have conducted a photometric study of the stellar associations across the entire disk of the galaxy in order to assess trends in size, luminosity, and local environment associated with the recent star <span class="hlt">formation</span> (SF) activity in the system. Starting with a sample of over 900 potential associations, we have produced color-magnitude and color-color diagrams for the 120 associations that were deemed to be single-aged. It has been found that main-sequence (MS) turnoffs are not evident for the vast majority of the stellar associations in our set, potentially due to the overlap of isochronal tracks at the high mass end of the MS, and the limited depth of our images at the distance of M51. In order to obtain ages for more of our sample, we produced model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to fit to the data from the GALEXEV simple stellar population models of Bruzual and Charlot. These SEDs can be used to determine age, size, mass, metallicity, and dust content of each association via a simple {chi}{sup 2} minimization to each association's B-, V-, and I-band fluxes. The derived association properties are <span class="hlt">mapped</span> as a function of location, and recent trends in SF history of the galaxy are explored in light of these results. This work is the first phase in a program that will compare these stellar systems with their environments using ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and infrared data from Spitzer, and ultimately we plan to apply the same stellar population <span class="hlt">mapping</span> methodology to other nearby face-on spiral galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4608698','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4608698"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G.; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to <span class="hlt">predict</span> SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> accuracy. PMID:26473739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1920.7033B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1920.7033B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Sand Types and Dune Morphologies in the Aeolis Dorsa Region, Western Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyd, A. S.; Burr, D. M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Preliminary <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of low- and high-albedo sand deposits in the Aeolis Dorsa region, Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> (MFF), suggests sand transport from the north, consistent with sand source(s) in Elysium Mons, the Cerberus plains, or the MFF itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=212243','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=212243"><span id="translatedtitle">A linkage <span class="hlt">map</span> of maize x teosinte zea luxurians and identification of qtls controlling root aerenchyma <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One-hundred and ninety five F2 individuals, derived from a cross between maize inbred line B73 x Zea luxurians, were subjected to a 107 SSR marker based QTL analysis for aerenchyma cell <span class="hlt">formation</span> that covered 1,331 cM across all ten maize and Zea luxurians chromosomes. Composite interval <span class="hlt">mapping</span> a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310464"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Northern Ireland radon <span class="hlt">maps</span> based on indoor radon measurements and geology with <span class="hlt">maps</span> derived by <span class="hlt">predictive</span> modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Young, M</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential <span class="hlt">map</span> generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the <span class="hlt">map</span> based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-<span class="hlt">prediction</span> could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air. PMID:21310464</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1005752','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1005752"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Bioinformatics-Based <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Exceptional Selectivity of p38 <span class="hlt">MAP</span> Kinase Inhibitor PH-797804</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xing, Li; Shieh, Huey S.; Selness, Shaun R.; Devraj, Rajesh V.; Walker, John K.; Devadas, Balekudru; Hope, Heidi R.; Compton, Robert P.; Schindler, John F.; Hirsch, Jeffrey L.; Benson, Alan G.; Kurumbail, Ravi G.; Stegeman, Roderick A.; Williams, Jennifer M.; Broadus, Richard M.; Walden, Zara; Monahan, Joseph B.; Pfizer</p> <p>2009-07-24</p> <p>PH-797804 is a diarylpyridinone inhibitor of p38{alpha} mitogen-activated protein (<span class="hlt">MAP</span>) kinase derived from a racemic mixture as the more potent atropisomer (aS), first proposed by molecular modeling and subsequently confirmed by experiments. On the basis of structural comparison with a different biaryl pyrazole template and supported by dozens of high-resolution crystal structures of p38{alpha} inhibitor complexes, PH-797804 is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to possess a high level of specificity across the broad human kinase genome. We used a structural bioinformatics approach to identify two selectivity elements encoded by the TXXXG sequence motif on the p38{alpha} kinase hinge: (i) Thr106 that serves as the gatekeeper to the buried hydrophobic pocket occupied by 2,4-difluorophenyl of PH-797804 and (ii) the bidentate hydrogen bonds formed by the pyridinone moiety with the kinase hinge requiring an induced 180{sup o} rotation of the Met109-Gly110 peptide bond. The peptide flip occurs in p38{alpha} kinase due to the critical glycine residue marked by its conformational flexibility. Kinome-wide sequence mining revealed rare presentation of the selectivity motif. Corroboratively, PH-797804 exhibited exceptionally high specificity against <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinases and the related kinases. No cross-reactivity was observed in large panels of kinase screens (selectivity ratio of >500-fold). In cellular assays, PH-797804 demonstrated superior potency and selectivity consistent with the biochemical measurements. PH-797804 has met safety criteria in human phase I studies and is under clinical development for several inflammatory conditions. Understanding the rationale for selectivity at the molecular level helps elucidate the biological function and design of specific p38{alpha} kinase inhibitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1142/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1142/"><span id="translatedtitle">A program for the conversion of The National <span class="hlt">Map</span> data from proprietary <span class="hlt">format</span> to resource description framework (RDF)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bulen, Andrew; Carter, Jonathan J.; Varanka, Dalia E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To expand data functionality and capabilities for users of The National <span class="hlt">Map</span> of the U.S. Geological Survey, data sets for six watersheds and three urban areas were converted from the Best Practices vector data model <span class="hlt">formats</span> to Semantic Web data <span class="hlt">formats</span>. This report describes and documents the conver-sion process. The report begins with an introduction to basic Semantic Web standards and the background of The National <span class="hlt">Map</span>. Data were converted from a proprietary <span class="hlt">format</span> to Geog-raphy Markup Language to capture the geometric footprint of topographic data features. Configuration files were designed to eliminate redundancy and make the conversion more efficient. A SPARQL endpoint was established for data validation and queries. The report concludes by describing the results of the conversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PRP.....1...63M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PRP.....1...63M"><span id="translatedtitle">Unsupervised and self-<span class="hlt">mapping</span> category <span class="hlt">formation</span> and semantic object recognition for mobile robot vision used in an actual environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madokoro, H.; Tsukada, M.; Sato, K.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>This paper presents an unsupervised learning-based object category <span class="hlt">formation</span> and recognition method for mobile robot vision. Our method has the following features: detection of feature points and description of features using a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), selection of target feature points using one class support vector machines (OC-SVMs), generation of visual words using self-organizing <span class="hlt">maps</span> (SOMs), <span class="hlt">formation</span> of labels using adaptive resonance theory 2 (ART-2), and creation and classification of categories on a category <span class="hlt">map</span> of counter propagation networks (CPNs) for visualizing spatial relations between categories. Classification results of dynamic images using time-series images obtained using two different-size robots and according to movements respectively demonstrate that our method can visualize spatial relations of categories while maintaining time-series characteristics. Moreover, we emphasize the effectiveness of our method for category <span class="hlt">formation</span> of appearance changes of objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH51A1228F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH51A1228F"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuzzy Cognitive <span class="hlt">Maps</span> for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive <span class="hlt">Maps</span> (FCM) as an AI tool for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to <span class="hlt">predicting</span> hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22055452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22055452"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors affecting paddy soil arsenic concentration in Bangladesh: <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and uncertainty of geostatistical risk <span class="hlt">mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Zia U; Panaullah, Golam M; DeGloria, Stephen D; Duxbury, John M</p> <p>2011-12-15</p> <p>Knowledge of the spatial correlation of soil arsenic (As) concentrations with environmental variables is needed to assess the nature and extent of the risk of As contamination from irrigation water in Bangladesh. We analyzed 263 paired groundwater and paddy soil samples covering highland (HL) and medium highland-1 (MHL-1) land types for geostatistical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of soil As and delineation of As contaminated areas in Tala Upazilla, Satkhira district. We also collected 74 non-rice soil samples to assess the baseline concentration of soil As for this area. The mean soil As concentrations (mg/kg) for different land types under rice and non-rice crops were: rice-MHL-1 (21.2)>rice-HL (14.1)>non-rice-MHL-1 (11.9)>non-rice-HL (7.2). Multiple regression analyses showed that irrigation water As, Fe, land elevation and years of tubewell operation are the important factors affecting the concentrations of As in HL paddy soils. Only years of tubewell operation affected As concentration in the MHL-1 paddy soils. Quantitatively similar increases in soil As above the estimated baseline-As concentration were observed for rice soils on HL and MHL-1 after 6-8 years of groundwater irrigation, implying strong retention of As added in irrigation water in both land types. Application of single geostatistical methods with secondary variables such as regression kriging (RK) and ordinary co-kriging (OCK) gave little improvement in <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of soil As over ordinary kriging (OK). Comparing single <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods, kriging within strata (KWS), the combination of RK for HL and OCK for MHL-1, gave more accurate soil As <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and showed the lowest misclassification of declaring a location "contaminated" with respect to 14.8 mg As/kg, the highest value obtained for the baseline soil As concentration. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of soil As buildup over time indicated that 75% or the soils cropped to rice would contain at least 30 mg/L As by the year 2020. PMID:22055452</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7188J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7188J"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Solar Resources <span class="hlt">Map</span> using Satellites and Numerical <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Data on Korean Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jee, J.-B.; Jeon, S.-H.; Choi, Y.-J.; Lee, K.-T.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Solar energy is attenuated by absorbing gases (ozone, aerosol, water vapor and mixed gas) and cloud in the atmosphere and ambient topography. That energy is measured with solar instruments (pyranometer and phyheliometer) which are installed on the surface. However, solar energy based on observation is insufficient to represent detailed energy distribution, because the distributions of solar instruments are spatially limited. If input data of solar radiation model is accurate, the solar energy reaching at the surface can be calculated reasonably. In this study, input data of solar radiation model used satellites data and reanalysis data of numerical model <span class="hlt">prediction</span> from 2000 to 2010. Recently, a variety of satellite measurements from TERA/AQUA (MODIS), AURA (OMI) and geostationary satellites (GMS-5, GOES-9, MTSAT-1R, MTSAT-2 and COMS) has been made available. Input data of solar radiation model can use aerosols and surface albedo data from MODIS, total ozone amount data from OMI and cloud fraction data from meteorological geostationary satellites. Also, reanalysis data of numerical <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model is good to use as an input of solar radiation model. Several outputs can be used with surface temperature, pressure and total precipitable water of RDAPS (Regional Data Assimilation <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System) and KLAPS (Korean Local Assimilation <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System) models from KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). In addition, the solar radiation model is equipped with topographic effect, which is the result of terrain shading or shielding the solar energy. Korean peninsula is composed of very complicated terrains. Therefore, considering the topographic effect is very important to calculate the solar energy at the surface. The hi-resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is required to calculate the topographic effect. The solar radiation reaching at the surface is calculated by hour in temporal and 4 km × 4 km in spatial using solar radiation model and input data. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGE....12..527G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGE....12..527G"><span id="translatedtitle">Rock physics model-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of shear wave velocity in the Barnett Shale <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Zhiqi; Li, Xiang-Yang</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> S-wave velocity is important for reservoir characterization and fluid identification in unconventional resources. A rock physics model-based method is developed for estimating pore aspect ratio and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> shear wave velocity Vs from the information of P-wave velocity, porosity and mineralogy in a borehole. Statistical distribution of pore geometry is considered in the rock physics models. In the application to the Barnett <span class="hlt">formation</span>, we compare the high frequency self-consistent approximation (SCA) method that corresponds to isolated pore spaces, and the low frequency SCA-Gassmann method that describes well-connected pore spaces. Inversion results indicate that compared to the surroundings, the Barnett Shale shows less fluctuation in the pore aspect ratio in spite of complex constituents in the shale. The high frequency method provides a more robust and accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of Vs for all the three intervals in the Barnett <span class="hlt">formation</span>, while the low frequency method collapses for the Barnett Shale interval. Possible causes for this discrepancy can be explained by the fact that poor in situ pore connectivity and low permeability make well-log sonic frequencies act as high frequencies and thus invalidate the low frequency assumption of the Gassmann theory. In comparison, for the overlying Marble Falls and underlying Ellenburger carbonates, both the high and low frequency methods <span class="hlt">predict</span> Vs with reasonable accuracy, which may reveal that sonic frequencies are within the transition frequencies zone due to higher pore connectivity in the surroundings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040999','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040999"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> on Mars (MC-8 SE and MC-23 NW) and the Northern Lowlands of Venus (V-16 and V-15)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zimbelman, J. R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the status of a <span class="hlt">mapping</span> project supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, funding for which became available on July 18, focusing on the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the Medusae Fossae <span class="hlt">Formation</span> (MFF) on Mars. The report also briefly discusses the status of <span class="hlt">maps</span> of Venus and Ascraeus Mons, begun under previous NASA grants but which are still in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19301137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19301137"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategic noise <span class="hlt">map</span> of a major road carried out with two environmental <span class="hlt">prediction</span> software packages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arana, M; San Martin, R; San Martin, M L; Aramendía, E</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The main objective of this study is to analyze the differences found in the results of noise <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using two of the most popular software techniques for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of environmental noise. The location selected to conduct the comparative study is an area encompassed by the ring road that surrounds the city of Pamplona and on a grid, with a total of 6 x 10(5) points, approximately. In fact, and as the Environmental Noise Directive points out, it is a major road designated by a Member State (Spain). Configuration of the calculation parameters (discretization of the sources, ground absorption, reflection order, etc.) was as equivalent as possible as far as programs allow. In spite of that, a great number of differences appear in the findings. Although in 95.5% of the points the difference in the noise level calculated from the two programs was less than 3 dB, this general statistic result concealed some great differences. These are due to the various algorithms that programs implement to evaluate noise levels. Most differences pertain to highly screened receivers or remote ones. In the former, the algorithm of visibility is the main cause of such differences. In the latter, differences are mainly brought about by a different implementation of the propagation under homogeneous and favorable atmospheric conditions from both software systems. PMID:19301137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280334','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1280334"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis with Bioavailable Iron Content in the Bituminous Coals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Xi; Li, Weihong; Attfield, Michael D.; Nádas, Arthur; Frenkel, Krystyna; Finkelman, Robert B.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron’s bioavailability. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and <span class="hlt">mapped</span> the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> coal’s toxicity, even before large-scale mining. PMID:16079064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028409','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028409"><span id="translatedtitle">Using self-organizing <span class="hlt">maps</span> to determine observation threshold limit <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in highly variant data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paganoni, C.A.; Chang, K.C.; Robblee, M.B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A significant data quality challenge for highly variant systems surrounds the limited ability to quantify operationally reasonable limits on the data elements being collected and provide reasonable threshold <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. In many instances, the number of influences that drive a resulting value or operational range is too large to enable physical sampling for each influencer, or is too complicated to accurately model in an explicit simulation. An alternative method to determine reasonable observation thresholds is to employ an automation algorithm that would emulate a human analyst visually inspecting data for limits. Using the visualization technique of self-organizing <span class="hlt">maps</span> (SOM) on data having poorly understood relationships, a methodology for determining threshold limits was developed. To illustrate this approach, analysis of environmental influences that drive the abundance of a target indicator species (the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum) provided a real example of applicability. The relationship between salinity and temperature and abundance of F. duorarum is well documented, but the effect of changes in water quality upstream on pink shrimp abundance is not well understood. The highly variant nature surrounding catch of a specific number of organisms in the wild, and the data available from up-stream hydrology measures for salinity and temperature, made this an ideal candidate for the approach to provide a determination about the influence of changes in hydrology on populations of organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4327527','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4327527"><span id="translatedtitle">Event-related potentials during word <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to object shape <span class="hlt">predict</span> toddlers' vocabulary size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences <span class="hlt">predicted</span> productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029470','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029470"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and <span class="hlt">mapped</span> the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010adap.prop..110T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010adap.prop..110T"><span id="translatedtitle">Shadows and Dust: Mid-Infrared Extinction <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Initial Conditions of Massive Star and Star Cluster <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Jonathan</p> <p></p> <p>We describe a research plan to develop and extend the mid-infrared (MIR) extinction <span class="hlt">mapping</span> technique presented by Butler & Tan (2009), who studied Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 8 micron images. This method has the ability to probe the detailed spatial structure of very high column density regions, i.e. the gas clouds thought to represent the initial conditions for massive star and star cluster <span class="hlt">formation</span>. We will analyze the data Spitzer obtained at other wavelengths, i.e. the IRAC bands at 3.6, 4.5 and 5.8 microns, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) bands, especially at 24 microns. This will allow us to measure the dust extinction law across the MIR and search for evidence of dust grain evolution, e.g. grain growth and ice mantle <span class="hlt">formation</span>, as a function of gas density and column density. We will also study the detailed structure of the extinction features, including individual cores that may form single stars or close binaries, especially focusing on those cores that may form massive stars. By studying independent dark cores in a given IRDC, we will be able to test if they have a common minimum observed intensity, which we will then attribute to the foreground. This is a new method that should allow us to more accurately <span class="hlt">map</span> distant, high column density IRDCs, probing more extreme regimes of star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. We will combine MIR extinction <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, which works best at high column densities, with near- IR <span class="hlt">mapping</span> based on 2MASS images of star fields, which is most useful at lower columns that probe the extended giant molecular cloud structure. This information is crucial to help understand the <span class="hlt">formation</span> process of IRDCs, which may be the rate limiting step for global galactic star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates. We will use our new extinction <span class="hlt">mapping</span> methods to analyze large samples of IRDCs and thus search the Galaxy for the most extreme examples of high column density cores and assess the global star <span class="hlt">formation</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030869','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030869"><span id="translatedtitle">First USGS urban seismic hazard <span class="hlt">maps</span> <span class="hlt">predict</span> the effects of soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cramer, C.H.; Gomberg, J.S.; Schweig, E.S.; Waldron, B.A.; Tucker, K.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Probabilistic and scenario urban seismic hazard <span class="hlt">maps</span> have been produced for Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee covering a six-quadrangle area of the city. The nine probabilistic <span class="hlt">maps</span> are for peak ground acceleration and 0.2 s and 1.0 s spectral acceleration and for 10%, 5%, and 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Six scenario <span class="hlt">maps</span> for these three ground motions have also been generated for both an M7.7 and M6.2 on the southwest arm of the New Madrid seismic zone ending at Marked Tree, Arkansas. All <span class="hlt">maps</span> include the effect of local geology. Relative to the national seismic hazard <span class="hlt">maps</span>, the effect of the thick sediments beneath Memphis is to decrease 0.2 s probabilistic ground motions by 0-30% and increase 1.0 s probabilistic ground motions by ???100%. Probabilistic peak ground accelerations remain at levels similar to the national <span class="hlt">maps</span>, although the ground motion gradient across Shelby County is reduced and ground motions are more uniform within the county. The M7.7 scenario <span class="hlt">maps</span> show ground motions similar to the 5%-in-50-year probabilistic <span class="hlt">maps</span>. As an effect of local geology, both M7.7 and M6.2 scenario <span class="hlt">maps</span> show a more uniform seismic ground-motion hazard across Shelby County than scenario <span class="hlt">maps</span> with constant site conditions (i.e., NEHRP B/C boundary).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1413992R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1413992R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional scale soil thickness <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using digital terrain modeling and seismic data: application to erosion hazard <span class="hlt">mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rochat, A.; Grandjean, G.; Cerdan, O.; Samyn, K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Empirical laws derived from terrain parameters - such as DTM - and calibrated with in-situ borehole data are widely used for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> soil thickness at regional scale. But with this approach, economical and practical constrains due to drilling requires to work on limited area (typically a few ten km2). Yet, seismic methods using surface waves, recently used for subsurface issue, showed a great interest for measuring soil thickness along profiles or in 3D (parcel <span class="hlt">mapping</span>) which is more convenient for spacializing using empirical law calibration. Thus, to accurately <span class="hlt">map</span> soil thickness over a 400km2 large area, we suggest to match measurement provided by SASW method (spectral analysis of surface waves) with an empirical law derived from terrain attributes. For this study, S-waves velocity has been measured along 10 profiles and after calibration with penetrometrics sounding, the value Vs=300 m/s was considered as a threshold between fertile soil (loess) and consolidated material (clay) leading to define the soil thickness. Comparison between measured soil thickness and the empirical index related to soil depth has shown significant results (R2=0.58). After index calibration, soil thickness was <span class="hlt">mapped</span> over the catchment basin using a regression law between soil depth index and measured thickness. Finally, the French soil databank (BSS®) was used for the <span class="hlt">map</span> validation: loess depths reported by geotechnical interpretation (drilling and sounding from BSS®) fit closely to depths <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the thickness <span class="hlt">map</span>. The test zone was located within the Cailly Aubette-Robec catchment area, in the Northern part of France. The region has the particularity to be severely affected by erosion processes with dramatic farming issues. So, to valorize this soil thickness <span class="hlt">mapping</span> methodology, results were exploited in term of erosion hazard characterization by coupling the thickness <span class="hlt">map</span> with a soil loss rate <span class="hlt">map</span> (in t/ha/year), leading to provide temporal information about erosion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12550792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12550792"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigations on the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of glassy solid solutions of drugs in sugar alcohols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langer, M; Höltje, M; Urbanetz, N A; Brandt, B; Höltje, H-D; Lippold, B C</p> <p>2003-02-18</p> <p>A prerequisite for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of glassy solid solutions prepared by the melting method is the miscibility of the respective drug and the carrier in the molten state. As could be shown experimentally, all investigated drug/sugar alcohol combinations miscible in the molten state form to some extent glassy solid solutions, dependent on their tendency to recrystallize during preparation. Therefore, the present study focuses on the evaluation of factors that govern the miscibility of molten drugs and sugar alcohols as carriers. In this context, solubility parameters are discussed as a means of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> miscibility in comparison to a new approach, using calculated interaction parameters derived from molecular dynamics (MD) studies. There is evidence that a Coulomb interaction term C(SR), comprising short-range electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding energy is essential for the miscibility of drug and carrier in the molten state. To relate C(SR) to the molecular volume, a non-dimensional parameter P(i) is defined. For this parameter, a limiting value for miscibility exists. Contrary, calculated solubility parameter differences between drug and sugar alcohol in the range of 8-15 MPa(1/2) are not suitable for a <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of miscibility or immiscibility, since the mixtures deviate from regular solution behavior. In irregular mixtures of drugs and sugar alcohols, an excess entropy and the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of hydrogen bonds between unlike molecules favor miscibility, that cannot be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by regular solution theory. PMID:12550792</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3482406','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3482406"><span id="translatedtitle">The Amber ff99 Force Field <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Relative Free Energy Changes for RNA Helix <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Spasic, Aleksandar; Serafini, John; Mathews, David H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The ability of the Amber ff99 force field to <span class="hlt">predict</span> relative free energies of RNA helix <span class="hlt">formation</span> was investigated. The test systems were three hexaloop RNA hairpins with identical loops and varying stems. The potential of mean force of stretching the hairpins from the native state to an extended conformation was calculated with umbrella sampling. Because the hairpins have identical loop sequence, the differences in free energy changes are only from the stem composition. The Amber ff99 force field was able to correctly <span class="hlt">predict</span> the order of stabilities of the hairpins, although the magnitude of the free energy change is larger than that determined by optical melting experiments. The two measurements cannot be compared directly because the unfolded state in the optical melting experiments is a random coil, while the end state in the umbrella sampling simulations was an elongated chain. The calculations can be compared to reference data by using a thermodynamic cycle. By applying the thermodynamic cycle to the transitions between the hairpins using simulations and nearest neighbor data, agreement was found to be within the sampling error of simulations, thus demonstrating that ff99 force field is able to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> relative free energies of RNA helix <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:23112748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4359004','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4359004"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAPping</span> the Ndc80 loop in cancer: A possible link between Ndc80/Hec1 overproduction and cancer <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tang, Ngang Heok; Toda, Takashi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mis-regulation (e.g. overproduction) of the human Ndc80/Hec1 outer kinetochore protein has been associated with aneuploidy and tumourigenesis, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Recent studies have identified the ubiquitous Ndc80 internal loop as a protein-protein interaction platform. Binding partners include the Ska complex, the replication licensing factor Cdt1, the Dam1 complex, TACC-TOG microtubule-associated proteins (<span class="hlt">MAPs</span>) and kinesin motors. We review the field and propose that the overproduction of Ndc80 may unfavourably absorb these interactors through the internal loop domain and lead to a change in the equilibrium of <span class="hlt">MAPs</span> and motors in the cells. This sequestration will disrupt microtubule dynamics and the proper segregation of chromosomes in mitosis, leading to aneuploid <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Further investigation of Ndc80 internal loop-<span class="hlt">MAPs</span> interactions will bring new insights into their roles in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and tumourigenesis. PMID:25557589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED417055.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED417055.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Art of Teaching <span class="hlt">Map</span> and Compass: Instructional Techniques, Curricular <span class="hlt">Formats</span> and Practical Field Exercises.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watters, Ron</p> <p></p> <p>This paper discusses the value of teaching <span class="hlt">map</span> and compass skills in the classroom or an outdoor situation. Navigation is the most basic of all outdoor skills. A <span class="hlt">map</span> and compass curriculum can be taught to anyone, is inexpensive, and is easily incorporated in a variety of educational situations. General teaching principles are outlined: (1) start…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2095R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2095R"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and analysis towards a local scale <span class="hlt">predictive</span> modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to <span class="hlt">map</span> and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk model of the disease in Malaysia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........88B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........88B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> brittle zones in the Bakken <span class="hlt">Formation</span> using well logs and seismic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beecher, Michael E.</p> <p></p> <p>The oil-in-place estimate for the Bakken <span class="hlt">Formation</span> has varied from 10 billion barrels in 1974 to 503 billion barrels in 1999. However, only a small fraction of this estimate is recoverable due to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> having very low porosity and permeability. Implementation of hydraulic fracture stages along horizontal wells in the Bakken has been productive. Recently, identification of zones where the <span class="hlt">formation</span> is brittle has been used to improve hydraulic fracture stimulation efficiency in an effort to improve production. The first goal for this thesis is to identify a correlation between brittleness and production data by using elastic moduli and normalized production values. The hypothesis for this study is that rock with a low Poisson's ratio and high Young's modulus will be more brittle and will ultimately produce a higher amount of oil than more ductile rock. The next goal was to create and test a method to identify brittle zones with high normalized production in a 3D seismic data set without well control using producing wells from outside the survey with dipole sonic logs from the Bakken <span class="hlt">Formation</span>. Correlations between normalized production values and elastic moduli were subsequently identified. Cumulative first-four-months' production was found to have the best correlation to the elastic moduli. Correlations of normalized production values and Poisson's ratio showed that sections of the middle Bakken with low Poisson's ratio yield higher normalized production values. Correlations of Young's modulus and normalized production showed that middle Bakken zones with low Young's modulus have higher normalized production values. However, when using additional wells that were not used for well-to-3D seismic correlations, the correlation shows that higher Young's modulus yield higher normalized production. The correlation with additional wells best represented the data and agrees with the initial hypothesis. Brittle zones were <span class="hlt">mapped</span> in a 3D seismic data set by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1421341W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1421341W"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel methods for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> gas-particle partitioning during the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of secondary organic aerosol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wania, F.; Lei, Y. D.; Wang, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Goss, K.-U.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Several methods have been presented in the literature to <span class="hlt">predict</span> an organic chemical's equilibrium partitioning between the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) component of aerosol and the gas phase, Ki, WIOM as a function of temperature. They include (i) polyparameter linear free energy relationships calibrated with empirical aerosol sorption data, as well as (ii) the solvation models implemented in SPARC and (iii) the quantum-chemical software Cosmotherm, which <span class="hlt">predict</span> solvation equilibria from molecular structure alone. We demonstrate that these methods can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> Ki, WIOM for large numbers of individual molecules implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span>, including those with multiple functional groups. Although very different in their theoretical foundations, these methods give remarkably consistent results for the products of the reaction of normal alkanes with OH, i.e. their partition coefficients Ki, WIOM generally agree within one order of magnitude over a range of more than ten orders of magnitude. This level of agreement is much better than that achieved by different vapour pressure estimation methods that are more commonly used in the SOA community. Also, in contrast to the agreement between vapour pressure estimates, that between the Ki, WIOM estimates does not deteriorate with increasing number of functional groups. Furthermore, these partitioning coefficients Ki, WIOM are found to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the SOA mass yield in chamber experiments of the oxidation of normal alkanes as good or better than a vapour pressure based method. If a Ki, WIOM <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method was based on one or more surrogate molecules representing the solvation properties of the mixed OM phase of SOA, the choice of those molecule(s) was found to have a relatively minor effect on the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> Ki, WIOM, as long as the molecule(s) are not very polar. This suggests that a single surrogate molecule, such as 1-octanol or a hypothetical SOA structure proposed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1413189W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1413189W"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel methods for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> gas-particle partitioning during the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of secondary organic aerosol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wania, F.; Lei, Y. D.; Wang, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Goss, K.-U.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Several methods have been presented in the literature to <span class="hlt">predict</span> an organic chemical's equilibrium partitioning between the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) component of aerosol and the gas phase, Ki,WIOM, as a function of temperature. They include (i) polyparameter linear free energy relationships calibrated with empirical aerosol sorption data, as well as (ii) the solvation models implemented in SPARC and (iii) the quantum-chemical software COSMOtherm, which <span class="hlt">predict</span> solvation equilibria from molecular structure alone. We demonstrate that these methods can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> Ki,WIOM for large numbers of individual molecules implicated in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span>, including those with multiple functional groups. Although very different in their theoretical foundations, these methods give remarkably consistent results for the products of the reaction of normal alkanes with OH, i.e. their partition coefficients Ki,WIOM generally agree within one order of magnitude over a range of more than ten orders of magnitude. This level of agreement is much better than that achieved by different vapour pressure estimation methods that are more commonly used in the SOA community. Also, in contrast to the agreement between vapour pressure estimates, the agreement between the Ki,WIOM estimates does not deteriorate with increasing number of functional groups. Furthermore, these partitioning coefficients Ki,WIOM <span class="hlt">predicted</span> SOA mass yields in agreement with those measured in chamber experiments of the oxidation of normal alkanes. If a Ki,WIOM <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method was based on one or more surrogate molecules representing the solvation properties of the mixed OM phase of SOA, the choice of those molecule(s) was found to have a relatively minor effect on the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> Ki,WIOM, as long as the molecule(s) are not very polar. This suggests that a single surrogate molecule, such as 1-octanol or a hypothetical SOA structure proposed by Kalberer et al. (2004), may often be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031659&hterms=maple&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmaple','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031659&hterms=maple&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmaple"><span id="translatedtitle">A thermodynamic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for microporosity <span class="hlt">formation</span> in aluminum-rich Al-Cu alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Poirier, D. R.; Yeum, K.; Maples, A. L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A computer model is used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> and degree of microporosity in a directionally solidified Al-4.5 wt pct Cu alloy, considering the interplay between solidification shrinkage and gas porosity. Macrosegregation theory is used to determine the local pressure within the interdendritic liquid. Results show interdendritic porosity for initial hydrogen contents in the 0.03-1 ppm range, and none below contents of 0.03. An increase in either the thermal gradient or the solidification rate is show to decrease the amount of interdendritic porosity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcGeo..63.1231P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcGeo..63.1231P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of the Shear Wave Velocity from Compressional Wave Velocity for Gachsaran <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parvizi, Saeed; Kharrat, Riyaz; Asef, Mohammad R.; Jahangiry, Bijan; Hashemi, Abdolnabi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Shear and compressional wave velocities, coupled with other petrophysical data, are very important for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. In situ shear wave velocity (Vs) is measured by some sonic logging tools. Shear velocity coupled with compressional velocity is vitally important in determining geomechanical parameters, identifying the lithology, mud weight design, hydraulic fracturing, geophysical studies such as VSP, etc. In this paper, a correlation between compressional and shear wave velocity is obtained for Gachsaran <span class="hlt">formation</span> in Maroon oil field. Real data were used to examine the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> equation. Moreover, the genetic algorithm was used to obtain the optimal value for constants of the suggested equation. Furthermore, artificial neural network was used to inspect the reliability of this method. These investigations verify the notion that the suggested equation could be considered as an efficient, fast, and cost-effective method for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> Vs from Vp.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S51B1265J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S51B1265J"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-Dimensional Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Northern California: A Foundation for Earthquake Simulations and Other <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jachens, R. C.; Simpson, R. W.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.; Brocher, T. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Detailed, realistic models of the subsurface are needed for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> damage patterns from future earthquakes and simulating other phenomena affecting human safety and well being. The simple models used in the past are no longer adequate. In support of a planned simulation of the ground shaking from the Great 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we constructed a three-dimensional (3D) geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of northern California that consists of specific geologic units separated by discrete boundaries. It is based on a century of geologic <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, 50 years of gravity and magnetic surveying, double-difference relocated seismicity, seismic soundings, P-wave tomography, and well logs. The <span class="hlt">map</span> is a rules-based construction composed of faults that break the <span class="hlt">map</span> volume into fault blocks, which in turn are populated with geologic units defined by surfaces that represent their tops. The rules define how the faults and tops truncate one another. The <span class="hlt">map</span> is easily updated as new information becomes available. The 3D <span class="hlt">map</span> is made up of two related parts. An inner detailed <span class="hlt">map</span> of central California centered on San Francisco extends from Clear Lake to Monterey, from the edge of the continental shelf to the western Great Valley, and to a depth of 45 km. This is embedded in a less detailed regional <span class="hlt">map</span> that extends from north of Cape Mendocino to Parkfield, from the ocean basin to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges, and also to a depth of 45 km. The detailed <span class="hlt">map</span> volume is broken by 25 major faults including the active San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras faults. The fault blocks are populated with geologic units in the following groups: water, Plio-Quaternary deposits, Tertiary (or undifferentiated Cenozoic) sedimentary and volcanic deposits, Mesozoic sedimentary or plutonic rocks, mafic lower crust, and mantle rocks. The primary purpose of the regional <span class="hlt">map</span> is: 1) to provide coverage of the entire reach of the San Andreas Fault that ruptured in 1906 (including the major</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.2574K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.2574K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> rates, stability and reactivity of sulfuric acid - amine clusters <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by computational chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurtén, Theo; Ortega, Ismael; Kupiainen, Oona; Olenius, Tinja; Loukonen, Ville; Reiman, Heidi; McGrath, Matthew; Vehkamäki, Hanna</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Despite the importance of atmospheric particle <span class="hlt">formation</span> for both climate and air quality, both experiments and non-empirical models using e.g. sulfuric acid, ammonia and water as condensing vapors have so far been unable to reproduce atmospheric observations using realistic trace gas concentrations. Recent experimental and theoretical evidence has shown that this mystery is likely resolved by amines. Combining first-principles evaporation rates for sulfuric acid - dimethylamine clusters with cluster kinetic modeling, we show that even sub-ppt concentrations of amines, together with atmospherically realistic concentrations of sulfuric acid, result in <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates close to those observed in the atmosphere. Our simulated cluster <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates are also close to, though somewhat larger than, those measured at the CLOUD experiment in CERN for both sulfuric acid - ammonia and sulfuric acid - dimethylamine systems. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the remaining discrepancy for the sulfuric acid - amine particle <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates is likely caused by steric hindrances to cluster <span class="hlt">formation</span> (due to alkyl groups of the amine molecules) rather than by significant errors in the evaporation rates. First-principles molecular dynamic and reaction kinetic modeling shed further light on the microscopic physics and chemistry of sulfuric acid - amine clusters. For example, while the number and type of hydrogen bonds in the clusters typically reach their equilibrium values on a picosecond timescale, and the overall bonding patterns <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by traditional "static" quantum chemical calculations seem to be stable, the individual atoms participating in the hydrogen bonds continuously change at atmospherically realistic temperatures. From a chemical reactivity perspective, we have also discovered a surprising phenomenon: clustering with sulfuric acid molecules slightly increases the activation energy required for the abstraction of alkyl hydrogens from amine molecules. This implies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255078','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255078"><span id="translatedtitle">A bridge-functional-based classical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the correlation functions of uniform electron gases at finite temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong</p> <p>2014-02-28</p> <p>Efficient and accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the correlation functions of uniform electron gases is of great importance for both practical and theoretical applications. This paper presents a bridge-functional-based classical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method for calculating the correlation functions of uniform spin-unpolarized electron gases at finite temperature. The bridge functional is formulated by following Rosenfeld's universality ansatz in combination with the modified fundamental measure theory. The theoretical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are in good agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo results but with negligible computational cost, and the accuracy is better than a previous attempt based on the hypernetted-chain approximation. We find that the classical <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method is most accurate if the effective mass of electrons increases as the density falls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.446..651W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.446..651W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> galaxy star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates via the co-evolution of galaxies and haloes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.; van den Bosch, Frank C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate (SFR) of a galaxy of fixed stellar mass is determined by its dark matter halo <span class="hlt">formation</span> history, e.g. more quiescent galaxies reside in older haloes. We present new Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star-forming galaxy samples to test this simple model. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also find that our model is able to <span class="hlt">predict</span>: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an ˜r-.15 slope, independent of environment. These accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are intriguing given that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...622147C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...622147C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Excessive Autophagy Induced by Mechanical Overload in Vein Graft Neointima <span class="hlt">Formation</span>: <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Shao-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Ming-Jer; Li, Yi-Shuan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, Kirk K.; Chien, Shu; Wu, Chia-Ching</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Little is known regarding the interplays between the mechanical and molecular bases for vein graft restenosis. We elucidated the stenosis initiation using a high-frequency ultrasonic (HFU) echogenicity platform and estimated the endothelium yield stress from von-Mises stress computation to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the damage locations in living rats over time. The venous-arterial transition induced the molecular cascades for autophagy and apoptosis in venous endothelial cells (ECs) to cause neointimal hyperplasia, which correlated with the high echogenicity in HFU images and the large mechanical stress that exceeded the yield strength. The ex vivo perfusion of arterial laminar shear stress to isolated veins further confirmed the correlation. EC damage can be rescued by inhibiting autophagy <span class="hlt">formation</span> using 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Pretreatment of veins with 3-MA prior to grafting reduced the pathological increases of echogenicity and neointima <span class="hlt">formation</span> in rats. Therefore, this platform provides non-invasive temporal spatial measurement and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of restenosis after venous-arterial transition as well as monitoring the progression of the treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768319','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768319"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Excessive Autophagy Induced by Mechanical Overload in Vein Graft Neointima <span class="hlt">Formation</span>: <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Shao-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Ming-Jer; Li, Yi-Shuan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, Kirk K.; Chien, Shu; Wu, Chia-Ching</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Little is known regarding the interplays between the mechanical and molecular bases for vein graft restenosis. We elucidated the stenosis initiation using a high-frequency ultrasonic (HFU) echogenicity platform and estimated the endothelium yield stress from von-Mises stress computation to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the damage locations in living rats over time. The venous-arterial transition induced the molecular cascades for autophagy and apoptosis in venous endothelial cells (ECs) to cause neointimal hyperplasia, which correlated with the high echogenicity in HFU images and the large mechanical stress that exceeded the yield strength. The ex vivo perfusion of arterial laminar shear stress to isolated veins further confirmed the correlation. EC damage can be rescued by inhibiting autophagy <span class="hlt">formation</span> using 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Pretreatment of veins with 3-MA prior to grafting reduced the pathological increases of echogenicity and neointima <span class="hlt">formation</span> in rats. Therefore, this platform provides non-invasive temporal spatial measurement and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of restenosis after venous-arterial transition as well as monitoring the progression of the treatments. PMID:26915560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6174028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6174028"><span id="translatedtitle">A global model of thunderstorm electricity and the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of whistler duct <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stansbery, E.K.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A two-dimensional numerical model is created to calculate the electric field and current that flow from a thunderstorm source into the global electrical circuit. The model includes a hemisphere in which the thunderstorm is located, an equalization layer, and a passive magnetic conjugate hemisphere. To maintain the fair weather electric field, the output current from the thunderstorm is allowed to spread out in the ionosphere or flow along the magnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere. The vertical current is constant up to approximately 65 km, decays and is redirected horizontally in the ionosphere. Approximately half of the current that reaches the ionosphere flows along magnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere while the rest is spread out in the ionosphere and redirected to the fair weather portion of the storm hemisphere. Our results show that it is important to include a realistic model of the equalization layer to evaluate the role of thunderstorm charging of the global circuit. The <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of thunderstorm electric fields at middle and subauroral latitudes into the magnetic equatorial plane is studied. The geomagnetic field lines are assumed to be dipolar above approximately 150 km. The horizontal electric field computed in the ionosphere by our model is of sufficient size and shape for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of electron density irregularities in the magnetosphere. The mechanism involves a localized convection of ionization tubes by ExB drift. It is shown that the horizontal range of the electric field disturbance in the ionosphere must be within approximately 160 km to produce density irregularities necessary for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of whistler ducts. Although the electric field strength at ionospheric heights depends sensitively on the conductivity profile, the results presented show that whistler duct <span class="hlt">formation</span> is possible by thunderstorm generated electric fields.*</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960360"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of Salmonella Virchow with respect to temperature and pH.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ariafar, M Nima; Buzrul, Sencer; Akçelik, Nefise</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of Salmonella Virchow was monitored with respect to time at three different temperature (20, 25 and 27.5 °C) and pH (5.2, 5.9 and 6.6) values. As the temperature increased at a constant pH level, biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> decreased while as the pH level increased at a constant temperature, biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> increased. Modified Gompertz equation with high adjusted determination coefficient (Radj(2)) and low mean square error (MSE) values produced reasonable fits for the biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> under all conditions. Parameters of the modified Gompertz equation could be described in terms of temperature and pH by use of a second order polynomial function. In general, as temperature increased maximum biofilm quantity, maximum biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate and time of acceleration of biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> decreased; whereas, as pH increased; maximum biofilm quantity, maximum biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate and time of acceleration of biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> increased. Two temperature (23 and 26 °C) and pH (5.3 and 6.3) values were used up to 24 h to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of S. Virchow. Although the <span class="hlt">predictions</span> did not perfectly match with the data, reasonable estimates were obtained. In principle, modeling and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of different microorganisms on different surfaces under various conditions could be possible. PMID:26960360</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27348475"><span id="translatedtitle">The precision of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> between number words and the approximate number system <span class="hlt">predicts</span> children's formal math abilities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Libertus, Melissa E; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive approximate number system (ANS) and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Furthermore, by the time they are 5years old, children can <span class="hlt">map</span> between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> between approximate and exact numbers relate to children's math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation-<span class="hlt">mapping</span> accuracy and variability-might each relate to math performance. Here, we addressed these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, <span class="hlt">predicted</span> formal math abilities, even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word <span class="hlt">mapping</span> may be especially important for formal math abilities. PMID:27348475</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015WRR....51.6672R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015WRR....51.6672R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> permeability from the characteristic relaxation time and intrinsic <span class="hlt">formation</span> factor of complex conductivity spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Revil, A.; Binley, A.; Mejus, L.; Kessouri, P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Low-frequency quadrature conductivity spectra of siliclastic materials exhibit typically a characteristic relaxation time, which either corresponds to the peak frequency of the phase or the quadrature conductivity or a typical corner frequency, at which the quadrature conductivity starts to decrease rapidly toward lower frequencies. This characteristic relaxation time can be combined with the (intrinsic) <span class="hlt">formation</span> factor and a diffusion coefficient to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the permeability to flow of porous materials at saturation. The intrinsic <span class="hlt">formation</span> factor can either be determined at several salinities using an electrical conductivity model or at a single salinity using a relationship between the surface and quadrature conductivities. The diffusion coefficient entering into the relationship between the permeability, the characteristic relaxation time, and the <span class="hlt">formation</span> factor takes only two distinct values for isothermal conditions. For pure silica, the diffusion coefficient of cations, like sodium or potassium, in the Stern layer is equal to the diffusion coefficient of these ions in the bulk pore water, indicating weak sorption of these couterions. For clayey materials and clean sands and sandstones whose surface have been exposed to alumina (possibly iron), the diffusion coefficient of the cations in the Stern layer appears to be 350 times smaller than the diffusion coefficient of the same cations in the pore water. These values are consistent with the values of the ionic mobilities used to determine the amplitude of the low and high-frequency quadrature conductivities and surface conductivity. The database used to test the model comprises a total of 202 samples. Our analysis reveals that permeability <span class="hlt">prediction</span> with the proposed model is usually within an order of magnitude from the measured value above 0.1 mD. We also discuss the relationship between the different time constants that have been considered in previous works as characteristic relaxation time, including</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818227','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818227"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of a <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin Required for Biofilm <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Burkholderia pseudomallei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lazar Adler, Natalie R.; Dean, Rachel E.; Saint, Richard J.; Stevens, Mark P.; Prior, Joann L.; Atkins, Timothy P.; Galyov, Edouard E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The autotransporters are a large and diverse family of bacterial secreted and outer membrane proteins, which are present in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and play a role in numerous environmental and virulence-associated interactions. As part of a larger systematic study on the autotransporters of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, we have constructed an insertion mutant in the bpss1439 gene encoding an unstudied <span class="hlt">predicted</span> trimeric autotransporter adhesin. The bpss1439 mutant demonstrated a significant reduction in biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> at 48 hours in comparison to its parent 10276 wild-type strain. This phenotype was complemented to wild-type levels by the introduction of a full-length copy of the bpss1439 gene in trans. Examination of the wild-type and bpss1439 mutant strains under biofilm-inducing conditions by microscopy after 48 hours confirmed that the bpss1439 mutant produced less biofilm compared to wild-type. Additionally, it was observed that this phenotype was due to low levels of bacterial adhesion to the abiotic surface as well as reduced microcolony <span class="hlt">formation</span>. In a murine melioidosis model, the bpss1439 mutant strain demonstrated a moderate attenuation for virulence compared to the wild-type strain. This attenuation was abrogated by in trans complementation, suggesting that bpss1439 plays a subtle role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. Taken together, these studies indicate that BPSS1439 is a novel <span class="hlt">predicted</span> autotransporter involved in biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> of B. pseudomallei; hence, this factor was named BbfA, Burkholderia biofilm factor A. PMID:24223950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505432"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular dynamics of single-particle impacts <span class="hlt">predicts</span> phase diagrams for large scale pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norris, Scott A; Samela, Juha; Bukonte, Laura; Backman, Marie; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai; Madi, Charbel S; Brenner, Michael P; Aziz, Michael J</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Energetic particle irradiation can cause surface ultra-smoothening, self-organized nanoscale pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> or degradation of the structural integrity of nuclear reactor components. A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms governing the selection among these outcomes has been elusive. Here we <span class="hlt">predict</span> the mechanism governing the transition from pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> to flatness using only parameter-free molecular dynamics simulations of single-ion impacts as input into a multiscale analysis, obtaining good agreement with experiment. Our results overturn the paradigm attributing these phenomena to the removal of target atoms via sputter erosion: the mechanism dominating both stability and instability is the impact-induced redistribution of target atoms that are not sputtered away, with erosive effects being essentially irrelevant. We discuss the potential implications for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of a mysterious nanoscale topography, leading to surface degradation, of tungsten plasma-facing fusion reactor walls. Consideration of impact-induced redistribution processes may lead to a new design criterion for stability under irradiation. PMID:21505432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1941721','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1941721"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of microdamage <span class="hlt">formation</span> using a mineral-collagen composite model of bone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaodu; Qian, Chunjiang</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Age-related changes in bone quality are mainly manifested in the reduced toughness. Since the post-yield deformation of bone is realized through microdamage <span class="hlt">formation</span> (e.g., microcracking and diffuse damage), it is necessary to understand the mechanism of microdamage <span class="hlt">formation</span> in bone in order to elucidate underlying mechanisms of age-related bone fractures. In this study, a two-dimensional shear lag model was developed to <span class="hlt">predict</span> stress concentration fields around an initial crack in a mineral-collagen composite. In this model, non-linear elasticity was assumed for the collagen phase, and linear elasticity for the mineral. Based on the pattern of the stress concentration fields, the condition for microdamage <span class="hlt">formation</span> was discussed. The results of our analyses indicate that: (1) an initial crack formed in mineral phase may cause stress concentration in the adjacent mineral layers; (2) the pattern of stress concentration fields depends not only on the spatial but also mechanical properties of the collagen and mineral phases; (3) the pattern of the stress concentration fields could determine either coalescence or scattering of nano cracks around the initial crack. PMID:16439230</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJC....89..960E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJC....89..960E"><span id="translatedtitle">A distributed model <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control (MPC) fault reconfiguration strategy for <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esfahani, N. R.; Khorasani, K.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, an active distributed (also referred to as semi-decentralised) fault recovery control scheme is proposed that employs inaccurate and unreliable fault information into a model-<span class="hlt">predictive</span>-control-based design. The objective is to compensate for the identified actuator faults that are subject to uncertainties and detection time delays, in the attitude control subsystems of <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying satellites. The proposed distributed fault recovery scheme is developed through a two-level hierarchical framework. In the first level, or the agent level, the fault is recovered locally to maintain as much as possible the design specifications, feasibility, and tracking performance of all the agents. In the second level, or the <span class="hlt">formation</span> level, the recovery is carried out by enhancing the entire team performance. The fault recovery performance of our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) scheme is compared with two other alternative schemes, namely the centralised and the decentralised fault recovery schemes. It is shown that the distributed (semi-decentralised) fault recovery scheme satisfies the recovery design specifications and also imposes lower fault compensation control effort cost and communication bandwidth requirements as compared to the centralised scheme. Our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) scheme also outperforms the achievable performance capabilities of the decentralised scheme. Simulation results corresponding to a network of four precision <span class="hlt">formation</span> flight satellites are also provided to demonstrate and illustrate the advantages of our proposed distributed (semi-decentralised) fault recovery strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128816','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128816"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Galaxy Star <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Rates via the Co-evolution of Galaxies and Halos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.</p> <p>2014-03-06</p> <p>In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate (SFR) of a galaxy is determined by its dark matter halo <span class="hlt">formation</span> history, and as such, that more quiescent galaxies reside in older halos. This simple model has been remarkably successful at <span class="hlt">predicting</span> color-based galaxy statistics at low redshift as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To further test this method with observations, we present new SDSS measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star forming galaxy samples. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also employ a galaxy group finder and show that our model is able to <span class="hlt">predict</span>: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR-dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an approx r<sup>-.15</sup> slope, independent of environment. The accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for the spatial distribution of satellites is intriguing given the fact that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite, contrary to most galaxy evolution models. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23.1867D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23.1867D"><span id="translatedtitle">The GIS layers of the "International Hydrogeological <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Europe 1:1,500,000" in a vector <span class="hlt">format</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duscher, Klaus; Günther, Andreas; Richts, Andrea; Clos, Patrick; Philipp, Uta; Struckmeier, Wilhelm</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">map</span> series of the International Hydrogeological <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Europe at a scale of 1:1,500,000 (IHME1500) has been completed by the publication of the last two <span class="hlt">map</span> sheets in August 2013. Altogether, the 25 sheets of the IHME1500 provide the first coherent overview of groundwater resources in Europe. The <span class="hlt">map</span> displays productivity and lithology of potential aquifer systems. Some of the additional <span class="hlt">map</span> contents relating to groundwater are presented only regionally. The most relevant features of IHME1500 are compiled in two seamless geographic information system (GIS) layers in shapefile <span class="hlt">format</span>: (1) showing groundwater resources characterised by a basic aquifer typology, including a lithological description and areas of seawater intrusion, and (2) reproducing major tectonic fractures. The superficial lithology information was harmonised by implementing a lithological taxonomy and a multi-step aggregation. An enhancement of the GIS layers is envisaged through the release of updates, which will be distinguished by consecutive version numbers. The continent-wide harmonised presentation of contents constitutes the main feature of the IHME1500 GIS layers. This qualifies the spatial dataset as a basic tool for hydrogeological assessments aiming primarily at transboundary issues. <span class="hlt">Map</span> scale and the manufacture date of the analogue base impose restrictions on the application of the IHME1500 vector data. A set of examples describes the initial use of the GIS layers in research projects and illustrates potential fields of application. The IHME1500 lithology layer establishes a spatial dataset suitable for the continent-wide evaluation of geological surface processes like the susceptibility to landslides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110776"><span id="translatedtitle">Parasol cell mosaics are unlikely to drive the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of structured orientation <span class="hlt">maps</span> in primary visual cortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hore, Victoria R A; Troy, John B; Eglen, Stephen J</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The receptive fields of on- and off-center parasol cell mosaics independently tile the retina to ensure efficient sampling of visual space. A recent theoretical model represented the on- and off-center mosaics by noisy hexagonal lattices of slightly different density. When the two lattices are overlaid, long-range Moiré interference patterns are generated. These Moiré interference patterns have been suggested to drive the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of highly structured orientation <span class="hlt">maps</span> in visual cortex. Here, we show that noisy hexagonal lattices do not capture the spatial statistics of parasol cell mosaics. An alternative model based upon local exclusion zones, termed as the pairwise interaction point process (PIPP) model, generates patterns that are statistically indistinguishable from parasol cell mosaics. A key difference between the PIPP model and the hexagonal lattice model is that the PIPP model does not generate Moiré interference patterns, and hence stimulated orientation <span class="hlt">maps</span> do not show any hexagonal structure. Finally, we estimate the spatial extent of spatial correlations in parasol cell mosaics to be only 200-350 μm, far less than that required to generate Moiré interference. We conclude that parasol cell mosaics are too disordered to drive the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of highly structured orientation <span class="hlt">maps</span> in visual cortex. PMID:23110776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....78...53T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....78...53T"><span id="translatedtitle">Cell Based Associations: A procedure for considering scarce and mixed mineral occurrences in <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tourlière, Bruno; Pakyuz-Charrier, Evren; Cassard, Daniel; Barbanson, Luc; Gumiaux, Charles</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Cell Based Association is an innovative mineral favorability procedure designed to answer special needs of the mining industry in data wise critical situations where usual favorability methods may not yield satisfactory results. Those situations relate to input data quality (e.g. clustered points, mixed and scarce data, approximate location) or some assumptions that are considered unreasonable (e.g. <span class="hlt">map</span> areas relevance, conditional independence). The principle of CBA consists in replacing polygons of geological units with a square cell grid (hence the 'cell-based'). Each cell contains a range of units ('association') that are binary coded in terms of their presence (1) or absence (0) within study area. The loss of resolution inherent to this procedure is compensated by the enriched information contained in each cell owing to the notion of (lithological) association. Lithological associations are considered as binary spectra and as such are classified using Ascendant Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) thus obtaining a synthetic <span class="hlt">map</span> of lithological associations. The prospectivity <span class="hlt">map</span> shows as favourable the cells of the same AHC classes that the ones including mineral occurrences. It was observed that CBA can distinguish between different ore deposit varieties from a blended mineral occurrences data set. CBA can theoretically include any spatialized data (e.g. geophysics, structural data) as an extra variable to specify classification and narrow favourable areas. Doing so would make it an independent favorability <span class="hlt">mapping</span> procedure and is still under development. Cell size in a grid is a critical parameter of the procedure; it must be compatible with the looked-for phenomena and should have a sufficient lithological variability. In addition to its use for producing favorability <span class="hlt">maps</span>, a CBA-derived <span class="hlt">map</span> could help in understanding the background information contained in geological <span class="hlt">maps</span>. CBA can also be applied to other fields, such as agriculture and urban planning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67b6217H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvE..67b6217H"><span id="translatedtitle">Information capacity and pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span> in a tent <span class="hlt">map</span> network featuring statistical periodicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hauptmann, C.; Touchette, H.; Mackey, M. C.</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>We provide quantitative support to the observation that lattices of coupled <span class="hlt">maps</span> are “efficient” information coding devices. It has been suggested recently that lattices of coupled <span class="hlt">maps</span> may provide a model of information coding in the nervous system because of their ability to create structured and stimulus-dependent activity patterns which have the potential to be used for storing information. In this paper, we give an upper bound to the effective number of patterns that can be used to store information in the lattice by evaluating numerically its information capacity or information rate as a function of the coupling strength between the <span class="hlt">maps</span>. We also estimate the time taken by the lattice to establish a limiting activity pattern.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33E0230C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33E0230C"><span id="translatedtitle">Rice crop <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and change <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using multi-temporal satellite images in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The rice cropping systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) has been undergoing major changes to cope with developing agro-economics, increasing population and changing climate. Information on rice cropping practices and changes in cropping systems is critical for policymakers to devise successful strategies to ensure food security and rice grain exports for the country. The primary objective of this research is to <span class="hlt">map</span> rice cropping systems and <span class="hlt">predict</span> future dynamics of rice cropping systems using the MODIS time-series data of 2002, 2006, and 2010. First, a phenology-based classification approach was applied for the classification and assessment of rice cropping systems in study region. Second, the Cellular Automata-Markov (CA-Markov) models was used to simulate the rice-cropping system <span class="hlt">map</span> of VMD for 2010. The comparisons between the classification <span class="hlt">maps</span> and the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients, respectively, of 81.4% and 0.75 for 2002, 80.6% and 0.74 for 2006 and 85.5% and 0.81 for 2010. The simulated <span class="hlt">map</span> of rice cropping system for 2010 was extrapolated by CA-Markov model based on the trend of rice cropping systems during 2002~2006. The comparison between <span class="hlt">predicted</span> scenario and classification <span class="hlt">map</span> for 2010 presents a reasonably closer agreement. In conclusion, the CA-Markov model performs a powerful tool for the dynamic modeling of changes in rice cropping systems, and the results obtained demonstrate that the approach produces satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, quantitative forecast and spatial pattern changes. Meanwhile, the projections of the future changes would provide useful inputs to the agricultural policy for effective management of the rice cropping practices in VMD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23793601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23793601"><span id="translatedtitle">Providing access to risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tools via the HL7 XML-<span class="hlt">formatted</span> risk web service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chipman, Jonathan; Drohan, Brian; Blackford, Amanda; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Hughes, Kevin; Bosinoff, Phil</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Cancer risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tools provide valuable information to clinicians but remain computationally challenging. Many clinics find that CaGene or HughesRiskApps fit their needs for easy- and ready-to-use software to obtain cancer risks; however, these resources may not fit all clinics' needs. The HughesRiskApps Group and BayesMendel Lab therefore developed a web service, called "Risk Service", which may be integrated into any client software to quickly obtain standardized and up-to-date risk <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for BayesMendel tools (BRCAPRO, MMRpro, PancPRO, and MelaPRO), the Tyrer-Cuzick IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, and the Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. Software clients that can convert their local structured data into the HL7 XML-<span class="hlt">formatted</span> family and clinical patient history (Pedigree model) may integrate with the Risk Service. The Risk Service uses Apache Tomcat and Apache Axis2 technologies to provide an all Java web service. The software client sends HL7 XML information containing anonymized family and clinical history to a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) server, where it is parsed, interpreted, and processed by multiple risk tools. The Risk Service then <span class="hlt">formats</span> the results into an HL7 style message and returns the risk <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to the originating software client. Upon consent, users may allow DFCI to maintain the data for future research. The Risk Service implementation is exemplified through HughesRiskApps. The Risk Service broadens the availability of valuable, up-to-date cancer risk tools and allows clinics and researchers to integrate risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tools into their own software interface designed for their needs. Each software package can collect risk data using its own interface, and display the results using its own interface, while using a central, up-to-date risk calculator. This allows users to choose from multiple interfaces while always getting the latest risk calculations. Consenting users contribute their data for future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458917"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of the condensed phase heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of energetic compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>A new reliable simple model is presented for estimating the condensed phase heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of important classes of energetic compounds including polynitro arene, polynitro heteroarene, acyclic and cyclic nitramine, nitrate ester and nitroaliphatic compounds. For CHNO energetic compounds, elemental compositions as well as increasing and decreasing energy content parameters are used in the new method. The novel correlation is tested for 192 organic compounds containing complex molecular structures with at least one nitro, nitramine or nitrate energetic functional groups. This work improves the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> ability of previous empirical correlations for a wide range of energetic compounds. For those energetic compounds where group additivity method can be applied and outputs of quantum mechanical computations were available, it is shown that the root mean square (rms) deviation of the new method is lower. PMID:21458917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572655"><span id="translatedtitle">Brief Report: Fast <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Differences in Concurrent and Later Language Abilities Among Children with ASD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Venker, Courtney E; Kover, Sara T; Ellis Weismer, Susan</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This study investigated whether the ability to learn word-object associations following minimal exposure (i.e., fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span>) was associated with concurrent and later language abilities in children with ASD. Children who were poor learners at age 3½ had significantly lower receptive language abilities than children who successfully learned the new words, both concurrently (n = 59) and 2 years later (n = 53), lending ecological validity to experimental fast-<span class="hlt">mapping</span> tasks. Fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> comprehension at age 3½ was associated with better language outcomes regardless of whether children had produced the new words. These findings highlight the importance of investigating processes of language learning in children with ASD. Understanding these processes will enable the development of maximally effective strategies for supporting word learning. PMID:26572655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24452604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24452604"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing "economic value": symbolic-number <span class="hlt">mappings</span> <span class="hlt">predict</span> risky and riskless valuations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schley, Dan R; Peters, Ellen</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Diminishing marginal utility (DMU) is a basic tenet of economic and psychological models of judgment and choice, but its determinants are little understood. In the research reported here, we tested whether insensitivities in valuations of dollar amounts (e.g., $40, $100) may be due to inexact <span class="hlt">mappings</span> of symbolic numbers (i.e., "40," "100") onto mental magnitudes. In three studies, we demonstrated that inexact <span class="hlt">mappings</span> appear to guide valuation and mediate numeracy's relations with riskless valuations (Studies 1 and 1a) and risky choices (Study 2). The results highlight the fundamental notion that individuals' valuations of $100 depend critically on how individuals perceive and <span class="hlt">map</span> the symbolic quantity "100." This notion has implications for conceptualizations of value, risk aversion, intertemporal choice, and dual-process theories of decision making. Normative implications are also briefly discussed. PMID:24452604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33M..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33M..04H"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach for improving flood model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> based on the sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hostache, R.; Corato, G.; Chini, M.; Wood, M.; Giustarini, L.; Matgen, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydrodynamic models represent an important component in flood <span class="hlt">prediction</span> systems. Unfortunately, providing reliable model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and reducing the associated uncertainties remain challenging; especially for poorly gauged river basins. As SAR flood image databases are significant (and expected to grow rapidly with contributions from new satellites such as Sentinel-1) there are obvious opportunities to use these flood images to improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. In this context our aim is to contribute to the development of a global and near real-time remote sensing service that delivers flood <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to support flood management around the globe. The study takes advantage of recently developed efficient, rapid and automatic algorithms for the delineation of flood extent using SAR images. The main objective of the study is to show how near real-time sequential assimilation of SAR derived flood extents can improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. As a test case we use the July 2007 flood event of the river Severn (UK) and the February 2007 flood event of the lower river Zambezi (Mozambique). We use the Lisflood-FP hydraulic model and we adopt the particle filter as assimilation technique. An important issue in the framework of the assimilation of remote sensing-derived information is to quantify observation uncertainty. To do so we introduce an original image processing approach that assigns to each pixel a 'probability to be flooded' based on its backscatter values. The sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent <span class="hlt">maps</span> show a significant improvement in the hydraulic model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> although the addition of sequences of images with similar flood extents has some limit. The main achievement of the study is that model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are clearly improved by the assimilation of SAR derived flood extent not only in terms of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> flooded areas but also in terms of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> discharge and water level hydrographs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710121H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710121H"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach for improving flood model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> based on the sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hostache, Renaud; Corato, Giovanni; Chini, Marco; Wood, Melissa; Giustarini, Laura; Matgen, Patrick</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrodynamic models represent an important component in flood <span class="hlt">prediction</span> systems. However, providing reliable model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and reducing the associated uncertainties remain challenging, especially in poorly gauged river basins. As Synthetic Aperture Radar-derived flood image databases are significant (and expected to grow rapidly with contributions from new satellites such as Sentinel-1) there are emerging opportunities for using these data collections to improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. In this context our aim is to contribute to the development of a global and near real-time remote sensing-based service that delivers flood <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to support flood management. The study takes advantage of recently developed efficient, rapid and automatic algorithms for the delineation of flood extent using SAR images. The main objective of the study is to show how near real-time sequential assimilation of SAR derived flood extents can improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. As a test case we use the July 2007 flood event of the river Severn (UK) and the February 2007 flood event of the lower Zambezi (Mozambique). We use the Lisflood-FP hydraulic model and we adopt a particle filter-based assimilation scheme. An important issue in the framework of the assimilation of remote sensing-derived information is to quantify observation uncertainty. To do so we introduce for the first time an image processing approach that assigns to each pixel a 'probability to be flooded' based on its backscatter values. The sequential assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent <span class="hlt">maps</span> shows a significant improvement in the hydraulic model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. The main achievement of the study is that model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are clearly improved by the assimilation of SAR-derived flood extent not only in terms of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> flooded areas but also in terms of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> discharge and water level surface elevation hydrographs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2928751','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2928751"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Experimental Verification of New <span class="hlt">MAP</span> Kinase Docking Sites and Substrates Including Gli Transcription Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Whisenant, Thomas C.; Ho, David T.; Benz, Ryan W.; Rogers, Jeffrey S.; Kaake, Robyn M.; Gordon, Elizabeth A.; Huang, Lan; Baldi, Pierre; Bardwell, Lee</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In order to fully understand protein kinase networks, new methods are needed to identify regulators and substrates of kinases, especially for weakly expressed proteins. Here we have developed a hybrid computational search algorithm that combines machine learning and expert knowledge to identify kinase docking sites, and used this algorithm to search the human genome for novel <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase substrates and regulators focused on the JNK family of <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinases. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> were tested by peptide array followed by rigorous biochemical verification with in vitro binding and kinase assays on wild-type and mutant proteins. Using this procedure, we found new ‘D-site’ class docking sites in previously known JNK substrates (hnRNP-K, PPM1J/PP2Czeta), as well as new JNK-interacting proteins (MLL4, NEIL1). Finally, we identified new D-site-dependent MAPK substrates, including the hedgehog-regulated transcription factors Gli1 and Gli3, suggesting that a direct connection between <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase and hedgehog signaling may occur at the level of these key regulators. These results demonstrate that a genome-wide search for <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase docking sites can be used to find new docking sites and substrates. PMID:20865152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26992749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26992749"><span id="translatedtitle">A-DROP: A <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model for the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of oil particle aggregates (OPAs).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; Geng, Xiaolong; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Faith</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Oil-particle interactions play a major role in removal of free oil from the water column. We present a new conceptual-numerical model, A-DROP, to <span class="hlt">predict</span> oil amount trapped in oil-particle aggregates. A new conceptual formulation of oil-particle coagulation efficiency is introduced to account for the effects of oil stabilization by particles, particle hydrophobicity, and oil-particle size ratio on OPA <span class="hlt">formation</span>. A-DROP was able to closely reproduce the oil trapping efficiency reported in experimental studies. The model was then used to simulate the OPA <span class="hlt">formation</span> in a typical nearshore environment. Modeling results indicate that the increase of particle concentration in the swash zone would speed up the oil-particle interaction process; but the oil amount trapped in OPAs did not correspond to the increase of particle concentration. The developed A-DROP model could become an important tool in understanding the natural removal of oil and developing oil spill countermeasures by means of oil-particle aggregation. PMID:26992749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.U11A0007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.U11A0007B"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury's core fraction and ancient crustal composition: <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> from planetary <span class="hlt">formation</span> under extremely reducing conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, S. M.; Elkins-Tanton, L.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the paradox of Mercury's large core, which is on the order of sixty percent of the mass of the planet and recently demonstrated to be at least partially molten. Here we suggest that extremely reducing conditions in the earliest stages of planetary accretion nearest to the Sun may have produced the unusual metallic iron fraction by reducing iron otherwise bound into silicates. We demonstrate the <span class="hlt">formation</span> conditions necessary for various meteoritic bulk compositions to produce the core/mantle ratio of Mercury. During this hypothetical core <span class="hlt">formation</span>, we assume the remaining silicate fraction of Mercury (now largely lacking iron) has been heated to produce a magma ocean. The resulting cumulate mantle composition is calculated in a Matlab simulation of magma ocean solidification using a CMAS system adapted for Mercury. Plagioclase flotation, frequently cited as the necessary signature of a magma ocean, is highly dependent upon initial bulk composition. We demonstrate the initial silicate iron content of the magma ocean necessary to make plagioclase buoyant and thus produce a plagioclase flotation crust as seen on the Moon. In addition, over a range of bulk compositions the solidified mantle cumulates are unstable to gravitational overturn. During overturn hot cumulates rise from depth and may cross their solidi and melt, producing an earliest planetary crust. This crust may still exist on Mercury. With the first flyby results of the MESSENGER mission coming this winter, <span class="hlt">predictions</span> from these models can be compared with initial ground measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4478133','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4478133"><span id="translatedtitle">Protein pheromone expression levels <span class="hlt">predict</span> and respond to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of social dominance networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nelson, Adam C.; Cunningham, Christopher B.; Ruff, James S.; Potts, Wayne K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Communication signals are key regulators of social networks, and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odors of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behavior, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network <span class="hlt">formation</span> and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analyzing expression levels before, during, and after competition for reproductive resources over three days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species. PMID:25867293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4586352','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4586352"><span id="translatedtitle">Becoming popular: interpersonal emotion regulation <span class="hlt">predicts</span> relationship <span class="hlt">formation</span> in real life social networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others’ feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies <span class="hlt">predicted</span> growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members’ reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from <span class="hlt">formation</span> of their accounts revealed that use of IER <span class="hlt">predicted</span> greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person’s thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes. PMID:26483718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483718"><span id="translatedtitle">Becoming popular: interpersonal emotion regulation <span class="hlt">predicts</span> relationship <span class="hlt">formation</span> in real life social networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others' feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies <span class="hlt">predicted</span> growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members' reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from <span class="hlt">formation</span> of their accounts revealed that use of IER <span class="hlt">predicted</span> greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person's thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes. PMID:26483718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+neural+AND+artificial&pg=4&id=EJ578878','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+neural+AND+artificial&pg=4&id=EJ578878"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Career Counselor Decisions with Artificial Neural Networks: <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> of Fit across a Comprehensive Occupational <span class="hlt">Map</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carson, Andrew D.; Bizot, Elizabeth B.; Hendershot, Peggy E.; Barton, Margaret G.; Garvin, Mary K.; Kraemer, Barbara</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Career recommendations were made based on aptitude scores of 335 high school freshmen. Artificial neural networks were used to <span class="hlt">map</span> recommendations to 12 occupational clusters. Overall accuracy of neural networks (.80) approached that of discriminant function analysis (.84). The two methods had different strengths and weaknesses. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+learn+AND+children&pg=3&id=EJ1090421','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+learn+AND+children&pg=3&id=EJ1090421"><span id="translatedtitle">Brief Report: Fast <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Differences in Concurrent and Later Language Abilities among Children with ASD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated whether the ability to learn word-object associations following minimal exposure (i.e., fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span>) was associated with concurrent and later language abilities in children with ASD. Children who were poor learners at age 3½ had significantly lower receptive language abilities than children who successfully learned the new…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813659C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813659C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of En<span class="hlt">MAP</span> spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of common surface soil properties and expected accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chabrillat, Sabine; Foerster, Saskia; Steinberg, Andreas; Stevens, Antoine; Segl, Karl</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>There is a renewed awareness of the finite nature of the world's soil resources, growing concern about soil security, and significant uncertainties about the carrying capacity of the planet. As a consequence, soil scientists are being challenged to provide regular assessments of soil conditions from local through to global scales. However, only a few countries have the necessary survey and monitoring programs to meet these new needs and existing global data sets are out-of-date. A particular issue is the clear demand for a new area-wide regional to global coverage with accurate, up-to-date, and spatially referenced soil information as expressed by the modeling scientific community, farmers and land users, and policy and decision makers. Soil spectroscopy from remote sensing observations based on studies from the laboratory scale to the airborne scale has been shown to be a proven method for the quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of key soil surface properties in local areas for exposed soils in appropriate surface conditions such as low vegetation cover and low water content. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellite sensors in the next 3 to 5 years (En<span class="hlt">MAP</span>, HISUI, PRISMA, SHALOM), a great potential for the global <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and monitoring of soil properties is appearing. Nevertheless, the capabilities to extend the soil properties current spectral modeling from local to regional scales are still to be demonstrated using robust methods. In particular, three central questions are at the forefront of research nowadays: a) methodological developments toward improved algorithms and operational tools for the extraction of soil properties, b) up scaling from the laboratory into space domain, and c) demonstration of the potential of upcoming satellite systems and expected accuracy of soil <span class="hlt">maps</span>. In this study, airborne imaging spectroscopy data from several test sites are used to simulate En<span class="hlt">MAP</span> satellite images at 30 m scale. Then, different soil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384976','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384976"><span id="translatedtitle">The Choice between <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man and Gene Ontology for Automated Gene Function <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> in Plant Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klie, Sebastian; Nikoloski, Zoran</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Since the introduction of the Gene Ontology (GO), the analysis of high-throughput data has become tightly coupled with the use of ontologies to establish associations between knowledge and data in an automated fashion. Ontologies provide a systematic description of knowledge by a controlled vocabulary of defined structure in which ontological concepts are connected by pre-defined relationships. In plant science, <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man and GO offer two alternatives for ontology-driven analyses. Unlike GO, initially developed to characterize microbial systems, <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man was specifically designed to cover plant-specific pathways and processes. While the dependencies between concepts in <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man are modeled as a tree, in GO these are captured in a directed acyclic graph. Therefore, the difference in ontologies may cause discrepancies in data reduction, visualization, and hypothesis generation. Here provide the first systematic comparative analysis of GO and <span class="hlt">Map</span>Man for the case of the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with respect to their structural properties and difference in distributions of information content. In addition, we investigate the effect of the two ontologies on the specificity and sensitivity of automated gene function <span class="hlt">prediction</span> via the coupling of co-expression networks and the guilt-by-association principle. Automated gene function <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is particularly needed for the model plant Arabidopsis in which only half of genes have been functionally annotated based on sequence similarity to known genes. The results highlight the need for structured representation of species-specific biological knowledge, and warrants caution in the design principles employed in future ontologies. PMID:22754563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=302548','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=302548"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint multiple family QTL analysis <span class="hlt">predicts</span> within-family variation better than single family analysis of the maize nested association <span class="hlt">mapping</span> population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Quantitative trait loci (QTL) <span class="hlt">mapping</span> has been used to dissect the genetic architecture of a trait and <span class="hlt">predict</span> phenotypes for marker-assisted selection. Many QTL <span class="hlt">mapping</span> studies in plants have been limited to one biparental family population. Joint analysis of multiple biparental families offers an ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4595278','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4595278"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary Visual Cortex as a Saliency <span class="hlt">Map</span>: A Parameter-Free <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Its Test by Behavioral Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhaoping, Li; Zhe, Li</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>It has been hypothesized that neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) represent a saliency <span class="hlt">map</span> of the visual field to exogenously guide attention. This hypothesis has so far provided only qualitative <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and their confirmations. We report this hypothesis’ first quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, derived without free parameters, and its confirmation by human behavioral data. The hypothesis provides a direct link between V1 neural responses to a visual location and the saliency of that location to guide attention exogenously. In a visual input containing many bars, one of them saliently different from all the other bars which are identical to each other, saliency at the singleton’s location can be measured by the shortness of the reaction time in a visual search for singletons. The hypothesis <span class="hlt">predicts</span> quantitatively the whole distribution of the reaction times to find a singleton unique in color, orientation, and motion direction from the reaction times to find other types of singletons. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> matches human reaction time data. A requirement for this successful <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is a data-motivated assumption that V1 lacks neurons tuned simultaneously to color, orientation, and motion direction of visual inputs. Since evidence suggests that extrastriate cortices do have such neurons, we discuss the possibility that the extrastriate cortices play no role in guiding exogenous attention so that they can be devoted to other functions like visual decoding and endogenous attention. PMID:26441341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441341"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary Visual Cortex as a Saliency <span class="hlt">Map</span>: A Parameter-Free <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Its Test by Behavioral Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhaoping, Li; Zhe, Li</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>It has been hypothesized that neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) represent a saliency <span class="hlt">map</span> of the visual field to exogenously guide attention. This hypothesis has so far provided only qualitative <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and their confirmations. We report this hypothesis' first quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, derived without free parameters, and its confirmation by human behavioral data. The hypothesis provides a direct link between V1 neural responses to a visual location and the saliency of that location to guide attention exogenously. In a visual input containing many bars, one of them saliently different from all the other bars which are identical to each other, saliency at the singleton's location can be measured by the shortness of the reaction time in a visual search for singletons. The hypothesis <span class="hlt">predicts</span> quantitatively the whole distribution of the reaction times to find a singleton unique in color, orientation, and motion direction from the reaction times to find other types of singletons. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> matches human reaction time data. A requirement for this successful <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is a data-motivated assumption that V1 lacks neurons tuned simultaneously to color, orientation, and motion direction of visual inputs. Since evidence suggests that extrastriate cortices do have such neurons, we discuss the possibility that the extrastriate cortices play no role in guiding exogenous attention so that they can be devoted to other functions like visual decoding and endogenous attention. PMID:26441341</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/892230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/892230"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Physical <span class="hlt">Formats</span> to Logical Models to Extract Data and Metadata: The Defuddle Parsing Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Talbott, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.; Myers, James D.</p> <p>2006-07-25</p> <p>Scientists, fueled by the desire for systems-level understanding of phenomena, increasingly need to share their results across multiple disciplines. Accomplishing this requires data to be annotated, contextualized, and readily searchable and translated into other <span class="hlt">formats</span>. While these requirements can be addressed by custom programming or obviated by community standardization, neither approach has ‘solved’ the problem. In this paper, we describe a complementary approach – a general capability for articulating the <span class="hlt">format</span> of arbitrary textual and binary data using a logical data model, expressed in XML-Schema, which can be used to provide annotation and context, extract metadata, and enable translation. This work is based on the draft specification for the Data <span class="hlt">Format</span> Description Language and our open source “Defuddle” parser. We present an overview of the specification, detail the design of Defuddle, and discuss the benefits and challenges of this general approach to enabling discovery and sharing of diverse data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.V13C4792D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.V13C4792D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Lava Tube <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Mechanisms Using Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>, and Viscosity Modeling: Lava Beds National Monument, California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dedecker, J.; Gant, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study explores the relationships between lava tube morphology, lava effusion rate estimates, and the mechanism of lava tube <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Effusion rate estimates for extinct lava tubes were calculated using a combination of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of lava tube caves, and viscosity models utilizing whole-rock compositions (Giordano et al., 2008, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.), and petrographic data (Harris and Allen, 2008, J. Geophys. Res.). The mechanism of lava tube <span class="hlt">formation</span> was evaluated using measured tube lengths and effusion rate estimates and comparing these data with observations from Hawaiian channel- and tube-fed flows (Pinkerton and Wilson, 1994, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res.). Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">map</span> data for lava tube caves were collected using a laser rangefinder to measure the cross-sectional shape and down-tube distance, and a tandem compass/inclinometer to measure the azimuth and inclination between survey stations in the tube. Total tube length consists of the <span class="hlt">mapped</span> tube length plus the distance between collapse pits and trenches along the trend of the tube. Effusion rates were estimated using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, measured mean cross-sectional radii and slope of lava tubes, and estimated effective viscosities of rock samples collected from <span class="hlt">mapped</span> tubes at temperatures between 1080-1160 °C and water contents of 0-1 wt.%. A lava density of 1560 g/cm3was used for 0.40 vesicle fraction basalt. There is a positive correlation between measured tube lengths and cross-sectional radii (Fig. 1). We propose that this relationship reflects the positive correlation between flow lengths and effusion rates in active Hawaiian channel-fed flows. Measured tube lengths vs. effusion rate estimates were compared with data for Hawaiian channel-fed flows (Fig. 2). The two data sets overlap and have parallel trends. These results suggest that the lava tube caves studied formed by the roofing-over of channel-fed flows or had segments of channel-fed flow. We propose</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25314498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25314498"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictable</span> nonwandering localization of covariant Lyapunov vectors and cluster synchronization in scale-free networks of chaotic <span class="hlt">maps</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuptsov, Pavel V; Kuptsova, Anna V</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Covariant Lyapunov vectors for scale-free networks of Hénon <span class="hlt">maps</span> are highly localized. We revealed two mechanisms of the localization related to full and phase cluster synchronization of network nodes. In both cases the localization nodes remain unaltered in the course of the dynamics, i.e., the localization is nonwandering. Moreover, this is <span class="hlt">predictable</span>: The localization nodes are found to have specific dynamical and topological properties and they can be found without computing of the covariant vectors. This is an example of explicit relations between the system topology, its phase-space dynamics, and the associated tangent-space dynamics of covariant Lyapunov vectors. PMID:25314498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21030292','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21030292"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of refrigerant void fraction in horizontal tubes using probabilistic flow regime <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jassim, E.W.; Newell, T.A.; Chato, J.C.</p> <p>2008-04-15</p> <p>A state of the art review of two-phase void fraction models in smooth horizontal tubes is provided and a probabilistic two-phase flow regime <span class="hlt">map</span> void fraction model is developed for refrigerants under condensation, adiabatic, and evaporation conditions in smooth, horizontal tubes. Time fraction information from a generalized probabilistic two-phase flow <span class="hlt">map</span> is used to provide a physically based weighting of void fraction models for different flow regimes. The present model and void fraction models in the literature are compared to data from multiple sources including R11, R12, R134a, R22, R410A refrigerants, 4.26-9.58 mm diameter tubes, mass fluxes from 70 to 900 kg/m{sup 2} s, and a full quality range. The present model has a mean absolute deviation of 3.5% when compared to the collected database. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/53387','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/53387"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of lightning strike distributions associated with synoptic <span class="hlt">map</span> types over Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reap, R.M.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>The temporal and spatial distributions of lightning activity associated with specific synoptic regimes of low-level wind flow were analyzed as part of an experiment to develop improved statistical thunderstorm forecasts for Florida. The synoptic regimes were identified by means of a linear correlation technique that was used to perform pattern classification or `<span class="hlt">map</span> typing` of 18- and 30-h sea level pressure forecasts from the National Meteorological Center`s Nested Grid Model (NGM). Lightning location data for the 1987-90 warm seasons were subsequently analyzed on a 12-km grid to determine the thunderstorm distribution for each of the predetermined <span class="hlt">map</span> types. The analysis revealed organized coastal maxima in lightning activity related to land-sea-breeze convergence zones that form in direct response to the low-level wind flow. Surface effects were also indicated by the persistent minima in lightning activity over Lake Okeechobee and by the lightning maxima found in regions with shoreline curvature favoring localized convergence. Experimental thunderstorm probability equations for Florida were subsequently developed from climatological lightning frequencies and NGM forecast fields. The lightning frequencies were combined with the K stability index to form interactive predictors that take into account the temporal and spatial variations in lightning occurrence for each <span class="hlt">map</span> type but modulate the climatology in response to the daily large-scale synoptic situation. The statistical forecast equations were developed for each <span class="hlt">map</span> type in an attempt to simulate the effects of small-scale processes, such as land-sea-breeze convergence zones, on the subsequent development of peninsular-scale convection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208167','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208167"><span id="translatedtitle">QTL <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of root aerenchyma <span class="hlt">formation</span> in seedlings of a rare teosinte, Zeanicaraguenis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Aerenchyma cell <span class="hlt">formation</span> in plant root systems is considered to be among one of the most important physiological root characteristics affecting flooding tolerance in species possessing such structures. In some species, aerenchyma cell development is an induced response, occurring shortly following...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27235308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27235308"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomic <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> for Quantitative Traits Is Improved by <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Variants to Gene Ontology Categories in Drosophila melanogaster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edwards, Stefan M; Sørensen, Izel F; Sarup, Pernille; Mackay, Trudy F C; Sørensen, Peter</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> individual quantitative trait phenotypes from high-resolution genomic polymorphism data is important for personalized medicine in humans, plant and animal breeding, and adaptive evolution. However, this is difficult for populations of unrelated individuals when the number of causal variants is low relative to the total number of polymorphisms and causal variants individually have small effects on the traits. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">mapping</span> molecular polymorphisms to genomic features such as genes and their gene ontology categories could increase the accuracy of genomic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models. We developed a genomic feature best linear unbiased <span class="hlt">prediction</span> (GFBLUP) model that implements this strategy and applied it to three quantitative traits (startle response, starvation resistance, and chill coma recovery) in the unrelated, sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel. Our results indicate that subsetting markers based on genomic features increases the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> ability relative to the standard genomic best linear unbiased <span class="hlt">prediction</span> (GBLUP) model. Both models use all markers, but GFBLUP allows differential weighting of the individual genetic marker relationships, whereas GBLUP weighs the genetic marker relationships equally. Simulation studies show that it is possible to further increase the accuracy of genomic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for complex traits using this model, provided the genomic features are enriched for causal variants. Our GFBLUP model using prior information on genomic features enriched for causal variants can increase the accuracy of genomic <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in populations of unrelated individuals and provides a formal statistical framework for leveraging and evaluating information across multiple experimental studies to provide novel insights into the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:27235308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_68345.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_68345.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of the Peach Orchard Flat quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming, and descriptions of new stratigraphic units in the Upper Cretaceous Lance <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and Paleocene Fort Union <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, eastern Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming-Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Honey, J.D.; Hettinger, R.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This report provides a geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> of the Peach Orchard Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic <span class="hlt">formations</span> and individual coal beds were <span class="hlt">mapped</span> at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. In addition, four lithostratigraphic units were named: the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, and the China Butte, Blue Gap, and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union <span class="hlt">Formation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16729243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16729243"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential effects of two types of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> performance of first-year medical students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krasne, Sally; Wimmers, Paul F; Relan, Anju; Drake, Thomas A</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Formative</span> assessments are systematically designed instructional interventions to assess and provide feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses in the course of teaching and learning. Despite their known benefits to student attitudes and learning, medical school curricula have been slow to integrate such assessments into the curriculum. This study investigates how performance on two different modes of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment relate to each other and to performance on summative assessments in an integrated, medical-school environment. Two types of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment were administered to 146 first-year medical students each week over 8 weeks: a timed, closed-book component to assess factual recall and image recognition, and an un-timed, open-book component to assess higher order reasoning including the ability to identify and access appropriate resources and to integrate and apply knowledge. Analogous summative assessments were administered in the ninth week. Models relating <span class="hlt">formative</span> and summative assessment performance were tested using Structural Equation Modeling. Two latent variables underlying achievement on <span class="hlt">formative</span> and summative assessments could be identified; a "<span class="hlt">formative</span>-assessment factor" and a "summative-assessment factor," with the former <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the latter. A latent variable underlying achievement on open-book <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessments was highly <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of achievement on both open- and closed-book summative assessments, whereas a latent variable underlying closed-book assessments only <span class="hlt">predicted</span> performance on the closed-book summative assessment. <span class="hlt">Formative</span> assessments can be used as effective <span class="hlt">predictive</span> tools of summative performance in medical school. Open-book, un-timed assessments of higher order processes appeared to be better predictors of overall summative performance than closed-book, timed assessments of factual recall and image recognition. PMID:16729243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120002780&hterms=Hurricanes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DHurricanes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120002780&hterms=Hurricanes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DHurricanes"><span id="translatedtitle">Genesis of Pre-Hurricane Felix (2007). Part 2; Warm Core <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Precipitation Evolution, and <span class="hlt">Predictability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, zhuo; Montgomery M. T.; Dunkerton, T. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This is the second of a two-part study examining the simulated <span class="hlt">formation</span> of Atlantic Hurricane Felix (2007) in a cloud-representing framework. Here several open issues are addressed concerning the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of the storm's warm core, the evolution and respective contribution of stratiform versus convective precipitation within the parent wave's pouch, and the sensitivity of the development pathway reported in Part I to different model physics options and initial conditions. All but one of the experiments include ice microphysics as represented by one of several parameterizations, and the partition of convective versus stratiform precipitation is accomplished using a standard numerical technique based on the high-resolution control experiment. The transition to a warm-core tropical cyclone from an initially cold-core, lower tropospheric wave disturbance is analyzed first. As part of this transformation process, it is shown that deep moist convection is sustained near the pouch center. Both convective and stratiform precipitation rates increase with time. While stratiform precipitation occupies a larger area even at the tropical storm stage, deep moist convection makes a comparable contribution to the total rain rate at the pregenesis stage, and a larger contribution than stratiform processes at the storm stage. The convergence profile averaged near the pouch center is found to become dominantly convective with increasing deep moist convective activity there. Low-level convergence forced by interior diabatic heating plays a key role in forming and intensifying the near-surface closed circulation, while the midlevel convergence associated with stratiform precipitation helps to increase the midlevel circulation and thereby contributes to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> and upward extension of a tropospheric-deep cyclonic vortex. Sensitivity tests with different model physics options and initial conditions demonstrate a similar pregenesis evolution. These tests suggest that the genesis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24634700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24634700"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of Fluid Mechanics to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Regions of Microscopic Thrombus <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Pulsatile VADs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Topper, Stephen R; Navitsky, Michael A; Medvitz, Richard B; Paterson, Eric G; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Slattery, Margaret J; Deutsch, Steven; Rosenberg, Gerson; Manning, Keefe B</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We compare the velocity and shear obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a pulsatile ventricular assist device (VAD) to further test our thrombus <span class="hlt">predictive</span> methodology using microscopy data from an explanted VAD. To mimic physiological conditions in vitro, a mock circulatory loop is used with a blood analog that matched blood's viscoelastic behavior at 40% hematocrit. Under normal physiologic pressures and for a heart rate of 75 bpm, PIV data is acquired and wall shear <span class="hlt">maps</span> are produced. The resolution of the PIV shear rate calculations are tested using the CFD and found to be in the same range. A bovine study, using a model of the 50 cc Penn State V-2 VAD, for 30 days at a constant beat rate of 75 beats per minute (bpm) provides the microscopic data whereby after the 30 days, the device is explanted and the sac surface analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and, after immunofluorescent labeling for platelets and fibrin, confocal microscopy. Areas are examined based on PIV measurements and CFD, with special attention to low shear regions where platelet and fibrin deposition are most likely to occur. Data collected within the outlet port in a direction normal to the front wall of the VAD shows that some regions experience wall shear rates less than 500 s(-1), which increases the likelihood of platelet and fibrin deposition. Despite only one animal study, correlations between PIV, CFD, and in vivo data show promise. Deposition probability is quantified by the thrombus susceptibility potential, a calculation to correlate low shear and time of shear with deposition. PMID:24634700</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3947646','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3947646"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of Fluid Mechanics to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Regions of Microscopic Thrombus <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Pulsatile VADs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Topper, Stephen R.; Navitsky, Michael A.; Medvitz, Richard B.; Paterson, Eric G.; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Slattery, Margaret J.; Deutsch, Steven; Rosenberg, Gerson; Manning, Keefe B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We compare the velocity and shear obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a pulsatile ventricular assist device (VAD) to further test our thrombus <span class="hlt">predictive</span> methodology using microscopy data from an explanted VAD. To mimic physiological conditions in vitro, a mock circulatory loop is used with a blood analog that matched blood’s viscoelastic behavior at 40% hematocrit. Under normal physiologic pressures and for a heart rate of 75 bpm, PIV data is acquired and wall shear <span class="hlt">maps</span> are produced. The resolution of the PIV shear rate calculations are tested using the CFD and found to be in the same range. A bovine study, using a model of the 50 cc Penn State V-2 VAD, for 30 days at a constant beat rate of 75 beats per minute (bpm) provides the microscopic data whereby after the 30 days, the device is explanted and the sac surface analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and, after immunofluorescent labeling for platelets and fibrin, confocal microscopy. Areas are examined based on PIV measurements and CFD, with special attention to low shear regions where platelet and fibrin deposition are most likely to occur. Data collected within the outlet port in a direction normal to the front wall of the VAD shows that some regions experience wall shear rates less than 500 s−1, which increases the likelihood of platelet and fibrin deposition. Despite only one animal study, correlations between PIV, CFD, and in vivo data show promise. Deposition probability is quantified by the thrombus susceptibility potential, a calculation to correlate low shear and time of shear with deposition. PMID:24634700</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H51D0523A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H51D0523A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Spatial Distribution of Soil Texture With Electromagnetic Induction <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> in Small Watersheds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdu, H.; Robinson, D. A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Jones, S. B.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Spatial pattern modeling of catchment hydrological processes is limited by the availability of time-sensitive high resolution <span class="hlt">maps</span> of subsurface architecture. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) instruments are gaining wider use for this purpose due to their non-destructive nature, rapid response and ease of integration into mobile platforms. From EMI measurements the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) can be calculated and calibrated to a number of soil properties including: soil salinity, moisture and clay content. The objective of the study is to infer the textural properties of a watershed through EMI <span class="hlt">mapping</span>. The DUALEM 1-S ground conductivity meter along with a Trimble ProXT GPS unit were used to make non-invasive geo- referenced EMI measurements of the 38 ha Reynolds Mountain East watershed in southwestern Idaho in August 2005 and July 2006. The geo-referenced ECa readings were input into electrical-conductivity statistical analysis package (ESAP) in order to generate an optimal soil sampling plan. Based on this plan, 20 soil samples were obtained at two depths (0-0.3 and 0.3-0.6 m) and analyzed for soil moisture content, electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract (ECe) and particle size for clay percentage determination. ESAP was used to estimate the theoretical strength of correlation between ECa and ECe, clay percentage and volumetric soil moisture content. Terrain analysis modeling was used to investigate the link between clay percentage and the major flow paths. EMI <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in conjunction with ESAP statistical sampling analysis provides high spatial resolution soil texture parameters that can be used for modeling watershed hydrological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...21942101T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...21942101T"><span id="translatedtitle">Berkeley Prize: <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the Fuel for Star <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Early Universe Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tacconi, Linda</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas, which is relatively rare in galaxies like the Milky Way, which form only a few new stars per year. Massive galaxies in the distant universe formed stars much more rapidly. Was star <span class="hlt">formation</span> more efficient in the past, and/or were early galaxies richer in molecular gas? The answer was elusive when our instruments could probe molecules only in the most luminous and rare objects such as mergers and quasars. But a new survey of molecular gas in typical massive star-forming galaxies at redshifts from about 1.2 to 2.3 (corresponding to when the universe was 24% to 40% of its current age) reveals that distant star-forming galaxies were indeed molecular-gas rich and that the star-<span class="hlt">formation</span> efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9618234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9618234"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase mediates epidermal growth factor- and phorbol ester-induced prostacyclin <span class="hlt">formation</span> in cardiomyocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braconi Quintaje, S; Rebsamen, M; Church, D J; Vallotton, M B; Lang, U</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>We studied the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced prostacyclin (PGI2) production in cultured, spontaneously-beating neonatal ventricular rat cardiomyocytes. To this purpose, the effect of EGF on cardiomyocyte MAPK phosphorylation, MAPK activity and PGI2-production were investigated, and compared to those induced by the PKC activator 4 beta phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both EGF (0.1 microM) and PMA (0.1 microM) induced the rapid and reversible phosphorylation of 42 KDa-MAPK in ventricular cardiomyocytes, responses that were accompanied by transient increases in MAPK activity (190-230% of control values within 5 min), and two- to three-fold increases in PGI2 <span class="hlt">formation</span>. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors lavendustin (1 microM) and genistein (10 microM) strongly inhibited EGF-induced MAPK activation and PGI2-<span class="hlt">formation</span>, but had no effect on PMA-stimulated responses. Experiments with the PKC inhibitor CGP 41251 (1 microM) or with PKC-downregulated cells demonstrated that in contrast to the PMA-stimulated responses, EGF-induced MAPK activation and PGI2-production were PKC-independent processes. Investigating the role of MAPK in EGF- and in PMA-promoted PGI2-<span class="hlt">formation</span>, we found that the MAPK-inhibitor 6-thioguanine (500 microM), as well as the MAPK-kinase-inhibitor PD98059 (50 microM) abolished both EGF- and PMA-stimulated PGI2-production in cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate that MAPK-activation is at the basis of both growth factor receptor and PKC-dependent eicosanoid-<span class="hlt">formation</span> in ventricular cardiomyocytes, where EGF-induced prostaglandin-production takes place via a PKC-independent pathway. PMID:9618234</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9103E..09R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9103E..09R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> impact of multi-paths on phase change in <span class="hlt">map</span>-based vehicular ad hoc networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahmes, Mark; Lemieux, George; Sonnenberg, Jerome; Chester, David B.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Dynamic Spectrum Access, which through its ability to adapt the operating frequency of a radio, is widely believed to be a solution to the limited spectrum problem. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) can extend high capacity mobile communications over large areas where fixed and tethered-mobile systems are not available. In one use case with high potential impact cognitive radio employs spectrum sensing to facilitate identification of allocated frequencies not currently accessed by their primary users. Primary users own the rights to radiate at a specific frequency and geographic location, secondary users opportunistically attempt to radiate at a specific frequency when the primary user is not using it. We quantify optimal signal detection in <span class="hlt">map</span> based cognitive radio networks with multiple rapidly varying phase changes and multiple orthogonal signals. Doppler shift occurs due to reflection, scattering, and rapid vehicle movement. Path propagation as well as vehicle movement produces either constructive or destructive interference with the incident wave. Our signal detection algorithms can assist the Doppler spread compensation algorithm by deciding how many phase changes in signals are present in a selected band of interest. Additionally we can populate a spatial radio environment <span class="hlt">map</span> (REM) database with known information that can be leveraged in an ad hoc network to facilitate Dynamic Spectrum Access. We show how topography can help <span class="hlt">predict</span> the impact of multi-paths on phase change, as well as about the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> from dense traffic areas. Utilization of high resolution geospatial data layers in RF propagation analysis is directly applicable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383164"><span id="translatedtitle">Early <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Cancer Progression by Depth-Resolved Nanoscale <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Nuclear Architecture from Unstained Tissue Specimens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V; LaFace, Justin; Leibowitz, Brian; Yu, Jian; Brand, Randall E; Hartman, Douglas J; Liu, Yang</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>Early cancer detection currently relies on screening the entire at-risk population, as with colonoscopy and mammography. Therefore, frequent, invasive surveillance of patients at risk for developing cancer carries financial, physical, and emotional burdens because clinicians lack tools to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> which patients will actually progress into malignancy. Here, we present a new method to <span class="hlt">predict</span> cancer progression risk via nanoscale nuclear architecture <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (nanoNAM) of unstained tissue sections based on the intrinsic density alteration of nuclear structure rather than the amount of stain uptake. We demonstrate that nanoNAM detects a gradual increase in the density alteration of nuclear architecture during malignant transformation in animal models of colon carcinogenesis and in human patients with ulcerative colitis, even in tissue that appears histologically normal according to pathologists. We evaluated the ability of nanoNAM to <span class="hlt">predict</span> "future" cancer progression in patients with ulcerative colitis who did and did not develop colon cancer up to 13 years after their initial colonoscopy. NanoNAM of the initial biopsies correctly classified 12 of 15 patients who eventually developed colon cancer and 15 of 18 who did not, with an overall accuracy of 85%. Taken together, our findings demonstrate great potential for nanoNAM in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> cancer progression risk and suggest that further validation in a multicenter study with larger cohorts may eventually advance this method to become a routine clinical test. PMID:26383164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/ofr99-260/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/ofr99-260/"><span id="translatedtitle">Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in the Black Hills area, South Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Carter, J.M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour <span class="hlt">maps</span> of selected <span class="hlt">formations</span> that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood <span class="hlt">Formation</span> are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MS%26E...33a2070S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MS%26E...33a2070S"><span id="translatedtitle">A 3D coupled hydro-mechanical granular model for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of hot tearing <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A. B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A new 3D coupled hydro-mechanical granular model that simulates hot tearing <span class="hlt">formation</span> in metallic alloys is presented. The hydro-mechanical model consists of four separate 3D modules. (I) The Solidification Module (SM) is used for generating the initial solid-liquid geometry. Based on a Voronoi tessellation of randomly distributed nucleation centers, this module computes solidification within each polyhedron using a finite element based solute diffusion calculation for each element within the tessellation. (II) The Fluid Flow Module (FFM) calculates the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid. (III) The Semi-solid Deformation Module (SDM) is used to simulate deformation of the granular structure via a combined finite element / discrete element method. In this module, deformation of the solid grains is modeled using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive law. (IV) The Failure Module (FM) is used to simulate crack initiation and propagation with the fracture criterion estimated from the overpressure required to overcome the capillary forces at the liquid-gas interface. The FFM, SDM, and FM are coupled processes since solid deformation, intergranular flow, and crack initiation are deeply linked together. The granular model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> have been validated against bulk data measured experimentally and calculated with averaging techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2664710','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2664710"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical modeling of the flow in intracranial aneurysms: <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of regions prone to thrombus <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rayz, V.L.; Boussel, L.; Lawton, M.T.; Acevedo-Bolton, G.; Ge, L.; Young, W.L.; Higashida, R.T.; Saloner, D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The deposition of intralumenal thrombus in intracranial aneurysms adds a risk of thrombo-embolism over and above that posed by mass-effect and rupture. In addition to biochemical factors, hemodynamic factors that are governed by lumenal geometry and blood flow rates likely play an important role in the thrombus <span class="hlt">formation</span> and deposition process. In this study, patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of blood flow were constructed from MRA data for three patients who had fusiform basilar aneurysms that were thrombus-free and then proceeded to develop intra-lumenal thrombus. In order to determine whether features of the flow fields could suggest which regions had an elevated potential for thrombus deposition, the flow was modeled in the baseline, thrombus-free geometries. Pulsatile flow simulations were carried out using patient-specific inlet flow conditions measured with MR velocimetry. Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood behavior was considered. A strong similarity was found between the intra-aneurysmal regions with CFD-<span class="hlt">predicted</span> slow, recirculating flows and the regions of thrombus deposition observed in vivo in the follow-up MR studies. In two cases with larger aneurysms, the agreement between the low velocity zones and clotted off regions improved when non-Newtonian blood behavior was taken into account. A similarity was also found between the calculated low shear stress regions and the regions that were later observed to clot. PMID:18787954</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22840406B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22840406B"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Planet <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Simulations to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> the Free-floating Planet Yield Expected from WFIRST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa V.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks as a product of star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Material in the disk ends up in one of three places, (a) it remains in the disk as part of a planet, minor body or as interplanetary material, (b) it falls into the star, or (c) it is ejected from the system. We explore the properties of this ejected material using N-body simulations. We find that in planetary systems like ours (with Jupiter and Saturn) about half the ejected material is in bodies smaller than 1 Lunar-mass and about half is in bodies larger than 1 Mars-mass. The ejections happen early and no planets more massive than half an earth-mass are ejected. When no giant planets are present in the system, very little material is ejected. We <span class="hlt">predict</span> that future space-borne microlensing searches for free-floating terrestrial-mass planets, such as WFIRST, will discover large numbers of Mars-mass planets but will not make significant detections of Earth-mass planets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JOM....65i1131S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JOM....65i1131S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Hot Tear <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Vertical DC Casting of Aluminum Billets Using a Granular Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sistaninia, M.; Drezet, J.-M.; Phillion, A. B.; Rappaz, M.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A coupled hydromechanical granular model aimed at <span class="hlt">predicting</span> hot tear <span class="hlt">formation</span> and stress-strain behavior in metallic alloys during solidification is applied to the semicontinuous direct chill casting of aluminum alloy round billets. This granular model consists of four separate three-dimensional (3D) modules: (I) a solidification module that is used for generating the solid-liquid geometry at a given solid fraction, (II) a fluid flow module that is used to calculate the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid, (III) a semisolid deformation module that is based on a combined finite element/discrete element method and simulates the rheological behavior of the granular structure, and (IV) a failure module that simulates crack initiation and propagation. To investigate hot tearing, the granular model has been applied to a representative volume within the direct chill cast billet that is located at the bottom of the liquid sump, and it reveals that semisolid deformations imposed on the mushy zone open the liquid channels due to localization of the deformation at grains boundaries. At a low casting speed, only individual pores are able to form in the widest channels because liquid feeding remains efficient. However, as the casting speed increases, the flow of liquid required to compensate for solidification shrinkage also increases and as a result the pores propagate and coalesce to form a centerline crack.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25649254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25649254"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of cell adhesion molecules in visual circuit <span class="hlt">formation</span>: from neurite outgrowth to <span class="hlt">maps</span> and synaptic specificity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Missaire, Mégane; Hindges, Robert</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">formation</span> of visual circuitry is a multistep process that involves cell-cell interactions based on a range of molecular mechanisms. The correct implementation of individual events, including axon outgrowth and guidance, the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of the topographic <span class="hlt">map</span>, or the synaptic targeting of specific cellular subtypes, are prerequisites for a fully functional visual system that is able to appropriately process the information captured by the eyes. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) with their adhesive properties and their high functional diversity have been identified as key actors in several of these fundamental processes. Because of their growth-promoting properties, CAMs play an important role in neuritogenesis. Furthermore, they are necessary to control additional neurite development, regulating dendritic spacing and axon pathfinding. Finally, trans-synaptic interactions of CAMs ensure cell type-specific connectivity as a basis for the establishment of circuits processing distinct visual features. Recent discoveries implicating CAMs in novel mechanisms have led to a better general understanding of neural circuit <span class="hlt">formation</span>, but also revealed an increasing complexity of their function. This review aims at describing the different levels of action for CAMs to shape neural connectivity, with a special focus on the visual system. PMID:25649254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4855686','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4855686"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of cell adhesion molecules in visual circuit <span class="hlt">formation</span>: From neurite outgrowth to <span class="hlt">maps</span> and synaptic specificity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Missaire, Mégane</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT The <span class="hlt">formation</span> of visual circuitry is a multistep process that involves cell–cell interactions based on a range of molecular mechanisms. The correct implementation of individual events, including axon outgrowth and guidance, the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of the topographic <span class="hlt">map</span>, or the synaptic targeting of specific cellular subtypes, are prerequisites for a fully functional visual system that is able to appropriately process the information captured by the eyes. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) with their adhesive properties and their high functional diversity have been identified as key actors in several of these fundamental processes. Because of their growth‐promoting properties, CAMs play an important role in neuritogenesis. Furthermore, they are necessary to control additional neurite development, regulating dendritic spacing and axon pathfinding. Finally, trans‐synaptic interactions of CAMs ensure cell type‐specific connectivity as a basis for the establishment of circuits processing distinct visual features. Recent discoveries implicating CAMs in novel mechanisms have led to a better general understanding of neural circuit <span class="hlt">formation</span>, but also revealed an increasing complexity of their function. This review aims at describing the different levels of action for CAMs to shape neural connectivity, with a special focus on the visual system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 569–583, 2015 PMID:25649254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016BGeo...13..399T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016BGeo...13..399T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Map</span>-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of organic carbon in headwater streams improved by downstream observations from the river outlet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Temnerud, J.; von Brömssen, C.; Fölster, J.; Buffam, I.; Andersson, J.-O.; Nyberg, L.; Bishop, K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In spite of the great abundance and ecological importance of headwater streams, managers are usually limited by a lack of information about water chemistry in these headwaters. In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the chemistry of upstream headwaters (size < 2 km2), relative to models based on <span class="hlt">map</span> information alone. We use the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), an important stream ecosystem parameter, as the target for our study. Between 2000 and 2008, we carried out 17 synoptic surveys in 9 mesoscale catchments (size 32-235 km2). Over 900 water samples were collected in total, primarily from headwater streams but also including each catchment's river outlet during every survey. First we used partial least square regression (PLS) to model the distribution (median, interquartile range (IQR)) of headwater stream TOC for a given catchment, based on a large number of candidate variables including sub-catchment characteristics from GIS, and measured river chemistry at the catchment outlet. The best candidate variables from the PLS models were then used in hierarchical linear mixed models (MM) to model TOC in individual headwater streams. Three predictor variables were consistently selected for the MM calibration sets: (1) proportion of forested wetlands in the sub-catchment (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC), (2) proportion of lake surface cover in the sub-catchment (negatively correlated with headwater stream TOC), and (3) river outlet TOC (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC). Including river outlet TOC improved <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, with 5-15 % lower <span class="hlt">prediction</span> errors than when using <span class="hlt">map</span> information alone. Thus, data on water chemistry measured at river outlets offer information which can complement GIS-based modelling of headwater stream chemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70170067','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70170067"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans off the Pacific Coast of Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Menza, Charles; Leirness, Jeffery B.; White, Tim; Winship, Arliss; Kinlan, Brian P.; Kracker, Laura; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Ballance, Lisa; Becker, Elizabeth; Forney, Karin A.; Barlow, Jay; Adams, Josh; Pereksta, David; Pearson, Scott; Pierce, John; Jeffries, Steven J.; Calambokidis, John; Douglas, Annie; Hanson, Bradford C.; Benson, Scott R.; Antrim, Liam</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This research supports the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Zone Management Program, a voluntary partnership between the federal government and U.S. coastal and Great Lakes states and territories authorized by the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 to address national coastal issues. The act provides the basis for protecting, restoring, and responsibly developing our nation’s diverse coastal communities and resources. To meet the goals of the CZMA, the national program takes a comprehensive approach to coastal resource management – balancing the often competing and occasionally conflicting demands of coastal resource use, economic development, and conservation. A wide range of issues are addressed through the program, including coastal development, water quality, public access, habitat protection, energy facility siting, ocean governance and planning, coastal hazards, and climate change. Accurate <span class="hlt">maps</span> of seabird and marine mammal distributions are an important tool for making informed management decisions that affect all of these issues. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...817..110Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...817..110Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the Gas Turbulence in the Coma Cluster: <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> for Astro-H</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Zhuravleva, I.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Astro-H will be able for the first time to <span class="hlt">map</span> gas velocities and detect turbulence in galaxy clusters. One of the best targets for turbulence studies is the Coma cluster, due to its proximity, absence of a cool core, and lack of a central active galactic nucleus. To determine what constraints Astro-H will be able to place on the Coma velocity field, we construct simulated <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the projected gas velocity and compute the second-order structure function, an analog of the velocity power spectrum. We vary the injection scale, dissipation scale, slope, and normalization of the turbulent power spectrum, and apply measurement errors and finite sampling to the velocity field. We find that even with sparse coverage of the cluster, Astro-H will be able to measure the Mach number and the injection scale of the turbulent power spectrum—the quantities determining the energy flux down the turbulent cascade and the diffusion rate for everything that is advected by the gas (metals, cosmic rays, etc.). Astro-H will not be sensitive to the dissipation scale or the slope of the power spectrum in its inertial range, unless they are outside physically motivated intervals. We give the expected confidence intervals for the injection scale and the normalization of the power spectrum for a number of possible pointing configurations, combining the structure function and velocity dispersion data. Importantly, we also determine that measurement errors on the line shift will bias the velocity structure function upward, and show how to correct this bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6439...86P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6439...86P"><span id="translatedtitle">Taxi-Aware <span class="hlt">Map</span>: Identifying and <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Vacant Taxis in the City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phithakkitnukoon, Santi; Veloso, Marco; Bento, Carlos; Biderman, Assaf; Ratti, Carlo</p> <p></p> <p>Knowing where vacant taxis are and will be at a given time and location helps the users in daily planning and scheduling, as well as the taxi service providers in dispatching. In this paper, we present a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model for the number of vacant taxis in a given area based on time of the day, day of the week, and weather condition. The history is used to build the prior probability distributions for our inference engine, which is based on the naïve Bayesian classifier with developed error-based learning algorithm and method for detecting adequacy of historical data using mutual information. Based on 150 taxis in Lisbon, Portugal, we are able to <span class="hlt">predict</span> for each hour with the overall error rate of 0.8 taxis per 1x1 km2 area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2862194','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2862194"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Interaction Sites from the Energetics of Isolated Proteins: A New Approach to Epitope <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scarabelli, Guido; Morra, Giulia; Colombo, Giorgio</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Abstract An increasing number of functional studies of proteins have shown that sequence and structural similarities alone may not be sufficient for reliable <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of their interaction properties. This is particularly true for proteins recognizing specific antibodies, where the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of antibody-binding sites, called epitopes, has proven challenging. The antibody-binding properties of an antigen depend on its structure and related dynamics. Aiming to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the antibody-binding regions of a protein, we investigate a new approach based on the integrated analysis of the dynamical and energetic properties of antigens, to identify nonoptimized, low-intensity energetic interaction networks in the protein structure isolated in solution. The method is based on the idea that recognition sites may correspond to localized regions with low-intensity energetic couplings with the rest of the protein, which allows them to undergo conformational changes, to be recognized by a binding partner, and to tolerate mutations with minimal energetic expense. Upon analyzing the results on isolated proteins and benchmarking against antibody complexes, it is found that the method successfully identifies binding sites located on the protein surface that are accessible to putative binding partners. The combination of dynamics and energetics can thus discriminate between epitopes and other substructures based only on physical properties. We discuss implications for vaccine design. PMID:20441761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242509"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> developmental precursors of cyber-aggression: trajectories of risk <span class="hlt">predict</span> perpetration and victimization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L; Vernon, Lynette; Vernon, Lynnette</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of known correlates of cyber-aggression: problem behavior, (low) self-esteem, and depressed mood, in a large and diverse sample of youth (N = 1,364; 54.6% female; 12-14 years old at T1). Findings demonstrate that developmental increases in problem behavior across grades 8-10 <span class="hlt">predict</span> both cyber-perpetration and victimization in grade 11. Developmental decreases in self-esteem also <span class="hlt">predicted</span> both grade 11 perpetration and victimization. Finally, early depressed mood <span class="hlt">predicted</span> both perpetration and victimization later on, regardless of developmental change in depressed mood in the interim. Our results reveal a clear link between risky developmental trajectories across the early high school years and later cyber-aggression and imply that mitigating trajectories of risk early on may lead to decreases in cyber-aggression at a later date. PMID:23242509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=understanding+AND+motivation+AND+emotion&pg=5&id=EJ904307','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=understanding+AND+motivation+AND+emotion&pg=5&id=EJ904307"><span id="translatedtitle">Online or Face-to-Face Learning? Exploring the Personal Factors that <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Students' Choice of Instructional <span class="hlt">Format</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Artino, Anthony R., Jr.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Notwithstanding the growth of online learning, little is known about the personal factors that <span class="hlt">predict</span> student decisions to enroll in online courses. This study examined the relations between several personal factors and students' choice of instructional <span class="hlt">format</span>. After completing an online course, service academy undergraduates (N = 564) completed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V53C2810G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V53C2810G"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution photo geologic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the Tuscan <span class="hlt">Formation</span> cliffs in the BCCER and Upper Bidwell Park, Chico CA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>gonzalez, M.; Greene, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Tuscan <span class="hlt">Formation</span> rocks make up the uppermost cliffs of the Big Chico Creek Ecological Reserve (BCCER) and Upper Bidwell Park. These rocks are composed of 3.2 to 1.8 million year old tuffs, conglomerate and sandstone dominated by volcanic clasts, as well as siltstone and mudstone mostly derived from the ancient Mt. Yana volcanic complex near Lake Almanor. This study attempts to investigate stratal geometries of Tuscan deposits in the BCCER and Upper Bidwell Park by <span class="hlt">mapping</span> stratigraphic sections and using high resolution aerial geologic photomosaics of the Tuscan rocks. In order to obtain the best perspective of the rocks, the photos have been taken directly perpendicular to the cliff face using a helicopter and high resolution photography. With these photos, detailed layering and features of the Tuscan, both in the breccia units and the interbedded fluvial units, can be detected. These 'head on' photos are the best way to see erosional surfaces, pinch-outs, and individual flow units. They can also be used to document how well these features correlate down-canyon. Additionally, aerial photos provide a foundation for recognizing larger scale features and trends which would otherwise go unnoticed (channel flow direction, cross-cutting flows). One example of these larger scale features are two larger debris flows at the top of the unit that are best seen by the aerial photos. By foot, these debris flows can be difficult to access because of steep terrain and vegetation cover. These photos will not only aid in the study of the Tuscan deposits, but will potentially benefit other research focused on the hydrology, ecology, or archeology of Upper Bidwell Park and the BCCER. The Tuscan <span class="hlt">Formation</span>. Debris Flow layers can easily be <span class="hlt">mapped</span> from high-resolution photos</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JTST...23.1009V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JTST...23.1009V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Formation</span> Mechanisms, Structure, and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed WC-CoCr Coatings: An Approach Toward Process <span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varis, T.; Suhonen, T.; Ghabchi, A.; Valarezo, A.; Sampath, S.; Liu, X.; Hannula, S.-P.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Our study focuses on understanding the damage tolerance and performance reliability of WC-CoCr coatings. In this paper, the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of HVOF-sprayed tungsten carbide-based cermet coatings is studied through an integrated strategy: First-order process <span class="hlt">maps</span> are created by using online-diagnostics to assess particle states in relation to process conditions. Coating properties such as hardness, wear resistance, elastic modulus, residual stress, and fracture toughness are discussed with a goal to establish a linkage between properties and particle characteristics via second-order process <span class="hlt">maps</span>. A strong influence of particle state on the mechanical properties, wear resistance, and residual stress stage of the coating was observed. Within the used processing window (particle temperature ranged from 1687 to 1831 °C and particle velocity from 577 to 621 m/s), the coating hardness varied from 1021 to 1507 HV and modulus from 257 to 322 GPa. The variation in coating mechanical state is suggested to relate to the microstructural changes arising from carbide dissolution, which affects the properties of the matrix and, on the other hand, cohesive properties of the lamella. The complete tracking of the coating particle state and its linking to mechanical properties and residual stresses enables coating design with desired properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......104W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......104W"><span id="translatedtitle">Radar monitoring of hydrology in Maryland's forested coastal plain wetlands: Implications for <span class="hlt">predicted</span> climate change and improved <span class="hlt">mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiner Lang, Megan</p> <p></p> <p>Wetlands provide important services to society but Mid-Atlantic wetlands are at high risk for loss, with forested wetlands being especially vulnerable. Hydrology (flooding and soil moisture) controls wetland function and extent but it may be altered due to changes in climate and anthropogenic influence. Wetland hydrology must better understood in order to <span class="hlt">predict</span> and mitigate the impact of these changes. Broad-scale forested wetland hydrology is difficult to monitor using ground-based and traditional remote sensing methods. C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data could improve the capability to monitor forested wetland hydrology but the abilities and limitations of these data need further investigation. This study examined: (1) the link between climate and wetland hydrology; (2) the ability of ENVISAT SAR (C-HH and C-VV) data to monitor inundation and soil moisture in forested wetlands; (3) limitations inherent to C-band data (incidence angle, polarization, and phenology) when monitoring forested wetland hydrology; and (4) the accuracy of forested wetland <span class="hlt">maps</span> produced using SAR data. The study was primarily conducted near the Patuxent River in Maryland but the influence of incidence angle was considered along the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This study showed: (1) climate was highly correlated with wetland inundation; (2) significant differences in C-VV and C-HH backscatter existed between forested areas of varying hydrology (uplands and wetlands) throughout the year; (3) C-HH backscatter was better correlated to hydrology than C-VV backscatter; (4) correlations were stronger during the leaf-off season; (5) the difference in backscatter between flooded and non-flooded areas did not sharply decline with incidence angle, as <span class="hlt">predicted</span>; and (6) <span class="hlt">maps</span> produced using SAR data had relatively high accuracy levels. Based on these findings, I concluded that hydrology is influenced by climate at the study site, and C-HH data should be able to monitor changes in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Performance+AND+verification&pg=2&id=EJ869752','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Performance+AND+verification&pg=2&id=EJ869752"><span id="translatedtitle">Incremental and <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Utility of <span class="hlt">Formative</span> Assessment Methods of Reading Comprehension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marcotte, Amanda M.; Hintze, John M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Formative</span> assessment measures are commonly used in schools to assess reading and to design instruction accordingly. The purpose of this research was to investigate the incremental and concurrent validity of <span class="hlt">formative</span> assessment measures of reading comprehension. It was hypothesized that <span class="hlt">formative</span> measures of reading comprehension would contribute…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........22B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........22B"><span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian hierarchical spatial models to improve forest variable <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> with Light Detection and Ranging data sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ball, Jessica Lynne</p> <p></p> <p>Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data has shown great potential to estimate spatially explicit forest variables, including above-ground biomass, stem density, tree height, and more. Due to its ability to garner information about the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies effectively and efficiently, LiDAR sensors have played a key role in the development of operational air and space-borne instruments capable of gathering information about forest structure at regional, continental, and global scales. Combining LiDAR datasets with field-based validation measurements to build <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models is becoming an attractive solution to the problem of quantifying and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> forest structure for private forest land owners and local, state, and federal government entities alike. As with any statistical model using spatially indexed data, the potential to violate modeling assumptions resulting from spatial correlation is high. This thesis explores several different modeling frameworks that aim to accommodate correlation structures within model residuals. The development is motivated using LiDAR and forest inventory datasets. Special attention is paid to estimation and propagation of parameter and model uncertainty through to <span class="hlt">prediction</span> units. Inference follows a Bayesian statistical paradigm. Results suggest the proposed frameworks help ensure model assumptions are met and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance can be improved by pursuing spatially enabled models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26869705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26869705"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome-Wide Association <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Genomic <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Elucidate the Genetic Architecture of Morphological Traits in Arabidopsis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kooke, Rik; Kruijer, Willem; Bours, Ralph; Becker, Frank; Kuhn, André; van de Geest, Henri; Buntjer, Jaap; Doeswijk, Timo; Guerra, José; Bouwmeester, Harro; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Keurentjes, Joost J B</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Quantitative traits in plants are controlled by a large number of genes and their interaction with the environment. To disentangle the genetic architecture of such traits, natural variation within species can be explored by studying genotype-phenotype relationships. Genome-wide association studies that link phenotypes to thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism markers are nowadays common practice for such analyses. In many cases, however, the identified individual loci cannot fully explain the heritability estimates, suggesting missing heritability. We analyzed 349 Arabidopsis accessions and found extensive variation and high heritabilities for different morphological traits. The number of significant genome-wide associations was, however, very low. The application of genomic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models that take into account the effects of all individual loci may greatly enhance the elucidation of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in plants. Here, genomic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models revealed different genetic architectures for the morphological traits. Integrating genomic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and association <span class="hlt">mapping</span> enabled the assignment of many plausible candidate genes explaining the observed variation. These genes were analyzed for functional and sequence diversity, and good indications that natural allelic variation in many of these genes contributes to phenotypic variation were obtained. For ACS11, an ethylene biosynthesis gene, haplotype differences explaining variation in the ratio of petiole and leaf length could be identified. PMID:26869705</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4991307','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4991307"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient Inverse Isoparametric <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Algorithm for Whole-Body Computed Tomography Registration Using Deformations <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> by Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Mao; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Biomechanical modeling methods can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> deformations for medical image registration and particularly, they are very effective for whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration because differences between the source and target images caused by complex articulated motions and soft tissues deformations are very large. The biomechanics-based image registration method needs to deform the source images using the deformation field <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by finite element models (FEMs). In practice, the global and local coordinate systems are used in finite element analysis. This involves the transformation of coordinates from the global coordinate system to the local coordinate system when calculating the global coordinates of image voxels for warping images. In this paper, we present an efficient numerical inverse isoparametric <span class="hlt">mapping</span> algorithm to calculate the local coordinates of arbitrary points within the eight-noded hexahedral finite element. Verification of the algorithm for a nonparallelepiped hexahedral element confirms its accuracy, fast convergence, and efficiency. The algorithm's application in warping of the whole-body CT using the deformation field <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by means of a biomechanical FEM confirms its reliability in the context of whole-body CT registration. PMID:24828796</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626544','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626544"><span id="translatedtitle">Model of Reentrant Ventricular Tachycardia based upon Infarct Border Zone Geometry <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Reentrant Circuit Features as Determined by Activation <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ciaccio, Edward J; Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Kaba, Riyaz A; Cervantes, Daniel; Hopenfeld, Bruce; Wit, Andrew L; Peters, Nicholas S; McVeigh, Elliot R; Garan, Hasan; Coromilas, James</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background Infarct border zone (IBZ) geometry likely affects inducibility and characteristics of postinfarction reentrant ventricular tachycardia, but the connection has not been established. Objective To determine characteristics of post infarction ventricular tachycardia in the IBZ. Methods A geometric model describing the relationship between IBZ geometry and wavefront propagation in reentrant circuits was developed. Based on the formulation, slow conduction and block was expected to coincide with areas where IBZ thickness (T) is minimal and the local spatial gradient in thickness (ΔT) is maximal, so that the degree of wavefront curvature ρ ∝ ΔT/T is maximal. Regions of fastest conduction velocity were <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to coincide with areas of minimum ΔT. In seven arrhythmogenic postinfarction canine heart experiments, tachycardia was induced by programmed stimulation, and activation <span class="hlt">maps</span> were constructed from multichannel recordings. IBZ thickness was measured in excised hearts from histologic analysis or magnetic resonance imaging. Reentrant circuit properties were <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from IBZ geometry and compared with ventricular activation <span class="hlt">maps</span> following tachycardia induction. Results Mean IBZ thickness was 231±140µm at the reentry isthmus and 1440±770µm in the outer pathway (p<0.001). Mean curvature ρ was 1.63±0.45mm−1 at functional block line locations, 0.71±0.18mm−1 at isthmus entrance-exit points, and 0.33±0.13mm−1 in the outer reentrant circuit pathway. The mean conduction velocity about the circuit during reentrant tachycardia was 0.32±0.04mm/ms at entrance-exit points, 0.42±0.13mm/ms for the entire outer pathway, and 0.64±0.16mm/ms at outer pathway regions with minimum ΔT. Model sensitivity and specificity to detect isthmus location was 75.0±5.7% and 97.2±0.7%. Conclusions Reentrant circuit features as determined by activation <span class="hlt">mapping</span> can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> on the basis of IBZ geometrical relationships. PMID:17675078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4592021','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4592021"><span id="translatedtitle">Biofilm <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vital-Lopez, Francisco G.; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm-based infections that are difficult to eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic cells. Developing treatments against biofilms requires an understanding of bacterial biofilm-specific physiological traits. Research efforts have started to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underlying biofilm development. However, many aspects of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we addressed questions regarding biofilm metabolism using a genome-scale kinetic model of the P. aeruginosa metabolic network and gene expression profiles. Specifically, we computed metabolite concentration differences between known mutants with altered biofilm <span class="hlt">formation</span> and the wild-type strain to <span class="hlt">predict</span> drug targets against P. aeruginosa biofilms. We also simulated the altered metabolism driven by gene expression changes between biofilm and stationary growth-phase planktonic cultures. Our analysis suggests that the synthesis of important biofilm-related molecules, such as the quorum-sensing molecule Pseudomonas quinolone signal and the exopolysaccharide Psl, is regulated not only through the expression of genes in their own synthesis pathway, but also through the biofilm-specific expression of genes in pathways competing for precursors to these molecules. Finally, we investigated why mutants defective in anthranilate degradation have an impaired ability to form biofilms. Alternative to a previous hypothesis that this biofilm reduction is caused by a decrease in energy production, we proposed that the dysregulation of the synthesis of secondary metabolites derived from anthranilate and chorismate is what impaired the biofilms of these mutants. Notably, these insights generated through our kinetic model-based approach are not accessible from previous constraint-based model analyses of P. aeruginosa biofilm</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1413351N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1413351N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> and the dispersion of toxic combustion products from the fires of dangerous substances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nevrlý, V.; Bitala, P.; Danihelka, P.; Dobeš, P.; Dlabka, J.; Hejzlar, T.; Baudišová, B.; Míček, D.; Zelinger, Z.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Natural events, such as wildfires, lightning or earthquakes represent a frequent trigger of industrial fires involving dangerous substances. Dispersion of smoke plume from such fires and the effects of toxic combustion products are one of the reference scenarios expected in the framework of major accident prevention. Nowadays, tools for impact assessment of these events are rather missing. Detailed knowledge of burning material composition, atmospheric conditions, and other factors are required in order to describe quantitatively the source term of toxic fire products and to evaluate the parameters of smoke plume. Nevertheless, an assessment of toxic emissions from large scale fires involves a high degree of uncertainty, because of the complex character of physical and chemical processes in the harsh environment of uncontrolled flame. Among the others, soot particle <span class="hlt">formation</span> can be mentioned as still being one of the unresolved problems in combustion chemistry, as well as decomposition pathways of chemical substances. Therefore, simplified approach for estimating the emission factors from outdoor fires of dangerous chemicals, utilizable for major accident prevention and preparedness, was developed and the case study illustrating the application of the proposed method was performed. ALOFT-FT software tool based on large eddy simulation of buoyant fire plumes was employed for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the local toxic contamination in the down-wind vicinity of the fire. The database of model input parameters can be effectively modified enabling the simulation of the smoke plume from pool fires or jet fires of arbitrary flammable (or combustible) gas, liquid or solid. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic via the project LD11012 (in the frame of the COST CM0901 Action) and the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (project no. SPII 1a10 45/70).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_85239.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_85239.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata and Coal Stratigraphy of the Paleocene Fort Union <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Rawlins-Little Snake River Area, South-Central Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.; Ellis, M.S.; Barclay, C.S.V.; East, J.A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This report provides a <span class="hlt">map</span> and detailed descriptions of geologic <span class="hlt">formations</span> for a 1,250 square mile region in the Rawlins-Little Snake River coal field in the eastern part of the Washakie and Great Divide Basins of south-central Wyoming. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of geologic <span class="hlt">formations</span> and coal beds was conducted at a scale of 1:24,000 and compiled at a scale of 1:100,000. Emphasis was placed on coal-bearing strata of the China Butte and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union <span class="hlt">Formation</span>. Surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described and well logs were examined to determine the lateral continuity of individual coal beds; the coal-bed stratigraphy is shown on correlation diagrams. A structure contour and overburden <span class="hlt">map</span> constructed on the uppermost coal bed in the China Butte Member is also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005964','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005964"><span id="translatedtitle">Looking Back and Looking Forward: Reprising the Promise and <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the Future of <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Flying and Spaceborne GPS Navigation Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Frank H.; Dennehy, Neil</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A retrospective consideration of two 15-year old Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) technology 'vision' <span class="hlt">predictions</span> will be the focus of this paper. A look back analysis and critique of these late 1990s technology roadmaps out-lining the future vision, for two then nascent, but rapidly emerging, GN&C technologies will be performed. Specifically, these two GN&C technologies were: 1) multi-spacecraft <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying and 2) the spaceborne use and exploitation of global positioning system (GPS) signals to enable <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying. This paper reprises the promise of <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying and spaceborne GPS as depicted in the cited 1999 and 1998 papers. It will discuss what happened to cause that promise to be mostly unfulfilled and the reasons why the envisioned <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying dream has yet to become a reality. The recent technology trends over the past few years will then be identified and a renewed government interest in spacecraft <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying/cluster flight will be highlighted. The authors will conclude with a reality-tempered perspective, 15 years after the initial technology roadmaps were published, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> a promising future of spacecraft <span class="hlt">formation</span> flying technology development over the next decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CSR....30.1814H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CSR....30.1814H"><span id="translatedtitle">The sediment composition and <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of facies on the Propeller Mound—A cold-water coral mound (Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heindel, Katrin; Titschack, Jürgen; Dorschel, Boris; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Freiwald, André</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>, and video-data. This method is tested for the first time for CWC ecosystems and provides areal estimates of the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> facies, as well as suggests further occurrences of living coral frameworks, coral rubble, and dropstones, which are not discovered in the area yet. Thus, sediment composition analysis combined with facies <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> might provide a potential new tool to estimate living CWC occurrences and sediment/facies distributions on CWC mounds, which is an important prerequisite for budget calculations and definition of marine protected areas, and which will improve our understanding of CWC mound <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4907668','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4907668"><span id="translatedtitle">Usefulness of voxel-based lesion <span class="hlt">mapping</span> for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> motor recovery in subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Dae Hyun; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cho, Yoona; Jung, Tae-min; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Yoon Ghil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract It is important to estimate motor recovery in the early phase after stroke. Many studies have demonstrated that both diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are valuable predictors of motor recovery, but these modalities do not directly reflect the status of the injured gray matter. We report on 2 subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage who showed similar DTT and MEP findings, but had markedly different clinical outcomes. Specifically, Subject 1 showed no improvement in motor function, whereas Subject 2 exhibited substantial improvement 7 weeks after onset. To determine if differences in gray matter might lend insight into these different outcomes, we analyzed gray matter lesions of the 2 subjects using a novel voxel-based lesion <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method. The lesion of Subject 1 mainly included the putamen, thalamus, and Heschl's gyri, indicating extension of the hemorrhage in the posterior direction. In contrast, the lesion of Subject 2 mainly included the putamen, insula, and pallidum, indicating that the hemorrhage extended anterior laterally. These differential findings suggest that voxel-based gray matter lesion <span class="hlt">mapping</span> may help to <span class="hlt">predict</span> differential motor recovery in subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage with similar DTT and MEP findings. PMID:27281090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnGeo..56.1269K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnGeo..56.1269K"><span id="translatedtitle">From radon hazard to risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span>-based on geological <span class="hlt">maps</span>, soil gas and indoor measurements in Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kemski, J.; Klingel, R.; Siehl, A.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Mapped</span> geological units can be regarded as proxies standing for a complex series of subsoil geochemical and physical properties including the assigned radon activity concentration in soil gas, which is taken as best estimator of the regional geogenic radon potential. Areal distribution of measuring sites for soil gas in Germany is adapted to spatial variation of geology. A grid-based and distance-weighted interpolation procedure is applied, following geologically defined neighbourhood relations of measuring sites and accounting for isolated outcrops of known geology but without measurements. To investigate the statistical relationship between indoor radon, house type and building ground specifications, measurements of the indoor radon concentration have been carried out in more than 10,000 dwellings in different regions of Germany. Multiple regression analyses of variance reveal that besides region-specific geological properties and building characteristics, various house type and living style variables significantly contribute to the explained variance for ground floor radon concentrations. These parameters are also dominant in controlling the radon transfer relation from soil gas to indoor air. Risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> for radon in houses indicating the probability to exceed certain indoor threshold values can be useful especially for regions with no or only a few measurements of indoor radon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20419683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20419683"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the distribution of outbreaks and Culicoides vectors in Sicily: towards <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk <span class="hlt">maps</span> for Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Purse, B V; Caracappa, S; Marino, A M F; Tatem, A J; Rogers, D J; Mellor, P S; Baylis, M; Torina, A</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Vector (911 light-trap catches from 269 sites) and serological surveillance data were obtained during recent bluetongue (BT) outbreaks in Sicily. The distributions of Culicoides vectors are compared with that of bluetongue virus (BTV) to determine the relative role of different vectors in BTV transmission in Sicily. The 'best' climatic predictors of distribution for each vector species were selected from 40 remotely-sensed variables and altitude at a 1 km spatial resolution using discriminant analysis. These models were used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> species presence in unsampled pixels across Italy. Although Culicoides imicola, the main European vector, was found in only 12% of sites, there was close correspondence between its spatial distribution and that of the 2000 and 2001 outbreaks. All three candidate vectors C. pulicaris, C. newsteadi and C. obsoletus group were widespread across 2002 outbreak sites but C. newsteadi was significantly less prevalent in outbreak versus non-outbreak sites in Messina and BTV has been isolated from wild-caught adults of both C. pulicaris and C. obsoletus in Italy. The yearly distribution and intensity of outbreaks is attributable to the distribution and abundance of the vectors operating in each year. Outbreaks were few and coastal in 2000 and 2001 due to the low abundance and prevalence of the vector, C. imicola. They were numerous and widespread in 2002, following hand-over of the virus to more prevalent and abundant novel vector species, C. pulicaris and C. obsoletus. Climatic determinants of distribution were species-specific, with those of C. obsoletus group and C. newsteadi <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by temperature variables, and those of C. pulicaris and C. imicola determined mainly by normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), a variable correlated with soil moisture, vegetation biomass and productivity. The <span class="hlt">predicted</span> continuous presence of C. pulicaris along the Appenine mountains, from north to south Italy, suggests BTV transmission may be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II5...61D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II5...61D"><span id="translatedtitle">5D Modelling: An Efficient Approach for Creating Spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> 3D <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of Large-Scale Cultural Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history <span class="hlt">maps</span> are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these <span class="hlt">maps</span>, <span class="hlt">predictive</span> assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015BGD....12.9005T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015BGD....12.9005T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Map</span>-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of organic carbon in headwaters streams improved by downstream observations from the river outlet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Temnerud, J.; von Brömssen, C.; Fölster, J.; Buffam, I.; Andersson, J.-O.; Nyberg, L.; Bishop, K.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In spite of the great abundance and ecological importance of headwater streams, managers are usually limited by a lack of information about water chemistry in these headwaters. In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the chemistry of upstream headwaters (size < 2 km2), relative to models based on <span class="hlt">map</span> information alone. Between 2000 and 2008, we conducted 17 synoptic surveys of streams within 9 mesoscale catchments (size 32-235 km2). Over 900 water samples were collected from catchments ranging in size from 0.03 to 235 km2. First we used partial least square regression (PLS) to model headwater stream total organic carbon (TOC) median and interquartile values for a given catchment, based on a large number of candidate variables including catchment characteristics from GIS, and measured chemistry at the catchment outlet. The best candidate variables from the PLS models were then used in hierarchical linear mixed models (MM) to model TOC in individual headwater streams. Three predictor variables were consistently selected for the MM calibration sets: (1) proportion of forested wetlands in the sub-catchment (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC), (2) proportion of lake surface cover in the sub-catchment (negatively correlated with headwater stream TOC), and (3) whole-catchment river outlet TOC (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC). Including river outlet TOC as a predictor in the models gave 5-15% lower <span class="hlt">prediction</span> errors than using <span class="hlt">map</span> information alone. Thus, data on water chemistry measured at river outlets offers information which can complement GIS-based modelling of headwater stream chemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27286825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27286825"><span id="translatedtitle">Connectivity <span class="hlt">mapping</span> (ssCMap) to <span class="hlt">predict</span> A20-inducing drugs and their antiinflammatory action in cystic fibrosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malcomson, Beth; Wilson, Hollie; Veglia, Eleonora; Thillaiyampalam, Gayathri; Barsden, Ruth; Donegan, Shauna; El Banna, Amal; Elborn, Joseph S; Ennis, Madeleine; Kelly, Catriona; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Schock, Bettina C</p> <p>2016-06-28</p> <p>Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by chronic and exaggerated inflammation in the airways. Despite recent developments to therapeutically overcome the underlying functional defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, there is still an unmet need to also normalize the inflammatory response. The prolonged and heightened inflammatory response in CF is, in part, mediated by a lack of intrinsic down-regulation of the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway. We have previously identified reduced expression of the NF-κB down-regulator A20 in CF as a key target to normalize the inflammatory response. Here, we have used publicly available gene array expression data together with a statistically significant connections' <span class="hlt">map</span> (ssc<span class="hlt">Map</span>) to successfully <span class="hlt">predict</span> drugs already licensed for the use in humans to induce A20 mRNA and protein expression and thereby reduce inflammation. The effect of the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> drugs on A20 and NF-κB(p65) expression (mRNA) as well as proinflammatory cytokine release (IL-8) in the presence and absence of bacterial LPS was shown in bronchial epithelial cells lines (16HBE14o-, CFBE41o-) and in primary nasal epithelial cells from patients with CF (Phe508del homozygous) and non-CF controls. Additionally, the specificity of the drug action on A20 was confirmed using cell lines with tnfαip3 (A20) knockdown (siRNA). We also show that the A20-inducing effect of ikarugamycin and quercetin is lower in CF-derived airway epithelial cells than in non-CF cells. PMID:27286825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4346P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4346P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of humidity, cloud and precipitation <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by fourteen <span class="hlt">MAP</span> D-PHASE mesocale models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polade, Suraj; Ament, Felix</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Precipitation is the final component of the atmospheric part of hydrological cycle. Consequently, all model errors in this complex process chain are accumulated in quantitative precipitation forecasts. Furthermore, many parts of forecasting system can cause errors: poor model formulations, inaccurate initial or boundary data, limited grid resolution etc. We will demonstrate how a multivariate verification of fourteen different mesoscale forecasting systems can be used to disentangle this multitude of effects and to identify specific model deficits. The models forecasts were collected in summer 2007 during the forecast demonstration experiment <span class="hlt">MAP</span> D-PHASE in the Alpine region and comprise both results from convection permitting high-resolution models as well as systems with parameterized deep convection. The observational basis to evaluate these models is obtained from the remote-sensing observations gathered during general observation period (GOP) of the German research program on quantitative precipitation forecasts. Analyses of integrated water vapour (IWV) content, cloud cover and precipitation rate are performed for the summer 2007 over the southern Germany. By analyzing which type of models show similar error structures, it is possible to decide whether the resolution, the model formulation or the initial conditions have a dominant impact on the model error. Particular attention is paid to the representation of the diurnal cycle in all considered quantities. This reveals the great impact of introducing a dry bias by the assimilation of day time radiosondes: There is a significant loss of IWV, a reduction in low and high cloud cover, also sudden decrease of precipitation at 1200 UTC. Finally, we will discuss the added value of using high resolution convection permitting models and of implementing a rapid update cycle of model initialization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001373','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160001373"><span id="translatedtitle">Rift Valley Fever <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and Risk <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>: 2014-2015 Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anyamba, Assaf</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Extremes in either direction (+-) of precipitation temperature have significant implications for disease vectors and pathogen emergence and spread Magnitude of ENSO influence on precipitation temperature cannot be currently <span class="hlt">predicted</span> rely on average history and patterns. Timing of event and emergence disease can be exploited (GAP) in to undertake vector control and preparedness measures. Currently - no risk for ecologically-coupled RVFV activity however we need to be vigilant during the coming fall season due the ongoing buildup of energy in the central Pacific Ocean. Potential for the dual-use of the RVF Monitor system for other VBDs Need to invest in early ground surveillance and the use of rapid field diagnostic capabilities for vector identification and virus isolation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835784','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835784"><span id="translatedtitle">REGIONAL PARADOX <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span> STRUCTURE AND ISOCHORE <span class="hlt">MAPS</span>, BLANDING SUB-BASIN, UTAH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan; Thomas C. Chidsey Jr.; David E. Eby</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field (figure 1). However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161879"><span id="translatedtitle">A 21st century approach to tackling dengue: Crowdsourced surveillance, <span class="hlt">predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and tailored communication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Cheong, Siew Ann; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Theng, Yin-Leng; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Foo, Schubert</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>This paper describes a social media system to prevent dengue in Sri Lanka and potentially in the rest of the South and Southeast Asia regions. The system integrates three concepts of public health prevention that have thus far been implemented only in silos. First, the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> surveillance component uses a computer simulation to forewarn health authorities and the general public about impending disease outbreaks. The civic engagement component allows the general public to use social media tools to interact and engage with health authorities by aiding them in surveillance efforts by reporting symptoms, mosquito bites and breeding sites using smartphone technologies. The health communication component utilizes citizen data gathered from the first two components to disseminate customized health awareness messages to enhance knowledge and increase preventive behaviors among citizens. The system, known as "Mo-Buzz," will be made available on a host of digital platforms like simple mobile phones, smart phones and a website. We present challenges and lessons learnt including content validation, stakeholder collaborations and applied trans-disciplinary research. PMID:24161879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/347924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/347924"><span id="translatedtitle">An attempt to theoretically <span class="hlt">predict</span> third-phase <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA)/dodecane/water/nitric acid extraction system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LeFrancois, L.; Tondre, C.; Belnet, F.; Noel, D.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">formation</span> of a third phase in solvent extraction (due to splitting of the organic phase into two layers) often occurs when the aqueous phase is highly concentrated in acids. This has been reported with the extraction system dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA)/n-dodecane/water/nitric acid, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. Whereas many experimental efforts have been made to investigate the effects of different parameters on third-phase <span class="hlt">formation</span>, very few attempts have been made to <span class="hlt">predict</span> this phenomenon on theoretical grounds. Because the part played by aggregation of the extractant molecules is recognized, the authors propose a new <span class="hlt">predictive</span> approach based on the use of the Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions, which had been successfully applied for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of phase separation phenomena in nonionic surfactant solutions. The authors show that this model can provide an excellent <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the demixing curve (in the absence of metal ions) when establishing the relation between the interaction parameter {chi}{sub 12} calculated from this theory and the nitric acid content of the aqueous phase. Apparent values of the solubility parameter {delta}{sub 2} of the diamide extractant at different acid loadings have been calculated, from which the effect of the nature of the diluent can also be very nicely <span class="hlt">predicted</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22742205N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22742205N"><span id="translatedtitle">Where stars form: inside-out growth and coherent star <span class="hlt">formation</span> across the main sequence from HST Hα <span class="hlt">maps</span> at z~1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, Erica; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Forster Schreiber, Natascha; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel; 3D-HST Collaboration</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Imaging surveys with HST have demonstrated that many galaxies attained their current forms at z~1. Key to understanding this process is a direct measurement of the distribution of star <span class="hlt">formation</span> within galaxies at this crucial epoch. This is now possible with the WFC3 grism capability on HST, as it provides Hα <span class="hlt">maps</span> of all galaxies at 0.7< z <1.5 in its field of view. Using Hα <span class="hlt">maps</span> for 2727 galaxies, we show where star <span class="hlt">formation</span> is distributed in galaxies across the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> - mass plane (the "main sequence"). We find that the disk scale length of Hα is larger than that of the stellar continuum emission, consistent with inside-out assembly of galactic disks. Across the main sequence, we find evidence for 'coherent star <span class="hlt">formation</span>': in galaxies with higher than average star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates, Hα is enhanced throughout the disk; similarly, in galaxies with low star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates Hα is depressed throughout the disk. I discuss these results in the context of several proposed mechanisms for enhancing and quenching star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. I also show first results of the spatial distribution of star <span class="hlt">formation</span> at z~2-3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21229150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21229150"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic calculation and interatomic potential to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the favored composition region for the Cu-Zr-Al metallic glass <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Y Y; Wang, T L; Li, J H; Dai, Y; Liu, B X</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>For the Cu-Zr-Al system, the glass forming compositions were firstly calculated based on the extended Miedema's model, suggesting that the amorphous phase could be thermodynamically favored over a large composition region. An n-body potential was then constructed under the smoothed and long-range second-moment-approximation of tight-binding formulism. Applying the constructed Cu-Zr-Al potential, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted using solid solution models to compare relative stability of crystalline solid solution versus its disordered counterpart. Simulations reveal that the physical origin of metallic glass <span class="hlt">formation</span> is crystalline lattice collapsing while solute concentration exceeding the critical value, thus <span class="hlt">predicting</span> a hexagonal composition region, within which the Cu-Zr-Al ternary metallic glass <span class="hlt">formation</span> is energetically favored. The molecular dynamics simulations <span class="hlt">predicted</span> composition region is defined as the quantitative glass-forming-ability or glass-forming-region of the Cu-Zr-Al system. PMID:21229150</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114938','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1114938"><span id="translatedtitle">Multimodel <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> System for Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Saline <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Zan; Small, Mitchell J; Karamalidis, Athanasios K</p> <p>2013-02-05</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of carbon dioxide solubility in brine at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration (i.e., high temperature, pressure, and salt concentration (T-P-X)) is crucial when this technology is applied. Eleven mathematical models for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> CO{sub 2} solubility in brine are compared and considered for inclusion in a multimodel <span class="hlt">predictive</span> system. Model goodness of fit is evaluated over the temperature range 304–433 K, pressure range 74–500 bar, and salt concentration range 0–7 m (NaCl equivalent), using 173 published CO{sub 2} solubility measurements, particularly selected for those conditions. The performance of each model is assessed using various statistical methods, including the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Different models emerge as best fits for different subranges of the input conditions. A classification tree is generated using machine learning methods to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the best-performing model under different T-P-X subranges, allowing development of a multimodel <span class="hlt">predictive</span> system (MMoPS) that selects and applies the model expected to yield the most accurate CO{sub 2} solubility <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Statistical analysis of the MMoPS <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, including a stratified 5-fold cross validation, shows that MMoPS outperforms each individual model and increases the overall accuracy of CO{sub 2} solubility <span class="hlt">prediction</span> across the range of T-P-X conditions likely to be encountered in carbon sequestration applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.B51F0405S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.B51F0405S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> as a method for the construction of a detailed and testable lithostratigraphic model for the Upper Triassic Chinle <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skinner, L. A.; Martz, J. W.; Parker, W.; Raucci, J.; Umhoefer, P. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Upper Triassic Chinle <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Petrified Forest National Park represents some of the most intensively studied Upper Triassic strata in western North America. Five stratigraphic members are exposed within the park, from oldest to youngest: the Mesa Redondo, Blue Mesa, Sonsela, Petrified Forest, and Owl Rock Members. Despite numerous stratigraphic studies of the Chinle <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and two attempts at <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the park over the past sixty years, sandstone marker beds in the Sonsela Member at the north and south ends of the park were still poorly <span class="hlt">mapped</span> and correlated. Studies in the years 2002 and 2006 claimed that two sandstones which previous workers had considered to lie at different stratigraphic levels (the Jasper Forest Bed and the Flattops One sandstones in the Martha’s Butte beds) were actually correlative. This correlation resulted in a three-part division of the Sonsela Member and had a major impact on vertebrate biostratigraphy. In a recent attempt to resolve confusions regarding Chinle <span class="hlt">Formation</span> lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy, we have completely walked out lithologic contacts through most of the park. The resulting new geologic <span class="hlt">map</span>, revised lithostratigraphic model, and associated data resolves the 2002 and 2006 miscorrelations by demonstrating that the Jasper Forest Bed capping Blue Mesa and Agate Mesa and Flattops One sandstones (Martha’s Butte beds) are stratigraphically distinct, resulting in a thicker and more complex five-part model for the Sonsela Member, and considerably modifying the vertebrate biostratigraphy. New geologic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> also resulted in a detailed lithostratigraphic framework for the northern park which has previously been poorly understood, and several important new marker beds, including a purple-gray bed that represents the base of the Owl Rock Member. The revised geologic <span class="hlt">map</span> is an ArcGIS product that includes an updated lithostratigraphic model for the Chinle <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, fossil localities, and hyperlinks to labeled</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61..791W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61..791W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using <span class="hlt">mapping</span>-based sparse representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a <span class="hlt">mapping</span>-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a <span class="hlt">mapping</span> strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of standard-dose PET image. As the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> standard-dose PET image is further <span class="hlt">mapped</span> to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to <span class="hlt">predict</span> a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26732849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26732849"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using <span class="hlt">mapping</span>-based sparse representation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Lalush, David S; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang</p> <p>2016-01-21</p> <p>Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a <span class="hlt">mapping</span>-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a <span class="hlt">mapping</span> strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of standard-dose PET image. As the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of <span class="hlt">mapping</span> is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> standard-dose PET image is further <span class="hlt">mapped</span> to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to <span class="hlt">predict</span> a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures. PMID:26732849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63579&keyword=Camera&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64900668&CFTOKEN=18060128','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63579&keyword=Camera&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64900668&CFTOKEN=18060128"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAPPING</span> SPATIAL/TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF GREEN MACROALGAE IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL ESTUARY VIA SMALL <span class="hlt">FORMAT</span> COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A small <span class="hlt">format</span> 35 mm hand-held camera with color infrared slide film was used to <span class="hlt">map</span> blooms of benthic green macroalgae upon mudflats of Yaquina Bay estuary on the central Oregon coast, U.S.A. Oblique photographs were taken during a series of low tide events, when the intertidal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127002','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127002"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAPS</span> OF MASSIVE CLUMPS IN THE EARLY STAGE OF CLUSTER <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span>: TWO MODES OF CLUSTER <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span>, COEVAL OR NON-COEVAL?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Higuchi, Aya E.; Saito, Masao; Mauersberger, Rainer; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kurono, Yasutaka; Naoi, Takahiro</p> <p>2013-03-10</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">maps</span> of seven young massive molecular clumps within five target regions in C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) line emission, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. These clumps, which are not associated with clusters, lie at distances between 0.7 and 2.1 kpc. We find C{sup 18}O clumps with radii of 0.5-1.7 pc, masses of 470-4200 M{sub Sun }, and velocity widths of 1.4-3.3 km s{sup -1}. All of the clumps are massive and approximately in virial equilibrium, suggesting they will potentially form clusters. Three of our target regions are associated with H II regions (CWHRs), while the other two are unassociated with H II regions (CWOHRs). The C{sup 18}O clumps can be classified into two morphological types: CWHRs with a filamentary or shell-like structure and spherical CWOHRs. The two CWOHRs have systematic velocity gradients. Using the publicly released WISE database, Class I and Class II protostellar candidates are identified within the C{sup 18}O clumps. The fraction of Class I candidates among all YSO candidates (Class I+Class II) is {>=}50% in CWHRs and {<=}50% in CWOHRs. We conclude that effects from the H II regions can be seen in (1) the spatial distributions of the clumps: filamentary or shell-like structure running along the H II regions; (2) the velocity structures of the clumps: large velocity dispersion along shells; and (3) the small age spreads of YSOs. The small spreads in age of the YSOs show that the presence of H II regions tends to trigger coeval cluster <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.426.2142L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.426.2142L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictions</span> for the CO emission of galaxies from a coupled simulation of galaxy <span class="hlt">formation</span> and photon-dominated regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lagos, Claudia del P.; Bayet, Estelle; Baugh, Carlton M.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Bell, Tom A.; Fanidakis, Nikolaos; Geach, James E.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We combine the galaxy <span class="hlt">formation</span> model GALFORM with the photon-dominated region code ucl-pdr to study the emission from the rotational transitions of 12CO (CO) in galaxies from z = 0 to z = 6 in the Λcold dark matter framework. GALFORM is used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the molecular (H2) and atomic hydrogen (H I) gas contents of galaxies using the pressure-based empirical star <span class="hlt">formation</span> relation of Blitz & Rosolowsky. From the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> H2 mass and the conditions in the interstellar medium, we estimate the CO emission in the rotational transitions 1-0 to 10-9 by applying the ucl-pdr model to each galaxy. We find that deviations from the Milky Way CO-H2 conversion factor come mainly from variations in metallicity, and in the average gas and star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate surface densities. In the local universe, the model <span class="hlt">predicts</span> a CO(1-0) luminosity function (LF), CO-to-total infrared (IR) luminosity ratios for multiple CO lines and a CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) which are in good agreement with observations of luminous and ultra-luminous IR galaxies. At high redshifts, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> CO SLED of the brightest IR galaxies reproduces the shape and normalization of the observed CO SLED. The model <span class="hlt">predicts</span> little evolution in the CO-to-IR luminosity ratio for different CO transitions, in good agreement with observations up to z ≈ 5. We use this new hybrid model to explore the potential of using colour-selected samples of high-redshift star-forming galaxies to characterize the evolution of the cold gas mass in galaxies through observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre Array.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512793','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512793"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Indirectly Recognizable HLA Epitopes Presented by HLA-DRB1 Are Related to HLA Antibody <span class="hlt">Formation</span> During Pregnancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geneugelijk, K; Hönger, G; van Deutekom, H W M; Thus, K A; Keşmir, C; Hösli, I; Schaub, S; Spierings, E</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Pregnancy can prime maternal immune responses against inherited paternal HLA of the fetus, leading to the production of child-specific HLA antibodies. We previously demonstrated that donor-specific HLA antibody <span class="hlt">formation</span> after kidney transplantation is associated with donor-derived HLA epitopes presented by recipient HLA class II (<span class="hlt">predicted</span> indirectly recognizable HLA epitopes presented by HLA class II [PIRCHE-II]). In the present study, we evaluated the role of PIRCHE-II in child-specific HLA antibody <span class="hlt">formation</span> during pregnancy. A total of 229 mother-child pairs were HLA typed. For all mismatched HLA class I molecules of the child, we subsequently <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the number of HLA epitopes that could be presented by maternal HLA class II molecules. Child-specific antigens were classified as either immunogenic or nonimmunogenic HLA based on the presence of specific antibodies and correlated to PIRCHE-II numbers. Immunogenic HLA contained higher PIRCHE-II numbers than nonimmunogenic HLA. Moreover, the probability of antibody production during pregnancy increased with the number of PIRCHE-II. In conclusion, our data suggest that the number of PIRCHE-II is related to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of child-specific HLA antibodies during pregnancy. Present confirmation of the role of PIRCHE-II in antibody <span class="hlt">formation</span> outside the transplantation setting suggests the PIRCHE-II concept is universal. PMID:26512793</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18839759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18839759"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> "old" vs. "young" piñon-juniper stands with a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> topo-climatic model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacobs, B F; Romme, W H; Allen, C D</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Piñon pine and juniper woodlands in the southwestern United States are often represented as an expanding and even invasive vegetation type, a legacy of historic grazing, and culpable in the degradation of western rangelands. A long-standing emphasis on forage production, in combination with recent hazard fuel concerns, has prompted a new era of woodland management with stated restoration objectives. Yet the extent and dynamics of piñon-juniper communities that predate intensive Euro-American settlement activities are poorly known or understood, while the intrinsic ecological, aesthetic, and economic values of old-growth woodlands are often overlooked. Historical changes in piñon-juniper stands include two related, but poorly differentiated processes: recent tree expansion into grass- or shrub-dominated (i.e., non-woodland) vegetation and thickening or infilling of savanna or mosaic woodlands predating settlement. Our work addresses the expansion pattern, modeling the occurrence of "older" savanna and woodland stands extant prior to 1850 in contrast to "younger" piñon-juniper growth of more recent, postsettlement origin. We present criteria in the form of a diagnostic key for distinguishing "older," pre-Euro-American settlement piñon-juniper from "younger" (post-1850) stands and report results of <span class="hlt">predictive</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> efforts within a north-central New Mexico study area. Selected models suggest a primary role for soil moisture in the current distribution of "old" vs. "young" piñon-juniper stands. Presettlement era woodlands are shown to occupy a discrete ecological space, defined by the interaction of effective (seasonal) moisture with landform setting and fine-scale (soil/water) depositional patterns. "Older" stands are generally found at higher elevations or on skeletal soils in upland settings, while "younger" stands (often dominated by one-seed juniper, Juniperus monosperma) are most common at lower elevations or in productive, depositional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..APR.T1002G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..APR.T1002G"><span id="translatedtitle">Prebiotic Atmospheric Chemistry on Titan: <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Kinetics via Ab Initio Calculations for Potential Energy Surface (PES) <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Dayana; Mebel, Alexander</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>It has been recently shown that Titan provides a unique perspective in our solar system: its atmosphere is comparable to a model of prebiotic Earth's. Provided the organic cationic and anionic molecular species identified by the Cassini spacecraft, this research characterizes reaction pathways for the reactions of methyl derivatives of the cyclopropenyl cation, the methyl cation with methyl- and dimethyl-acetylene, and reactions of resonance structures of protonated acrylonitrile with CH2NH. Isomerization and dissociation reactions involving methyl-cyclopropenyl cations, the perinaphthenyl cation and anion, and cations of pyrimidine and purine precursors of nucleobases will be examined to locate reaction pathways, intermediates, transition states, and products of the reactions. Gaussian '09 software is used for ab initio calculations to <span class="hlt">map</span> out the PES. Geometry optimizations and vibrational frequency computations are preformed via the double-hybrid density functional B2PLYP-D3. Single-point energies are refined by use of the explicitly-correlated coupled-cluster CCSD(T)-F12 method. Rate constants are calculated using microcanonical RRKM theory, and pressure effects evaluated used the Master Equation approach; these allow for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of absolute rate constants and product branching ratios at different pressures and temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3230L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3230L"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">predictive</span> numerical model for potential <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the gas hydrate stability zone in the Gulf of Cadiz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leon, R.; Somoza, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>This comunication presents a computational model for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the regional 3D distribution in which seafloor gas hydrates would be stable, that is carried out in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. The construction of the model is comprised of three primary steps, namely (1) the construction of surfaces for the various variables based on available 3D data (seafloor temperature, geothermal gradient and depth-pressure); (2) the calculation of the gas function equilibrium functions for the various hydrocarbon compositions reported from hydrate and sediment samples; and (3) the calculation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone. The solution is based on a transcendental function, which is solved iteratively in a GIS environment. The model has been applied in the northernmost continental slope of the Gulf of Cadiz, an area where an abundant supply for hydrate <span class="hlt">formation</span>, such as extensive hydrocarbon seeps, diapirs and fault structures, is combined with deep undercurrents and a complex seafloor morphology. In the Gulf of Cadiz, model depicts the distribution of the base of the gas hydrate stability zone for both biogenic and thermogenic gas compositions, and explains the geometry and distribution of geological structures derived from gas venting in the Tasyo Field (Gulf of Cadiz) and the generation of BSR levels on the upper continental slope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200631&keyword=lyme+AND+disease&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76777193&CFTOKEN=79416739','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200631&keyword=lyme+AND+disease&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76777193&CFTOKEN=79416739"><span id="translatedtitle">INTEGRATING EARTH OBSERVATION AND FIELD DATA INTO A LYME DISEASE MODEL TO <span class="hlt">MAP</span> AND <span class="hlt">PREDICT</span> RISKS TO BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN HEALTH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>DW-75-92243901<br/>Title: Integrating Earth Observation and Field Data into a Lyme Disease Model to <span class="hlt">Map</span> and <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Risks to Biodiversity and Human HealthDurland Fish, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Joe Roman, Yongtao Guan, Brad Lobitz, Rama Nemani, Joe Piesman, Montira J. Pongsiri, F...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CG.....51..350P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CG.....51..350P"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative study on the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> ability of the decision tree, support vector machine and neuro-fuzzy models in landslide susceptibility <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using GIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pradhan, Biswajeet</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study is to compare the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performances of three different approaches such as decision tree (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for landslide susceptibility <span class="hlt">mapping</span> at Penang Hill area, Malaysia. The necessary input parameters for the landslide susceptibility assessments were obtained from various sources. At first, landslide locations were identified by aerial photographs and field surveys and a total of 113 landslide locations were constructed. The study area contains 340,608 pixels while total 8403 pixels include landslides. The landslide inventory was randomly partitioned into two subsets: (1) part 1 that contains 50% (4000 landslide grid cells) was used in the training phase of the models; (2) part 2 is a validation dataset 50% (4000 landslide grid cells) for validation of three models and to confirm its accuracy. The digitally processed images of input parameters were combined in GIS. Finally, landslide susceptibility <span class="hlt">maps</span> were produced, and the performances were assessed and discussed. Total fifteen landslide susceptibility <span class="hlt">maps</span> were produced using DT, SVM and ANFIS based models, and the resultant <span class="hlt">maps</span> were validated using the landslide locations. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> performances of these <span class="hlt">maps</span> were checked by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) by using both success rate curve and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> rate curve. The validation results showed that, area under the ROC curve for the fifteen models produced using DT, SVM and ANFIS varied from 0.8204 to 0.9421 for success rate curve and 0.7580 to 0.8307 for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> rate curves, respectively. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> curves revealed that model 5 of DT has slightly higher <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance (83.07), whereas the success rate showed that model 5 of ANFIS has better <span class="hlt">prediction</span> (94.21) capability among all models. The results of this study showed that landslide susceptibility <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in the Penang Hill area using the three approaches (e</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35...22P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35...22P"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote Sensing and GIS Based Risk Index <span class="hlt">Map</span> For <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Forest Fire Danger - Evaluation From Forestry Datasets, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prasad, V. K.; Badarinath, K. V. S.</p> <p></p> <p>Forest fires constitute one of the most serious ecological as well as environmental problems affecting most vegetation zones across the world, including India. In this study, we evaluated forest fire risk for sixteen different forest and vegetation types of India. Data from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NOAA AVHRR data has been integrated with bioclimatic data and fuel value index to quantify the forest fire risk. Biomass data for different forest types in different pools has been used as ancillary data. In using the fuel value index, calorific value of wood content for 60 species has been collected and aggregated, for specific species. Results from NDVI and precipitation correlations were found to be highly significant for tropical dry deciduous and moist deciduous forests. Spatial patterns in NDVI closely followed seasonal trends in precipitation for most of the forests. An integrated GIS framework with biophysical, biomass, thermo chemical and bioclimatic parameters allowed the calculation of risk indices for the different forest types. The methodology followed in the study and the <span class="hlt">maps</span> produced are found to be useful for evaluating forest fire risk and for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> forest fire danger in different vegetation zones in India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4633961','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4633961"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K8/TPL-2/COT is a potential <span class="hlt">predictive</span> marker for MEK inhibitor treatment in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gruosso, Tina; Garnier, Camille; Abelanet, Sophie; Kieffer, Yann; Lemesre, Vincent; Bellanger, Dorine; Bieche, Ivan; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Mieulet, Virginie; Mechta-Grigoriou, Fatima</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ovarian cancer is a silent disease with a poor prognosis that urgently requires new therapeutic strategies. In low-grade ovarian tumours, mutations in the <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K BRAF gene constitutively activate the downstream kinase MEK. Here we demonstrate that an additional <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K, <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K8 (TPL-2/COT), accumulates in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSCs) and is a potential prognostic marker for these tumours. By combining analyses on HGSC patient cohorts, ovarian cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K8 controls cancer cell proliferation and migration by regulating key players in G1/S transition and adhesion dynamics. In addition, we show that the MEK pathway is the main pathway involved in mediating <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K8 function, and that <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K8 exhibits a reliable <span class="hlt">predictive</span> value for the effectiveness of MEK inhibitor treatment. Our data highlight key roles for <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K8 in HGSC and indicate that MEK inhibitors could be a useful treatment strategy, in combination with conventional chemotherapy, for this disease. PMID:26456302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961617"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishment of an in silico phospholipidosis <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method using descriptors related to molecular interactions causing phospholipid-compound complex <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haranosono, Yu; Nemoto, Shingo; Kurata, Masaaki; Sakaki, Hideyuki</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although phospholipidosis (PLD) often affects drug development, there is no convenient in vitro or in vivo test system for PLD detection. In this study, we developed an in silico PLD <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method based on the PLD-inducing mechanism. We focused on phospholipid (PL)-compound complex <span class="hlt">formation</span>, which inhibits PL degradation by phospholipase. Thus, we used some molecular interactions, such as electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and intermolecular forces, between PL and compounds as descriptors. First, we performed descriptor screening for intermolecular force and then developed a new in silico PLD <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using descriptors related to molecular interactions. Based on the screening, we identified molecular refraction (MR) as a descriptor of intermolecular force. It is known that ClogP and most-basic pKa can be used for PLD <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Thereby, we developed an in silico <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method using ClogP, most-basic pKa, and MR, which were related to hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions, and intermolecular forces. In addition, a resampling method was used to determine the cut-off values for each descriptor. We obtained good results for 77 compounds as follows: sensitivity = 95.8%, specificity = 75.9%, and concordance = 88.3%. Although there is a concern regarding false-negative compounds for pKa calculations, this <span class="hlt">predictive</span> ability will be adequate for PLD screening. In conclusion, the mechanism-based in silico PLD <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method provided good <span class="hlt">prediction</span> ability, and this method will be useful for evaluating the potential of drugs to cause PLD, particularly in the early stage of drug development, because this method only requires knowledge of the chemical structure. PMID:26961617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...567A.122D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...567A.122D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> a stellar disk into a boxy bulge: The outside-in part of the Milky Way bulge <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Gómez, A.; van Damme, L.; Combes, F.; Hallé, A.; Semelin, B.; Lehnert, M. D.; Katz, D.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>By means of idealized, dissipationless N-body simulations that follow the <span class="hlt">formation</span> and subsequent buckling of a stellar bar, we study the characteristics of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges and compare them with the properties of the stellar populations in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. The main results of our modeling, valid for the general family of boxy/peanut shaped bulges, are the following: (i) Because of the spatial redistribution in the disk initiated at the epoch of bar <span class="hlt">formation</span>, stars from the innermost regions to the outer Lindblad resonance (OLR) of the stellar bar are <span class="hlt">mapped</span> into a boxy bulge. (ii) The contribution of stars to the local bulge density depends on their birth radius: stars born in the innermost disk tend to dominate the innermost regions of the boxy bulge, while stars originating closer to the OLR are preferably found in the outer regions of the boxy/peanut structure. (iii) Stellar birth radii are imprinted in the bulge kinematics: the larger the birth radii of stars ending up in the bulge, the greater their rotational support and the higher their line-of-sight velocity dispersions (but note that this last trend depends on the bar viewing angle). (iv) The higher the classical bulge-over-disk ratio, the larger its fractional contribution of stars at large vertical distance from the galaxy midplane. Comparing these results with the properties of the stellar populations of the MW bulge recently revealed by the ARGOS survey, we conclude that (I) the two most metal-rich populations of the MW bulge, labeled A and B in the ARGOS survey, originate in the disk, with the population of A having formed on average closer to the Galaxy center than the population of component B; (II) a massive (B/D ~ 0.25) classical spheroid can be excluded for the MW, thus confirming previous findings that the MW bulge is composed of populations that mostly have a disk origin. On the basis of their chemical and kinematic characteristics, the results of our modeling suggest that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MMTA...47.1554D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MMTA...47.1554D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Study to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Sigma Phase <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Duplex Stainless Steels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>dos Santos, Daniella Caluscio; Magnabosco, Rodrigo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This work presents an improved kinetic study of sigma phase <span class="hlt">formation</span> during isothermal aging between 973 K and 1223 K (700 °C and 950 °C), based on Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (K-J-M-A) model, established from volume fraction of sigma phase determined in backscattered electron images over polished surfaces of aged samples. The kinetic study shows a change in the main mechanism of sigma <span class="hlt">formation</span> between 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C), from a nucleation-governed stage to a diffusion-controlled growth-coarsening stage, confirmed by a double inclination in K-J-M-A plots and microstructural observations. A single inclination in K-J-M-A plots was observed for the 1223 K (950 °C) aging temperature, showing that kinetic behavior in this temperature is only related to diffusion-controlled growth of sigma phase. The estimated activation energies for the nucleation of sigma phase are close to the molybdenum diffusion in ferrite, probably the controlling mechanism of sigma phase nucleation. The proposed time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram shows a "double c curve" configuration, probably associated to the presence of chi-phase formed between 973 K and 1073 K (700 °C and 800 °C), which acts as heterogeneous nuclei for sigma phase <span class="hlt">formation</span> in low aging temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...88...80P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...88...80P"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast high-resolution <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of multi-phase flow in fractured <span class="hlt">formations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pau, George Shu Heng; Finsterle, Stefan; Zhang, Yingqi</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The success of a thermal water flood for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends on a detailed representation of the geometrical and hydraulic properties of the fracture network, which induces discrete, channelized flow behavior. The resulting high-resolution model is typically computationally very demanding. Here, we use the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Method to reconstruct high-resolution solutions based on efficient low-resolution solutions. The method requires training a reduced order model (ROM) using high- and low-resolution solutions determined for a relatively short simulation time. For a cyclic EOR operation, the oil production rate and the heterogeneous structure of the oil saturation are accurately reproduced even after 105 cycles, reducing the computational cost by at least 85%. The method described is general and can be potentially utilized with any multiphase flow model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acid%2fbase&pg=4&id=EJ1077292','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acid%2fbase&pg=4&id=EJ1077292"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Changes in High School Students' Conceptual Understanding through Concept <span class="hlt">Maps</span> before and after the Computer-Based <span class="hlt">Predict</span>-Observe-Explain (CB-POE) Tasks on Acid-Base Chemistry at the Secondary Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yaman, Fatma; Ayas, Alipasa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although concept <span class="hlt">maps</span> have been used as alternative assessment methods in education, there has been an ongoing debate on how to evaluate students' concept <span class="hlt">maps</span>. This study discusses how to evaluate students' concept <span class="hlt">maps</span> as an assessment tool before and after 15 computer-based <span class="hlt">Predict</span>-Observe-Explain (CB-POE) tasks related to acid-base chemistry.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4095900','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4095900"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancing <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models for particulate <span class="hlt">formation</span> in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot <span class="hlt">formation</span> in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024412"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancing <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models for particulate <span class="hlt">formation</span> in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz</p> <p>2014-08-13</p> <p>Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot <span class="hlt">formation</span> in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20106585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20106585"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of soil organic carbon in wet cultivated lands using classification-tree based models: the case study of Denmark.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mogens H; Bøcher, Peder K; Greve, Mette B; Larsen, René; McCloy, Keith</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important carbon stocks globally and has large potential to affect global climate. Distribution patterns of SOC in Denmark constitute a nation-wide baseline for studies on soil carbon changes (with respect to Kyoto protocol). This paper <span class="hlt">predicts</span> and <span class="hlt">maps</span> the geographic distribution of SOC across Denmark using remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GISs) and decision-tree modeling (un-pruned and pruned classification trees). Seventeen parameters, i.e. parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, mean curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, flow accumulation, specific catchment area, tangent slope, tangent curvature, steady-state wetness index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI) and Soil Color Index (SCI) were generated to statistically explain SOC field measurements in the area of interest (Denmark). A large number of tree-based classification models (588) were developed using (i) all of the parameters, (ii) all Digital Elevation Model (DEM) parameters only, (iii) the primary DEM parameters only, (iv), the remote sensing (RS) indices only, (v) selected pairs of parameters, (vi) soil type, parent material and landscape type only, and (vii) the parameters having a high impact on SOC distribution in built pruned trees. The best constructed classification tree models (in the number of three) with the lowest misclassification error (ME) and the lowest number of nodes (N) as well are: (i) the tree (T1) combining all of the parameters (ME=29.5%; N=54); (ii) the tree (T2) based on the parent material, soil type and landscape type (ME=31.5%; N=14); and (iii) the tree (T3) constructed using parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, tangent slope and SCI (ME=30%; N=39). The produced SOC <span class="hlt">maps</span> at 1:50,000 cartographic scale using these trees are highly matching with coincidence values equal to 90.5% (<span class="hlt">Map</span> T1</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...822L..26B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...822L..26B"><span id="translatedtitle">The EMPIRE Survey: Systematic Variations in the Dense Gas Fraction and Star <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Efficiency from Full-disk <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of M51</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam K.; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J.; Pety, Jérôme; Usero, Antonio; Cormier, Diane; Bolatto, Alberto; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago; Colombo, Dario; González-García, Manuel; Hughes, Annie; Kepley, Amanda A.; Kramer, Carsten; Sandstrom, Karin; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Schuster, Karl; Tomicic, Neven; Zschaechner, Laura</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present the first results from the EMPIRE survey, an IRAM large program that is <span class="hlt">mapping</span> tracers of high-density molecular gas across the disks of nine nearby star-forming galaxies. Here, we present new <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the 3 mm transitions of HCN, HCO+, and HNC across the whole disk of our pilot target, M51. As expected, dense gas correlates with tracers of recent star <span class="hlt">formation</span>, filling the “luminosity gap” between Galactic cores and whole galaxies. In detail, we show that both the fraction of gas that is dense, {f}{dense} traced by HCN/CO, and the rate at which dense gas forms stars, {{SFE}}{dense} traced by IR/HCN, depend on environment in the galaxy. The sense of the dependence is that high-surface-density, high molecular gas fraction regions of the galaxy show high dense gas fractions and low dense gas star <span class="hlt">formation</span> efficiencies. This agrees with recent results for individual pointings by Usero et al. but using unbiased whole-galaxy <span class="hlt">maps</span>. It also agrees qualitatively with the behavior observed contrasting our own Solar Neighborhood with the central regions of the Milky Way. The sense of the trends can be explained if the dense gas fraction tracks interstellar pressure but star <span class="hlt">formation</span> occurs only in regions of high density contrast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384164','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384164"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative model for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> lymph <span class="hlt">formation</span> and muscle compressibility in skeletal muscle during contraction and stretch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Causey, Laura; Cowin, Stephen C.; Weinbaum, Sheldon</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Skeletal muscle is widely perceived as nearly incompressible despite the fact that blood and lymphatic vessels within the endomysial and perimysial spaces undergo significant changes in diameter and length during stretch and contraction. These fluid shifts between fascicle and interstitial compartments have proved extremely difficult to measure. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework based on a space-filling hexagonal fascicle array to provide <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the displacement of blood and lymph into and out of the muscle’s endomysium and perimysium during stretch and contraction. We also use this model to quantify the distribution of blood and initial lymphatic (IL) vessels within a fascicle and its perimysial space using data for the rat spinotrapezius muscle. On average, there are 11 muscle fibers, 0.4 arteriole/venule pairs, and 0.2 IL vessels per fascicle. The model <span class="hlt">predicts</span> that the blood volume in the endomysial space increases 24% and decreases 22% for a 20% contraction and stretch, respectively. However, these significant changes in blood volume in the endomysium produce a change of only ∼2% in fascicle cross-sectional area. In contrast, the entire muscle deviates from isovolumetry by 7% and 6% for a 20% contraction and stretch, respectively, largely attributable to the significantly larger blood volume changes that occur in the perimysial space. This suggests that arcade blood vessels in the perimysial space provide the primary pumping action required for the filling and emptying of ILs during muscular contraction and stretch. PMID:22615376</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.444.2599B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.444.2599B"><span id="translatedtitle">Building a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model of galaxy <span class="hlt">formation</span> - I. Phenomenological model constrained to the z = 0 stellar mass function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benson, Andrew J.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We constrain a highly simplified semi-analytic model of galaxy <span class="hlt">formation</span> using the z ≈ 0 stellar mass function of galaxies. Particular attention is paid to assessing the role of random and systematic errors in the determination of stellar masses, to systematic uncertainties in the model, and to correlations between bins in the measured and modelled stellar mass functions, in order to construct a realistic likelihood function. We derive constraints on model parameters and explore which aspects of the observational data constrain particular parameter combinations. We find that our model, once constrained, provides a remarkable match to the measured evolution of the stellar mass function to z = 1, although fails dramatically to match the local galaxy H I mass function. Several `nuisance parameters' contribute significantly to uncertainties in model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. In particular, systematic errors in stellar mass estimate are the dominant source of uncertainty in model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> at z ≈ 1, with additional, non-negligble contributions arising from systematic uncertainties in halo mass functions and the residual uncertainties in cosmological parameters. Ignoring any of these sources of uncertainties could lead to viable models being erroneously ruled out. Additionally, we demonstrate that ignoring the significant covariance between bins the observed stellar mass function leads to significant biases in the constraints derived on model parameters. Careful treatment of systematic and random errors in the constraining data, and in the model being constrained, is crucial if this methodology is to be used to test hypotheses relating to the physics of galaxy <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ANS...325...14Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ANS...325...14Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Massive Stars by Collisional Mergers: Theoretical Constraints and Observational <span class="hlt">Predictions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zinnecker, Hans; Bally, John</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>While accretional growth can lead to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of massive stars in isolation or in loose OB associations, collisional growth and mergers can only occur in high-density cluster environments. We will discuss the conditions in a very dense young star cluster under which the merger scenario of massive star <span class="hlt">formation</span> may work, and whether these conditions are likely to occur somewhere in the our Galaxy (Orion BN/KL, NGC 3603, W3-IRS5), the Local Group (30 Dor, NGC 604), or other galaxies (NGC 5253, Henize 2-10, The Antennae clusters). We explore the observational consequences of the merger scenario. Protostellar mergers may produce high luminosity infrared flares. Mergers may be surrounded by thick tori of expanding debris, impulsive wide-angle outflows, shock-induced maser and radio continuum emission. The collision products are expected to have fast stellar rotation and a large multiplicity fraction. Massive stars growing by a series of mergers may produce eruptive bursts of wide-angle outflow activity with random orientations; the walls of the resulting outflow cavities may be observable as filaments of dense gas and dust pointing away from the massive star. The extremely rare merger of two stars close to the upper mass limit of the IMF may be a possible pathway to hypernova-generated gamma-ray bursters. We also speculate that the outflow "fingers" from the OMC1 core in the Orion molecular cloud were produced by a merger less than a thousand years ago (Bally and Zinnecker 2004, AJ submitted). Mergers may not occur in every dense young cluster, but certainly in some of them, especially those where dynamical mass segregation of massive stars has taken place (Freitag and Benz 2004, astro-ph 0403621).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20949518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20949518"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model for <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpies of Si and Ge hydrides with propane- and butane-like structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weng, C; Kouvetakis, J; Chizmeshya, A V G</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>Butane- and propane-like silicon-germanium hydrides and chlorinated derivatives represent a new class of precursors for the fabrication of novel metastable materials at low-temperature regimes compatible with selective growth and commensurate with the emerging demand for the reduced thermal budgets of complementary metal oxide semiconductor integration. However, <span class="hlt">predictive</span> simulation studies of the growth process and reaction mechanisms of these new compounds, needed to accelerate their deployment and fine-tune the unprecedented low-temperature and low-pressure synthesis protocols, require experimental thermodynamic data, which are currently unavailable. Furthermore, traditional quantum chemistry approaches lack the accuracy needed to treat large molecules containing third-row elements such as Ge. Accordingly, here we develop a method to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpy of these compounds using atom-wise corrections for Si, Ge, Cl, and H. For a test set of 15 well-known hydrides of Si and Ge and their chlorides, such as Si(3)H(8), Ge(2)H(6), SiGeH(6), SiHCl(3), and GeCl(4), our approach reduces the deviations between the experimental and <span class="hlt">predicted</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> enthalpies obtained from complete basis set (CBS-QB3), G2, and B3LPY thermochemistry to levels of 1-3 kcal/mol, or a factor of ∼5 over the corresponding uncorrected values. We show that our approach yields results comparable or better than those obtained using homodesmic reactions while circumventing the need for thermochemical data of the associated reaction species. Optimized atom-wise corrections are then used to generate accurate enthalpies of <span class="hlt">formation</span> for 39 pure Si-Ge hydrides and a selected group of 20 chlorinated analogs, of which some have recently been synthesized for the first time. Our corrected enthalpies perfectly reproduce the experimental stability trends of heavy butane-like compounds containing Ge. This is in contrast to the direct application of the CBS-QB3 method, which yields</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363542"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled <span class="hlt">formation</span> of polymer nanocapsules with high diffusion-barrier properties and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of encapsulation efficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hofmeister, Ines; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polymer nanocapsules with high diffusion-barrier performance were designed following simple thermodynamic considerations. Hindered diffusion of the enclosed material leads to high encapsulation efficiencies (EEs), which was demonstrated based on the encapsulation of highly volatile compounds of different chemical natures. Low interactions between core and shell materials are key factors to achieve phase separation and a high diffusion barrier of the resulting polymeric shell. These interactions can be characterized and quantified using the Hansen solubility parameters. A systematic study of our copolymer system revealed a linear relationship between the Hansen parameter for hydrogen bonding (δh ) and encapsulation efficiencies which enables the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of encapsulated amounts for any material. Furthermore EEs of poorly encapsulated materials can be increased by mixing them with a mediator compound to give lower overall δh values. PMID:25363542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RMRE...48.1647P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RMRE...48.1647P"><span id="translatedtitle">Underground Excavation Behaviour of the Queenston <span class="hlt">Formation</span>: Tunnel Back Analysis for Application to Shaft Damage Dimension <span class="hlt">Prediction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perras, Matthew A.; Wannenmacher, Helmut; Diederichs, Mark S.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The Niagara Tunnel Project (NTP) is a 10.1 km long water-diversion tunnel in Niagara Falls, Ontario, which was excavated by a 7.2 m radius tunnel boring machine. Approximately half the tunnel length was excavated through the Queenston <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, which locally is a shale to mudstone. Typical overbreak depths ranged between 2 and 4 m with a maximum of 6 m observed. Three modelling approaches were used to back analyse the brittle failure process at the NTP: damage initiation and spalling limit, laminated anisotropy modelling, and ubiquitous joint approaches. Analyses were conducted for three tunnel chainages: 3 + 000, 3 + 250, and 3 + 500 m because the overbreak depth increased from 2 to 4 m. All approaches produced similar geometries to those measured. The laminated anisotropy modelling approach was able to produced chord closures closest to those measured, using a joint normal to shear stiffness ratio between 1 and 2. This understanding was applied to a shaft excavation model in the Queenston <span class="hlt">Formation</span> at the proposed Deep Geological Repository (DGR) site for low and intermediate level nuclear waste storage in Canada. The maximum damage depth was 1.9 m; with an average of 1.0 m. Important differences are discussed between the tunnel and shaft orientation with respect to bedding. The models show that the observed normalized depth of failure at the NTP would over-<span class="hlt">predict</span> the depth of damage expected in the Queenston <span class="hlt">Formation</span> at the DGR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011CTM....15..645Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011CTM....15..645Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A kinetic study on the potential of a hybrid reaction mechanism for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of NOx <span class="hlt">formation</span> in biomass grate furnaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zahirović, Selma; Scharler, Robert; Kilpinen, Pia; Obernberger, Ingwald</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>This paper presents the verification of a hybrid reaction mechanism (28 species, 104 reactions) by means of a kinetic study with a view to its application for the CFD-based <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of gas phase combustion and NOx <span class="hlt">formation</span> in biomass grate furnaces. The mechanism is based on a skeletal kinetic scheme that includes the subsets for H2, CO, NH3 and HCN oxidation derived from the detailed Kilpinen 97 reaction mechanism. To account for the CH4 breakdown two related reactions from the 4-step global mechanism for hydrocarbons oxidation by Jones and Lindstedt were adopted. The hybrid mechanism was compared to the global mechanism and validated against the detailed Kilpinen 97 mechanism. For that purpose plug flow reactor simulations at conditions relevant to biomass combustion (atmospheric pressure, 1200-1600 K) for approximations of the flue gases in a grate furnace at fuel lean and fuel rich conditions were carried out. The hybrid reaction mechanism outperformed the global one at all conditions investigated. The most striking differences obtained in <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by the hybrid and the detailed mechanism at the residence times prior to ignition were attributed to the simplified description of the CH4 oxidation in the case of the former. The overall agreement regarding both combustion and NOx chemistry between the hybrid and the detailed mechanism was better at fuel lean conditions than at fuel rich conditions. However, also at fuel rich conditions, the agreement was improving with increasing temperature. Moreover, it was shown that an improvement in the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of NOx <span class="hlt">formation</span> by the N-subset of the hybrid reaction mechanism can be achieved by replacing its C-H-O subset with that of the detailed one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1061T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1061T"><span id="translatedtitle">On a report that the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in Italy was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> after seeing an unusual cloud <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, J. N.; Masci, F.; Love, J. J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Several recently published reports have suggested that semi-stationary linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> might be causally precursory to earthquakes. We examine the report of Guangmeng and Jie (2013), who claim to have <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in the Po Valley of northern Italy after seeing a satellite photograph (a digital image) showing a linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formation</span> over the eastern Apennine Mountains of central Italy. From inspection of 4 years of satellite images we find numerous examples of linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> over Italy. A simple test shows no obvious statistical relationship between the occurrence of these cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> and earthquakes that occurred in and around Italy. All of the linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> we have identified in satellite images, including that which Guangmeng and Jie (2013) claim to have used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the 2012 earthquake, appear to be orographic - formed by the interaction of moisture-laden wind flowing over mountains. Guangmeng and Jie (2013) have not clearly stated how linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the size, location, and time of an earthquake, and they have not published an account of all of their <span class="hlt">predictions</span> (including any unsuccessful <span class="hlt">predictions</span>). We are skeptical of the validity of the claim by Guangmeng and Jie (2013) that they have managed to <span class="hlt">predict</span> any earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70100559','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70100559"><span id="translatedtitle">On a report that the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in Italy was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> after seeing an unusual cloud <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thomas, J.N.; Masci, F; Love, Jeffrey J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Several recently published reports have suggested that semi-stationary linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> might be causally precursory to earthquakes. We examine the report of Guangmeng and Jie (2013), who claim to have <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in the Po Valley of northern Italy after seeing a satellite photograph (a digital image) showing a linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formation</span> over the eastern Apennine Mountains of central Italy. From inspection of 4 years of satellite images we find numerous examples of linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> over Italy. A simple test shows no obvious statistical relationship between the occurrence of these cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> and earthquakes that occurred in and around Italy. All of the linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> we have identified in satellite images, including that which Guangmeng and Jie (2013) claim to have used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the 2012 earthquake, appear to be orographic – formed by the interaction of moisture-laden wind flowing over mountains. Guangmeng and Jie (2013) have not clearly stated how linear-cloud <span class="hlt">formations</span> can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the size, location, and time of an earthquake, and they have not published an account of all of their <span class="hlt">predictions</span> (including any unsuccessful <span class="hlt">predictions</span>). We are skeptical of the validity of the claim by Guangmeng and Jie (2013) that they have managed to <span class="hlt">predict</span> any earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377099','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377099"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of HμREL Human Coculture System for <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Intrinsic Clearance and Metabolite <span class="hlt">Formation</span> for Slowly Metabolized Compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hultman, Ia; Vedin, Charlotta; Abrahamsson, Anna; Winiwarter, Susanne; Darnell, Malin</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Design of slowly metabolized compounds is an important goal in many drug discovery projects. Standard hepatocyte suspension intrinsic clearance (CLint) methods can only provide reliable CLint values above 2.5 μL/min/million cells. A method that permits extended incubation time with maintained performance and metabolic activity of the in vitro system is warranted to allow in vivo clearance <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and metabolite identification of slowly metabolized drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static HμREL coculture of human hepatocytes with stromal cells to be set up in-house as a standard method for in vivo clearance <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and metabolite identification of slowly metabolized drugs. Fourteen low CLint compounds were incubated for 3 days, and seven intermediate to high CLint compounds and a cocktail of cytochrome P450 (P450) marker substrates were incubated for 3 h. In vivo clearance was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> for 20 compounds applying the regression line approach, and HμREL coculture <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the human intrinsic clearance for 45% of the drugs within 2-fold and 70% of the drugs within 3-fold of the clinical values. CLint values as low as 0.3 μL/min/million hepatocytes were robustly produced, giving 8-fold improved sensitivity of robust low CLint determination, over the cutoff in hepatocyte suspension CLint methods. The CLint values of intermediate to high CLint compounds were at similar levels both in HμREL coculture and in freshly thawed hepatocytes. In the HμREL coculture <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates for five P450-isoform marker reactions, paracetamol (CYP1A2), 1-OH-bupropion (CYP2B6), 4-OH-diclofenac (CYP2C9), and 1-OH-midazolam (3A4) were within the range of literature values for freshly thawed hepatocytes, whereas 1-OH-bufuralol (CYP2D6) <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate was lower. Further, both phase I and phase II metabolites were detected and an increased number of metabolites were observed in the HμREL coculture compared to hepatocyte suspension. In conclusion, HμREL coculture can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/198683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/198683"><span id="translatedtitle">Stresses and fractures in the Frontier <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Green River Basin, <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from basin-margin tectonic element interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lorenz, J.C.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Natural fractures and in situ stresses commonly dictate subsurface reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, as well as the effectiveness of stimulation techniques in low-permeability, natural gas reservoirs. This paper offers an initial <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for the orientations of the fracture and stress systems in the tight gas reservoirs of the Frontier <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, in the Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming. It builds on a previous report that addressed fractures and stresses in the western part of the basin and on ideas developed for the rest of the basin, using the principle that thrust faults are capable of affecting the stress magnitudes and orientations in little-deformed strata several hundreds of kilometers in front of a thrust. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of subsurface stresses and natural fracture orientations is an undertaking that requires the willingness to revise models as definitive data are acquired during drilling. The <span class="hlt">predictions</span> made in this paper are offered with the caveat that geology in the subsurface is always full of surprises.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100032010','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100032010"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Tropical Cyclogenesis with a Global Mesoscale Model: Hierarchical Multiscale Interactions During the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Tropical Cyclone Nargis(2008)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shen, B.-W.; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, W. K.; Atlas, R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Very severe cyclonic storm Nargis devastated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, caused tremendous damage and numerous fatalities, and became one of the 10 deadliest tropical cyclones (TCs) of all time. To increase the warning time in order to save lives and reduce economic damage, it is important to extend the lead time in the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of TCs like Nargis. As recent advances in high-resolution global models and supercomputing technology have shown the potential for improving TC track and intensity forecasts, the ability of a global mesoscale model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> TC genesis in the Indian Ocean is examined in this study with the aim of improving simulations of TC climate. High-resolution global simulations with real data show that the initial <span class="hlt">formation</span> and intensity variations of TC Nargis can be realistically <span class="hlt">predicted</span> up to 5 days in advance. Preliminary analysis suggests that improved representations of the following environmental conditions and their hierarchical multiscale interactions were the key to achieving this lead time: (1) a westerly wind burst and equatorial trough, (2) an enhanced monsoon circulation with a zero wind shear line, (3) good upper-level outflow with anti-cyclonic wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, and (4) low-level moisture convergence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25934121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25934121"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial regulation of terrestrial nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">formation</span>: understanding the biological pathways for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of emission rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Hang-Wei; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The continuous increase of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) in the atmosphere due to increasing anthropogenic nitrogen input in agriculture has become a global concern. In recent years, identification of the microbial assemblages responsible for soil N2O production has substantially advanced with the development of molecular technologies and the discoveries of novel functional guilds and new types of metabolism. However, few practical tools are available to effectively reduce in situ soil N2O flux. Combating the negative impacts of increasing N2O fluxes poses considerable challenges and will be ineffective without successfully incorporating microbially regulated N2O processes into ecosystem modeling and mitigation strategies. Here, we synthesize the latest knowledge of (i) the key microbial pathways regulating N2O production and consumption processes in terrestrial ecosystems and the critical environmental factors influencing their occurrence, and (ii) the relative contributions of major biological pathways to soil N2O emissions by analyzing available natural isotopic signatures of N2O and by using stable isotope enrichment and inhibition techniques. We argue that it is urgently necessary to incorporate microbial traits into biogeochemical ecosystem modeling in order to increase the estimation reliability of N2O emissions. We further propose a molecular methodology oriented framework from gene to ecosystem scales for more robust <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and mitigation of future N2O emissions. PMID:25934121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011577','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011577"><span id="translatedtitle">On vegetation <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in Alaska using LANDSAT imagery with primary concerns for method and purpose in satellite image-based vegetation and land-use <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and the visual interpretation of imagery in photographic <span class="hlt">format</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. A simulated color infrared LANDSAT image covering the western Seward Peninsula was used for identifying and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> vegetation by direct visual examination. The 1:1,083,400 scale print used was prepared by a color additive process using positive transparencies from MSS bands 4, 5, and 7. Seven color classes were recognized. A vegetation <span class="hlt">map</span> of 3200 sq km area just west of Fairbanks, Alaska was made. Five colors were recognized on the image and identified to vegetation types roughly equivalent to <span class="hlt">formations</span> in the UNESCO classification: orange - broadleaf deciduous forest; gray - needleleaf evergreen forest; light violet - subarctic alpine tundra vegetation; violet - broadleaf deciduous shrub thicket; and dull violet - bog vegetation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2699541','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2699541"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the Distribution of Spiral Waves from Cell Properties in a Developmental-Path Model of Dictyostelium Pattern <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern <span class="hlt">formation</span>. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers). This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this concept leads to an inhomogeneous and systematic spatial distribution of spiral waves, which can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from the distribution of cells on the developmental path. We propose specific experiments for checking whether such systematics are also found in data and thus, indirectly, provide evidence of a developmental path. PMID:19593362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6367...42A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6367...42A"><span id="translatedtitle">Atlas Based Segmentation and <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Organs at Risk from Planning CT for the Development of Voxel-Wise <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Models of Toxicity in Prostate Radiotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Acosta, Oscar; Dowling, Jason; Cazoulat, Guillaume; Simon, Antoine; Salvado, Olivier; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Haigron, Pascal</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of toxicity is crucial to managing prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT). This <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is classically organ wise and based on the dose volume histograms (DVH) computed during the planning step, and using for example the mathematical Lyman Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) model. However, these models lack spatial accuracy, do not take into account deformations and may be inappropiate to explain toxicity events related with the distribution of the delivered dose. Producing voxel wise statistical models of toxicity might help to explain the risks linked to the dose spatial distribution but is challenging due to the difficulties lying on the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of organs and dose in a common template. In this paper we investigate the use of atlas based methods to perform the non-rigid <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and segmentation of the individuals' organs at risk (OAR) from CT scans. To build a labeled atlas, 19 CT scans were selected from a population of patients treated for prostate cancer by radiotherapy. The prostate and the OAR (Rectum, Bladder, Bones) were then manually delineated by an expert and constituted the training data. After a number of affine and non rigid registration iterations, an average image (template) representing the whole population was obtained. The amount of consensus between labels was used to generate probabilistic <span class="hlt">maps</span> for each organ. We validated the accuracy of the approach by segmenting the organs using the training data in a leave one out scheme. The agreement between the volumes after deformable registration and the manually segmented organs was on average above 60% for the organs at risk. The proposed methodology provides a way to <span class="hlt">map</span> the organs from a whole population on a single template and sets the stage to perform further voxel wise analysis. With this method new and accurate <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models of toxicity will be built.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712330"><span id="translatedtitle">Adsorption of binary gas mixtures in heterogeneous carbon <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by density functional theory: on the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of adsorption azeotropes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ritter, James A; Pan, Huanhua; Balbuena, Perla B</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Classical density functional theory (DFT) was used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the adsorption of nine different binary gas mixtures in a heterogeneous BPL activated carbon with a known pore size distribution (PSD) and in single, homogeneous, slit-shaped carbon pores of different sizes. By comparing the heterogeneous results with those obtained from the ideal adsorbed solution theory and with those obtained in the homogeneous carbon, it was determined that adsorption nonideality and adsorption azeotropes are caused by the coupled effects of differences in the molecular size of the components in a gas mixture and only slight differences in the pore sizes of a heterogeneous adsorbent. For many binary gas mixtures, selectivity was found to be a strong function of pore size. As the width of a homogeneous pore increases slightly, the selectivity for two different sized adsorbates may change from being greater than unity to less than unity. This change in selectivity can be accompanied by the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of an adsorption azeotrope when this same binary mixture is adsorbed in a heterogeneous adsorbent with a PSD, like in BPL activated carbon. These results also showed that the selectivity exhibited by a heterogeneous adsorbent can be dominated by a small number of pores that are very selective toward one of the components in the gas mixture, leading to adsorption azeotrope <span class="hlt">formation</span> in extreme cases. PMID:20712330</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25907963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25907963"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on the tempo of bubble <span class="hlt">formation</span> in recently cavitated vessels: a model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the pressure of air bubbles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also <span class="hlt">predicts</span> that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84 K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism <span class="hlt">formation</span> in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above. PMID:25907963</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP23A3581L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP23A3581L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> geomorphic process domains to <span class="hlt">predict</span> hillslope sediment size distribution using remotely-sensed data and field sampling, Inyo Creek, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leclere, S.; Sklar, L. S.; Genetti, J. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The size distribution of sediments produced on hillslopes and supplied to channels depends on the geomorphic processes that weather, detach and transport rock fragments down slopes. Little in the way of theory or data is available to <span class="hlt">predict</span> patterns in hillslope size distributions at the catchment scale from topographic and geologic <span class="hlt">maps</span>. Here we use aerial imagery and a variety of remote sensing techniques to <span class="hlt">map</span> and categorize geomorphic landscape units (GLUs) by inferred sediment production process regime, across the steep mountain catchment of Inyo Creek, eastern Sierra Nevada, California. We also use field measurements of particle size and local geomorphic attributes to test and refine GLU determinations. Across the 2 km of relief in this catchment, landcover varies from bare bedrock cliffs at higher elevations to vegetated, regolith-covered convex slopes at lower elevations. Hillslope gradient could provide a simple index of sediment production process, from rock spallation and landsliding at highest slopes, to tree-throw and other disturbance-driven soil production processes at lowest slopes. However, many other attributes are needed for a more robust <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model, including elevation, curvature, aspect, drainage area, and color. We combine tools from ArcGIS, ERDAS Imagine and Envi with groundtruthing field work to find an optimal combination of attributes for defining sediment production GLUs. Key challenges include distinguishing: weathered from freshly eroded bedrock, boulders from intact bedrock, and landslide deposits from talus slopes. We take advantage of emerging technologies that provide new ways of conducting fieldwork and comparing field data to <span class="hlt">mapping</span> solutions. In particular, cellphone GPS is approaching the accuracy of dedicated GPS systems and the ability to geo-reference photos simplifies field notes and increases accuracy of later <span class="hlt">map</span> creation. However, the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> power of the GLU <span class="hlt">mapping</span> approach is limited by inherent uncertainty</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.3436G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.455.3436G"><span id="translatedtitle">Lyman-α emitters in the context of hierarchical galaxy <span class="hlt">formation</span>: <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for VLT/MUSE surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garel, T.; Guiderdoni, B.; Blaizot, J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The VLT/Multi Unit Spectrograph Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectrograph can detect Lyα emitters (LAE) in the redshift range 2.8 ≲ z ≲ 6.7 in a homogeneous way. Ongoing MUSE surveys will notably probe faint Lyα sources that are usually missed by current narrow-band surveys. We provide quantitative <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for a typical wedding-cake observing strategy with MUSE based on mock catalogues generated with a semi-analytic model of galaxy <span class="hlt">formation</span> coupled to numerical Lyα radiation transfer models in gas outflows. We expect ≈1500 bright LAEs (FLyα ≳ 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) in a typical shallow field (SF) survey carried over ≈100 arcmin2 , and ≈2000 sources as faint as 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 in a medium-deep field (MDF) survey over 10 arcmin2 . In a typical deep field (DF) survey of 1 arcmin2 , we <span class="hlt">predict</span> that ≈500 extremely faint LAEs (FLyα ≳ 4 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2) will be found. Our results suggest that faint Lyα sources contribute significantly to the cosmic Lyα luminosity and SFR budget. While the host haloes of bright LAEs at z ≈ 3 and 6 have descendants with median masses of 2 × 1012 and 5 × 1013 M⊙, respectively, the faintest sources detectable by MUSE at these redshifts are <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to reside in haloes which evolve into typical sub-L* and L* galaxy haloes at z = 0. We expect typical DF and MDF surveys to uncover the building blocks of Milky Way-like objects, even probing the bulk of the stellar mass content of LAEs located in their progenitor haloes at z ≈ 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5749D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5749D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the spatial patterns of field traffic and traffic intensity to <span class="hlt">predict</span> soil compaction risks at the field scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duttmann, Rainer; Kuhwald, Michael; Nolde, Michael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Soil compaction is one of the main threats to cropland soils in present days. In contrast to easily visible phenomena of soil degradation, soil compaction, however, is obscured by other signals such as reduced crop yield, delayed crop growth, and the ponding of water, which makes it difficult to recognize and locate areas impacted by soil compaction directly. Although it is known that trafficking intensity is a key factor for soil compaction, until today only modest work has been concerned with the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the spatially distributed patterns of field traffic and with the visual representation of the loads and pressures applied by farm traffic within single fields. A promising method for for spatial detection and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of soil compaction risks of individual fields is to process dGPS data, collected from vehicle-mounted GPS receivers and to compare the soil stress induced by farm machinery to the load bearing capacity derived from given soil <span class="hlt">map</span> data. The application of position-based machinery data enables the <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of vehicle movements over time as well as the assessment of trafficking intensity. It also facilitates the calculation of the trafficked area and the modeling of the loads and pressures applied to soil by individual vehicles. This paper focuses on the modeling and <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of the spatial patterns of traffic intensity in silage maize fields during harvest, considering the spatio-temporal changes in wheel load and ground contact pressure along the loading sections. In addition to scenarios calculated for varying mechanical soil strengths, an example for visualizing the three-dimensional stress propagation inside the soil will be given, using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) to construct 2D or 3D <span class="hlt">maps</span> supporting to decision making due to sustainable field traffic management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611962M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611962M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Damage in Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems Utilizing a Coupled Hydraulic-Thermal-Chemical Reservoir Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible <span class="hlt">formation</span> damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117c6801P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117c6801P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> from First-Principles Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to <span class="hlt">map</span> atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CG.....49...62P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CG.....49...62P"><span id="translatedtitle">Using TOPSIS approaches for <span class="hlt">predictive</span> porphyry Cu potential <span class="hlt">mapping</span>: A case study in Ahar-Arasbaran area (NW, Iran)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pazand, Kaveh; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir; Ataei, Mohammad</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In this article, by using TOPSIS technique we propose a new method for mineral potential <span class="hlt">mapping</span> that commonly used to exploration mineral deposits. TOPSIS is a practical and useful technique for ranking and selection of a number of externally determined alternatives through distance measures. We used TOPSIS and GIS to providing prospectivity <span class="hlt">maps</span> for porphyry copper mineralization on the basis of criteria derived from geological, geochemical, and geophysical controls, and remote sensing data including alteration and faults in Ahar-Arasbaran area in North West Iran. This Method allowed a mixture of quantitative and qualitative information with group decision. The results demonstrate the acceptable outcomes for copper porphyry exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27472127','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27472127"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> from First-Principles Theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to <span class="hlt">map</span> atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope. PMID:27472127</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ilgp.confE..29V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ilgp.confE..29V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> the spatial distribution of star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in cluster galaxies at z ~0.5 with the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vulcani, B.; Treu, T.; Schmidt, K. B.; Poggianti, B. M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Bradač, M.; Brammer, G. B.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.; Malkan, M.; Pentericci, L.; Trenti, M.; von der Linden, A.; Abramson, L.; He, J.; Morris, G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>What physical processes regulate star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in dense environments? Understanding why galaxy evolution is environment dependent is one of the key questions of current astrophysics. I will present the first characterization of the spatial distribution of star <span class="hlt">formation</span> in cluster galaxies at z~0.5, and compare to a field control sample, in order to quantify the role of different physical processes that are believed to be responsible for shutting down star <span class="hlt">formation</span> (Vulcani et al. 2015, Vulcani et al. in prep). The analysis makes use of data from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), a large HST cycle-21 program targeting 10 massive galaxy clusters with extensive HST imaging from CLASH and the Frontier Field Initiative. The program consists of 140 primary and 140 parallel orbits of near-infrared WCF3 and optical ACS slitless grism observations, which result in 3D spectroscopy of hundreds of galaxies. The grism data are used to produce spatially resolved <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> density, while the stellar mass density and optical surface brightness are obtained from multiband imaging. I will describe quantitative measures of the spatial location and extent of the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate. I will show that both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star <span class="hlt">formation</span> and inside out growth. The Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star <span class="hlt">formation</span> being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. I will also correlate the properties of the Hα <span class="hlt">maps</span> to the cluster global properties, such as the hot gas density, and the surface mass density. The characterization of the spatial distribution of Halpha provides a new window, yet poorly exploited, on the mechanisms that regulate star <span class="hlt">formation</span> and morphological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=160503&keyword=cell+AND+wall&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76631019&CFTOKEN=94462842','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=160503&keyword=cell+AND+wall&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76631019&CFTOKEN=94462842"><span id="translatedtitle">USING LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY AND PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES <span class="hlt">PREDICTIONS</span> TO <span class="hlt">MAP</span> WATERSHEDS THAT ARE VULNERABLE TO NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development have <span class="hlt">mapped</span> and interpreted landscape-scale (i.e., broad scale) ecological metrics among watersheds in the upper White River watershed, producing the first geospatial models of water quality vulnerabili...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=228990','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=228990"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the BovineSNP50 assay for QTL <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of genetic merit in Holstein cattle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The previous fifteen years have produced numerous QTL <span class="hlt">mapping</span> experiments aimed at the identification of causal or linked polymorphisms for use in marker assisted selection programs to increase the rate of genetic gain in livestock species. To date, very few causal mutations for QTL have been ident...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17349119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17349119"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of low temperatures on mortality and oviposition in conjunction with climate <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to <span class="hlt">predict</span> spread of the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus and introduced natural enemies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lapointe, Stephen L; Borchert, Daniel M; Hall, David G</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), has been a pest of citrus and ornamental plants since its introduction into Lake County, FL, in 1964. Since then, it has colonized the Florida peninsula to the south of its point of introduction but has not expanded its range to the north. A lower threshold for oviposition by D. abbreviatus was estimated as 14.9 degrees C. Eggs were highly susceptible to cold, with 95% mortality (LTime95) occurring in 4.2 d at 12 degrees C. Relative susceptibility of life stages to cold was eggs > pupae > larvae > adults. Archived weather data from Florida were examined to guide a <span class="hlt">mapping</span> exercise using the lower developmental threshold for larvae (12 degrees C) and the lower threshold for oviposition (15 degrees C) as critical temperatures for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> the distribution of D. abbreviatus and the potential for establishment of egg parasitoids. Probability <span class="hlt">maps</span> using the last 10 yr of weather data examined the frequency of at least 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 d per winter when soil temperature was <or=12 degrees C. The geographic area that experienced between 15 and 20 d per winter with mean daily soil temperature <or=12 degrees C closely approximated the northern limit of D. abbreviatus in Florida. Homologous <span class="hlt">maps</span> of Arizona, California, and Texas <span class="hlt">predict</span> the areas where soil temperatures favor establishment of D. abbreviatus. Successful establishment of egg parasitoids in Florida seems to be limited to southern Florida, where mean daily air temperatures fall below 15 degrees C <25 d/yr. By this measure, we <span class="hlt">predict</span> that egg parasitoids will not establish in Arizona, California, or Texas. PMID:17349119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21167625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21167625"><span id="translatedtitle">Ligand-based virtual screening procedure for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and the identification of novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors using Kohonen <span class="hlt">maps</span> and Counterpropagation Artificial Neural Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Koutentis, Panayiotis A; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Kollias, George</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>In this work we have developed an in silico model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation by small organic molecules. In particular we have explored the inhibitory activity of a series of 62 N-phenylanthranilic acids using Kohonen <span class="hlt">maps</span> and Counterpropagation Artificial Neural Networks. The effects of various structural modifications on biological activity are investigated and novel structures are designed using the developed in silico model. More specifically a search for optimized pharmacophore patterns by insertions, substitutions, and ring fusions of pharmacophoric substituents of the main building block scaffolds is described. The detection of the domain of applicability defines compounds whose estimations can be accepted with confidence. PMID:21167625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027796','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027796"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">predictive</span> penetrative fracture <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method from regional potential field and geologic datasets, southwest Colorado Plateau, U.S.A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Some aquifers of the southwest Colorado Plateau, U.S.A., are deeply buried and overlain by several impermeable units, and thus recharge to the aquifer is probably mainly by seepage down penetrative fracture systems. This purpose of this study was to develop a method to <span class="hlt">map</span> the location of candidate deep penetrative fractures over a 120,000 km2 area using gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data together with surficial fracture data. The resulting database constitutes a spatially registered estimate of recharge location. Candidate deep fractures were obtained by spatial correlation of horizontal gradient and analytic signal maxima of gravity and magnetic anomalies vertically with major surficial lineaments obtained from geologic, topographic, side-looking airborne radar, and satellite imagery. The <span class="hlt">maps</span> define a sub-set of possible penetrative fractures because of limitations of data coverage and the analysis technique. The data and techniques employed do not yield any indication as to whether fractures are open or closed. Correlations were carried out using image processing software in such a way that every pixel on the resulting grids was coded to uniquely identify which datasets correlated. The technique correctly identified known deep fracture systems and many new ones. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of the correlations also define in detail the tectonic fabrics of the Southwestern Colorado Plateau. Copyright ?? The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences; TERRAPUB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159298','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159298"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> forest functional type in a forest-shrubland ecotone using SPOT imagery and <span class="hlt">predictive</span> habitat distribution modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Sibold, Jason</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The availability of land cover data at local scales is an important component in forest management and monitoring efforts. Regional land cover data seldom provide detailed information needed to support local management needs. Here we present a transferable framework to model forest cover by major plant functional type using aerial photos, multi-date Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) imagery, and topographic variables. We developed probability of occurrence models for deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved evergreen forest using logistic regression in the southern portion of the Wyoming Basin Ecoregion. The model outputs were combined into a synthesis <span class="hlt">map</span> depicting deciduous and coniferous forest cover type. We evaluated the models and synthesis <span class="hlt">map</span> using a field-validated, independent data source. Results showed strong relationships between forest cover and model variables, and the synthesis <span class="hlt">map</span> was accurate with an overall correct classification rate of 0.87 and Cohen’s kappa value of 0.81. The results suggest our method adequately captures the functional type, size, and distribution pattern of forest cover in a spatially heterogeneous landscape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.9022B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.9022B"><span id="translatedtitle">A self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span>-based ensemble forecast system for extended range <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of active/break cycles of Indian summer monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borah, N.; Sahai, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Joseph, S.; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The paper describes a probabilistic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> scheme of the intraseasonal oscillation of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) in the extended range (ER, ~3-4weeks) using a self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span> (SOM)-based technique. SOM is used to derive a set of patterns through empirical model reduction. An ensemble method of forecast is then developed for these reduced modes based on the principle of analogue <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. A total of 900 ensembles is created based on the variations of one of the parameters, like length of the observation sample, number of patterns, number of lags, and number of input variables, keeping the others constant. Deterministic correlation skill at fourth pentad lead (15-20 days) from the current model is 0.47 (for development period, 1951-1999) and 0.43 (for hindcast period, 2000-2011) over the monsoon zone of India. This method effectively takes care of the stochastic uncertainties associated with a deterministic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> scheme and provides better guidance to the user community. A large part of the uncertainty in the model's <span class="hlt">prediction</span> skill is related to the interannual variability of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> skill of the active-break spells. The model has problems in forecasting the unusually long active/break spells during the monsoon season, especially during September. Forecasts from certain initial conditions are less <span class="hlt">predictable</span> than those from others. We describe some probable mechanisms from the literature for such problems in the model. This study will provide a benchmark to evaluate dynamical models' skills in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the ISM in ER time scale in future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041263','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041263"><span id="translatedtitle">Using simulated <span class="hlt">maps</span> to interpret the geochemistry, <span class="hlt">formation</span> and quality of the Blue Gem Coal Bed, Kentucky, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geboy, Nicholas J.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Engle, Mark A.; Martin-Fernandez, Jose Antonio</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study presents geostatistical simulations of coal-quality parameters, major oxides and trace metals for an area covering roughly 812 km2 of the Blue Gem coal bed in southeastern Kentucky, USA. The Blue Gem, characterized by low ash yield and low sulfur content, is an important economic resource. Past studies have characterized the Blue Gem's geochemistry, palynology and petrography and inferred a depositional setting of a planar peat deposit that transitioned to slightly domed later in its development. These studies have focused primarily on vertical geochemical trends within the coal bed. Simulated <span class="hlt">maps</span> of chemical elements derived from 45 measured sample locations across the study area provide an opportunity to observe changes in the horizontal direction within the coal bed. As the Blue Gem coal bed shows significant vertical chemical trends, care was taken in this study to try to select samples from a single, middle portion of the coal. By revealing spatial distribution patterns of elements across the middle of the bed, associations between different components of the coal can be seen. The <span class="hlt">maps</span> therefore help to provide a picture of the coal-forming peat bog at an instant in geologic time and allow interpretation of a depositional setting in the horizontal direction. Results from this middle portion of the coal suggest an association of SiO2 with both K2O and TiO2 in different parts of the study area. Further, a pocket in the southeast of the study area shows elevated concentrations of elements attributable to observed carbonate-phase minerals (MgO, CaO, Ba and Sr) as well as elements commonly associated with sulfide-phase minerals (Cu, Mo and Ni). Areas of relatively high ash yield are observed in the north and south of the <span class="hlt">mapped</span> area, in contrast to the low ash yields seen towards the east. Additionally, we present joint probability <span class="hlt">maps</span> where multiple coal-quality parameters are plotted simultaneously on one figure. This application allows researchers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683193"><span id="translatedtitle">What, if anything, are topological <span class="hlt">maps</span> for?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, Stuart P; Bednar, James A</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>What, if anything, is the functional significance of spatial patterning in cortical feature <span class="hlt">maps</span>? We ask this question of four major theories of cortical <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span>: self-organizing <span class="hlt">maps</span>, wiring optimization, place coding, and reaction-diffusion. We argue that (i) self-organizing <span class="hlt">maps</span> yield spatial patterning only as a by-product of efficient mechanisms for developing environmentally appropriate distributions of feature preferences, (ii) wiring optimization assumes rather than explains a <span class="hlt">map</span>-like organization, (iii) place-coding mechanisms can at best explain only a subset of <span class="hlt">maps</span> in functional terms, and (iv) reaction-diffusion models suggest two factors in the evolution of <span class="hlt">maps</span>, the first based on efficient development of feature distributions, and the second based on generating feature-specific long-range recurrent cortical circuitry. None of these explanations for the existence of topological <span class="hlt">maps</span> requires spatial patterning in <span class="hlt">maps</span> to be useful. Thus despite these useful frameworks for understanding how <span class="hlt">maps</span> form and how they are wired, the possibility that patterns are merely epiphenomena in the evolution of mammalian neocortex cannot be rejected. The article is intended as a nontechnical introduction to the assumptions and <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of these four important classes of models, along with other possible functional explanations for <span class="hlt">maps</span>. PMID:25683193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233746','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233746"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational modelling of epidermal stratification highlights the importance of asymmetric cell division for <span class="hlt">predictable</span> and robust layer <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gord, Alexander; Holmes, William R.; Dai, Xing; Nie, Qing</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Skin is a complex organ tasked with, among other functions, protecting the body from the outside world. Its outermost protective layer, the epidermis, is comprised of multiple cell layers that are derived from a single-layered ectoderm during development. Using a new stochastic, multi-scale computational modelling framework, the anisotropic subcellular element method, we investigate the role of cell morphology and biophysical cell–cell interactions in the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of this layered structure. This three-dimensional framework describes interactions between collections of hundreds to thousands of cells and (i) accounts for intracellular structure and morphology, (ii) easily incorporates complex cell–cell interactions and (iii) can be efficiently implemented on parallel architectures. We use this approach to construct a model of the developing epidermis that accounts for the internal polarity of ectodermal cells and their columnar morphology. Using this model, we show that cell detachment, which has been previously suggested to have a role in this process, leads to unpredictable, randomized stratification and that this cannot be abrogated by adjustment of cell–cell adhesion interaction strength. Polarized distribution of cell adhesion proteins, motivated by epithelial polarization, can however eliminate this detachment, and in conjunction with asymmetric cell division lead to robust and <span class="hlt">predictable</span> development. PMID:25100322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874469"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing LED UV fluorescence sensors for online monitoring DOM and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> DBPs <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential during water treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Wen-Tao; Jin, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wu, Chen-Fei; Lu, Hai; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ai-Min</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>Online monitoring dissolved organic matter (DOM) is urgent for water treatment management. In this study, high performance size exclusion chromatography with multi-UV absorbance and multi-emission fluorescence scans were applied to spectrally characterize samples from 16 drinking water sources across Yangzi River and Huai River Watersheds. The UV absorbance indices at 254 nm and 280 nm referred to the same DOM components and concentration, and the 280 nm UV light could excite both protein-like and humic-like fluorescence. Hence a novel UV fluorescence sensor was developed out using only one UV280 light-emitting diode (LED) as light source. For all samples, enhanced coagulation was mainly effective for large molecular weight biopolymers; while anion exchange further substantially removed humic substances. During chlorination tests, UVA280 and UVA254 showed similar correlations with yields of disinfection byproducts (DBPs); the humic-like fluorescence obtained from LED sensors correlated well with both trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids yields, while the correlation between protein-like fluorescence and trihalomethanes was relatively poor. Anion exchange exhibited more reduction of DBPs yields as well as UV absorbance and fluorescence signals than enhanced coagulation. The results suggest that the LED UV fluorescence sensors are very promising for online monitoring DOM and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> DBPs <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential during water treatment. PMID:26874469</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26952143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26952143"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Interindividual Human Variation in Bioactivation and DNA Adduct <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Estragole in Liver <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> by Physiologically Based Kinetic/Dynamic and Monte Carlo Modeling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Punt, Ans; Paini, Alicia; Spenkelink, Albertus; Scholz, Gabriele; Schilter, Benoit; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M</p> <p>2016-04-18</p> <p>Estragole is a known hepatocarcinogen in rodents at high doses following metabolic conversion to the DNA-reactive metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole. The aim of the present study was to model possible levels of DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> in (individual) humans upon exposure to estragole. This was done by extending a previously defined PBK model for estragole in humans to include (i) new data on interindividual variation in the kinetics for the major PBK model parameters influencing the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of 1'-sulfooxyestragole, (ii) an equation describing the relationship between 1'-sulfooxyestragole and DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span>, (iii) Monte Carlo modeling to simulate interindividual human variation in DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the population, and (iv) a comparison of the <span class="hlt">predictions</span> made to human data on DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> for the related alkenylbenzene methyleugenol. Adequate model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> could be made, with the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> DNA adduct levels at the estimated daily intake of estragole of 0.01 mg/kg bw ranging between 1.6 and 8.8 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides (nts) (50th and 99th percentiles, respectively). This is somewhat lower than values reported in the literature for the related alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in surgical human liver samples. The <span class="hlt">predicted</span> levels seem to be below DNA adduct levels that are linked with tumor <span class="hlt">formation</span> by alkenylbenzenes in rodents, which were estimated to amount to 188-500 adducts per 10(8) nts at the BMD10 values of estragole and methyleugenol. Although this does not seem to point to a significant health concern for human dietary exposure, drawing firm conclusions may have to await further validation of the model's <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. PMID:26952143</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMNS23A..06A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMNS23A..06A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Spatial Distribution of Soil Texture with Electromagnetic Induction <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Terrain Analysis Models in Small Watersheds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdu, H.; Robinson, D. A.; Seyfried, M.; Jones, S. B.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Spatial pattern modeling of catchment hydrological processes is limited by the availability of time-sensitive high resolution <span class="hlt">maps</span> of subsurface architecture. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) instruments are gaining wider use for this purpose due to their non-destructive nature, rapid response and ease of integration into mobile platforms. Real-time measurements can infer soil spatial heterogeneity at the small watershed scale. From EMI measurements the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) can be calculated and calibrated to a number of soil properties including: soil salinity, moisture and clay content. The objective of the study is to: 1) infer the textural properties of a watershed through EMI <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, and 2) compare the topography with the textural distribution using terrain analysis models. The DUALEM 1-S ground conductivity meter along with a Trimble ProXT GPS unit were used to make non-invasive geo-referenced EMI measurements of the 36 ha Reynolds Mountain East watershed on the south side of the larger Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho. The geo-referenced ECa readings were input into a salinity modeling statistical software package (ESAP) in order to generate an optimal soil sampling plan. Based on this plan, 20 soil samples were obtained and analyzed for soil moisture content, electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract (ECe) and particle size for clay percentage determination. ESAP was used to estimate the theoretical strength of correlation between ECa and ECe, clay percentage and gravimetric soil moisture content. Terrain analysis software (TauDEM and ArcHydro) were used to evaluate digital elevation models (DEMs) in inferring the influence of topography on the observed field-scale patterns. The results indicate a strong link between clay percentage and the major flow paths due to the movement of finer particles into low lying areas. EMI <span class="hlt">mapping</span> in conjunction with ESAP statistical sampling analysis provides</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22121724','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22121724"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wagner, Marlies; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du; Singer, Oliver C.; Berkefeld, Joachim</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV <span class="hlt">maps</span> were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using FPD CT is a promising tool to <span class="hlt">predict</span> areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ISPAr.XL8..193M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ISPAr.XL8..193M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multinomial Logistic Regression <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Probability <span class="hlt">Map</span> To Visualize The Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Breast Cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can <span class="hlt">predict</span> the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and <span class="hlt">maps</span> showing the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that <span class="hlt">predict</span> the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPL...599...57S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPL...599...57S"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast and accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> by G4MP2-SFM parameterization scheme: An application to imidazole derivatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shoaib, Mahbubul Alam; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Choi, Cheol Ho</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>We proposed a new parameterization scheme, G4MP2-SFM, for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> by combining SFM (Systematic Fragmentation Method) and high accuracy G4MP2 theories. In an application to imidazole derivatives, we found that the overall MAD and RMSD of the particular G4MP2-SFM(opt) are 1.9 and 2.2 kcal/mol, respectively, demonstrating its high <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy. In addition, our parameterization scheme replaces the ab initio computations with a set of simple arithmetic, allowing fast <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. Our new computational scheme can be of practical use in high throughput search for new high energy materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770055923&hterms=Asymmetrical+Flow&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAsymmetrical%2BFlow','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770055923&hterms=Asymmetrical+Flow&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAsymmetrical%2BFlow"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> techniques for multi-jet thermal ground flow fields and fountain <span class="hlt">formation</span>. [generated by V/STOL aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Siclari, M. J.; Aidala, P.; Wohllebe, F.; Palcza, J. L.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Avoiding detrimental ground interaction is important for practical V/STOL aircraft. This paper reports recent developments in a numerical method for estimating thermal ground footprints. Upwash and fountain <span class="hlt">formation</span> for arbitrarily oriented jet arrangements is <span class="hlt">predicted</span>. Flow asymmetry due to roll, pitch, differential thrust or ground inclination is included. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methodology uses simple inviscid relations for energy and momentum conservation along with an empirical entrainment law, applied in independent sectors of the wall jet and upwash. Asymmetrical stagnation line <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is compared with experiment. Detailed flow measurements for a three-jet interaction are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.3340S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.3340S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Alteration mineral <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and metallogenic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) <span class="hlt">mapping</span> method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was <span class="hlt">mapped</span>. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite <span class="hlt">mapped</span> by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ESASP.614E.109B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ESASP.614E.109B"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Model Analysis and <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System (Ocean <span class="hlt">Maps</span>): Operational Ocean Forecasting Base on Near Real-Time Satellite Altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brassington, G. B.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>BLU Elink> is a join t Australian governmen t initiative to develop Austr alia's f irst operational ocean forecasting system called O cean <span class="hlt">MAPS</span>. The project has transitioned to th e implemen tation and trial phase using the infrastructure of the Bureau of Meteorology. Ocean<span class="hlt">MAPS</span> has a g lobal grid with 1/10° by 1/10° resolution in the Australian region (90E-180E, 70S- 16N) and uses the Modular Ocean Model version 4 optimised for the NEC SX6. The analysis uses an ensemb le based multi-variate optimal interpolation scheme wh ere model error cov ariances ar e der ived from a 72-member ensemble of in tra-seasonal anomalies based on a 12-year ocean only model integration. The scheme has been formulated to assimilate near real- time sea level heigh t anomalies processed from Jason-1, ENVISAT and Geosat Follow-On and profile observations including Argo, X BT and the TAO array. The operation al configuration including the data manag emen t of the near real- time observ ations is review ed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27428281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27428281"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Computed Tomography Protocols Affect Material <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based Finite-Element Analysis <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> Stiffness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giambini, Hugo; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Nassr, Ahmad; Yaszemski, Michael J; Zhao, Chunfeng</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Quantitative computed tomography-based finite-element analysis (QCT/FEA) has become increasingly popular in an attempt to understand and possibly reduce vertebral fracture risk. It is known that scanning acquisition settings affect Hounsfield units (HU) of the CT voxels. Material properties assignments in QCT/FEA, relating HU to Young's modulus, are performed by applying empirical equations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of QCT scanning protocols on <span class="hlt">predicted</span> stiffness values from finite-element models. One fresh frozen cadaveric torso and a QCT calibration phantom were scanned six times varying voltage and current and reconstructed to obtain a total of 12 sets of images. Five vertebrae from the torso were experimentally tested to obtain stiffness values. QCT/FEA models of the five vertebrae were developed for the 12 image data resulting in a total of 60 models. <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> stiffness was compared to the experimental values. The highest percent difference in stiffness was approximately 480% (80 kVp, 110 mAs, U70), while the lowest outcome was ∼1% (80 kVp, 110 mAs, U30). There was a clear distinction between reconstruction kernels in <span class="hlt">predicted</span> outcomes, whereas voltage did not present a clear influence on results. The potential of QCT/FEA as an improvement to conventional fracture risk <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tools is well established. However, it is important to establish research protocols that can lead to results that can be translated to the clinical setting. PMID:27428281</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1047/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1047/"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Ground-Motion Modeling Techniques for Use in Global Shake<span class="hlt">Map</span> - A Critique of Instrumental Ground-Motion <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Equations, Peak Ground Motion to Macroseismic Intensity Conversions, and Macroseismic Intensity <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> in Different Tectonic Settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Regional differences in ground-motion attenuation have long been thought to add uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of ground motion. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that regional differences in ground-motion attenuation may not be as significant as previously thought and that the key differences between regions may be a consequence of limitations in ground-motion datasets over incomplete magnitude and distance ranges. Undoubtedly, regional differences in attenuation can exist owing to differences in crustal structure and tectonic setting, and these can contribute to differences in ground-motion attenuation at larger source-receiver distances. Herein, we examine the use of a variety of techniques for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of several ground-motion metrics (peak ground acceleration and velocity, response spectral ordinates, and macroseismic intensity) and compare them against a global dataset of instrumental ground-motion recordings and intensity assignments. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether existing ground-motion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> techniques are applicable for use in the U.S. Geological Survey's Global Shake<span class="hlt">Map</span> and Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER). We seek the most appropriate ground-motion <span class="hlt">predictive</span> technique, or techniques, for each of the tectonic regimes considered: shallow active crust, subduction zone, and stable continental region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23700997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23700997"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow network QSAR for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of physicochemical properties by <span class="hlt">mapping</span> an electrical resistance network onto a chemical reaction poset.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Klein, Douglas J</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Usual quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are computed from unstructured input data, by using a vector of molecular descriptors for each chemical in the dataset. Another alternative is to consider the structural relationships between the chemical structures, such as molecular similarity, presence of certain substructures, or chemical transformations between compounds. We defined a class of network-QSAR models based on molecular networks induced by a sequence of substitution reactions on a chemical structure that generates a partially ordered set (or poset) oriented graph that may be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> various molecular properties with quantitative superstructure-activity relationships (QSSAR). The network-QSAR interpolation models defined on poset graphs, namely average poset, cluster expansion, and spline poset, were tested with success for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of several physicochemical properties for diverse chemicals. We introduce the flow network QSAR, a new poset regression model in which the dataset of chemicals, represented as a reaction poset, is transformed into an oriented network of electrical resistances in which the current flow results in a potential at each node. The molecular property considered in the QSSAR model is represented as the electrical potential, and the value of this potential at a particular node is determined by the electrical resistances assigned to each edge and by a system of batteries. Each node with a known value for the molecular property is attached to a battery that sets the potential on that node to the value of the respective molecular property, and no external battery is attached to nodes from the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> set, representing chemicals for which the values of the molecular property are not known or are intended to be <span class="hlt">predicted</span>. The flow network QSAR algorithm determines the values of the molecular property for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> set of molecules by applying Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's current law to the poset</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..935S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..935S"><span id="translatedtitle">From litter decomposition to soil organic matter <span class="hlt">formation</span>: using leaf traits to <span class="hlt">predict</span> dissolved organic carbon leaching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soong, Jennifer; Parton, William; Calderon, Francisco; Guilbert, Kathleen; Campbell, Nell; Cotrufo, M. Francesca</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>New evidence suggests that leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during litter decomposition is a major process by which decomposing litter forms stabilized soil organic matter (Cotrufo et al. 2013). Understanding this DOC flux based on plant leaf litter traits would strengthen our ability to <span class="hlt">predict</span> ecosystem carbon (C) cycling across different vegetation types. In this study we aim to quantify the proportional relationship between CO2 and DOC partitioning during decomposition of fresh leaf litter from five different plant species, alfalfa, ash, bluestem grass, oak and pine, ranging in structural and chemical composition. The results from this laboratory incubation show a clear relationship between the lignin to cellulose ratios of litter and DOC to CO2 partitioning during four distinct phases of litter decomposition. For example, bluestem grass litter with a low lignin to cellulose ratio loses almost 50% of its C as DOC whereas pine needles with a high lignin to cellulose ratio loses much less C as DOC, indicating a potential ligno-cellulose complexation effect on carbon use efficiency and CO2 vs. DOC fluxes during litter decomposition. DOC production also decreases with time during decomposition, correlating with increasing lignin to cellulose ratios and decreasing availability of soluble, non-structural, leaf compounds (based on FTIR analysis). Initial DOC leaching can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> based on the amount of labile fraction in each litter type. Field data using stable isotope labeled bluestem grass show that while 18% of the surface litter C lost in 18 months of decomposition enters the soil, over 50% of litter derived C in the soil is recovered in mineral associated heavy SOM fractions, not as litter fragments in the light fraction, confirming the relative importance of the DOC flux of C from the litter layer to the soil for soil organic matter <span class="hlt">formation</span>. These results are being used to parameterize a new litter decomposition sub-model to more accurately</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93h5142D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93h5142D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> density functional theory total energies and enthalpies of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of metal-nonmetal compounds by linear regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deml, Ann M.; O'Hayre, Ryan; Wolverton, Chris; Stevanović, Vladan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The availability of quantitatively accurate total energies (Etot) of atoms, molecules, and solids, enabled by the development of density functional theory (DFT), has transformed solid state physics, quantum chemistry, and materials science by allowing direct calculations of measureable quantities, such as enthalpies of <span class="hlt">formation</span> (Δ Hf ). Still, the ability to compute Etot and Δ Hf values does not, necessarily, provide insights into the physical mechanisms behind their magnitudes or chemical trends. Here, we examine a large set of calculated Etot and Δ Hf values obtained from the DFT+U -based fitted elemental-phase reference energies (FERE) approach [V. Stevanović, S. Lany, X. Zhang, and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B 85, 115104 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.115104] to probe relationships between the Etot/Δ Hf of metal-nonmetal compounds in their ground-state crystal structures and properties describing the compound compositions and their elemental constituents. From a stepwise linear regression, we develop a linear model for Etot, and consequently Δ Hf , that reproduces calculated FERE values with a mean absolute error of ˜80 meV/atom. The most significant contributions to the model include calculated total energies of the constituent elements in their reference phases (e.g., metallic iron or gas phase O2), atomic ionization energies and electron affinities, Pauling electronegativity differences, and atomic electric polarizabilities. These contributions are discussed in the context of their connection to the underlying physics. We also demonstrate that our Etot/Δ Hf model can be directly extended to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the Etot and Δ Hf of compounds outside the set used to develop the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MMTB..tmp..180T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MMTB..tmp..180T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An Integrated Modeling Approach for <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Process <span class="hlt">Maps</span> of Residual Stress and Distortion in a Laser Weld: A Combined CFD-FE Methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turner, Richard P.; Panwisawas, Chinnapat; Sovani, Yogesh; Perumal, Bama; Ward, R. Mark; Brooks, Jeffery W.; Basoalto, Hector C.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Laser welding has become an important joining methodology within a number of industries for the structural joining of metallic parts. It offers a high power density welding capability which is desirable for deep weld sections, but is equally suited to performing thinner welded joints with sensible amendments to key process variables. However, as with any welding process, the introduction of severe thermal gradients at the weld line will inevitably lead to process-induced residual stress <span class="hlt">formation</span> and distortions. Finite element (FE) <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for weld simulation have been made within academia and industrial research for a number of years, although given the fluid nature of the molten weld pool, FE methodologies have limited capabilities. An improvement upon this established method would be to incorporate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model formulation prior to the FE model, to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the weld pool shape and fluid flow, such that details can be fed into FE from CFD as a starting condition. The key outputs of residual stress and distortions <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the FE model can then be monitored against the process variables input to the model. Further, a link between the thermal results and the microstructural properties is of interest. Therefore, an empirical relationship between lamellar spacing and the cooling rate was developed and used to make <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about the lamellar spacing for welds of different process parameters. Processing parameter combinations that lead to regions of high residual stress <span class="hlt">formation</span> and high distortion have been determined, and the impact of processing parameters upon the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> lamellar spacing has been presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2372895','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2372895"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural history of left ventricular size and function after acute myocardial infarction. Assessment and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> by echocardiographic endocardial surface <span class="hlt">mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picard, M H; Wilkins, G T; Ray, P A; Weyman, A E</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>To investigate the natural history of regional dyssynergy and left ventricular size after myocardial infarction, 57 patients with a first Q wave myocardial infarction (18 anterior, 35 inferior, and four apical by echocardiography) were studied by two-dimensional echocardiography and compared with 30 control patients. Measurements from the echocardiograms were used to construct <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the left ventricular endocardial surface from which the endocardial surface area index (ESAi) and the percent of the endocardial surface area involved by abnormal wall motion (%AWM) were calculated. The <span class="hlt">maps</span> from entry and 3-month echocardiograms were used to classify patients based on changes in ESAi and abnormal wall motion. Two subgroups of patients were identified at entry--those with a normal ESAi (group 1, n = 50) and those with an increased ESAi (group 2, n = 7). Group 1 patients was subdivided at 3 months by changes occurring in ESAi (1A, 5% increase [n = 19]; 1B, no change [n = 23]; 1C, 5% decrease [n = 8]). The increase in ESAi (64.9 +/- 5.2 to 75.4 +/- 7.5 cm2/m2, p less than 0.0001) in group 1A was associated with global ventricular dilatation (n = 11) and clinically silent infarct extension (n = 8). Groups 1B and 1C were composed predominantly of patients with inferior infarctions, and all exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in infarct size (infarct regression). Group 2 patients demonstrated a continued increase in ESAi by 3 months (88.2 +/- 10.0 to 101.4 +/- 15.5 cm2/m2, p less than 0.007). This group comprised only patients with anterior infarctions, and all exhibited infarct expansion at the left ventricular apex. The changes in left ventricular size and functional infarct size are heterogeneous after acute myocardial infarction and relate to the initial endocardial surface area, infarct location, and functional infarct size. PMID:2372895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27398941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27398941"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Improved Orbitals for CCSD(T) Calculations for <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Heats of <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Group IV and Group VI Metal Oxide Monomers and Dimers and UCl6.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Zongtang; Lee, Zachary; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of group IV and group VI metal oxide monomers and dimers with the coupled cluster CCSD(T) method has been improved by using Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) and Brueckner orbitals for the initial wave function. The valence and core-valence contributions to the total atomization energies for the CrO3 monomer and dimer are <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to be significantly larger than when using the Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. The <span class="hlt">predicted</span> heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> of CrO3 with CCSD(T)/PW91 is consistent with previous calculations including high-order corrections beyond CCSD(T) and agrees well with the experiment. The improved heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> with the DFT and Brueckner orbitals are due to these orbitals being closer to the actual orbitals. Pure DFT functionals perform slightly better than the hybrid B3LYP functional due to the presence of exact exchange in the hybrid functional. Comparable heats of <span class="hlt">formation</span> for TiO2 and the second- and the third-row group IV and group VI metal oxides are <span class="hlt">predicted</span> well using either the DFT PW91 orbitals, Brueckner orbitals, or HF orbitals. The normalized clustering energies for the dimers are consistent with our previous work except for a larger value <span class="hlt">predicted</span> for Cr2O6. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the reaction energy for UF6 + 3Cl2 → UCl6 + 3F2 was significantly improved with the use of DFT or Brueckner orbitals as compared to HF orbitals. PMID:27398941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21301622','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21301622"><span id="translatedtitle">SEQUENTIAL STAR <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span> IN THE Sh 254-258 MOLECULAR CLOUD: HEINRICH HERTZ TELESCOPE <span class="hlt">MAPS</span> OF CO J = 2-1 AND 3-2 EMISSION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.; Schlottman, Keith; Kulesa, Craig; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>The molecular cloud associated with the Sh 254-258 group of five small H II regions appears to be forming a (late)-OB association. We have <span class="hlt">mapped</span> the associated molecular cloud in the J = 2-1 line of the CO and {sup 13}CO molecules over 0.{sup 0}75 x 1{sup 0}, and the CO J = 3-2 line toward the two main peaks, with the University of Arizona Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The data are analyzed with a statistical equilibrium code to estimate physical properties of the molecular gas. We compare the molecular cloud morphology with images at optical, IR, and radio wavelengths. From this analysis, we propose a scenario for sequential <span class="hlt">formation</span> of the stars exciting the H II regions, triggered by the compression of the molecular gas as a consequence of the expansion of the adjacent H II regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPN12004P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPN12004P"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-twist <span class="hlt">map</span> bifurcation of drift-lines and drift-island <span class="hlt">formation</span> in saturated 3D MHD equilibria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pfefferle, David; Cooper, Wilfred A.; Graves, Jonathan P.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Based on non-canonical perturbation theory, guiding-centre drift equations are identified as perturbed magnetic field-line equations. The topology of passing-particle orbits, called drift-lines, is completely determined by the magnetic configuration. In axisymmetric tokamak fields, drift-lines lie on shifted flux-surfaces, called drift-surfaces. Field-lines and drift-lines are subject to island structures at rational surfaces only when a non-axisymmetric component is added. The picture is different in the case of 3D saturated MHD equilibrium like the helical core associated with a non-resonant internal kink mode. In assuming nested flux-surfaces, these bifurcated states, expected for a reversed q-profile with qmin close yet above unity and conveniently obtained in VMEC, feature integrable field-lines. The helical drift-lines however become resonant with the axisymmetric component in the region of qmin and spontaneously generate drift-islands. Due to the locally reversed sheared q-profile, the drift-island structure follows the bifurcation/reconnection mechanism of non-twist <span class="hlt">maps</span>. This result provides a theoretical interpretation of NBI fast ion helical hot-spots in Long-Lived Modes as well as snake-like impurity density accumulation in internal MHD activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25910459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25910459"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating drug delivery with salt <span class="hlt">formation</span>: Drug disproportionation studied in situ by ATR-FTIR imaging and Raman <span class="hlt">mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ewing, Andrew V; Wray, Patrick S; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Two different vibrational spectroscopic approaches, ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging and Raman <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, were used to investigate the components within a tablet containing an ionised drug during dissolution experiments. Delivering certain drugs in their salt form is a method that can be used to improve the bioavailability and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble materials. However, these ionised species have a propensity to covert back to their thermodynamically favourable free acid or base forms. Dissolution experiments of the ionised drug in different aqueous media resulted in conversion to the more poorly soluble free acid form, which is detrimental for controlled drug release. This study investigates the chemical changes occurring to formulations containing a development ionised drug (37% by weight), in different aqueous pH environments. Firstly, dissolution in a neutral medium was studied, showing that there was clear release of ionised monosodium form of the drug from the tablet as it swelled in the aqueous medium. There was no presence of any drug in the monohydrate free acid form detected in these experiments. Dissolution in an acidic (0.1M HCl) solution showed disproportionation forming the free acid form. Disproportionation occurred rapidly upon contact with the acidic solution, initially resulting in a shell of the monohydrate free acid form around the tablet edges. This slowed ingress of the solution into the tablet before full conversion of the ionised form to the free acid form was characterised in the spectroscopic data. PMID:25910459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760000370&hterms=ticks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dticks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760000370&hterms=ticks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dticks"><span id="translatedtitle">DAM - detection and <span class="hlt">mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Integrated set of manual procedures, computer programs, and graphic devices processes multispectral scanner data from orbiting Landsat into precisely registered and <span class="hlt">formatted</span> <span class="hlt">maps</span> of surface water and other resources at variety of scales, sheet <span class="hlt">formats</span>, and tick intervals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1943..209A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1943..209A"><span id="translatedtitle">Using enlarged stereo aerial images acquired by small-<span class="hlt">format</span> nonmetric camera for large-scale ocean floor <span class="hlt">mapping</span> at low tide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adamos, Christos; Faig, Wolfgang</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>HY-GRO '92 is a project currently carried out by the Ocean <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Group at the University of New Brunswick. One of the purposes of this project is the investigation of the relationship between acoustic <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data and the actual ocean seabed bathymetry. In order to facilitate the comparison, ground truthing information (Digital Elevation Model) has been collected using stereo aerial photography of tidal areas at low tide. The required DEM accuracy is in the magnitude of a few centimeters. A reasonable photoscale for providing the required DEM accuracy would be 1:3750. With a focal length of 80 mm the flying height has to be 300 m. In that case the ground coverage of the 57 X 57 mm2 image <span class="hlt">format</span> is 214 X 214 m2. It is clear that for large areas of interest (in our case: 2.5 X 2.5 km2) while maintaining the necessary overlap (60%) and sidelap (30%), the number of photographs and control points becomes unreasonably high, thus making the use of the small <span class="hlt">format</span> camera not attractive anymore. The above encountered problem was solved with the acquisition of the original images in a four times smaller scale (1:15,000, flying height 1200 m, ground coverage 857 X 857 m2). Using a quality enlarger, the original images are enlarged by the same factor, so that the final image product is at the desired scale. The enlargement introduces effects of lens distortions and film deformations but they are again taken care of by the self calibrating bundle adjustment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711609"><span id="translatedtitle">18F-FDOPA and 18F-FLT positron emission tomography parametric response <span class="hlt">maps</span> <span class="hlt">predict</span> response in recurrent malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harris, Robert J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Pope, Whitney B; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Lai, Albert; Zaw, Taryar; Czernin, Johannes; Phelps, Michael E; Chen, Wei; Ellingson, Benjamin M</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The current study examined the use of voxel-wise changes in (18)F-FDOPA and (18)F-FLT PET uptake, referred to as parametric response <span class="hlt">maps</span> (PRMs), to determine whether they were <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of response to bevacizumab in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Twenty-four patients with recurrent malignant gliomas who underwent bevacizumab treatment were analyzed. Patients had MR and PET images acquired before and at 2 time points after bevacizumab treatment. PRMs were created by examining the percentage change in tracer uptake between time points in each image voxel. Voxel-wise increase in PET uptake in areas of pretreatment contrast enhancement defined by MRI stratified 3-month progression-free survival (PFS) and 6-month overall survival (OS) according to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. A decrease in PET tracer uptake was associated with longer PFS and OS, whereas an increase in PET uptake was associated with short PFS and OS. The volume fraction of increased (18)F-FDOPA PET uptake between the 2 posttreatment time points also stratified long- and short-term PFS and OS (log-rank, P < .05); however, (18)F-FLT uptake did not stratify OS. This study suggests that an increase in FDOPA or FLT PET uptake on PRMs after bevacizumab treatment may be a useful biomarker for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> PFS and that FDOPA PET PRMs are also <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of OS in recurrent gliomas treated with bevacizumab. PMID:22711609</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041009','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041009"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic <span class="hlt">Map</span> of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and Preservation of Regional Topography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The area of the Meskhent Tessera quadrangle (V-3, 50-75degN, 60-120degE, Fig. 1) corresponds to a transition zone from the uplands of Ishtar Terra to the west to the lowlands of Atalanta Planitia to the east. The topographic configuration, gravity signature, and presence of large tesserae in Ishtar Terra are consistent with extensive areas of thickened crust and tectonically stabilized lithosphere representing ancient and now extinct regimes of mantle convection. The gravity and topographic characteristics of Atalanta Planitia have been cited as evidence for large-scale mantle downwelling. Thus, the region of Meskhent Tessera quadrangle represents an important sample for the study of the regional history of long-wavelength topography (highlands, midlands, and lowlands), interaction between the downwelling and areas of thickened crust/lithosphere, <span class="hlt">formation</span> of associated tectonic features, and emplacement of volcanic plains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1229933','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1229933"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> and Characteristic Regimes of Aerosol Effects on the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and Evolution of Pyro-Convective Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, Di; Cheng, Yafang; Reutter, Philipp; Trentmann, Jrg; Burrows, Susannah M.; Spichtinger, Peter; Nordmann, Stephan; Andreae, M. O.; Poschl, U.; Su, Hang</p> <p>2015-09-21</p> <p>A recent parcel model study (Reutter et al., 2009) showed three deterministic regimes of initial cloud droplet <span class="hlt">formation</span> characterized by ratios of aerosol concentrations (NCN) to updraft velocities. This analysis, however, did not reveal how these regimes evolve during the subsequent development of clouds. To address this issue, we employed the Active Tracer High Resolution Atmospheric Model with full microphysics and extended the model simulation from the cloud base to the entire column of a single pyro-convective mixed-phase cloud. A series of 2-D simulations (over 1000) were performed over a wide range of NCN and dynamic conditions. The integrated concentration of hydrometeors over the full spatial and temporal scales was used to evaluate the aerosol and dynamic effects. The results show that: (1) the three regimes for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation in the parcel model (namely aerosol-limited, updraft-limited, and transitional regimes) still exist within our simulations, but the net production of raindrops and frozen particles occurs mostly within the updraft-limited regime. (2) Generally, elevated aerosols enhance the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of cloud droplets and frozen particles. The response of raindrops and precipitation to aerosols is more complicated and can be either positive or negative as a function of aerosol concentrations. The most negative effect was found for a value of NCN of ~1000 to 3000 cm-3. (3) The employment of nonlinear (dynamic and microphysical) processes leads to a more complicated and unstable response of clouds to aerosol perturbation compared with the parcel model results. Therefore, conclusions drawn from limited case studies might require caveats regarding their representativeness, and high-resolution sensitivity studies over a wide range of aerosol concentrations and updraft velocities are highly recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972229"><span id="translatedtitle">Is phenol condensation one of the major pathways in the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of polychlorinated dibenzofurans in municipal waste incinerators?: Model <span class="hlt">prediction</span> vs. field observation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryu, Jae-Yong; Takeuchi, Masao; Mulholland, James A</p> <p>2006-03-15</p> <p>The role of phenol condensation pathways in the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) in a municipal waste incinerator was assessed by comparing <span class="hlt">predicted</span> PCDF homologue and isomer patterns with those obtained from the incinerator. A two-phenol condensation model, dependent only on the distribution of phenols, was used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the distributions of PCDF congeners in the incinerator. Complete distributions of phenols and PCDF congeners were obtained from the incinerator. To quantify the degree of agreement between obtained isomer distributions and those <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the model, R-squared values from linear correlations were calculated for the dichlorinated- through hexachlorinated-isomers. They ranged from 0.001 to 0.1. Agreement between obtained and <span class="hlt">predicted</span> PCDF isomers was very poor for all homologues, suggesting that phenol condensation pathways are unlikely to be the primary route in the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of PCDF in the incinerator. However, dibenzofuran (DF) is likely to be produced from a condensation of two phenols. This paper shows the use of PCDF homologue and isomer patterns calculated by the two-phenol condensation model for testing PCDF <span class="hlt">formation</span> mechanism attribution in a municipal waste incinerator. PMID:15972229</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23641329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23641329"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Modeling of Antioxidant Coumarin Derivatives Using Multiple Approaches: Descriptor-Based QSAR, 3D-Pharmacophore <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>, and HQSAR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitra, Indrani; Saha, Achintya; Roy, Kunal</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The inability of the systemic antioxidants to alleviate the exacerbation of free radical <span class="hlt">formation</span> from metabolic outputs and environmental pollutants claims an urgent demand for the identification and design of new chemical entities with potent antioxidant activity. In the present work, different QSAR approaches have been utilized for identifying the essential structural attributes imparting a potential antioxidant activity profile of the coumarin derivatives. The descriptor-based QSAR model provides a quantitative outline regarding the structural prerequisites of the molecules, while 3D pharmacophore and HQSAR models emphasize the favourable spatial arrangement of the various chemical features and the crucial molecular fragments, respectively. All the models infer that the fused benzene ring and the oxygen atom of the pyran ring constituting the parent coumarin nucleus capture the prime pharmacophoric features, imparting superior antioxidant activity to the molecules. The developed models may serve as indispensable query tools for screening untested molecules belonging to the class of coumarin derivatives. PMID:23641329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25163557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25163557"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> models for water sources with high susceptibility for bromine-containing disinfection by-product <span class="hlt">formation</span>: implications for water treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Birt, James; McGree, James; Knight, Nicole</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>This study examines a matrix of synthetic water samples designed to include conditions that favour brominated disinfection by-product (Br-DBP) <span class="hlt">formation</span>, in order to provide <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models suitable for high Br-DBP forming waters such as salinity-impacted waters. Br-DBPs are known to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, in general, and their <span class="hlt">formation</span> may be favoured by routine water treatment practices such as coagulation/flocculation under specific conditions; therefore, circumstances surrounding their <span class="hlt">formation</span> must be understood. The chosen factors were bromide concentration, mineral alkalinity, bromide to dissolved organic carbon (Br/DOC) ratio and Suwannee River natural organic matter concentration. The relationships between these parameters and DBP <span class="hlt">formation</span> were evaluated by response surface modelling of data generated using a face-centred central composite experimental design. <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> models for ten brominated and/or chlorinated DBPs are presented, as well as models for total trihalomethanes (tTHMs) and total dihaloacetonitriles (tDHANs), and bromide substitution factors for the THMs and DHANs classes. The relationships described revealed that increasing alkalinity and increasing Br/DOC ratio were associated with increasing bromination of THMs and DHANs, suggesting that DOC lowering treatment methods that do not also remove bromide such as enhanced coagulation may create optimal conditions for Br-DBP <span class="hlt">formation</span> in waters in which bromide is present. PMID:25163557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3109145','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3109145"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and candidate gene <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the photoperiod and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene pms1(t) in rice* #</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yuan-fei; Zhang, Xian-yin; Xue, Qing-zhong</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Pei′ai64S, an indica sterile variety with photoperiod and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) genes, has been widely exploited for commercial seed production for “two-line” hybrid rice in China. One PTGMS gene from Pei′ai64S, pms1(t), was <span class="hlt">mapped</span> by a strategy of bulked-extreme and recessive-class approach with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and insert and deletion (In-Del) markers. Using linkage analysis for the F2 <span class="hlt">mapping</span> population consisting of 320 completely male sterile individuals derived from a cross between Pei′ai64S and 93-11 (indica restorer) lines, the pms1(t) gene was delimited to the region between the RM21242 (0.2 cM) and YF11 (0.2 cM) markers on the short arm of chromosome 7. The interval containing the pms1(t) locus, which was co-segregated with RM6776, is a 101.1 kb region based on the Nipponbare rice genome. Fourteen <span class="hlt">predicted</span> loci were found in this region by the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) Genomic Annotation. Based on the function of the locus LOC_Os07g12130 by bioinformatics analysis, it is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to encode a protein containing a Myb-like DNA-binding domain, and may process the transcript with thermosensory response. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results revealed that the mRNA levels of LOC_Os07g12130 were altered in different photoperiod and temperature treatments. Thus, the LOC_Os07g12130 locus is the most likely candidate gene for pms1(t). These results may facilitate not only using the molecular marker assisted selection of PTGMS genes, but also cloning of the pms1(t) gene itself. PMID:21634036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118621','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118621"><span id="translatedtitle">Challenges of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the potential distribution of a slow-spreading invader: a habitat suitability <span class="hlt">map</span> for an invasive riparian tree</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the potential spread of invasive species is essential for land managers to prevent their establishment and restore impacted habitat. Habitat suitability modeling provides a tool for researchers and managers to understand the potential extent of invasive species spread. Our goal was to use habitat suitability modeling to <span class="hlt">map</span> potential habitat of the riparian plant invader, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). Russian olive has invaded riparian habitat across North America and is continuing to expand its range. We compiled 11 disparate datasets for Russian olive presence locations (n = 1,051 points and 139 polygons) in the western US and used Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling to develop two habitat suitability <span class="hlt">maps</span> for Russian olive in the western United States: one with coarse-scale water data and one with fine-scale water data. Our models were able to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> current suitable Russian olive habitat (Coarse model: training AUC = 0.938, test AUC = 0.907; Fine model: training AUC = 0.923, test AUC = 0.885). Distance to water was the most important predictor for Russian olive presence in our coarse-scale water model, but it was only the fifth most important variable in the fine-scale model, suggesting that when water bodies are considered on a fine scale, Russian olive does not necessarily rely on water. Our model <span class="hlt">predicted</span> that Russian olive has suitable habitat further west from its current distribution, expanding into the west coast and central North America. Our methodology proves useful for identifying potential future areas of invasion. Model results may be influenced by locations of cultivated individuals and sampling bias. Further study is needed to examine the potential for Russian olive to invade beyond its current range. Habitat suitability modeling provides an essential tool for enhancing our understanding of invasive species spread.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030301','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030301"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of the impact of the 2003 EPRI ground-motion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models on the USGS national seismic-hazard <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cramer, C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Ground-motion attenuation relations have an important impact on seismic hazard analyses. Ground-motion modeling is particularly sensitive to assumptions about wave-propagation attenuation (crustal Q and geometrical spreading), as well as source and site conditions. Studies of path attenuation from earthquakes in eastern North America (ENA) provide insights into the appropriateness of specific attenuation relations. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (2003, 2004) study combines published ENA ground-motion attenuation relations into four model forms: single-corner, double-corner, hybrid-empirical, and finite-fault. When substituted in the U.S. Geological Survey 2002 national seismic hazard <span class="hlt">maps</span> for the five ENA relations originally used in those hazard calculations, the EPRI (2003) relations <span class="hlt">predict</span> similar ground motions and hazard at short periods (0.5 sec), relative to the 2002 national <span class="hlt">maps</span>. A major reason for this difference is due to the crustal seismic-wave attenuation model assumed in a few of the ENA relations combined into the EPRI (2003, 2004) models. Although appropriate differences in geometrical spreading models among ENA relations can also be significant, a few ENA relations have 1-Hz Q-values (Q0) that are below the EPRI (1993) consensus range for Q0 when coupled with a geometrical spreading of R-0.5. The EPRI (2003, 2004) single-corner relation is strongly influenced by the inclusion of ENA relations with assumed Q0 below the EPRI (1993) range, which explains much of the discrepancy in <span class="hlt">predictions</span> at longer periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V53B2787M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V53B2787M"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogical <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of the Banded Iron <span class="hlt">Formations</span> using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy and micro-Raman Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKeeby, B. E.; Schoonen, M. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Ohmoto, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Banded Iron <span class="hlt">Formations</span> (BIFs) consist of thin alternating layers of iron-poor silica and iron-bearing phylosilicates, iron oxides, and carbonates and/or sulfides. BIFs are common in the Precambrian. Although BIFs have been the subject of numerous studies, the mechanism and environments of <span class="hlt">formation</span> remains poorly understood. It has been hotly debated whether BIFs formed by microbes in Fe2+-rich oceans under a reducing atmosphere, or by reactions between locally discharged submarine hydrothermal fluids and O2-rich deep ocean water. The debates have continued mostly because of the lack of detailed studies on the paragenesis of minerals in BIFs to determine which minerals are primary precipitates, and which are diagenetic and metamorphic products. The purpose of this study is to explore the applications of FTIR spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy in micro-scale paragenetic studies of BIF samples. FTIR and Raman are vibrational spectroscopy techniques that provide insight into the chemical bonding within a compound. With these techniques it is possible to resolve the iron oxide, carbonate, and clay mineralogy within BIFs, which is difficult with techniques that rely on elemental analysis, such as TEM-EDAX. Samples used in this study are thin sections of the 2.7 Ga BIFs from Temagami in the Abitibi green stone belt, Ontario, Canada. FTIR analyses were conducted using a Nicolet iN10MX Micro-Imaging FTIR Spectrometer. This instrument is capable of collecting hyperspectral infrared images with a pixel size of 25 microns covering the range from 7000 to 715 cm-1. In addition, we collected point spectra measuring 50X50 microns over a spectral range from 4000 to 400 cm-1. These point spectra were used to distinguish among different iron minerals in the thin sections. Using the hyperspectral data, we created composite false color Images to show mineral variation across the samples. The spectra were modeled using a digital spectral library. After modeling and examination</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4...51U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4...51U"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Project - Applications and Development of Version 2 Dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ubukawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Otsuka, T.; Iimura, T.; Kishimoto, N.; Nakaminami, K.; Motojima, Y.; Suga, M.; Yatabe, Y.; Koarai, M.; Okatani, T.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The Global <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Project aims to develop basic geospatial information of the whole land area of the globe, named Global <span class="hlt">Map</span>, through the cooperation of National <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Organizations (NMOs) around the world. The Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> data can be a base of global geospatial infrastructure and is composed of eight layers: Boundaries, Drainage, Transportation, Population Centers, Elevation, Land Use, Land Cover and Vegetation. The Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> Version 1 was released in 2008, and the Version 2 will be released in 2013 as the data are to be updated every five years. In 2009, the International Steering Committee for Global <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> (ISCGM) adopted new Specifications to develop the Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> Version 2 with a change of its <span class="hlt">format</span> so that it is compatible with the international standards, namely ISO 19136 and ISO 19115. With the support of the secretariat of ISCGM, the project participating countries are accelerating their data development toward the completion of the global coverage in 2013, while some countries have already released their Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> version 2 datasets since 2010. Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> data are available from the Internet free of charge for non-commercial purposes, which can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span>, assess, prepare for and cope with global issues by combining with other spatial data. There are a lot of Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> applications in various fields, and further utilization of Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> is expected. This paper summarises the activities toward the development of the Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> Version 2 as well as some examples of the Global <span class="hlt">Map</span> applications in various fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.B11F0495G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.B11F0495G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Real Time Monitoring of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration and Disinfection By-Product <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Potential in a Surface Water Treatment Plant with Simulaneous UV-VIS Absorbance and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilmore, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study describes a method based on simultaneous absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission <span class="hlt">mapping</span> for rapidly and accurately monitoring dissolved organic carbon concentration and disinfection by-product <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential for surface water sourced drinking water treatment. The method enables real-time monitoring of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), absorbance at 254 nm (UVA), the Specific UV Absorbance (SUVA) as well as the Simulated Distribution System Trihalomethane (THM) <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Potential (SDS-THMFP) for the source and treated water among other component parameters. The method primarily involves Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) decomposition of the high and lower molecular weight humic and fulvic organic component concentrations. The DOC calibration method involves calculating a single slope factor (with the intercept fixed at 0 mg/l) by linear regression for the UVA divided by the ratio of the high and low molecular weight component concentrations. This method thus corrects for the changes in the molecular weight component composition as a function of the source water composition and coagulation treatment effects. The SDS-THMFP calibration involves a multiple linear regression of the DOC, organic component ratio, chlorine residual, pH and alkalinity. Both the DOC and SDS-THMFP correlations over a period of 18 months exhibited adjusted correlation coefficients with r2 > 0.969. The parameters can be reported as a function of compliance rules associated with required % removals of DOC (as a function of alkalinity) and <span class="hlt">predicted</span> maximum contaminant levels (MCL) of THMs. The single instrument method, which is compatible with continuous flow monitoring or grab sampling, provides a rapid (2-3 minute) and precise indicator of drinking water disinfectant treatability without the need for separate UV photometric and DOC meter measurements or independent THM determinations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26A...317..487V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26A...317..487V"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of binary evolution on the theoretically <span class="hlt">predicted</span> distribution of WR and O-type stars in starburst regions and in abruptly-terminated star <span class="hlt">formation</span> regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanbeveren, D.; van Bever, J.; De Donder, E.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We first discuss in detail the massive close binary evolutionary model and how it has to be used in a population number synthesis study. We account for the evolution of case A, case B and case C systems, the effect of stellar wind during core hydrogen burning, hydrogen shell burning, the red supergiant phase and the WR phase, the effect of common envelope evolution in binaries with large periods, the consequences of spiral-in in binaries with small mass ratio, the effect of an asymmetric supernova explosion on binary system parameters using recent studies of pulsar velocities, the evolution of binaries with a compact companion. The parameters entering the population model where close binaries are included, are constrained by comparing <span class="hlt">predictions</span> and observations of the massive star content in regions of continuous star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. We then critically investigate the influence of massive close binary evolution on the variation of the massive star content in starburst regions. We separately consider regions where, after a long period of continuous star <span class="hlt">formation</span>, the star <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate decreases sharply (we propose to call this an abruptly-terminated star <span class="hlt">formation</span> region) and we show that also in these regions WR/O number ratios are reached which are significantly larger than in regions of continuous star <span class="hlt">formation</span>. The most important conclusion of the study is that within our present knowledge of observations of massive stars, massive close binary evolution plays an ESSENTIAL role in the evolution of starbursts and abruptly-terminated star <span class="hlt">formation</span> regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3310402','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3310402"><span id="translatedtitle">easyPAC: A Tool for Fast <span class="hlt">Prediction</span>, Testing and Reference <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of Degenerate PCR Primers from Alignments or Consensus Sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rosenkranz, David</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The PCR-amplification of unknown homologous or paralogous genes generally relies on PCR primers <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from multi sequence alignments. But increasing sequence divergence can induce the need to use degenerate primers which entails the problem of testing the characteristics, unwanted interactions and potential mispriming of degenerate primers. Here I introduce easyPAC, a new software for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of degenerate primers from multi sequence alignments or single consensus sequences. As a major innovation, easyPAC allows to apply all customary primer test procedures to degenerate primer sequences including fast <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to reference files. Thus, easyPAC simplifies and expedites the designing of specific degenerate primers enormously. Degenerate primers suggested by easyPAC were used in PCR amplification with subsequent de novo sequencing of TDRD1 exon 11 homologs from several representatives of the haplorrhine primate phylogeny. The results demonstrate the efficient performance of the suggested primers and therefore show that easyPAC can advance upcoming comparative genetic studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074760"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-Organizing <span class="hlt">Map</span> (SOM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) Models for the <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/ ErbB-1) Inhibitors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Yue; Qu, Dan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Gong, Ya-Nan; Yan, Aixia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>EGFR (ErbB-1/HER1) kinase plays an important role in cancer therapy. Two classification models were established to <span class="hlt">predict</span> whether a compound is an inhibitor or a decoy of human EGFR (ErbR-1) by using Kohonen's self-organizing <span class="hlt">map</span> (SOM) and support vector machine (SVM). A dataset containing 1248 ATP binding site inhibitors and 3090 decoys was collected and randomly divided into a training set (831 inhibitors and 2064 decoys) and a test set (417 inhibitors and 1029 decoys). The descriptors that represent molecular structures were calculated by software ADRIANA.Code. Thirteen significant descriptors including five global descriptors and eight 2D property autocorrelation descriptors were selected by Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise analysis. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracies on training set and test set are 98.5% and 96.3% for SOM model, 99.0% and 97.0% for SVM model, respectively. Both of these two classification models have good performance on distinguishing EGFR inhibitors from decoys. PMID:27074760</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039583','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039583"><span id="translatedtitle">National Atlas <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>U.S. Geological Survey</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The National Atlas of the United States of America was published by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1970. Its 765 <span class="hlt">maps</span> and charts are on 335 14- by 19-inch pages. Many of the <span class="hlt">maps</span> span facing pages. It's worth a quick trip to the library just to leaf through all 335 pages of this book. Rapid scanning of its thematic <span class="hlt">maps</span> yields rich insights to the geography of issues of continuing national interest. On most <span class="hlt">maps</span>, the geographic patterns are still valid, though the data are not current. The atlas is out of print, but many of its <span class="hlt">maps</span> can be purchased separately. <span class="hlt">Maps</span> that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. The <span class="hlt">maps</span> dated after 1970 are either revisions of original atlas <span class="hlt">maps</span>, or new <span class="hlt">maps</span> published in atlas <span class="hlt">format</span>. The titles of the separate <span class="hlt">maps</span> are listed here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...100.6575O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...100.6575O"><span id="translatedtitle">The distribution of bioluminescence and chlorophyll during the late summer in the North Atlantic: <span class="hlt">Maps</span> and a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ondercin, Daniel G.; Atkinson, Charles A.; Kiefer, Dale A.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>During August 1991 an instrument array (the Paravane) was towed continuously for several days over long distances in the North Atlantic and around the Marine Light-Mixed Layer (MLML) mooring (60°N, 21°W). Among other sensors, the Paravane carried a thermistor, a fluorometer that measured the fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll a, a bathyphotometer that measured stimulable bioluminescence, and a beam transmissometer that measured the volume attenuation coefficient at 490 nm. The record of these biooptical measurements provides a detailed description of the upper 150 m of the water column as well as of diel variability. An examination of the transects, which covered a latitudinal range from 43°N to 60°N and a longitudinal range from 13°W to 54°W, indicates that in the colder and more northerly waters most of the chlorophyll a, attenuation, and bioluminescence were found within the surface mixed layer. In the warmer waters to the south, there were subsurface maxima for all three parameters. We have used the Paravane records to test a model that provides <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a, bioluminescence, and beam attenuation from oceanographie parameters that characterize the surface mixed layer: temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, irradiance incident to the sea surface, mixed layer depth, and nitrate concentration. The first three parameters can be measured from sensors aboard satellites while the last two parameters can be obtained from oceanographie databases. The model is based upon a description of the acclimation of the phytoplankton, an assumption about the vertical distribution of phytoplankton within the euphotic zone, and an empirical description of the relationship between bioluminescence, light intensity, and phytoplankton concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586851"><span id="translatedtitle">Support vector regression-guided unravelling: antioxidant capacity and quantitative structure-activity relationship <span class="hlt">predict</span> reduction and promotion effects of flavonoids on acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Mengmeng; Wei, Yan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We used the support vector regression (SVR) approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> and unravel reduction/promotion effect of characteristic flavonoids on the acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span> under a low-moisture Maillard reaction system. Results demonstrated the reduction/promotion effects by flavonoids at addition levels of 1-10000 μmol/L. The maximal inhibition rates (51.7%, 68.8% and 26.1%) and promote rates (57.7%, 178.8% and 27.5%) caused by flavones, flavonols and isoflavones were observed at addition levels of 100 μmol/L and 10000 μmol/L, respectively. The reduction/promotion effects were closely related to the change of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ΔTEAC) and well <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by triple ΔTEAC measurements via SVR models (R: 0.633-0.900). Flavonols exhibit stronger effects on the acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span> than flavones and isoflavones as well as their O-glycosides derivatives, which may be attributed to the number and position of phenolic and 3-enolic hydroxyls. The reduction/promotion effects were well <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by using optimized quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) descriptors and SVR models (R: 0.926-0.994). Compared to artificial neural network and multi-linear regression models, SVR models exhibited better fitting performance for both TEAC-dependent and QSAR descriptor-dependent <span class="hlt">predicting</span> work. These observations demonstrated that the SVR models are competent for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> our understanding on the future use of natural antioxidants for decreasing the acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:27586851</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5009353','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5009353"><span id="translatedtitle">Support vector regression-guided unravelling: antioxidant capacity and quantitative structure-activity relationship <span class="hlt">predict</span> reduction and promotion effects of flavonoids on acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Mengmeng; Wei, Yan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We used the support vector regression (SVR) approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> and unravel reduction/promotion effect of characteristic flavonoids on the acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span> under a low-moisture Maillard reaction system. Results demonstrated the reduction/promotion effects by flavonoids at addition levels of 1–10000 μmol/L. The maximal inhibition rates (51.7%, 68.8% and 26.1%) and promote rates (57.7%, 178.8% and 27.5%) caused by flavones, flavonols and isoflavones were observed at addition levels of 100 μmol/L and 10000 μmol/L, respectively. The reduction/promotion effects were closely related to the change of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ΔTEAC) and well <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by triple ΔTEAC measurements via SVR models (R: 0.633–0.900). Flavonols exhibit stronger effects on the acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span> than flavones and isoflavones as well as their O-glycosides derivatives, which may be attributed to the number and position of phenolic and 3-enolic hydroxyls. The reduction/promotion effects were well <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by using optimized quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) descriptors and SVR models (R: 0.926–0.994). Compared to artificial neural network and multi-linear regression models, SVR models exhibited better fitting performance for both TEAC-dependent and QSAR descriptor-dependent <span class="hlt">predicting</span> work. These observations demonstrated that the SVR models are competent for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> our understanding on the future use of natural antioxidants for decreasing the acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:27586851</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACP....15.8077W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACP....15.8077W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> gas-phase organic reactivity and concomitant secondary organic aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span>: chemometric dimension reduction techniques for the deconvolution of complex atmospheric data sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wyche, K. P.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Rickard, A. R.; McFiggans, G. B.; Jenkin, M. E.; Bloss, W. J.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Highly non-linear dynamical systems, such as those found in atmospheric chemistry, necessitate hierarchical approaches to both experiment and modelling in order to ultimately identify and achieve fundamental process-understanding in the full open system. Atmospheric simulation chambers comprise an intermediate in complexity, between a classical laboratory experiment and the full, ambient system. As such, they can generate large volumes of difficult-to-interpret data. Here we describe and implement a chemometric dimension reduction methodology for the deconvolution and interpretation of complex gas- and particle-phase composition spectra. The methodology comprises principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and positive least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). These methods are, for the first time, applied to simultaneous gas- and particle-phase composition data obtained from a comprehensive series of environmental simulation chamber experiments focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) photooxidation and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span>. We primarily investigated the biogenic SOA precursors isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, linalool and β-caryophyllene. The chemometric analysis is used to classify the oxidation systems and resultant SOA according to the controlling chemistry and the products formed. Results show that "model" biogenic oxidative systems can be successfully separated and classified according to their oxidation products. Furthermore, a holistic view of results obtained across both the gas- and particle-phases shows the different SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> chemistry, initiating in the gas-phase, proceeding to govern the differences between the various BVOC SOA compositions. The results obtained are used to describe the particle composition in the context of the oxidised gas-phase matrix. An extension of the technique, which incorporates into the statistical models data from anthropogenic (i</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=261771&keyword=gold&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65330808&CFTOKEN=48641211','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=261771&keyword=gold&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65330808&CFTOKEN=48641211"><span id="translatedtitle">Epoxide pathways improve model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of isoprene markers and reveal key role of acidity in aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Isoprene significantly contributes to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States where biogenic hydrocarbons mix with anthropogenic emissions. In this work, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model is updated to <span class="hlt">predict</span> isoprene aerosol from epoxides produced under both ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844843"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maps</span> showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; Mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Connor, C.W.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A U.S. Geological Survey <span class="hlt">Maps</span> are presented showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union <span class="hlt">Formation</span>, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G54A..05N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G54A..05N"><span id="translatedtitle">Sinkhole Precursors and <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Mechanism along the Dead Sea Shorelines, Israel, Analyzed by InSAR, Field <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>, Water Analysis and Elastic Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nof, R. N.; Baer, G.; Avni, Y.; Shviro, M.; Atzori, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The water level of the Dead Sea (Israel and Jordan) has been dropping at an increasing rate since the 1960s, exceeding a meter per year during the last decade. This water-level drop has triggered the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of sinkholes and land subsidence along the Dead Sea shorelines, resulting in severe economic loss and infrastructural damage. We demonstrate the use of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements from COSMO-SkyMed images, combined with an airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Digital Elevation Model to detect sinkhole-related subsidence. In several locations, precursory subsidence tens to more than a hundred meters wide, at rates between 0.5 and 2 mm/day started a few months to more than a year before an actual collapse of a sinkhole. The sinkholes, a few meters wide and up to 25 m deep, form generally at the perimeter of the subsiding areas. By means of a simplified model representing a distributed closure of a sill-like crack, we estimate the cavity volume occupied by the subsiding sedimentary overburden and explain the spatial relationships between the gradual surface subsidence and the sinkholes. The subsiding areas and successive sinkholes in a specific site migrate laterally, possibly due to progressive dissolution and widening of the underlying cavities. Combining InSAR measurements with sinkhole <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater and surface water, we find a new mode of sinkhole <span class="hlt">formation</span>. The sinkholes initiate by dissolution of a 10-20 m deep and 5-15 m thick halite layer by fresh groundwater. The process continues and accelerates as flash-floods are drained by existing or by newly formed sinkholes, the subsurface salt layer dissolves rapidly, the overlying ground subsides, and salt-saturated water seeps out downstream of the draining sinkholes. The number of sinkholes and the rates and dimensions of subsidence increase significantly during and immediately after the flood events, and decay</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11M0239C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11M0239C"><span id="translatedtitle">Fusion Geographic Information System Data with State-of-the-art Atmospheric Systems: Application to Methane Source <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> over the Marcellus Shale <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Y.; Barkley, Z.; Cervone, G.; Lauvaux, T.; Deng, A.; Sarmiento, D. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Natural gas production from multiple shale <span class="hlt">formations</span> has increased significantly in the last decade. More particularly, a growing number of unconventional wells is the result of intense drilling in the Marcellus shale area. The Marcellus shale production represents a third of the production of natural gas in the entire US. This unprecedented increase could lead to additional fugitive methane (CH4) emissions at a level that remains highly uncertain. If natural gas is to replace less energy-efficient fossil fuels, the emissions during the production phase ought to be relatively small. However, the magnitude and the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions from unconventional wells in the Marcellus shale remains poorly documented. The novelty of this research consists in coupling various sources of information to <span class="hlt">map</span> accurately the methane emissions, combining Geographical Information System (GIS) data, atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases, and atmospheric modeling tools. We first collected various GIS data to estimate CH4 emissions caused by the shale gas industry, such as wells, facilities, and pipelines, with the other major contributors such as wetlands, farming activities, and soils. We present our projection methods to generate model input in gridded <span class="hlt">format</span> while preserving the distribution and magnitude of the emissions and assembling a diverse database. The projection tools for GIS data are generalized to the use of GIS data in atmospheric modeling systems. We then present the atmospheric concentrations simulated by the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, used to represent the transport and the dispersion of CH4 emissions. We compare the WRF model results to aircraft measurements collected during a 3-week campaign to identify missing sources in our initial inventory. We finally propose a new approach to identify the area at the surface that could potentially influence the aircraft measurements using spatial analysis of particle footprints. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261655','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261655"><span id="translatedtitle">Design study of the geometry of the blanking tool to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the burr <span class="hlt">formation</span> of Zircaloy-4 sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ha, Jisun Lee, Hyungyil Kim, Dongchul Kim, Naksoo</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>In this work, we investigated factors that influence burr <span class="hlt">formation</span> for zircaloy-4 sheet used for spacer grids of nuclear fuel roads. Factors we considered are geometric factors of punch. We changed clearance and velocity in order to consider the failure parameters, and we changed shearing angle and corner radius of L-shaped punch in order to consider geometric factors of punch. First, we carried out blanking test with failure parameter of GTN model using L-shaped punch. The tendency of failure parameters and geometric factors that affect burr <span class="hlt">formation</span> by analyzing sheared edges is investigated. Consequently, geometric factor's influencing on the burr <span class="hlt">formation</span> is also high as failure parameters. Then, the sheared edges and burr <span class="hlt">formation</span> with failure parameters and geometric factors is investigated using FE analysis model. As a result of analyzing sheared edges with the variables, we checked geometric factors more affect burr <span class="hlt">formation</span> than failure parameters. To check the reliability of the FE model, the blanking force and the sheared edges obtained from experiments are compared with the computations considering heat transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24699583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24699583"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predictive</span>-like distribution <span class="hlt">mapping</span> using Google Earth: reassessment of the distribution of the bromeligenous frog, Scinax v-signatus (Anura: Hylidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Da Silva, Helio Ricardo; Alves-Silva, Ricardo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The hylid frog Scinax perpusillus species group comprises 13 species that share, in addition to a few morphological features, reproduction that occurs exclusively associated with bromeliads. Among the species in the group, Scinax v-signatus (Lutz, 1968) is one of the few with a relatively large geographic distribution, occurring in association with bromeliads growing on granitic outcrops above 800 m along the Serra dos Órgãos (a local designation of Serra do Mar) in the Atlantic forest, State of Rio de Janeiro. Here we demonstrate that previous assessment of the distribution of this species was overestimated, and reevaluate the available data on its occurrence. The distributional data analyzed was based on three levels of evidence. First, we assessed the distribution of the bromeliad, Alcantarea imperialis (Carrière) Harms, which is used by S. v-signatus at the type locality. We plotted potential occurrence data for this plant using Google Earth (GE) by visually inspecting GE images in search of indications of granitic outcrops where groups and large individual bromeliads could be identified. Second, we plotted the distribution of these plants and that of the frog based on locality data taken from the literature and voucher specimens in natural history collections and checked for congruence between these sets of data. Third, as a second test of accuracy of this methodology we visited four new localities indicated by the bromeliad-occurrence GE <span class="hlt">prediction</span> <span class="hlt">map</span> and searched for the occurrence of both the frog and the bromeliad. This simple process has proven efficient and accurate in finding new collecting sites and determining the distribution of the two involved taxa. We discuss this and other possibilities of using Google Earth as a tool for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and discovering the distribution of organisms and habitats. Furthermore, this study has shed light on a more accurate and realistic estimate of the distribution of Scinax v-signatus with implications for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005AtmEn..39.7063L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005AtmEn..39.7063L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A kinetic mechanism for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> secondary aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span> from the reactions of d-limonene in the presence of oxides of nitrogen and natural sunlight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leungsakul, Sirakarn; Jeffries, Harvey E.; Kamens, Richard M.</p> <p></p> <p>Among the monoterpenes, d-limonene is one of the most reactive, and has one of the highest particle <span class="hlt">formation</span> potentials. Chamber experiments with d-limonene, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and diurnal natural sunlight are compared with simulation results from a first generation semi-explicit d-limonene daytime mechanism. The d-limonene model adequately <span class="hlt">predicts</span> the timing of NO-NO 2 crossover, d-limonene decay, and the general trend of ozone <span class="hlt">formation</span>, and particle mass accumulation. When experimental secondary organic aerosol (SOA) masses were greater than 1 mg m -3 the simulations tended to agree closely with the measured aerosol maxima. At lower SOA concentrations, the simulations tended to overpredict measured aerosol maxima by 25-50%. FTIR analysis and GC-ECD measurements indicate particle phase nitrates and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the system. In the afternoon when temperatures are highest in the outdoor chambers, the slow rise of continuous ozone measurements suggests that PAN type compounds were decomposing to "bleed" NO 2 into the gas phase. Partitioning calculations also suggest that these types of compounds are off-gassing from the particle phase later in the afternoon as well, and provide an additional source of NO 2. <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> aerosol yields with a commonly used two-parameter aerosol yield model are compared with experimental aerosol yields. The parameritized aerosol yield model had difficulty <span class="hlt">predicting</span> most of the UNC chamber data. The explicit d-limonene mechanism developed in this study could reasonably simulate the aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span> trend in the Caltech chambers, but tended to overpredict SOA maxima.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27335345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27335345"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein PATELLIN2 as a Substrate of Arabidopsis MPK4 <span class="hlt">MAP</span> Kinase during Septum <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Cytokinesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Takamasa; Matsushima, Chiyuki; Nishimura, Shingo; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Sasabe, Michiko; Machida, Yasunori</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases controls many cellular and physiological processes, which include intracellular signal transduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of such controls and numerous substrates of protein kinases remain to be characterized. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is of particular importance in a variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling processes. In plant cells, the progression of cytokinesis is an excellent example of an intracellular phenomenon that requires the MAPK cascade. However, the way in which MAPKs control downstream processes during cytokinesis in plant cells remains to be fully determined. We show here that comparisons, by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, of phosphorylated proteins from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and mutant plants defective in a MAPK cascade allow identification of substrates of a specific MAPK. Using this method, we identified the PATELLIN2 (PATL2) protein, which has a SEC14 domain, as a substrate of MPK4 <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase. PATL2 was concentrated at the cell division plane, as is MPK4, and had binding affinity for phosphoinositides. This binding affinity was altered after phosphorylation of PATL2 by MPK4, suggesting a role for the MAPK cascade in the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of cell plates via regeneration of membranes during cytokinesis. PMID:27335345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4970614','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4970614"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein PATELLIN2 as a Substrate of Arabidopsis MPK4 <span class="hlt">MAP</span> Kinase during Septum <span class="hlt">Formation</span> in Cytokinesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Takamasa; Matsushima, Chiyuki; Nishimura, Shingo; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Sasabe, Michiko; Machida, Yasunori</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases controls many cellular and physiological processes, which include intracellular signal transduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of such controls and numerous substrates of protein kinases remain to be characterized. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is of particular importance in a variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling processes. In plant cells, the progression of cytokinesis is an excellent example of an intracellular phenomenon that requires the MAPK cascade. However, the way in which MAPKs control downstream processes during cytokinesis in plant cells remains to be fully determined. We show here that comparisons, by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, of phosphorylated proteins from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and mutant plants defective in a MAPK cascade allow identification of substrates of a specific MAPK. Using this method, we identified the PATELLIN2 (PATL2) protein, which has a SEC14 domain, as a substrate of MPK4 <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase. PATL2 was concentrated at the cell division plane, as is MPK4, and had binding affinity for phosphoinositides. This binding affinity was altered after phosphorylation of PATL2 by MPK4, suggesting a role for the MAPK cascade in the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of cell plates via regeneration of membranes during cytokinesis. PMID:27335345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drake+AND+equation&id=EJ812945','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drake+AND+equation&id=EJ812945"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential Effects of Two Types of <span class="hlt">Formative</span> Assessment in <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Performance of First-Year Medical Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krasne, Sally; Wimmers, Paul F.; Relan, Anju; Drake, Thomas A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Formative</span> assessments are systematically designed instructional interventions to assess and provide feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses in the course of teaching and learning. Despite their known benefits to student attitudes and learning, medical school curricula have been slow to integrate such assessments into the curriculum. This…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177154"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Unified Method for <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Aerosol Composition and <span class="hlt">Formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David R</p> <p>2016-06-21</p> <p>Innovative secondary organic aerosol (SOA) composition analysis methods normalizing aerosol yield and chemical composition on an aromatic ring basis are developed and utilized to explore aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span> from oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield and chemical composition are revisited using 15 years of University of California, Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 17 aromatic hydrocarbons with HC:NO ranging from 11.1 to 171 ppbC:ppb. SOA yield is redefined in this work by normalizing the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of the aromatic ring [Formula: see text], where i is the aromatic hydrocarbon precursor. The yield normalization process demonstrates that the amount of aromatic rings present is a more significant driver of aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span> than the vapor pressure of the precursor aromatic. Yield normalization also provided a basis to evaluate isomer impacts on SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Further, SOA elemental composition is explored relative to the aromatic ring rather than on a classical mole basis. Generally, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in SOA, regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring. Besides the observed SOA oxygen to ring ratio (O/R ∼ 4), a hydrogen to ring ratio (H/R) of 6 + 2n is observed, where n is the number of nonaromatic carbons. Normalization of yield and composition to the aromatic ring clearly demonstrates the greater significance of aromatic ring carbons compared with alkyl carbon substituents in determining SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> and composition. PMID:27177154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994TriTr..37..622C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994TriTr..37..622C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of scuffing failure based on competitive kinetics of oxide <span class="hlt">formation</span> and removal: Application to lubricated sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cutiongco, Eric C.; Chung, Yip-Wah</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>A method for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> scuffing failure based on the competitive kinetics of oxide <span class="hlt">formation</span> and removal has been developed and applied to the sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel with poly-alpha-olefin as the lubricant. Oxide <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates were determining using static oxidation tests on coupons of 52100 steel covered with poly-alpha-olefin at temperatures of 140 C to 250 C. Oxide removal rates were determined at different combinations of initial average nominal contact pressures (950 MPa to 1578 MPa) and sliding velocities (0.4 m/s to 1.8 m/s) using a ball-on-disk vacuum tribotester. The nominal asperity flash temperatures generated during the wear tests were calculated and the temperatures corresponding to the intersection of the the Arrhenius plots of oxide <span class="hlt">formation</span> and removal rates were determined and taken as the critical failure temperatures. The pressure-velocity failure transition diagram was constructed by plotting the critical failure temperatures along isotherms of average nominal asperity flash temperatures calculated at different combinations of contact stress and sliding speed. The <span class="hlt">predicted</span> failure transition curve agreed well with experimental scuffing data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..110...50P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..110...50P"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of SDWBA <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for acoustic volume backscattering and the Self-Organizing <span class="hlt">Map</span> to discern frequencies identifying Meganyctiphanes norvegica from mesopelagic fish species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peña, M.; Calise, L.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>To acoustically assess the biomass of multiple species or taxa within a survey region, the volume backscatter data should be apportioned to the constituent sound scatterers. Typically, measured backscatter is attributed to certain species using <span class="hlt">predictions</span> at different frequencies, mostly based on the difference in scattering at the frequencies of 38 and 120 kHz (dual frequency method). We used the full version of the stochastic distortedwave Born approximation (SDWBA) model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> backscatter spectra for Meganyctiphanes norvegica and to explore the sensitivities of ΔMVBS to the model parameters, e.g. acoustic frequency and incidence angle, and animal density and sound speed contrast, length, and shape. The orientation is almost the unique parameter responsible for variation, with fatness affecting longer lengths. We present a summary of ΔMVBS that can serve as the basis for identification algorithms. Next, we simulate the scenario encountered in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean) where Northern krill are mixed with mesopelagic fish species (bristlemouths and lanternfishes), which are modeled with a prolate spheroid model. Simulated numerical data are employed to emulate the discrimination process with the most common identification techniques and typical survey frequencies. The importance of using density-independent techniques for acoustic classification is highlighted. Finally, an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organizing <span class="hlt">Map</span> (SOM), is used to cluster these theoretical data and identify the frequencies that provide, in this case, the most classification potential. The simulation results confirm that pairs of frequencies spanning the Rayleigh and geometric scattering regimes of the targets are the most useful for clustering; a minimum of four frequencies are necessary to separate the three species, while three frequencies are able to differentiate krill from mesopelagic fish species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11182424','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11182424"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of fume <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate in gas metal arc welding (GMAW), globular and spray modes, DC electrode positive.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dennis, J H; Hewitt, P J; Redding, C A; Workman, A D</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of fume <span class="hlt">formation</span> rate during metal arc welding and the composition of the fume are of interest to occupational hygienists concerned with risk assessment and to manufacturers of welding consumables. A model for GMAW (DC electrode positive) is described based on the welder determined process parameters (current, wire feed rate and wire composition), on the surface area of molten metal in the arc and on the partial vapour pressures of the component metals of the alloy wire. The model is applicable to globular and spray welding transfer modes but not to dip mode. Metal evaporation from a droplet is evaluated for short time increments and total evaporation obtained by summation over the life of the droplet. The contribution of fume derived from the weld pool and spatter (particles of metal ejected from the arc) is discussed, as are limitations of the model. Calculated droplet temperatures are similar to values determined by other workers. A degree of relationship between <span class="hlt">predicted</span> and measured fume <span class="hlt">formation</span> rates is demonstrated but the model does not at this stage provide a reliable <span class="hlt">predictive</span> tool. PMID:11182424</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.6478H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.6478H"><span id="translatedtitle">A kinetic mechanism for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> secondary organic aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span> from toluene oxidation in the presence of NO x and natural sunlight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Di; Tolocka, Michael; Li, Qianfeng; Kamens, Richard M.</p> <p></p> <p>A kinetic mechanism to <span class="hlt">predict</span> secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span> from the photo-oxidation of toluene was developed. Aerosol phase chemistry that includes nucleation, gas-particle partitioning and particle-phase reactions as well as the gas-phase chemistry of toluene and its degradation products were represented. The mechanism was evaluated against experimental data obtained from the University of North Carolina (UNC) 270 m 3 dual outdoor aerosol smog chamber facility. The model adequately simulates the decay of toluene, the nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) conversion and ozone <span class="hlt">formation</span>. It also provides a reasonable <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of SOA production under different conditions that range from 15 to 300 μg m -3. Speciation of simulated aerosol material shows that up to 70% of the aerosol mass comes from oligomers and polymers depending on initial reactant concentrations. The dominant particle-phase species <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the mechanism are glyoxal oligomers, ketene oligomers from the photolysis of the toluene OH reaction product 2-methyl-2,4-hexadienedial, organic nitrates, methyl nitro-phenol analogues, C7 organic peroxides, acylperoxy nitrates and for the low-concentration experiments, unsaturated hydroxy nitro acids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24399065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24399065"><span id="translatedtitle">Thrombus <span class="hlt">formation</span> patterns in the HeartMate II ventricular assist device: clinical observations can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by numerical simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiu, Wei-Che; Slepian, Marvin J; Bluestein, Danny</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Postimplant device thrombosis remains a life-threatening complication and limitation of continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (VADs). Using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, we successfully depicted various flow patterns, recirculation zones, and stagnant platelet trajectories which promote thrombus <span class="hlt">formation</span> and observed that they matched actual thrombus <span class="hlt">formation</span> patterns observed in Thoratec HeartMate II VADs explanted from patients with pump thrombosis. Previously, these small eddies could not be captured by either digital particle image velocimetry or CFD due to insufficient resolution. Our study successfully demonstrated the potential capability of advanced CFD to be adopted for device optimization, leading to enhanced safety and efficacy of VADs for long-term destination therapy. PMID:24399065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874432"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of dissolved organic matter for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of trihalomethane <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential in surface and sub-surface waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Awad, John; van Leeuwen, John; Chow, Christopher; Drikas, Mary; Smernik, Ronald J; Chittleborough, David J; Bestland, Erick</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters used for drinking purposes can vary markedly in character dependent on their sources within catchments. The character of DOM further influences the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of disinfection by products when precursor DOM present in drinking water reacts with chlorine during disinfection. Here we report the development of models that describe the <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential of trihalomethanes (THMFP) dependent on the character of DOM in waters from discrete catchments with specific land-use and soil textures. DOM was characterized based on UV absorbance at 254 nm, apparent molecular weight and relative abundances of protein-like and humic-like compounds. DOM character and Br concentration (up to 0.5 mg/L) were used as variables in models (R(2)>0.93) of THMFP, which ranged from 19 to 649 μg/L. Chloroform concentration (12-594 μg/L) and relative abundance (27-99%) were first modeled (R(2)>0.85) and from these, the abundances of bromodichloromethane and chlorodibromomethane estimated using power and exponential functions, respectively (R(2)>0.98). From these, the abundance of bromoform is calculated. The proposed model may be used in risk assessment of catchment factors on <span class="hlt">formation</span> of trihalomethanes in drinking water, in context of treatment efficiency for removal of organic matter. PMID:26874432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1048M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1048M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Map</span> Scale in the Context of Progress in Soil Geography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Bradley; Schaetzl, Randall</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In this presentation, we review historical soil <span class="hlt">maps</span> from a geographical perspective, in contrast to the more traditional temporal perspective. Our geographical perspective is operationalized by comparing soil <span class="hlt">maps</span> based on their scale and classification system. To analyze the connection between scale in historical soil <span class="hlt">maps</span> and their associated classification systems, we place soil <span class="hlt">maps</span> into three categories of cartographic scale. We then examine how categories of cartographic scale correspond to the selection of environmental soil predictors used to initially create the <span class="hlt">maps</span>, as reflected by the <span class="hlt">maps</span>' legend. Previous analyses of soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> from the temporal perspective have concluded that soil classification systems have co-evolved with gains in soil knowledge. We conclude that paradigm shifts in soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and classification can be better explained by their correlation to historical improvements in scientific understanding, differences in purpose for <span class="hlt">mapping</span>, and advancement in geographic technologies. We observe that, throughout history, small cartographic scale <span class="hlt">maps</span> have tended to emphasize climate-vegetation zonation. Medium cartographic scale <span class="hlt">maps</span> have put more emphasis on parent material as a variable to explain soil distributions. And finally, soil <span class="hlt">maps</span> at large cartographic scales have relied more on topography as a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> factor. Importantly, a key characteristic of modern soil classification systems is their multi-scale approach, which incorporates these phenomena scales within their classification hierarchies. Although most modern soil classification systems are based on soil properties, the soil <span class="hlt">map</span> remains a model, the purpose of which is to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the spatial distributions of those properties. Hence, multi-scale classification systems still tend to be organized, at least in part, by this observed spatial hierarchy. Although the hierarchy observed in this study is generally known in pedology today, it also represents a new view on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACPD...15.1651W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACPD...15.1651W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> gas-phase organic reactivity and concomitant secondary organic aerosol <span class="hlt">formation</span>: chemometric dimension reduction techniques for the deconvolution of complex atmospheric datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wyche, K. P.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Rickard, A. R.; McFiggans, G. B.; Jenkin, M. E.; Bloss, W. J.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Highly non-linear dynamical systems, such as those found in atmospheric chemistry, necessitate hierarchical approaches to both experiment and modeling in order, ultimately, to identify and achieve fundamental process-understanding in the full open system. Atmospheric simulation chambers comprise an intermediate in complexity, between a classical laboratory experiment and the full, ambient system. As such, they can generate large volumes of difficult-to-interpret data. Here we describe and implement a chemometric dimension reduction methodology for the deconvolution and interpretation of complex gas- and particle-phase composition spectra. The methodology comprises principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and positive least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). These methods are, for the first time, applied to simultaneous gas- and particle-phase composition data obtained from a comprehensive series of environmental simulation chamber experiments focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) photooxidation and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) <span class="hlt">formation</span>. We primarily investigated the biogenic SOA precursors isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, linalool and β-caryophyllene. The chemometric analysis is used to classify the oxidation systems and resultant SOA according to the controlling chemistry and the products formed. Furthermore, a holistic view of results across both the gas- and particle-phases shows the different SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> chemistry, initiating in the gas-phase, proceeding to govern the differences between the various BVOC SOA compositions. The results obtained are used to describe the particle composition in the context of the oxidized gas-phase matrix. An extension of the technique, which incorporates into the statistical models data from anthropogenic (i.e. toluene) oxidation and "more realistic" plant mesocosm systems, demonstrates that such an ensemble of chemometric <span class="hlt">mapping</span> has the potential to be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466025"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span> in biscuits based on fingerprint data generated by ambient ionization mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vaclavik, Lukas; Capuano, Edoardo; Gökmen, Vural; Hajslova, Jana</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>The objective of this study is the evaluation of the potential of high-throughput direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) fingerprinting and multivariate regression analysis in <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the extent of acrylamide <span class="hlt">formation</span> in biscuit samples prepared by various recipes and baking conditions. Information-rich mass spectral fingerprints were obtained by analysis of biscuit extracts for preparation of which aqueous methanol was used. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the acquired data revealed an apparent clustering of samples according to the extent of heat-treatment applied during the baking of the biscuits. The regression model for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of acrylamide in biscuits was obtained by partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis of the data matrix representing combined positive and negative ionization mode fingerprints. The model provided a least root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) equal to an acrylamide concentration of 5.4 μg kg(-1) and standard error of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> (SEP) of 14.8 μg kg(-1). The results obtained indicate that this strategy can be used to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> the amounts of acrylamide formed during baking of biscuits. Such rapid estimation of acrylamide concentration can become a useful tool in evaluation of the effectivity of processes aiming at mitigation of this food processing contaminant. However, the robustness this approach with respect to variability in the chemical composition of ingredients used for preparation of biscuits should be tested further. PMID:25466025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11320237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11320237"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mapping</span> of contact sites in complex <span class="hlt">formation</span> between transducin and light-activated rhodopsin by covalent crosslinking: use of a photoactivatable reagent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, K; Itoh, Y; Khorana, H G</p> <p>2001-04-24</p> <p>Interaction of light-activated rhodopsin with transducin (T) is the first event in visual signal transduction. We use covalent crosslinking approaches to <span class="hlt">map</span> the contact sites in interaction between the two proteins. Here we use a photoactivatable reagent, N-[(2-pyridyldithio)-ethyl], 4-azido salicylamide. The reagent is attached to the SH group of cytoplasmic monocysteine rhodopsin mutants by a disulfide-exchange reaction with the pyridylthio group, and the derivatized rhodopsin then is complexed with T by illumination at lambda >495 nm. Subsequent irradiation of the complex at lambda310 nm generates covalent crosslinks between the two proteins. Crosslinking was demonstrated between T and a number of single cysteine rhodopsin mutants. However, sites of crosslinks were investigated in detail only between T and the rhodopsin mutant S240C (cytoplasmic loop V-VI). Crosslinking occurred predominantly with T(alpha). For identification of the sites of crosslinks in T(alpha), the strategy used involved: (i) derivatization of all of the free cysteines in the crosslinked proteins with N-ethylmaleimide; (ii) reduction of the disulfide bond linking the two proteins and isolation of all of the T(alpha) species carrying the crosslinked moiety with a free SH group; (iii) adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> of the latter with the N-maleimide moiety of the reagent, maleimido-butyryl-biocytin, containing a biotinyl group; (iv) trypsin degradation of the resulting T(alpha) derivatives and isolation of T(alpha) peptides carrying maleimido-butyryl-biocytin by avidin-agarose chromatography; and (v) identification of the isolated peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We found that crosslinking occurred mainly to two C-terminal peptides in T(alpha) containing the amino acid sequences 310-313 and 342-345. PMID:11320237</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4941638','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4941638"><span id="translatedtitle">Autophagy Defects Suggested by Low Levels of Autophagy Activator <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S and High Levels of Autophagy Inhibitor LRPPRC <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Poor Prognosis of Prostate Cancer Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Xianhan; Zhong, Weide; Huang, Hai; He, Huichan; Jiang, Funeng; Chen, Yanru; Yue, Fei; Zou, Jing; Li, Xun; He, Yongzhong; You, Pan; Yang, Weiqiang; Lai, Yiming; Wang, Fen; Liu, Leyuan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S (originally named C19ORF5) is a widely distributed homolog of neuronal-specific <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1A and <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1B, and bridges autophagic components with microtubules and mitochondria to affect autophagosomal biogenesis and degradation. Mitochondrion-associated protein LRPPRC functions as an inhibitor for autophagy initiation to protect mitochondria from autophagy degradation. <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S and LRPPRC interact with each other and may collaboratively regulate autophagy although the underlying mechanism is yet unknown. Previously, we have reported that LRPPRC levels serve as a prognosis marker of patients with prostate adenocarcinomas (PCA), and that patients with high LRPPRC levels survive a shorter period after surgery than those with low levels of LRPPRC. <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S levels are elevated in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocelular carcinomas in wildtype mice and the exposed <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S-deficient mice develop more malignant hepatocellular carcinomas. We performed immunochemical analysis to evaluate the co-relationship among the levels of <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S, LRPPRC, P62, and γ-H2AX. Samples were collected from wildtype and prostate-specific PTEN-deficient mice, 111 patients with PCA who had been followed up for 10 years and 38 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia enrolled in hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The levels of <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S were generally elevated so the <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S-mediated autophagy was activated in PCA developed in either PTEN-deficient mice or patients than their respective benign tumors. The <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S levels among patients with PCA vary dramatically, and patients with low <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S levels survive a shorter period than those with high <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S levels. Levels of <span class="hlt">MAP</span>1S in collaboration with levels of LRPPRC can serve as markers for prognosis of prostate cancer patients. PMID:25043940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036044','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036044"><span id="translatedtitle">Actin-interacting and flagellar proteins in Leishmania spp.: Bioinformatics <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to functional assignments in phagosome <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Several motile processes are responsible for the movement of proteins into and within the flagellar membrane, but little is known about the process by which specific proteins (either actin-associated or not) are targeted to protozoan flagellar membranes. Actin is a major cytoskeleton protein, while polymerization and depolymerization of parasite actin and actin-interacting proteins (AIPs) during both processes of motility and host cell entry might be key events for successful infection. For a better understanding the eukaryotic flagellar dynamics, we have surveyed genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes of pathogenic Leishmania spp. to identify pertinent genes/proteins and to build in silico models to properly address their putative roles in trypanosomatid virulence. In a search for AIPs involved in flagellar activities, we applied computational biology and proteomic tools to infer from the biological meaning of coronins and Arp2/3, two important elements in phagosome <span class="hlt">formation</span> after parasite phagocytosis by macrophages. Results presented here provide the first report of Leishmania coronin and Arp2/3 as flagellar proteins that also might be involved in phagosome <span class="hlt">formation</span> through actin polymerization within the flagellar environment. This is an issue worthy of further in vitro examination that remains now as a direct, positive bioinformatics-derived inference to be presented. PMID:21637533</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21637533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21637533"><span id="translatedtitle">Actin-interacting and flagellar proteins in Leishmania spp.: Bioinformatics <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to functional assignments in phagosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diniz, Michely C; Costa, Marcília P; Pacheco, Ana C L; Kamimura, Michel T; Silva, Samara C; Carneiro, Laura D G; Sousa, Ana P L; Soares, Carlos E A; Souza, Celeste S F; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Several motile processes are responsible for the movement of proteins into and within the flagellar membrane, but little is known about the process by which specific proteins (either actin-associated or not) are targeted to protozoan flagellar membranes. Actin is a major cytoskeleton protein, while polymerization and depolymerization of parasite actin and actin-interacting proteins (AIPs) during both processes of motility and host cell entry might be key events for successful infection. For a better understanding the eukaryotic flagellar dynamics, we have surveyed genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes of pathogenic Leishmania spp. to identify pertinent genes/proteins and to build in silico models to properly address their putative roles in trypanosomatid virulence. In a search for AIPs involved in flagellar activities, we applied computational biology and proteomic tools to infer from the biological meaning of coronins and Arp2/3, two important elements in phagosome <span class="hlt">formation</span> after parasite phagocytosis by macrophages. Results presented here provide the first report of Leishmania coronin and Arp2/3 as flagellar proteins that also might be involved in phagosome <span class="hlt">formation</span> through actin polymerization within the flagellar environment. This is an issue worthy of further in vitro examination that remains now as a direct, positive bioinformatics-derived inference to be presented. PMID:21637533</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770020403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770020403"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of hydrodynamics and chemistry of confined turbulent methane-air flames with attention to <span class="hlt">formation</span> of oxides of nitrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elghobashi, S.; Spalding, D. B.; Srivatsa, S. K.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A formulation of the governing partial differential equations for fluid flow and reacting chemical species in a tubular combustor is presented. A numerical procedure for the solution of the governing differential equations is described, and models for chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics calculations are presented. The chemical equilibrium model is used to characterize the hydrocarbon reactions. The chemical kinetics model is used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen. The combustor consists of a cylindrical duct of varying cross sections with concentric streams of gaseous fuel and air entering the duct at one end. Four sample cases with specified inlet and boundary conditions are considered, and the results are discussed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22439947','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22439947"><span id="translatedtitle">An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> detoxification and DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kiwamoto, R. Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct <span class="hlt">formation</span> was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C41C0421L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C41C0421L"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> Glacial Deposits Help <span class="hlt">Predict</span> the Location of Future Thermal Erosion Features in Arctic Alaska? A study from the Selawik River Basin, Northwest Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanan, K. M.; Crosby, B. T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Because interior Alaska was never fully glaciated, it preserves one of the best geomorphic records of Pleistocene glaciation in high-latitude North America. As a consequence, regional surface and glacial <span class="hlt">mapping</span> has provided a terrestrial climatic record in the Arctic over the last ~200k years. The Selawik River basin lies near the southwest margin of the ice extent for Alaska's Brooks Range, but has never been <span class="hlt">mapped</span>. The Selawik baisn also hosts the largest active retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) known in Alaska which impacts aquatic ecosystems and native villages downstream. In order to understand how the type and distribution of glacial deposits (and associated frozen ground) predispose certain areas to current and future thermokarst features, we have begun to develop a surface geology <span class="hlt">map</span> and conceptual model outlining the glacial history of the region. The project combines field observations, geochronological sampling and remote sensing analysis. Detailed sedimentological analysis was performed in 2011 using large river bluff exposures along the upper Selawik River to explore stratigraphic relationships and provenance of clasts. We found that the exposures are comprised of interbedded sands and gravels with patchy diamict, suggesting an ice retreat sequence topped by a braided outwash plain. The lithology of striated clasts in the section confirms that sediment was sourced from the Brooks Range to the north rather than the more local Waring or Purcell mountains. A pronounced decrease in grain size and proportion of diamict toward the west suggests that sediment was moving toward the Chukchi Sea. A thin exposure of fine glassy sediment within the section is suggested to be the 140 ka Old Crow Tephra, indicating deposition during the beginning of the last interglacial stade. Bluffs are topped by thin, fine-grained deposits suggesting that the last glacial period did not deposit glacial till or outwash on the bluff. Either the Selawik basin was too distal from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616559M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616559M"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of base <span class="hlt">maps</span>' role in soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil <span class="hlt">maps</span>, but historically these thematic <span class="hlt">maps</span> have relied upon base <span class="hlt">maps</span> for positional reference and later for parameters that help <span class="hlt">predict</span> soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base <span class="hlt">maps</span> and the dependence of soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base <span class="hlt">maps</span> has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base <span class="hlt">maps</span> for soil geographers. These soil <span class="hlt">maps</span> primarily used the topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey <span class="hlt">maps</span> depended upon plat <span class="hlt">maps</span> for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil <span class="hlt">mapping</span> increased the role of base <span class="hlt">maps</span> as <span class="hlt">predictive</span> parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base <span class="hlt">maps</span> to provide spatial reference. Today, base <span class="hlt">maps</span> are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil <span class="hlt">maps</span>, base <span class="hlt">maps</span> constitute the library of <span class="hlt">predictive</span> variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil <span class="hlt">map</span>. This change in the relationship between base <span class="hlt">maps</span> and the soil <span class="hlt">map</span> is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1353..895F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1353..895F"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Wave Defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP® is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help <span class="hlt">predict</span> where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21516784','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21516784"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Wave Defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A.</p> <p>2011-05-04</p> <p>NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP registered is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help <span class="hlt">predict</span> where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2547886','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2547886"><span id="translatedtitle">A Post-PKS Oxidation of the Amphotericin B Skeleton <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> to be Critical for Channel <span class="hlt">Formation</span> is Not Required for Potent Antifungal Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Palacios, Daniel S.; Anderson, Thomas M.; Burke, Martin D.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The clinically vital antimycotic agent amphotericin B represents the archetypal example of a channel-forming small molecule. The leading model for self-assembly of the amphotericin B channel <span class="hlt">predicts</span> that C(41) carboxylate and the C(3′) ammonium ions form intermolecular salt bridges/hydrogen bonds that are critical for stability. We herein report a flexible degradative synthesis pathway that enables the removal of either or both of these groups from amphotericin B. We further demonstrate with extensive NMR experiments that deleting these groups does not alter the conformation of the polyene macrolide skeleton. As <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the leading model, amphotericin B derivatives lacking the mycosamine sugar that contains the C(3′) ammonium ion are completely inactive against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, strikingly – and in strong contradiction with the current model – the amphotericin B derivative lacking the C(41) carboxylate is at least equipotent to the natural product. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the leading model for the mechanism of action of amphotericin B must be significantly revised – either the C(41) carboxylate is not required for channel <span class="hlt">formation</span>, or channel <span class="hlt">formation</span> is not required for antifungal activity. PMID:17956100</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1983/4000/plate-2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1983/4000/plate-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology of the Tulare <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and other continental deposits, Kettleman City area, San Joaquin Valley, California, with a section on ground-water management considerations and use of texture <span class="hlt">maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Page, R.W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The Tulare <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and other continental deposits of Pliocene to Holocene age crop out over most of the area near Kettleman City in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The deposits range in thickness from 0 to more than 4,000 feet and overlie the upper Mya zone of the San Joaquin <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Pliocene age. Some features of their base reflect structural deformation during Quaternary time. Many freshwater fossils occur in the Tulare <span class="hlt">Formation</span> itself, including the largest fossil assemblage of clams and snails known on the Pacific Coast. Sediments in the Tulare <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and other continental deposits consist mainly of unconsolidated deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Texture <span class="hlt">maps</span> of the Tulare <span class="hlt">Formation</span> and other continental deposits show the distribution, both laterally and vertically, of the coarse- and fine-grained sediment in the area. Such <span class="hlt">maps</span> can be used by water managers for selecting areas for recharge and discharge operations and by ground-water modelers for assigning relative values of hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1222538','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1222538"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> and characterization of heat-affected zone <span class="hlt">formation</span> due to neighboring nickel-aluminum multilayer foil reaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adams, David P.; Hirschfeld, Deidre A.; Hooper, Ryan J.; Manuel, Michelle V.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Reactive multilayer foils have the potential to be used as local high intensity heat sources for a variety of applications. Much of the past research effort concerning these materials have focused on understanding the structure-property relationships of the foils that govern the energy released during a reaction. To enhance the ability of researchers to more rapidly develop technologies based on reactive multilayer foils, a deeper and more <span class="hlt">predictive</span> understanding of the relationship between the heat released from the foil and microstructural evolution in the neighboring materials is needed. This work describes the development of a numerical model for the purpose of evaluating new foil-substrate combinations for screening and optimization. The model is experimentally validated using a commercially available Ni-Al multilayer foils and different alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Obesity Prevalence <span class="hlt">Maps</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence <span class="hlt">Maps</span> ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File <span class="hlt">Formats</span> Help: How ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=520742','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=520742"><span id="translatedtitle">A stochastic model for retinocollicular <span class="hlt">map</span> development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koulakov, Alexei A; Tsigankov, Dmitry N</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Background We examine results of gain-of-function experiments on retinocollicular <span class="hlt">maps</span> in knock-in mice [Brown et al. (2000) Cell 102:77]. In wild-type mice the temporal-nasal axis of retina is <span class="hlt">mapped</span> to the rostral-caudal axis of superior colliculus. The established <span class="hlt">map</span> is single-valued, which implies that each point in retina <span class="hlt">maps</span> to a unique termination zone in superior colliculus. In homozygous Isl2/EphA3 knock-in mice the <span class="hlt">map</span> is double-valued, which means that each point on retina <span class="hlt">maps</span> to two termination zones in superior colliculus. This is because about 50 percent of cells in retina express Isl2, and two types of projections, wild-type and Isl2/EphA3 positive, form two branches of the <span class="hlt">map</span>. In heterozygous Isl2/EphA3 knock-ins the <span class="hlt">map</span> is intermediate between the homozygous and wild-type: it is single-valued in temporal and double-valued in the nasal parts of retina. In this study we address possible reasons for such a bifurcation of the <span class="hlt">map</span>. Results We study the <span class="hlt">map</span> <span class="hlt">formation</span> using stochastic model based on Markov chains. In our model the <span class="hlt">map</span> undergoes a series of reconstructions with probabilities dependent upon a set of chemical cues. Our model suggests that the <span class="hlt">map</span> in heterozygotes is single-valued in temporal region of retina for two reasons. First, the inhomogeneous gradient of endogenous receptor in retina makes the impact of exogenous receptor less significant in temporal retina. Second, the gradient of ephrin in the corresponding region of superior colliculus is smaller, which reduces the chemical signal-to-noise ratio. We <span class="hlt">predict</span> that if gradient of ephrin is reduced by a genetic manipulation, the single-valued region of the <span class="hlt">map</span> should extend to a larger portion of temporal retina, i.e. the point of transition between single-and doulble-valued <span class="hlt">maps</span> should move to a more nasal position in Isl2-EphA3 heterozygotes. Conclusions We present a theoretical model for retinocollicular <span class="hlt">map</span> development, which can account for intriguing behaviors observed in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23755876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23755876"><span id="translatedtitle">Ab initio chemical kinetics for H + NCN: <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of NCN heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> and reaction product branching via doublet and quartet surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teng, Wen-Shuang; Moskaleva, Lyudmila V; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lin, M C</p> <p>2013-07-18</p> <p>The reaction of NCN with H atoms has been investigated by ab initio MO and RRKM theory calculations. The mechanisms for <span class="hlt">formation</span> of major products on the doublet and quartet potential energy surfaces have been <span class="hlt">predicted</span> at the CCSD(T) level of theory with the complete basis set limit. In addition, the heat of <span class="hlt">formation</span> for NCN <span class="hlt">predicted</span> at this rigorous level and those from five isogyric reactions are in close agreement with the best value based on the isodesmic process, (3)CCO + N2 = (3)NCN + CO, 109.4 kcal/mol, which lies within the two existing experimental values. The rate constants for the three possible reaction channels, H + NCN → CH + N2 (k(P1)), HCN + (4)N (k(QP1)), and HNC + (4)N (k(QP2)), have been calculated in the temperature range 298-3000 K. The results show that k(P1) is significantly higher than k(QP1) and k(QP2) and that the total rate constant agrees well with available experimental values in the whole temperature range studied. The kinetics of the reverse CH + N2 reaction has also been revisited at the CCSD(T)/CBS level; the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> total rate constants at 760 Torr Ar pressure can be represented by kr = 4.01 × 10(-15) T(0.90) exp(-17.42 kcal mol(-1)/RT) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at T = 800-4000 K. The result agrees closely with the most recent experimental data and the best theoretical result of Harding et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 522) as well as that of Moskaleva and Lin (Proc. Combust. Inst. 2000, 28, 2393) evaluated with a steady-state approximation after a coding error correction made in this study. PMID:23755876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25262874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25262874"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational simulations <span class="hlt">predict</span> a key role for oscillatory fluid shear stress in de novo valvular tissue <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salinas, Manuel; Ramaswamy, Sharan</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Previous efforts in heart valve tissue engineering demonstrated that the combined effect of cyclic flexure and steady flow on bone marrow derived stem cell-seeded scaffolds resulted in significant increases in engineered collagen <span class="hlt">formation</span> [Engelmayr et al. Cyclic flexure and laminar flow synergistically accelerate mesenchymal stem cell-mediated engineered tissue <span class="hlt">formation</span>: Implications for engineered heart valve tissues. Biomaterials 2006; 27(36): 6083-95]. Here, we provide a new interpretation for the underlying reason for this observed effect. In addition, another related investigation demonstrated the impact of fluid flow on DNA content and quantified the fluid-induced shear stresses on the engineered heart valve tissue specimens [Engelmayr et al. A Novel Flex-Stretch-Flow Bioreactor for the Study of Engineered Heart Valve Tissue Mechanobiology]. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2008, 36, 1-13]. In this study, we performed more advanced CFD analysis with an emphasis on oscillatory wall shear stresses imparted on specimens when mechanically conditioned by a combination of cyclic flexure and steady flow. Specifically, we hypothesized that the dominant stimulatory regulator of the bone marrow stem cells is fluid-induced and depends on both the magnitude and temporal directionality of surface stresses, i.e., oscillatory shear stresses (OSS) acting on the developing tissues. Therefore, we computationally quantified the (i) magnitude of fluid-induced shear stresses as well as (ii) the extent of temporal fluid oscillations in the flow field using the oscillatory shear index (OSI) parameter. Noting that sample cyclic flexure induces a high degree of OSS, we incorporated moving boundary computational fluid dynamic simulations of samples housed within a bioreactor to consider the effects of: (1) No Flow, No Flexure (control group), (2) Steady Flow-alone, (3) Cyclic Flexure-alone and (4) Combined Steady flow and Cyclic Flexure environments. Indeed we found that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000940&hterms=plasmid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dplasmid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000940&hterms=plasmid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dplasmid"><span id="translatedtitle">A computer aided thermodynamic approach for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of Z-DNA in naturally occurring sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ho, P. S.; Ellison, M. J.; Quigley, G. J.; Rich, A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The ease with which a particular DNA segment adopts the left-handed Z-conformation depends largely on the sequence and on the degree of negative supercoiling to which it is subjected. We describe a computer program (Z-hunt) that is designed to search long sequences of naturally occurring DNA and retrieve those nucleotide combinations of up to 24 bp in length which show a strong propensity for Z-DNA <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Incorporated into Z-hunt is a statistical mechanical model based on empirically determined energetic parameters for the B to Z transition accumulated to date. The Z-forming potential of a sequence is assessed by ranking its behavior as a function of negative superhelicity relative to the behavior of similar sized randomly generated nucleotide sequences assembled from over 80,000 combinations. The program makes it possible to compare directly the Z-forming potential of sequences with different base compositions and different sequence lengths. Using Z-hunt, we have analyzed the DNA sequences of the bacteriophage phi X174, plasmid pBR322, the animal virus SV40 and the replicative form of the eukaryotic adenovirus-2. The results are compared with those previously obtained by others from experiments designed to locate Z-DNA forming regions in these sequences using probes which show specificity for the left-handed DNA conformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24437234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24437234"><span id="translatedtitle">[Automated decision making support system for urologists on the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and the prevention of stone <span class="hlt">formation</span> in urolithiasis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kotsar', A G; Seregin, S P; Novikov, A V</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a decision making support system for urologists on the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and management of preventive interventions for urolithiasis using fuzzy logic decision-making device. Dictionary of informative signs and alphabet of classes are formed. The formulas for calculating the membership functions according to the known features are developed; these formulas allow to calculate the certainty factors for pertaining of inspected object to the desired class by means of iterative rules of rule of logical inference. Based on comparison of the values obtained with the threshold certainty factors, dephasification of conclusion is produced. In accordance with the obtained decision rules, control algorithm for the prevention measures in urolithiasis is developed. To test the effectiveness of "operation" of the synthesized decision rules, the certainty factors were calculated or 200 patients with urolithiasis, which were divided into two groups according to the results of observation during the year depending on the presence of recurrence. The analysis of the intersection of histograms of distribution of coefficient values showed high diagnostic efficiency (0.94) of synthesized decision rules. PMID:24437234</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523717"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of magnetosome-associated proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nudelman, Hila; Zarivach, Raz</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are Gram-negative bacteria that can navigate along geomagnetic fields. This ability is a result of a unique intracellular organelle, the magnetosome. These organelles are composed of membrane-enclosed magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) crystals ordered into chains along the cell. Magnetosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>, assembly, and magnetic nano-crystal biomineralization are controlled by magnetosome-associated proteins (<span class="hlt">MAPs</span>). Most <span class="hlt">MAP</span>-encoding genes are located in a conserved genomic region - the magnetosome island (MAI). The MAI appears to be conserved in all MTB that were analyzed so far, although the MAI size and organization differs between species. It was shown that MAI deletion leads to a non-magnetic phenotype, further highlighting its important role in magnetosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Today, about 28 proteins are known to be involved in magnetosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>, but the structures and functions of most <span class="hlt">MAPs</span> are unknown. To reveal the structure-function relationship of <span class="hlt">MAPs</span> we used bioinformatics tools in order to build homology models as a way to understand their possible role in magnetosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Here we present a <span class="hlt">predicted</span> 3D structural models' overview for all known Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 <span class="hlt">MAPs</span>. PMID:24523717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3905215','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3905215"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of magnetosome-associated proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nudelman, Hila; Zarivach, Raz</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are Gram-negative bacteria that can navigate along geomagnetic fields. This ability is a result of a unique intracellular organelle, the magnetosome. These organelles are composed of membrane-enclosed magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) crystals ordered into chains along the cell. Magnetosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>, assembly, and magnetic nano-crystal biomineralization are controlled by magnetosome-associated proteins (<span class="hlt">MAPs</span>). Most <span class="hlt">MAP</span>-encoding genes are located in a conserved genomic region – the magnetosome island (MAI). The MAI appears to be conserved in all MTB that were analyzed so far, although the MAI size and organization differs between species. It was shown that MAI deletion leads to a non-magnetic phenotype, further highlighting its important role in magnetosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Today, about 28 proteins are known to be involved in magnetosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>, but the structures and functions of most <span class="hlt">MAPs</span> are unknown. To reveal the structure–function relationship of <span class="hlt">MAPs</span> we used bioinformatics tools in order to build homology models as a way to understand their possible role in magnetosome <span class="hlt">formation</span>. Here we present a <span class="hlt">predicted</span> 3D structural models’ overview for all known Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 <span class="hlt">MAPs</span>. PMID:24523717</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13E3230D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13E3230D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of Crude Oil Evaporation: A Bottom-Up Approach to <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Potential Secondary Organic Aerosol <span class="hlt">Formation</span> Following Oil Spills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drozd, G.; Worton, D. R.; Variano, E. A.; Goldstein, A. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Releases of hydrocarbons from oil spills can have large environmental impacts in both the ocean and atmosphere. While evaporation of oil following a spill is mainly modeled simply as a mass loss mechanism, the resulting production of atmospheric pollutants can also be a major concern, particularly for continental releases, such as wrecks of train-tanker or river barges, and near-shore rig releases. Both may occur near population centers. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 presented a unique opportunity to observe significant secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production due to a large oil spill. Following on these observations, we have conducted a series of measurements on evaporation of oil while explicitly accounting for changes in chemical composition occurring as a function of evaporation time. In this work we use GC×GC-VUV-HRTOFMS to achieve unprecedented characterization of oil composition from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, and how it changes with time following release. Roughly 75% of the total mass of the alkane mixture comprising the oil was classified according to degree of branching, number of cyclic rings, aromatic character, and molecular weight. Such detailed and comprehensive characterization of the DWH oil allows for bottom-up estimates of the relationship between oil volatility and composition. We developed an evaporative model, based solely on our composition measurements and thermodynamic data (vapor pressure, enthalpy of vaporization), rather than common boiling point parameterizations, which is in excellent agreement with published mass evaporation rates and allows for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of potential SOA production as a function of both wind speed (evaporation rate) and oil composition. Our measurements yield different oil volatility distributions than previously inferred; this suggests accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of SOA <span class="hlt">formation</span> requires detailed oil composition measurements. A wind tunnel was used to verify model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26055427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26055427"><span id="translatedtitle">Amyloid-PET <span class="hlt">predicts</span> inhibition of de novo plaque <span class="hlt">formation</span> upon chronic γ-secretase modulator treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brendel, M; Jaworska, A; Herms, J; Trambauer, J; Rötzer, C; Gildehaus, F-J; Carlsen, J; Cumming, P; Bylund, J; Luebbers, T; Bartenstein, P; Steiner, H; Haass, C; Baumann, K; Rominger, A</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In a positron-emission tomography (PET) study with the β-amyloid (Aβ) tracer [(18)F]-florbetaben, we previously showed that Aβ deposition in transgenic mice expressing Swedish mutant APP (APP-Swe) mice can be tracked in vivo. γ-Secretase modulators (GSMs) are promising therapeutic agents by reducing generation of the aggregation prone Aβ42 species without blocking general γ-secretase activity. We now aimed to investigate the effects of a novel GSM [8-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[1-(3-methyl-[1,2,4]thiadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-4-yl]-amine (RO5506284) displaying high potency in vitro and in vivo on amyloid plaque burden and used longitudinal Aβ-microPET to trace individual animals. Female transgenic (TG) APP-Swe mice aged 12 months (m) were assigned to vehicle (TG-VEH, n=12) and treatment groups (TG-GSM, n=12), which received daily RO5506284 (30 mg kg(-1)) treatment for 6 months. A total of 131 Aβ-PET recordings were acquired at baseline (12 months), follow-up 1 (16 months) and follow-up 2 (18 months, termination scan), whereupon histological and biochemical analyses of Aβ were performed. We analyzed the PET data as VOI-based cortical standard-uptake-value ratios (SUVR), using cerebellum as reference region. Individual plaque load assessed by PET remained nearly constant in the TG-GSM group during 6 months of RO5506284 treatment, whereas it increased progressively in the TG-VEH group. Baseline SUVR in TG-GSM mice correlated with Δ%-SUVR, indicating individual response <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Insoluble Aβ42 was reduced by 56% in the TG-GSM versus the TG-VEH group relative to the individual baseline plaque load estimates. Furthermore, plaque size histograms showed differing distribution between groups of TG mice, with fewer small plaques in TG-GSM animals. Taken together, in the first Aβ-PET study monitoring prolonged treatment with a potent GSM in an AD mouse model, we found clear attenuation of de novo amyloidogenesis. Moreover</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4759098','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4759098"><span id="translatedtitle">Amyloid-PET <span class="hlt">predicts</span> inhibition of de novo plaque <span class="hlt">formation</span> upon chronic γ-secretase modulator treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brendel, M; Jaworska, A; Herms, J; Trambauer, J; Rötzer, C; Gildehaus, F-J; Carlsen, J; Cumming, P; Bylund, J; Luebbers, T; Bartenstein, P; Steiner, H; Haass, C; Baumann, K; Rominger, A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In a positron-emission tomography (PET) study with the β-amyloid (Aβ) tracer [18F]-florbetaben, we previously showed that Aβ deposition in transgenic mice expressing Swedish mutant APP (APP-Swe) mice can be tracked in vivo. γ-Secretase modulators (GSMs) are promising therapeutic agents by reducing generation of the aggregation prone Aβ42 species without blocking general γ-secretase activity. We now aimed to investigate the effects of a novel GSM [8-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5–a]pyridin-2-yl]-[1-(3-methyl-[1,2,4]thiadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-4-yl]-amine (RO5506284) displaying high potency in vitro and in vivo on amyloid plaque burden and used longitudinal Aβ-microPET to trace individual animals. Female transgenic (TG) APP-Swe mice aged 12 months (m) were assigned to vehicle (TG-VEH, n=12) and treatment groups (TG-GSM, n=12), which received daily RO5506284 (30 mg kg−1) treatment for 6 months. A total of 131 Aβ-PET recordings were acquired at baseline (12 months), follow-up 1 (16 months) and follow-up 2 (18 months, termination scan), whereupon histological and biochemical analyses of Aβ were performed. We analyzed the PET data as VOI-based cortical standard-uptake-value ratios (SUVR), using cerebellum as reference region. Individual plaque load assessed by PET remained nearly constant in the TG-GSM group during 6 months of RO5506284 treatment, whereas it increased progressively in the TG-VEH group. Baseline SUVR in TG-GSM mice correlated with Δ%-SUVR, indicating individual response <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Insoluble Aβ42 was reduced by 56% in the TG-GSM versus the TG-VEH group relative to the individual baseline plaque load estimates. Furthermore, plaque size histograms showed differing distribution between groups of TG mice, with fewer small plaques in TG-GSM animals. Taken together, in the first Aβ-PET study monitoring prolonged treatment with a potent GSM in an AD mouse model, we found clear attenuation of de novo amyloidogenesis. Moreover</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051965"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-fast <span class="hlt">formation</span> control of high-order discrete-time multi-agent systems based on multi-step <span class="hlt">predictive</span> mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wenle; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Honghai</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the ultra-fast <span class="hlt">formation</span> control problem of high-order discrete-time multi-agent systems. Using the local neighbor-error knowledge, a novel ultra-fast protocol with multi-step <span class="hlt">predictive</span> information and self-feedback term is proposed. The asymptotic convergence factor is improved by a power of q+1 compared to the routine protocol. To some extent, the ultra-fast algorithm overcomes the influence of communication topology to the convergence speed. Furthermore, some sufficient conditions are given herein. The ones decouple the design of the synchronizing gains from the detailed graph properties, and explicitly reveal how the agent dynamic and the communication graph jointly affect the ultra-fast formationability. Finally, some simulations are worked out to illustrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. PMID:26051965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6568376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6568376"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> hydrocarbon potential of an earth <span class="hlt">formation</span> underlying a body of water by analysis of seeps containing low concentrations of methane using improved cryogenic entrapment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Demaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.</p> <p>1987-04-21</p> <p>Method is described of on-site collection and examination of microliter concentrations of methane in sea water so as to <span class="hlt">predict</span> hydrocarbon potential of an earth <span class="hlt">formation</span>, the <span class="hlt">formation</span> containing a hydrocarbon pool that is the source of the methane, the method comprising: (i) at known geographic locations, continuously sampling the sea water at a selected depth; (ii) continuously vacuum separating the collected sea water into liquid and gas phases; (iii) continuously monitoring the gas phase of the sea water for hydrocarbons; (iv) quantitatively separating methane in the gas phase of step (iii) from interfering gas species also in the gas phase of step (iii) in the presence of an air carrier vented to the atmosphere and flowing at a known flow rate; (v) quantitatively oxidizing the methane of step (iv) to carbon dioxide and water vapor and then cryogenically trapping out the resulting carbon dioxide and water vapor in the presence of the air carrier, using a bed of granules maintained at dry ice temperature and composed of an inert, porous organic polymer cross-linked to form a lattice network of high surface area for retention of the carbon dioxide without phase change and for trapping out of the water vapor by freezing; and (vi) isotopically examining the carbon and deuterium distribution of the carbon dioxide and water vapor of step (v) so as to determine biogenic and/or thermogenic origin of the methane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6003308','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6003308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> hydrocarbon potential of an earth <span class="hlt">formation</span> underlying a body of water by analysis of seeps containing low concentrations of carbonaceous gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orinda, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.</p> <p>1986-03-04</p> <p>A method is described of on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of methane dissolved in water so as to <span class="hlt">predict</span> hydrocarbon potential of an earth <span class="hlt">formation</span> underlying a body of water, the <span class="hlt">formation</span> being a source of methane. The method consists of: (a) at a known geographic location, continuously sampling the water at a selected flow rate and at a selected depth; (b) continuously vacuum separating the water into liquid and gas phases; (c) quantitatively separating interfering gas species from the methane at a series of separating stations by conveying the separated gas phase of step (b) via an air carrier vented to atmosphere and flowing at a known flow rate, in seriation to and through the separating stations; the separation at the separating stations including the substeps of: (i) removing water vapor and molecular carbon dioxide from the passing gas phase in the presence of the air carrier; (ii) oxidizing any carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide; (iii) trapping the carbon dioxide of step (ii); and (iv) cryogenically trapping out all low-, mid-, and high-range molecular weight hydrocarbons above C/sub 1/; (d) quantitatively oxidizing the methane in the gas phase at an oxidizing station without significant isotopic fractionation occurring; (e) cryogenically trapping the gaseous oxidant of step (d) in the form of carbon dioxide at a trapping station without significant isotopic fractionation occurring; and (f) isotopically analyzing the trapped oxidant of step (e) for carbon distribution so as to determine biogenic and/or thermogenic origin of the methane and thereby aid in the evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the earth <span class="hlt">formation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925392"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the disinfection by-product <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential of reclaimed water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hao, Ruixia; Ren, Huiqin; Li, Jianbing; Ma, Zhongzhi; Wan, Hongwen; Zheng, Xiaoying; Cheng, Shuiyuan</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>This study was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy for the determination of chlorination disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors and the disinfection by-product <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential (DBPFP) of reclaimed water samples. Two major DBP precursors were examined in this study, including humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA). The 3DEEM fluorescence results obtained from various reclaimed water samples indicated that the reclaimed water samples were rich in fulvic acid-like substances that were associated with two main peaks (Ex/Em = 235-245/420-440 nm, and Ex/Em = 330-340/410-430 nm) in the fluorescence spectrum. The results also illustrated that the wavelength location of peak fluorescence intensity of a reclaimed water sample was independent of the influent water quality and the wastewater treatment process used in the reclamation plant. As a result, the peak fluorescence intensity and the wavelength location of the peak were used to identify the species of DBP precursors and their concentrations in the reclaimed water sample. Four regression models were then developed to relate the peak fluorescence intensity of the water sample to its DBPFP, including the <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential of trihalomethane (THMFP) and the <span class="hlt">formation</span> potential of haloacetic acid (HAAFP). The regression models were verified using the measured DBPFP results of a series of reclaimed water samples. It was found that the regression modeling results matched the measured DBPFP values well, with <span class="hlt">prediction</span> errors below 10%. Therefore, the use of 3DEEM fluorescence spectroscopy together with the developed regression models in this study can provide a reliable and rapid tool for monitoring the quality of reclaimed water. Using this method, water quality could be monitored online, without utilizing the lengthy conventional DBPFP measurement. PMID:22925392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458310"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical study on the transition-metal oxoboryl complex: M-BO bonding nature, mechanism of the <span class="hlt">formation</span> reaction, and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of a new oxoboryl complex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Guixiang; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi</p> <p>2012-04-16</p> <p>The Pt-BO bonding nature and the <span class="hlt">formation</span> reaction of the experimentally reported platinum(II) oxoboryl complex, simplified to PtBr(BO)(PMe(3))(2), were theoretically investigated with the density functional theory method. The BO(-) ligand was quantitatively demonstrated to have extremely strong σ-donation but very weak d(π)-electron-accepting abilities. Therefore, it exhibits a strong trans influence. The <span class="hlt">formation</span> reaction occurs through a four-center transition state, in which the B(δ+)-Br(δ-) polarization and the Br → Si and O p(π) → B p(π) charge-transfer interactions play key roles. The Gibbs activation energy (ΔG°(++)) and Gibbs reaction energy (ΔG°) of the <span class="hlt">formation</span> reaction are 32.2 and -6.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The electron-donating bulky phosphine ligand is found to be favorable for lowering both ΔG°(++) and ΔG°. In addition, the metal effect is examined with the nickel and palladium analogues and MBrCl[BBr(OSiMe(3))](CO)(PR(3))(2) (M = Ir and Rh). By a comparison of the ΔG°(++) and ΔG° values, the M-BO (M = Ni, Pd, Ir, and Rh) bonding nature, and the interaction energy between [MBrCl(CO)(PR(3))(2)](+) and BO(-) with those of the platinum system, MBrCl(BO)(CO)(PR(3))(2) (M = Ir and Rh) is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to be a good candidate for a stable oxoboryl complex. PMID:22458310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225996"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental and theoretical studies into the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of C4-C6 products in partially chlorinated hydrocarbon pyrolysis systems: a probabilistic approach to congener-specific yield <span class="hlt">predictions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McIntosh, Grant J; Russell, Douglas K</p> <p>2014-09-25</p> <p>This work presents a study of the pyrolytic <span class="hlt">formation</span> of vinylacetylene and benzene congeners formed from chlorinated hydrocarbon precursors, a complex, multipath polymerization system formed in a monomer-rich environment. (Co-)pyrolyses of dichloro- and trichloroethylene yield a rich array of products, and assuming a single dominant underlying growth mechanism, this (on comparing expected and observed products) allows a number of potentially competing channels to C4 and C6 products to be ruled out. Poor congener/isomer descriptions rule out even-carbon radical routes, and the absence of C3 and C5 products rule out odd-carbon processes. Vinylidenes appear unable to describe the increased reactivity of acetylenes with chlorination noted in our experiments, leaving molecular acetylene dimerization processes and, in C6 systems, the closely related Diels-Alder cyclization as the likely reaction mechanism. The feasibility of these routes is further supported by ab initio calculations. However, some of the most persuasive evidence is provided by congener-specific yield <span class="hlt">predictions</span> enabled by the construction of a probability tree analogue of kinetic modeling. This approach is relatively quick to construct, provides surprisingly accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span>, and may be a very useful tool in screening for important reaction channels in poorly understood congener- or isomer-rich reaction systems. PMID:25225996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1104816','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1104816"><span id="translatedtitle">VALIDATION AND RESULTS OF A PSEUDO-MULTI-ZONE COMBUSTION TRAJECTORY <span class="hlt">PREDICTION</span> MODEL FOR CAPTURING SOOT AND NOX <span class="hlt">FORMATION</span> ON A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bittle, Joshua A.; Gao, Zhiming; Jacobs, Timothy J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A pseudo-multi-zone phenomenological model has been created with the ultimate goal of supporting efforts to enable broader commercialization of low temperature combustion modes in diesel engines. The benefits of low temperature combustion are the simultaneous reduction in soot and nitric oxide emissions and increased engine efficiency if combustion is properly controlled. Determining what qualifies as low temperature combustion for any given engine can be difficult without expensive emissions analysis equipment. This determination can be made off-line using computer models or through factory calibration procedures. This process could potentially be simplified if a real-time <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model could be implemented to run for any engine platform this is the motivation for this study. The major benefit of this model is the ability for it to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the combustion trajectory, i.e. local temperature and equivalence ratio in the burning zones. The model successfully captures all the expected trends based on the experimental data and even highlights an opportunity for simply using the average reaction temperature and equivalence ratio as an indicator of emissions levels alone - without solving <span class="hlt">formation</span> sub-models. This general type of modeling effort is not new, but a major effort was made to minimize the calculation duration to enable implementation as an input to real-time next-cycle engine controller Instead of simply using the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> engine out soot and NOx levels, control decisions could be made based on the trajectory. This has the potential to save large amounts of calibration time because with minor tuning (the model has only one automatically determined constant) it is hoped that the control algorithm would be generally applicable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P43B..04E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P43B..04E"><span id="translatedtitle">A Gas-poor Planetesimal Feeding Model for the <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Giant Planet Satellite Systems: <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> for the Composition of Iapetus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estrada, P. R.; Mosqueira, I.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p> the regular satellites. Fifth, a satellite <span class="hlt">formation</span> timescale of 105-10^6 years (consistent with a partially differentiated Callisto) controlled by the feeding of planetesimals onto the circumplanetary disk (Mosqueira et al. 2000). It might be possible to concoct a turbulent mechanism operating following a giant impact between Titan and a Triton-sized differentiated interloper (Mosqueira and Estrada, this conference) that leads to the spread of a volatile-rich disk. However, such a mechanism is very unlikely to work inasmuch as it would require an unrealistic angular momentum budget, particularly if one considers gas drag inward migration of Iapetus (gas drag would be needed to account for the lack of objects between Titan and Iapetus). Instead, the angular momentum of material fed from heliocentric orbit (gas or solids) strongly implies that Iapetus (like Callisto, ρ = 1.85 g cm-3) should be of roughly solar composition. This statement constitutes a <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of this model and requires that the present value of the density of Iapetus (1.14± 0.1 g cm-3, Jacobson, pers. comm.) be in error. That is, within the context of a planetesimal feeding model, Phoebe's density suggests that one should expect ρ > 1.6 g cm-3 for Iapetus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27009039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27009039"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic Analyses Reveal Functions for <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K3 and <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K6 in Mouse Testis Determination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warr, Nick; Siggers, Pam; Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Wells, Sara; Greenfield, Andy</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Testis determination in mammals is initiated by expression of SRY in somatic cells of the embryonic gonad. Genetic analyses in the mouse have revealed a requirement for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in testis determination: targeted loss of the kinases <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K4 and p38 MAPK causes complete XY embryonic gonadal sex reversal. These kinases occupy positions at the top and bottom level, respectively, in the canonical three-tier MAPK-signaling cascade: <span class="hlt">MAP</span>3K, <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K, MAPK. To date, no role in sex determination has been attributed to a <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K, although such a function is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to exist. Here, we report roles for the kinases <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K3 and <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K6 in testis determination. C57BL/6J (B6) embryos lacking <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K3 exhibited no significant abnormalities of testis development, whilst those lacking <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K6 exhibited a minor delay in testis determination. Compound mutants lacking three out of four functional alleles at the two loci also exhibited delayed testis determination and transient ovotestis <span class="hlt">formation</span> as a consequence, suggestive of partially redundant roles for these kinases in testis determination. Early lethality of double-knockout embryos precludes analysis of sexual development. To reveal their roles in testis determination more clearly, we generated <span class="hlt">Map</span>2k mutant B6 embryos using a weaker Sry allele (Sry(AKR)). Loss of <span class="hlt">Map</span>2k3 on this highly sensitized background exacerbates ovotestis development, whilst loss of <span class="hlt">Map</span>2k6 results in complete XY gonadal sex reversal associated with reduction of Sry expression at 11.25 days postcoitum. Our data suggest that <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K6 functions in mouse testis determination, via positive effects on Sry, and also indicate a minor role for <span class="hlt">MAP</span>2K3. PMID:27009039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27017185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27017185"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype <span class="hlt">mapping</span> of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional <span class="hlt">mapping</span> through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype <span class="hlt">formation</span> as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional <span class="hlt">mapping</span> provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:27017185</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488949','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488949"><span id="translatedtitle">Information system of rice planting calendar based on ten-day (Dasarian) rainfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Susandi, Armi; Tamamadin, Mamad; Djamal, Erizal; Las, Irsal</p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>This paper describes information system of rice planting calendar to help farmers in determining the time for rice planting. The information includes rainfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in ten days (dasarian) scale overlaid to <span class="hlt">map</span> of rice field to produce <span class="hlt">map</span> of rice planting in village level. The rainfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span> was produced by stochastic modeling using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Non-Linier Least Squares methods to fit the curve of function to the rainfall data. In this research, the Fourier series has been modified become non-linear function to follow the recent characteristics of rainfall that is non stationary. The results have been also validated in 4 steps, including R-Square, RMSE, R-Skill, and comparison with field data. The development of information system (cyber extension) provides information such as rainfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the planting time, and interactive space for farmers to respond to the information submitted. Interfaces for interactive response will be critical to the improvement of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy of information, both rainfall and planting time. The method used to get this information system includes <span class="hlt">mapping</span> on rice planting <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, converting the <span class="hlt">format</span> file, developing database system, developing website, and posting website. Because of this <span class="hlt">map</span> was overlaid with the Google <span class="hlt">map</span>, the <span class="hlt">map</span> files must be converted to the .kml file <span class="hlt">format</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677j0002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677j0002S"><span id="translatedtitle">Information system of rice planting calendar based on ten-day (Dasarian) rainfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Susandi, Armi; Tamamadin, Mamad; Djamal, Erizal; Las, Irsal</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes information system of rice planting calendar to help farmers in determining the time for rice planting. The information includes rainfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in ten days (dasarian) scale overlaid to <span class="hlt">map</span> of rice field to produce <span class="hlt">map</span> of rice planting in village level. The rainfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span> was produced by stochastic modeling using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Non-Linier Least Squares methods to fit the curve of function to the rainfall data. In this research, the Fourier series has been modified become non-linear function to follow the recent characteristics of rainfall that is non stationary. The results have been also validated in 4 steps, including R-Square, RMSE, R-Skill, and comparison with field data. The development of information system (cyber extension) provides information such as rainfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the planting time, and interactive space for farmers to respond to the information submitted. Interfaces for interactive response will be critical to the improvement of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy of information, both rainfall and planting time. The method used to get this information system includes <span class="hlt">mapping</span> on rice planting <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, converting the <span class="hlt">format</span> file, developing database system, developing website, and posting website. Because of this <span class="hlt">map</span> was overlaid with the Google <span class="hlt">map</span>, the <span class="hlt">map</span> files must be converted to the .kml file <span class="hlt">format</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4647072','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4647072"><span id="translatedtitle">SuMoToRI, an Ecophysiological Model to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Growth and Sulfur Allocation and Partitioning in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Until the Onset of Pod <span class="hlt">Formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; Mollier, Alain; Kauffmann, François; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Goudier, Damien; Sénécal, Emmanuelle; Etienne, Philippe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Sulfur (S) nutrition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a major concern for this high S-demanding crop, especially in the context of soil S oligotrophy. Therefore, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> plant growth, S plant allocation (between the plant’s compartments) and S pool partitioning (repartition of the mobile-S vs. non-mobile-S fractions) until the onset of reproductive phase could help in the diagnosis of S deficiencies during the early stages. For this purpose, a process-based model, SuMoToRI (Sulfur Model Toward Rapeseed Improvement), was developed up to the onset of pod <span class="hlt">formation</span>. The key features rely on (i) the determination of the S requirements used for growth (structural and metabolic functions) through critical S dilution curves and (ii) the estimation of a mobile pool of S that is regenerated by daily S uptake and remobilization from senescing leaves. This study describes the functioning of the model and presents the model’s calibration and evaluation. SuMoToRI was calibrated and evaluated with independent datasets from greenhouse experiments under contrasting S supply conditions. It is run with a small number of parameters with generic values, except in the case of the radiation use efficiency, which was shown to be modulated by S supply. The model gave satisfying <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the dynamics of growth, S allocation between compartments and S partitioning, such as the mobile-S fraction in the leaves, which is an indicator of the remobilization potential toward growing sinks. The mechanistic features of SuMoToRI provide a process-based framework that has enabled the description of the S remobilizing process in a species characterized by senescence during the vegetative phase. We believe that this model structure could be useful for modeling S dynamics in other arable crops that have similar senescence-related characteristics. PMID:26635825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26635825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26635825"><span id="translatedtitle">SuMoToRI, an Ecophysiological Model to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Growth and Sulfur Allocation and Partitioning in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Until the Onset of Pod <span class="hlt">Formation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; Mollier, Alain; Kauffmann, François; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Goudier, Damien; Sénécal, Emmanuelle; Etienne, Philippe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Sulfur (S) nutrition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a major concern for this high S-demanding crop, especially in the context of soil S oligotrophy. Therefore, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> plant growth, S plant allocation (between the plant's compartments) and S pool partitioning (repartition of the mobile-S vs. non-mobile-S fractions) until the onset of reproductive phase could help in the diagnosis of S deficiencies during the early stages. For this purpose, a process-based model, SuMoToRI (Sulfur Model Toward Rapeseed Improvement), was developed up to the onset of pod <span class="hlt">formation</span>. The key features rely on (i) the determination of the S requirements used for growth (structural and metabolic functions) through critical S dilution curves and (ii) the estimation of a mobile pool of S that is regenerated by daily S uptake and remobilization from senescing leaves. This study describes the functioning of the model and presents the model's calibration and evaluation. SuMoToRI was calibrated and evaluated with independent datasets from greenhouse experiments under contrasting S supply conditions. It is run with a small number of parameters with generic values, except in the case of the radiation use efficiency, which was shown to be modulated by S supply. The model gave satisfying <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the dynamics of growth, S allocation between compartments and S partitioning, such as the mobile-S fraction in the leaves, which is an indicator of the remobilization potential toward growing sinks. The mechanistic features of SuMoToRI provide a process-based framework that has enabled the description of the S remobilizing process in a species characterized by senescence during the vegetative phase. We believe that this model structure could be useful for modeling S dynamics in other arable crops that have similar senescence-related characteristics. PMID:26635825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012712','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012712"><span id="translatedtitle">The Distribution of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Cells <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> by a Generalized Time-Dependent Model of Radiation-Induced <span class="hlt">Formation</span> of Aberrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ponomarev, Artem L.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>New experimental data show how chromosomal aberrations for low- and high-LET radiation are dependent on DSB repair deficiencies in wild-type, AT and NBS cells. We simulated the development of chromosomal aberrations in these cells lines in a stochastic track-structure-dependent model, in which different cells have different kinetics of DSB repair. We updated a previously formulated model of chromosomal aberrations, which was based on a stochastic Monte Carlo approach, to consider the time-dependence of DSB rejoining. The previous version of the model had an assumption that all DSBs would rejoin, and therefore we called it a time-independent model. The chromosomal-aberrations model takes into account the DNA and track structure for low- and high-LET radiations, and provides an explanation and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the statistics of rare and more complex aberrations. We compared the program-simulated kinetics of DSB rejoining to the experimentally-derived bimodal exponential curves of the DSB kinetics. We scored the <span class="hlt">formation</span> of translocations, dicentrics, acentric and centric rings, deletions, and inversions. The fraction of DSBs participating in aberrations was studied in relation to the rejoining time. Comparisons of simulated dose dependence for simple aberrations to the experimental dose-dependence for HF19, AT and NBS cells will be made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16153631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16153631"><span id="translatedtitle">Germinal vesicle materials are requisite for male pronucleus <span class="hlt">formation</span> but not for change in the activities of CDK1 and <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase during maturation and fertilization of pig oocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ogushi, Sugako; Fulka, Josef; Miyano, Takashi</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>In amphibian oocytes, it is known that germinal vesicle (GV) materials are essential for sperm head decondensation but not for activation of MPF (CDK1 and cyclin B). However, in large animals, the role of GV materials in maturation and fertilization is not defined. In this study, we prepared enucleated pig oocytes at the GV stage and cultured them to examine the activation and inactivation of CDK1 and <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase during maturation and after electro-activation. Moreover, enucleated GV-oocytes after maturation culture were inseminated or injected intracytoplasmically with spermatozoa to examine their ability to decondense the sperm chromatin. Enucleated oocytes showed similar activation/inactivation patterns of CDK1 and <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase as sham-operated oocytes during maturation and after electro-stimulation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. During the time corresponding to MI/MII transition of sham-operated oocytes, enucleated oocytes inactivated CDK1. However, penetrating sperm heads in enucleated oocytes did not decondense enough to form male pronuclei. To determine whether the factor(s) involved in sperm head decondensation remains associated with the chromatin after GV breakdown (GVBD), we did enucleation soon after GVBD (corresponding to pro-metaphase I, pMI) to remove only chromosomes. The injected sperm heads in pMI-enucleated oocytes decondensed and formed the male pronuclei. These results suggest that in pig oocytes, GV materials are not required for activation/inactivation of CDK1 and <span class="hlt">MAP</span> kinase, but they are essential for male pronucleus <span class="hlt">formation</span>. PMID:16153631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pix&id=EJ478078','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pix&id=EJ478078"><span id="translatedtitle">Active <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Day, Dennis</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Explains a social studies lesson for third graders that uses KidPix, a computer software graphics program to help students make <span class="hlt">maps</span> and <span class="hlt">map</span> keys. Advantages to using the computer versus hand drawing <span class="hlt">maps</span> are discussed, and an example of <span class="hlt">map</span> requirements for the lesson is included. (LRW)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mind+AND+mapping&pg=4&id=EJ633067','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mind+AND+mapping&pg=4&id=EJ633067"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Callison, Daniel</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Explains concept <span class="hlt">mapping</span> as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a <span class="hlt">map</span>; brainstorming; <span class="hlt">map</span> applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind <span class="hlt">mapping</span> to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020078338','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020078338"><span id="translatedtitle">Contour <span class="hlt">Mapping</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for <span class="hlt">Mapping</span>, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile <span class="hlt">mapping</span> called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can <span class="hlt">map</span> an area from the sophisticated <span class="hlt">mapping</span> van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing <span class="hlt">mapping</span> data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for <span class="hlt">mapping</span> and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DST+AND+theory&pg=2&id=EJ328594','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DST+AND+theory&pg=2&id=EJ328594"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding and Improving Students' <span class="hlt">Map</span> Reading Skills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muir, Sharon Pray</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Using Piagetian spatial conceptual development theory and Bruner's theory of concept <span class="hlt">formation</span>, discusses major issues underlying children's inability to perform well on <span class="hlt">map</span> skill tasks. <span class="hlt">Mapping</span> problems covered include teachers' inability to use <span class="hlt">maps</span>, curricular issues, poor instructional practices, and the use of commercial <span class="hlt">maps</span>. (DST)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maps&pg=2&id=EJ946971','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maps&pg=2&id=EJ946971"><span id="translatedtitle">A Method for Teaching Topographic <span class="hlt">Map</span> Interpretation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schuit, Walter</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Students learn how to read and interpret topographic <span class="hlt">maps</span> by using a set of simplified <span class="hlt">map</span> exercise cards. Students learn in the field as opposed to a traditional classroom. <span class="hlt">Map</span> symbols, distance, direction, form, and relief are among the <span class="hlt">map</span> interpretation topics taught with this method. The multiple-choice <span class="hlt">format</span> of the exercise also allows for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014acm..conf...48B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014acm..conf...48B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Comet <span class="hlt">formation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blum, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal <span class="hlt">formation</span> over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles