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Sample records for formational hot brine

  1. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of water-soluble cations and anions in the Martian regolith has been the subject of speculation for some time. Viking lander data provided evidence for salt-cemented crusts on the Martian surface. If the crusts observed at the two Viking landing sites are, in fact, cemented by salts, and these crusts are globally widespread, as IRTM-derived thermal inertia studies of the Martian surface seem to suggest, then evaporite deposits, probably at least in part derived from brines, are a major component of the Martian regolith. The composition of liquid brines in the subsurface, which not only may be major agents of physical weathering but may also presently constitute a major deep subsurface liquid reservoir, is currently unconstrained by experimental work. A knowledge of the chemical identity and rate of production of Martian brines is a critical first-order step toward understanding the nature of both these fluids and their precipitated evaporites. Laboratory experiments are being conducted to determine the identity and production rate of water-soluble ions that form in initially pure liquid water in contact with Mars-mixture gases and unaltered Mars-analog minerals.

  2. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1992-01-01

    Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

  3. The formation of natural cryogenic brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

    2003-04-01

    waters in the subsurface was, inevitably, accompanied by significant dilution with melt water from the ice sheets. Using a "granitic" U concentration of 4 ppm and a (Ca-Mg mass balance based) rock/water ratio anywhere between 3.4 and 6.8 kg L -1, a few hundred thousand years of brine-rock interaction are sufficient for the growth of 129I in the most saline Canadian Shield brine to its present concentration (3.4×10 8 atoms 129I L -1). Hence, both the formation of the saline fluids and their emplacement in their present sites occurred most likely within the Pleistocene. The young age calculated for cryogenic brines in crystalline shields and the dynamic water flow therein should raise concern about the planning and construction of high-grade nuclear waste repositories in such rocks, which are already under way.

  4. Selecting brines and clay stabilizers to prevent formation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.; Ali, S.

    1997-05-01

    Although many technical reports have been written about formation damage caused by brine/formation interactions, this article discusses the effects brines and chemical clay stabilizers have on pure samples of kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite clays. Analytical chemistry and geochemical models were not employed in this study; instead, capillary suction time tests were used to empirically compare clay migration and swelling characteristics when samples were exposed to certain brine/clay stabilizer combinations. Objective of the study was to determine which type of clay was most damaging in reservoir rocks, and whether one brine or chemical stabilizer could meet the needs of stabilizing all clay types. This information is provided with well completion operations in mind, especially when fluid cost/performance is a major concern. This article compares the unique brine/chemical stabilizer reaction characteristics of each clay type common to oil and gas reservoirs.

  5. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  6. Formate brines for drilling and completion: State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Low solids drilling fluids based on formate brines (sodium, potassium and caesium salts of formic acid) were originally designed to minimise frictional pressure losses in slim hole drilling applications. In addition, their unique capability of stabilising polymers to high temperatures made them more temperature resistant than any other polymer based drilling fluids. Subsequent work has shown that these brines, because of their high densities and low corrosivity, are also ideal completion and packer fluids. Formate brines have excellent HSE profiles and they are compatible with reservoir fluids, good shale stabilisers, gas hydrate inhibitors, and scale dissolvers. Also, a technique has been found for cost effective clean-up and recycling of formate based drilling fluids. The commercialisation and introduction of these fluids into the field (especially caesium formate) has taken a long time, due to high prices and few manufacturers. This situation is now changing, as the number of manufacturers is increasing, and buy-back arrangements have been made available. Also, a number of successful drilling and completion trials have been carried out.

  7. Dense brine formation in Arctic coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachmeister, Lon E.; Payne, James R.

    In the past 2 years, winter field programs have been conducted along the northeast coast of the Chukchi Sea to study the formation and fate of very cold and salty water produced during fall freeze up and lead refreezing processes. These programs, headed by Lon E. Hachmeister of Envirosphere Company, Bellevue, Wash., and James R. Payne of Science Applications International Corporation, La Jolla, Calif., have been funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (NOAA/OCSEAP) to better understand physical processes in arctic coastal regions in regard to potential impact bv oil and gas development.

  8. The role of seawater freezing in the formation of subsurface brines

    SciTech Connect

    Herut, B.; Starinsky, A.; Katz, A. ); Bein, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Several mechanisms (evaporation, water-rock interaction, ultra-filtration) have been suggested to explain the evolution of ubiquitous Ca-chloride subsurface brines. In the present paper, the freezing of seawater in polar regions, and in even wider areas during glacial periods, is proposed as an additional possible path of brine formation. Although several of the processes which lead to the formation of Ca-chloride brines are common for both the evaporative and the freezing models, the Na-Br-Cl relationship in a given brine can be used to discriminate between the two modes of brine evolution. Several subsurface brines from the Canadian Shield and one brine from Finland are used as examples of the seawater freezing model, and an explanation is proposed for the necessary mass production of brines in glacial environments.

  9. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Alessia; Bochicchio, Ivana; Fabrizio, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  10. An Experimental Study on Liquid Brine Formation at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Martinez, G.; Elliott, H. M.; Renno, N. O.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present experiments conducted in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber [1] to test the possibility of the formation of liquid brines from calcium perchlorate salts at Gale Crater. We tested bulk samples of Ca(ClO4)2 using Raman spectroscopy to observe spectral changes in the perchlorate band (930-990 cm-1) and the O-H vibrational stretching band (3000-3700 cm-1) of the samples. Our results indicate that brine formation by deliquescence (absorption of water vapor from the atmosphere) does not occur at Gale Crater within the time (< 2 hours) [2] when the ground temperature is above the calcium perchlorate's eutectic temperature (199 K) [3] and the relative humidity is above the deliquescence threshold (26%) [4]. On the contrary, we show that bulk liquid brine of calcium perchlorate salt forms within minutes if the salt is in direct contact with water ice. However, water ice is not expected in the shallow (tens of cm) subsurface of Gale Crater [5] and, on the sols during which frost events might have occurred at the surface, the calculated frost point (~190 K) [2] was below the eutectic temperature of the perchlorate. Liquid water is one of the necessary ingredients for the development of life as we know it. The behavior of various liquid states of H2O such as liquid brine, undercooled liquid interfacial water, subsurface melt water and ground water [6] needs to be understood in order to address the potential habitability of Mars for microbes and future human exploration. These results are relevant because they help in constraining the possible mechanisms of the formation of liquid water at Gale. References: [1] Fischer, E. et al. (2014), Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060302.[2] Martínez, G. M. et al. (2014), American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.[3] Marion, G. M. et al. (2010), Icarus, 207(2), 675-685, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.003.[4] Nuding, D. et al. (2013), AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 45).[5] Aharonson

  11. The Frio Brine Pilot Experiment Managing CO2 Sequestration in a Brine Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, S.

    2005-12-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Frio Brine Pilot Experiment was begun in 2002. The increase in greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), is thought to be a major cause of climate change. Sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers below and separate from fresh water is considered a promising method of reducing CO2 emissions. The objectives of the experiment are to (1) demonstrate CO2 can be injected into a brine formation safely; (2) measure subsurface distribution of injected CO2; (3) test the validity of conceptual, hydrologic, and geochemical models, and (4) develop experience necessary for larger scale CO2 injection experiments. The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) is the leading institution on the project and is collaborating with many national laboratories and private institutes. BEG reviewed many saline formations in the US to identify candidates for CO2 storage. The Frio Formation was selected as a target that could serve a large part of the Gulf Coast and site was selected for a brine storage pilot experiment in the South Liberty field, Dayton, Texas. Most wells were drilled in the 1950's, and the fluvial sandstone of the upper Frio Formation in the Oligocene is our target, at a depth of 5,000 ft. An existing well was used as the observation well. A new injection well was drilled 100 ft away, and 30 ft downdip from the observation well. Conventional cores were cut, and analysis indicated 32 to 35 percent porosity and 2,500 md permeability. Detailed core description was valuable as better characterization resulted in design improvements. A bed bisecting the interval originally thought to be a significant barrier to flow is a sandy siltstone having a permeability of about 100 md. As a result, the upper part of the sandstone was perforated. Because of changes in porosity, permeability, and the perforation zone, input for the simulation model was updated and the model was rerun to estimate timing of

  12. ACTINIDE BIOCOLLOID FORMATION IN BRINE BY HALOPHILIC BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    GILLOW,J.B.; FRANCIS,A.J.; DODGE,C.J.; HARRIS,R.; BEVERIDGE,T.J.; BRADY,P.B.; PAPENGUTH,H.W.

    1998-11-09

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  13. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  14. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  15. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    SciTech Connect

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Formation damage related to hot oiling

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, K.M. )

    1989-11-01

    Hot oil has been used to remove paraffin deposits almost as long as oil has been produced. It is still the most widely used procedure for paraffin removal in use today because of its relative simplicity of application, immediate results, and low cost per application. These apparent benefits have obscured the damage that hot oil can cause when used to clean downhole production equipment. Formation damage caused by hot oiling is related to the physical characteristics of the oil used, the source of the oil, the formation temperature, and the hot-oil process. Potential problems are discussed and suggestions made to minimize or to eliminate them. Laboratory tests are presented for determining whether a crude will cause formation damage during hot oiling. Case histories of successful cleaning of hot-oil formation damage are also given.

  17. The role of seawater freezing in the formation of subsurface brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herut, Barak; Starinsky, Avraham; Katz, Amitai; Bein, Amos

    1990-01-01

    Several mechanisms (evaporation, water-rock interaction, ultra-filtration) have been suggested to explain the evolution of ubiquitous Ca-chloride subsurface brines. In the present paper, the freezing of seawater in polar regions, and in even wider areas during glacial periods, is proposed as an additional possible path of brine formation. Four detailed seawater freezing experiments to -14°C (resulting in a concentration factor of about 5) were carried out, and Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Cl, SO 4, and Br were analysed in the residual brines and in the ice. Br and Sr, whose behavior during the freezing of seawater is reported here for the first time, show a conservative behavior throughout the studied temperature range. Our data and earlier literature show that the high salinities, which are common in subsurface brines (>300 g/l), may be obtained by the removal of H 2O as ice in the primary glacial environment. The decrease in the Na/Cl ratio is caused by the crystallization of mirabilite (Na 2SO 4 · 10H 2O), supplemented by hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H 2O). Sulfate is removed both in mirabilite and by bacterial reduction. The brine then migrates to the subsurface, heats-up under the local geothermal gradient, and interacts with the adjacent rocks. At this stage, it may be diluted by meteoric waters, its Mg/Ca ratio decreases (dolomitization and chloritization), the SO 4/Cl ratio varies according to the local gypsum-anhydrite equilibrium conditions, and the Ca/(SO 4 + HCO 3) ratio increases as a result of dolomitization or chloritization. The interaction with rocks in the subsurface may affect both the original 87Sr /86Sr and the 18O /16O ratios of the brine. Although several of the processes which lead to the formation of Ca-chloride brines are common for both the evaporative and the freezing models, the Na-Br-Cl relationship in a given brine can be used to discriminate between the two modes of brine evolution. Several subsurface brines from the Canadian Shield and one brine

  18. Measurement and modeling of CO₂ solubility in natural and synthetic formation brines for CO₂ sequestration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haining; Dilmore, Robert; Allen, Douglas E; Hedges, Sheila W; Soong, Yee; Lvov, Serguei N

    2015-02-01

    CO2 solubility data in the natural formation brine, synthetic formation brine, and synthetic NaCl+CaCl2 brine were collected at the pressures from 100 to 200 bar, temperatures from 323 to 423 K. Experimental results demonstrate that the CO2 solubility in the synthetic formation brines can be reliably represented by that in the synthetic NaCl+CaCl2 brines. We extended our previously developed model (PSUCO2) to calculate CO2 solubility in aqueous mixed-salt solution by using the additivity rule of the Setschenow coefficients of the individual ions (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), and SO4(2-)). Comparisons with previously published models against the experimental data reveal a clear improvement of the proposed PSUCO2 model. Additionally, the path of the maximum gradient of the CO2 solubility contours divides the P-T diagram into two distinct regions: in Region I, the CO2 solubility in the aqueous phase decreases monotonically in response to increased temperature; in region II, the behavior of the CO2 solubility is the opposite of that in Region I as the temperature increases. PMID:25558883

  19. Authigenic carbonates related to active seepage of methane-rich hot brines at the Cheops mud volcano, Menes caldera (Nile deep-sea fan, eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Catherine; Bayon, Germain; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Mascle, Jean; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    On the passive margin of the Nile deep-sea fan, the active Cheops mud volcano (MV; ca. 1,500 m diameter, ~20-30 m above seafloor, 3,010-3,020 m water depth) comprises a crater lake with hot (up to ca. 42 °C) methane-rich muddy brines in places overflowing down the MV flanks. During the Medeco2 cruise in fall 2007, ROV dives enabled detailed sampling of the brine fluid, bottom lake sediments at ca. 450 m lake depth, sub-surface sediments from the MV flanks, and carbonate crusts at the MV foot. Based on mineralogical, elemental and stable isotope analyses, this study aims at exploring the origin of the brine fluid and the key biogeochemical processes controlling the formation of these deep-sea authigenic carbonates. In addition to their patchy occurrence in crusts outcropping at the seafloor, authigenic carbonates occur as small concretions disseminated within sub-seafloor sediments, as well as in the bottom sediments and muddy brine of the crater lake. Aragonite and Mg-calcite dominate in the carbonate crusts and in sub-seafloor concretions at the MV foot, whereas Mg-calcite, dolomite and ankerite dominate in the muddy brine lake and in sub-seafloor concretions near the crater rim. The carbonate crusts and sub-seafloor concretions at the MV foot precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with bottom seawater temperature; their low δ13C values (-42.6 to -24.5‰) indicate that anaerobic oxidation of methane was the main driver of carbonate precipitation. By contrast, carbonates from the muddy lake brine, bottom lake concretions and crater rim concretions display much higher δ13C (up to -5.2‰) and low δ18O values (down to -2.8‰); this is consistent with their formation in warm fluids of deep origin characterized by 13C-rich CO2 and, as confirmed by independent evidence, slightly higher heavy rare earth element signatures, the main driver of carbonate precipitation being methanogenesis. Moreover, the benthic activity within the seafloor sediment enhances aerobic

  20. Formation of Quartz-Carbonate Veins: Evidence From Experimental Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Brine-Rock System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecky, D. R.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Quartz-carbonate veins are common in a variety of moderate temperature hydrothermal systems and ore deposits. Associated fluid inclusions have a wide range of compositions, including liquid carbon dioxide fillings. Examination of chemical and physical conditions which result precipitation of quartz and carbonate in veins raises several key questions about multiphase fluid processes and reaction rates. We have been experimentally investigating physical-chemical reaction processes of mixed brine-carbon dioxide fluids for the shallow crust. Synthetic arkose (microcline + oligoclase + quartz + biotite) plus argillaceous shale were reacted with 5.5 molal NaCl brine. The system was held at 200 C and 200 bars for 32 days to approach steady state, then injected with carbon dioxide and allowed to react for an additional 45 days. In a parallel experiment, the system was allowed to react for 77 days without injection of carbon dioxide. Trace ions initially absent from NaCl brine appeared in solution at mM (K, Ca, and silica) to uM (Mg, Al, Fe and Mn) quantities, reflecting reaction of brine with rock. Without carbon dioxide injection, the silica concentration (2.4 mM) was stable below calculated quartz solubility (3.9 mM). Injection of carbon dioxide resulted in decreased pH and increased silica concentration to a level near calculated chalcedony solubility (5.4 mM). Dissolution of silicate minerals is apparently coupled to the acidity, and concomitant inhibition of the precipitation of quartz (and other silicates). A significant increase in concentration of trace metals is consistent with in-situ pH decrease and increased carbon dioxide dissolved in brine. Multi-phase fluid reaction relationships between supercritical carbon dioxide and brine-rock systems allow formation of carbonate vein precipitates in substantial quantities. Brine and continued rock reactions provide a substantial reservoir for Ca, Mg and Fe components. A separate carbon dioxide liquid allows

  1. Supercooling and Ice Formation of Perchlorate Brines under Mars-relevant Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primm, K.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Perchlorate salts, discovered in the Martian regolith at multiple landing sites, may provide pathways for liquid water stability on current Mars. It has previously been assumed that if perchlorate brines form in the Martian regolith via melting or deliquescence, they would be present only briefly because efflorescence into a crystal or freezing to ice would soon occur. Here, we used a Raman microscope to study the temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions at which magnesium perchlorate brine will form ice. Although ice is thermodynamically predicted to form whenever the saturation with respect to ice (Sice) is greater than or equal to 1, ice formation by perchlorate brines did not occur until elevated Sice values were reached: Sice= 1.17, 1.29, and 1.25 at temperatures of 218 K, 230.5 K, and 244 K, respectively. If a magnesium perchlorate particle was allowed to deliquesce completely prior to experiencing ice supersaturation, the extent of supercooling was increased even further. These high supersaturation values imply perchlorate brines can exist over a wider range of conditions than previously believed. From these experiments it has been found that magnesium perchlorate exhibits supercooling well into the previous theoretical ice region of the stability diagram and that liquid brines on Mars could potentially exist for up to two additional hours per sol. This supercooling of magnesium perchlorate will help with the exploration of Mars by the Mars 2020 spacecraft by helping to understand the phase and duration of water existing in the Martian subsurface.

  2. Geochemical Evidence for Possible Natural Migration of Marcellus Formation Brine to Shallow Aquifers in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. R.; Darrah, T. H.; Jackson, R. B.; Osborn, S.; Down, A.; Vengosh, A.

    2012-12-01

    The acceleration in production of natural gas from shale formations through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has altered the landscape of domestic energy production in the USA. Yet shale gas exploration has generated an increased awareness of risks to drinking water quality amid concerns for the possible migration of stray gas or hydraulic fracturing fluid and/or flowback brine to shallow drinking water aquifers. The degree to which shallow drinking water is at risk from hydraulic fracturing could depend upon the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the surface. In this study, we analyzed the geochemistry of over 400 water samples located across six counties of northeastern Pennsylvania in the three principle aquifers, two Upper Devonian Age bedrock aquifers (Catskill and Lock Haven) and one Quaternary Age (Alluvium) that overlie the Marcellus Formation. Based on a detailed analysis of major (Br, Cl, Na, Mg, Ba, and Sr) and trace (Li) element geochemistry, coupled with utilization of a specific spectrum of isotopic tracers (87Sr/86Sr, 228Ra/ 226Ra, 2H/H, 18O/16O), we identify a salinized (Cl> 20 mg/L) shallow groundwater type which suggests conservative mixing relationships between fresh shallow groundwater and an underlying brine. Identification of the brine source is complicated as many of the brines in the northern Appalachian Basin likely share a common origin as the expelled remnants of the formation of the Silurian Salina evaporate deposits. To determine the ultimate source of the diluted brine we compared the observed geochemistry to over 80 brines produced from northern Appalachian Basin formations. The shallow salinized groundwater most closely resembles diluted produced water from the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation. The 18O/16O and 2H/H of the salinized groundwater indicate that the brine is likely diluted with post-glacial (<10,000 ybp) meteoric water. Combined, these data indicate that hydraulic connections

  3. Hydrothermal fluid migration and brine pool formation in the Red Sea: the Atlantis II Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Numerical heat and fluid flow simulations of the Atlantis II Deep in the Red Sea were conducted to investigate the development, migration, and discharge of hydrothermal fluids into a submarine depression and determine the conditions necessary to form a brine pool. High-salinity fluids are predicted to form by leaching Miocene evaporates, migrate and convect within young oceanic crust, and discharge onto the seafloor. Predicted fluid discharge temperatures ( T max, 301 °C), discharge fluid velocities ( V max, 0.09 m/s), and salinities ( S max, 21 wt%) increase over time and reach values comparable to modern seafloor observations. Established convection patterns and discharge behavior are robust and are not greatly affected by geometry of rock property changes. Modeling results were used to calculate the minimum conditions for hydrothermal fluids from a developing hydrothermal system to mix with seawater, reverse buoyancy, and begin to form a brine pool in a submarine depression. Under conditions encountered on the seafloor ( T, 25-300 °C; S, 5-25 wt%), fluid mixtures predicted to pond on the seafloor range from late in the mixing process (99 %) at low temperatures ( T, 26 °C) to much earlier (36 % mixing) at higher temperatures ( T, 94 °C). A model of brine pool evolution is proposed that describes the processes and conditions necessary to initiate brine pool formation and compares formation conditions with accumulated ore material in the Atlantis II Deep and other locations.

  4. Brine induced low-Magnesium calcite formation at cold seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dong; Roberts, Harry; Joye, Samantha; Heydari, Ezat

    2013-04-01

    Low-Mg calcite (LMC; < 5 mol% Mg), commonly observed during time intervals of "calcite seas," since the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, is a good indicator of low Mg/Ca ratio (< 2) in seawater. Calcite seas were coincident with times of active seawater-basalt interactions along mid-ocean ridges at high temperatures, which extract Mg from seawater and release Ca to it. In the modern aragonite sea, most carbonate minerals precipitate at the seafloor, including deposits from cold seep environments are primarily either aragonite or high-Mg calcite (HMC). Here, we report the finding of non-skeletal LMC from cold seeps in Alaminos Canyon block 601 (AC 601), 2200 m below the sea surface on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) continental slope. Low-Mg calcite usually represents the only carbonate mineral in the studied samples. Dominant allochems in these seep carbonates are peloids, grain aggregates, pelagic forams, and fragments of mollusks and echinoids. The limestone is heavily cemented. The observed cements include micrite, microspar, mosaic, bladed, fan, and needle cements. The dissolution of grains and cements was observed. Not only originally aragonitic mollusks shells, but also carbonate cement have been dissolved. The aerobic oxidation of reduced chemical species such as methane and H2S is responsible for an increase in pCO2 and a decrease of pH, leading to local carbonate dissolution. The occurrence of oxic conditions is confirmed by the presence of negative Ce anomalies of the carbonates. Further, we report on analyses showing that the ambient porewater Mg/Ca ratio actually governs the carbonate mineralogy. The occurrence of LMC may be attributed to the brine fluids, which is relatively Mg-depleted (Mg/Ca mole ratio is below 0.7) compared to pore fluid of the subsurface sediments from the reference site (Mg/Ca mole ratio is above 4.1) that usually produce HMC. The 87Sr/86Sr values of LMC (mean = 0.708001, sd = 0.000034, n=2) are significantly lower than that of the

  5. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Jackson, Robert B.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Down, Adrian; Zhao, Kaiguang; White, Alissa; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers. We present geochemical evidence from northeastern Pennsylvania showing that pathways, unrelated to recent drilling activities, exist in some locations between deep underlying formations and shallow drinking water aquifers. Integration of chemical data (Br, Cl, Na, Ba, Sr, and Li) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr, 2H/H, 18O/16O, and 228Ra/226Ra) from this and previous studies in 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samples suggest that mixing relationships between shallow ground water and a deep formation brine causes groundwater salinization in some locations. The strong geochemical fingerprint in the salinized (Cl > 20 mg/L) groundwater sampled from the Alluvium, Catskill, and Lock Haven aquifers suggests possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water do not correlate with the location of shale-gas wells and are consistent with reported data before rapid shale-gas development in the region; however, the presence of these fluids suggests conductive pathways and specific geostructural and/or hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania that are at increased risk for contamination of shallow drinking water resources, particularly by fugitive gases, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations. PMID:22778445

  6. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nathaniel R; Jackson, Robert B; Darrah, Thomas H; Osborn, Stephen G; Down, Adrian; Zhao, Kaiguang; White, Alissa; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-07-24

    The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers. We present geochemical evidence from northeastern Pennsylvania showing that pathways, unrelated to recent drilling activities, exist in some locations between deep underlying formations and shallow drinking water aquifers. Integration of chemical data (Br, Cl, Na, Ba, Sr, and Li) and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, (2)H/H, (18)O/(16)O, and (228)Ra/(226)Ra) from this and previous studies in 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samples suggest that mixing relationships between shallow ground water and a deep formation brine causes groundwater salinization in some locations. The strong geochemical fingerprint in the salinized (Cl > 20 mg/L) groundwater sampled from the Alluvium, Catskill, and Lock Haven aquifers suggests possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water do not correlate with the location of shale-gas wells and are consistent with reported data before rapid shale-gas development in the region; however, the presence of these fluids suggests conductive pathways and specific geostructural and/or hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania that are at increased risk for contamination of shallow drinking water resources, particularly by fugitive gases, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations. PMID:22778445

  7. Vertical, horizontal, and temporal changes in temperature in the Atlantis II and Discovery hot brine pools, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Stephen; Bower, Amy; Schmitt, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    In October 2008, we measured temperature and salinity in hot (68°C), hypersaline (250 psu) brine filling the Atlantis II and Discovery Deeps on the Red Sea spreading center near 21°N. In agreement with previous observations in the Atlantis II Deep, we found a stack of four convective layers (in which temperature is vertically uniform) separated by thin interfaces with high vertical temperature gradients. Compared with the last observations in 1997, temperature in the thickest, deepest convective layer in the Atlantis II Deep continued to slowly increase at 0.1°C/yr. Based on earlier data extending back to the 1960s, we found that the temperature of all four convective layers increased at the same rate, from which we infer that diffusive vertical heat flux between convective layers is rapid on time scales of 3-5 yr and, thus, heat is lost from the brine pools to overlying Red Sea Deep Water. Heat budgets suggest that the heat flux from hydrothermal venting decreased from 0.54 GW in 1966 to 0.18 GW in 2008. A towed CTD survey found that temperature in the upper convective layers changes about 0.2°C over 5-6 km, whereas the temperature in the lower brine layer remains constant. Compared to previous surveys, temperature in the lower convective layer in the Discovery Deep remains unchanged at 48°C. To explain these results, we hypothesize that heat flux from a hydrothermal vent in the floor of the Discovery Deep has been stable for 40 years, whereas temperature of the brine in the Atlantis II Deep is adjusting to a decrease in hydrothermal heat flux from the vent in the Southwest Basin. We found no changes in the upper transition layer at 1900-1990 m depth that appeared between 1976 and 1992. Our data are consistent with this layer originating from a seafloor vent elsewhere in the rift.

  8. Vertical, horizontal, and temporal changes in temperature in the Atlantis II and Discovery hot brine pools, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Stephen A.; Bower, Amy S.; Schmitt, Raymond W.

    2012-06-01

    In October 2008, we measured temperature and salinity in hot, hypersaline brine filling the Atlantis II and Discovery Deeps on the Red Sea spreading center west of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In agreement with previous observations in the Atlantis II Deep, we found a stack of four convective layers with vertically uniform temperature profiles separated by thin interfaces with high vertical temperature gradients. Temperature in the thick lower convective layer in the Atlantis II Deep continued to slowly increase at 0.1 °C/year since the last observations in 1997. Previously published data show that the temperature of all four convective layers increased since the 1960s at the same rate, from which we infer that diffusive vertical heat flux between convective layers is rapid on time scales of 3-5 years and, thus, heat is lost from the brine pools to overlying Red Sea Deep Water. Heat budgets suggest that the heat flux from hydrothermal venting has decreased from 0.54 GW to 0.18 GW since 1966. A tow-yo survey found that temperature in the upper convective layers changes about 0.2 °C over 5-6 km but the temperature in the lower brine layer remains constant. Temperature in the lower convective layer in the Discovery Deep remains unchanged at 48 °C. To explain these results, we hypothesize that heat flux from a hydrothermal vent in the floor of the Discovery Deep has been stable for 40 years, whereas temperature of the brine in the Atlantis II Deep is adjusting to the change in hydrothermal heat flux from the vent in the Southwest Basin. We found no changes in the upper transition layer at 1900-1990 m depth that appeared between 1976 and 1992 and suggest that this layer originated from the seafloor elsewhere in the rift.

  9. Hydrological and geochemical monitoring for a CO2 sequestration pilot in a brine formation

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Gunter, William D.

    2004-05-17

    Hydrological and geochemical monitoring are key components of site characterization and CO2 plume monitoring for a pilot test to inject CO2 into a brine-bearing sand of the fluvial-deltaic Frio formation in the upper Texas Gulf Coast. In situ, injected CO2 forms a supercritical phase that has gas-like properties (low density and viscosity) compared to the surrounding brine, while some CO2 dissolves in the brine. The pilot test employs one injection well and one monitor well, with continuous pressure and flow-rate monitoring in both wells, and continuous surface fluid sampling and periodic down-hole fluid sampling from the monitor well. Pre-injection site-characterization includes pump tests with pressure-transient analysis to estimate single-phase flow properties, establish hydraulic connectivity between the wells, determine appropriate boundary conditions, and analyze ambient phase conditions within the formation. Additionally, a pre-injection tracer test furnishes estimates of kinematic porosity and the geometry of flow paths between injection and monitor wells under single-phase conditions. Pre-injection geochemical sampling provides a baseline for subsequent geochemical monitoring and helps determine the optimal tracers to accompany CO2 injection. During CO2 injection, hydrological monitoring enables estimation of two-phase flow properties and helps track the movement of the injected CO2 plume, while geochemical sampling provides direct evidence of the arrival of CO2 and tracers at the monitor well. Furthermore, CO2-charged water acts as a weak acid, and reacts to some extent with the minerals in the aquifer, producing a distinct chemical signature in the water collected at the monitor well. Comparison of breakthrough curves for the single-phase tracer test and the CO2 (and its accompanying tracers) illuminates two-phase flow processes between the supercritical CO2 and native brine, an area of current uncertainty that must be better understood to effectively

  10. A model for the evolution of brines in salt from the lower Salado Formation, southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L. )

    1988-05-01

    Fluid inclusions were collected from a bedded salt horizon in the lower Permian Salado Formation in the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. The sampling horizon, at a depth of approximately 645 meters, consists primarily of recrystallized halite, with thin layers of anhydrite. Other trace minerals, dispersed throughout the salt, include quartz, polyhalite, gypsum, K-feldspar, magnesite, and clays. The chemistry of the inclusion fluids and the associated mineralogy suggest that these brines represent Permian seawater that has undergone evaporation and subsequent modification by diagenetic reactions, dominated by the alteration of calcium sulfate to polyhalite and magnesite formation. The range of fluid inclusion compositions suggests a significant departure from a simple seawater evaporation model. Other brines from the same horizon in the Salado Formation were sampled and analyzed for the same elements as the fluid inclusions, and differed significantly from them primarily by the depletion of Mg relative to K. The association of these brines with argillaceous and/or anhydritic halite containing a suite of authigenic minerals (quartz, magnesite, and Mg-rich clays) suggests that these are intergranular brines with compositions determined over a much longer time scale than that required by the fluid inclusions. The principal reactions affecting intergranular brine chemistry are dehydration of gypsum, dewatering of detrital clays, and uptake of Mg during clay diagenesis. Overall, the observed variation in brine compositions implies that, if large-scale hydrologic circulation is occurring in the Salado halite, the time scale is limited by the rate required for low-temperature silicate diagenesis.

  11. Wormhole formation and compact dissolution in single- and two-phase CO2-brine injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Holger; Oedai, Sjaam

    2015-04-01

    Injection of acids and CO2 into geologic formations leads to dissolution of soluble minerals comprising reservoirs rocks. This increases the uncertainty in predicting the security and injectivity of geologic CO2 storage. Here through time-lapse computed tomography of injection experiments, we present the first dynamic data on wormhole formation and the fluid flow therein. We show that the dissolution during single-phase flow produces wormholes, as found previously, but that two-phase flow during CO2-brine injection leads to compact dissolution. The latter is explained by CO2 preferentially occupying wormhole seeds, which prevents their growth as CO2 is less reactive than acidic brine. On the other hand, the wormhole seeds continue to grow under single-phase flows with only acidic fluid. The results also suggest that initial Péclet and Damköhler numbers for the single-phase flow process would fail to describe the dynamic process of whether compact or wormhole dissolution would ensue.

  12. In Lactobacillus pentosus, the olive brine adaptation genes are required for biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Perpetuini, G; Pham-Hoang, B N; Scornec, H; Tofalo, R; Schirone, M; Suzzi, G; Cavin, J F; Waché, Y; Corsetti, A; Licandro-Seraut, H

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus is one of the few lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species capable of surviving in olive brine, and thus desirable during table olive fermentation. We have recently generated mutants of the efficient strain L. pentosus C11 by transposon mutagenesis and identified five mutants unable to survive and adapt to olive brine conditions. Since biofilm formation represents one of the main bacterial strategy to survive in stressful environments, in this study, the capacity of adhesion and formation of biofilm on olive skin was investigated for this strain and five derivative mutants which are interrupted in metabolic genes (enoA1 and gpi), and in genes of unknown function ("oba" genes). Confocal microscopy together with bacteria count revealed that the sessile state represented the prevailing L. pentosus C11 life-style during table olive fermentation. The characterization of cell surface properties showed that mutants present less hydrophobic and basic properties than the wild type (WT). In fact, their ability to adhere to both abiotic (polystyrene plates) and biotic (olive skin) surfaces was lower than that of the WT. Confocal microscopy revealed that mutants adhered sparsely to the olive skin instead of building a thin, multilayer biofilm. Moreover, RT-qPCR showed that the three genes enoA1, gpi and obaC were upregulated in the olive biofilm compared to the planktonic state. Thus enoA1, gpi and "oba" genes are necessary in L. pentosus to form an organized biofilm on the olive skin. PMID:26447789

  13. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of fossil brines of the Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone and Ironton-Galesville Formation from the Illinois Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.; Freiburg, Jared T.

    2015-09-01

    Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of deep-seated saline groundwater provide valuable insight into the origin and evolving composition, water-rock interaction, and mixing potential of fossil brines. Such information may yield insight into intra- and interbasinal brine movement and relationships between brine evolution and regional groundwater flow systems. This investigation reports on the δ18O and δD composition and activity values, 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations, and major ion concentrations of the Cambrian-hosted brines of the Mt. Simon Sandstone and Ironton-Galesville Formation and discusses the evolution of these brines as they relate to other intracontinental brines. Brines in the Illinois Basin are dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-type chemistry. The Mt. Simon and overlying Ironton-Galesville brines exhibit total dissolved solids concentrations of ∼195,000 mg/L and ∼66,270 mg/L, respectively. The δD of brine composition of the Mt. Simon ranges from -34‰ to -22‰ (V-SMOW), and the Ironton-Galesville is ∼-53.2‰ (V-SMOW). The δ18O composition of the Mt. Simon brine ranges from -5.0‰ to -2.8‰ (V-SMOW), and the Ironton-Galesville brine is ∼-6.9‰ (V-SMOW). The 87Sr/86Sr values in the Mt. Simon brine range from 0.7110 to 0.7116. The less radiogenic Ironton-Galesville brine has an average 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.7107. Evaluation of δ18O and δD composition and activities and 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggests that the Mt. Simon brine is likely connate seawater and recirculating deep-seated brines that have been diluted with meteoric water and influenced by the dissolution of evaporites with a minimal halite contribution based on Cl/Br ratios. The Ironton-Galesville brine is also likely originally connate seawater that mixed with other brines and meteoric waters, including possibly Pleistocene glacial recharge. The Ca-excess vs. Na-deficiency comparison with the Basinal Fluid Line suggests the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville brines have been

  14. Active CO2 Reservoir Management: A Strategy for Controlling Pressure, CO2 and Brine Migration in Saline-Formation CCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Sun, Y.; Hao, Y.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.; Wolery, T.; Tompson, A. F.; Aines, R. D.; Friedmann, J.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) in deep geological formations is regarded as a promising means of lowering the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and thereby mitigate global warming. The most promising systems for CCS are depleted oil reservoirs, particularly those suited to CO2-based Enhanced Oil Recovery (CCS-EOR), and deep saline formations, both of which are well separated from the atmosphere. For conventional, industrial-scale, saline-formation CCS, pressure buildup can have a limiting effect on CO2 storage capacity. To address this concern, we analyze Active CO2 Reservoir Management (ACRM), which combines brine extraction and residual-brine reinjection with CO2 injection, comparing it with conventional saline-formation CCS. We investigate the influence of brine extraction on pressure response and CO2 and brine migration using the NUFT code. By extracting brine from the lower portion of the storage formation, from locations progressively further from the center of injection, we can counteract buoyancy that drives CO2 to the top of the formation, which is useful in dipping formations. Using “push-pull” manipulation of the CO2 plume, we expose less of the caprock seal to CO2 and more of the storage formation to CO2, with more of the formation utilized for trapping mechanisms. Plume manipulation can also counteract the influence of heterogeneity. We consider the impact of extraction ratio, defined as net extracted brine volume (extraction minus reinjection) divided by injected CO2 volume. Pressure buildup is reduced with increasing extraction ratio, which reduces CO2 and brine migration, increases CO2 storage capacity, and reduces other risks, such as leakage up abandoned wells, caprock fracturing, fault activation, and induced seismicity. For a 100-yr injection period, a 10-yr delay in brine extraction does not diminish the magnitude of pressure reduction. Moreover, it is possible to achieve pressure management with just a few brine-extraction wells

  15. Hot Disks and Delayed Bar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik; Melbourne, Jason; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, E.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2012-10-01

    We present observational evidence for the inhibition of bar formation in dispersion-dominated (dynamically hot) galaxies by studying the relationship between galactic structure and host galaxy kinematics in a sample of 257 galaxies between 0.1 < z <= 0.84 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey and the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 survey. We find that bars are preferentially found in galaxies that are massive and dynamically cold (rotation-dominated) and on the stellar Tully-Fisher relationship, as is the case for barred spirals in the local universe. The data provide at least one explanation for the steep (×3) decline in the overall bar fraction from z = 0 to z = 0.84 in L* and brighter disks seen in previous studies. The decline in the bar fraction at high redshift is almost exclusively in the lower mass (10 < log M *(M ⊙) < 11), later-type, and bluer galaxies. A proposed explanation for this "downsizing" of the bar formation/stellar structure formation is that the lower mass galaxies may not form bars because they could be dynamically hotter than more massive systems from the increased turbulence of accreting gas, elevated star formation, and/or increased interaction/merger rate at higher redshifts. The evidence presented here provides observational support for this hypothesis. However, the data also show that not every disk galaxy that is massive and cold has a stellar bar, suggesting that mass and dynamic coldness of a disk are necessary but not sufficient conditions for bar formation—a secondary process, perhaps the interaction history between the dark matter halo and the baryonic matter, may play an important role in bar formation.

  16. Formation and X-ray emission from hot bubbles in planetary nebulae - I. Hot bubble formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toalá, J. A.; Arthur, S. J.

    2014-10-01

    We carry out high-resolution two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic numerical simulations to study the formation and evolution of hot bubbles inside planetary nebulae. We take into account the evolution of the stellar parameters, wind velocity and mass-loss rate from the final thermal pulses during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) through to the post-AGB stage for a range of initial stellar masses. The instabilities that form at the interface between the hot bubble and the swept-up AGB wind shell lead to hydrodynamical interactions, photoevaporation flows and opacity variations. We explore the effects of hydrodynamical mixing combined with thermal conduction at this interface on the dynamics, photoionization, and emissivity of our models. We find that even models without thermal conduction mix significant amounts of mass into the hot bubble. When thermal conduction is not included, hot gas can leak through the gaps between clumps and filaments in the broken swept-up AGB shell and this depressurises the bubble. The inclusion of thermal conduction evaporates and heats material from the clumpy shell, which expands to seal the gaps, preventing a loss in bubble pressure. The dynamics of bubbles without conduction is dominated by the thermal pressure of the thick photoionized shell, while for bubbles with thermal conduction it is dominated by the hot, shocked wind.

  17. Formation and chemical evolution of magnesium chloride brines by evaporite dissolution processes—Implications for evaporite geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Ralf E.

    2005-09-01

    The evolution of magnesium chloride brines with high bromide contents via a multistage reaction and dissolution process has been studied in brine seeps of a German potash mine. The observed chemical trends and phase equilibria can be modeled and interpreted in terms of a NaCl solution (cap rock brine) infiltrating into a potash zone characterized by the metamorphic mineral assemblage kieserite + sylvite + halite + anhydrite. Establishment of a persistent, stable equilibrium assemblage and constant fluid composition in the invariant point IP1 of the six component (Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl-SO 4-H 2O) system of oceanic salts is prevented by the perpetually renewed input of NaCl-brine and by the intermittent exposure of incompatible kieserite. Instead, the solutions develop towards the metastable invariant point IP1(gy), with the mineral assemblage carnallite + polyhalite + sylvite + halite + gypsum, where gypsum takes the place of anhydrite (stage I). The temporary exposure of kieserite and the ensuing formation of polyhalite effectively buffer the solutions along the metastable polyhalite phase boundary during stages II and III. Eventually, in stage IV, polyhalite becomes depleted and admixture of more NaCl brine leads to low sulfate solution compositions, which are now only constrained by carnallite + sylvite + halite, and the once hexary system degenerates to a quaternary one (Na-K-Mg-Cl-H 2O) in point E. Bromide in brines shows equilibrium partitioning with respect to the wall rock minerals. The pattern of evolving brine compositions may serve as a model for similar brine occurrences, which in some cases may have been misinterpreted as remains of fossil, highly concentrated and chemically modified seawater. Similar magnesium chloride brines of salt lakes (e.g., Dead Sea, Dabusun Lake) show subtle differences and are constrained by fewer mineral equilibria (more degrees of freedom), and their low sulfate contents are due to gypsum precipitation, driven by calcium chloride

  18. Geochemistry of two pressurized brines from the Castile Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    SciTech Connect

    Faith, S.; Spiegler, P.; Rehfeldt, K.R.

    1983-04-01

    The major and minor element data and isotopic data from the ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 testing indicate that the brine reservoirs encountered in the Upper Castile Formation are largely in equilibrium with their surrounding host rock environment. This contention is supported by thermodynamic and stable isotope data. It is not possible to assign an absolute age to the brine based on uranium disequilibrium considerations, but the data do indicate that the brine reequilibrated with a new rock environment at least two million years ago. Information and data evaluated herein indicate the likelihood that the brines encountered are predominantly, if not entirely, derived from a trapped seawater source subsequently modified by diagenesis. Major ion/bromide ratios indicate that halite dissolution has occurred to some extent subsequent to deposition of the Castile anhydrites and entrapment of the seawater brine. Mechanisms for additional halite dissolution are discussed. Based on the degree of present halite saturation, it is concluded that the potential for future dissolution of halite is minimal.

  19. Evidence for hot Mississippi Valley-type brines in the Reelfoot Rift complex, south-central United States, in Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, D.L.; Apodaca, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Powell, J.W.; Rowan, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Petrographic and fluid inclusion studies of sparry dolomite cement from Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician rocks and conodont thermal-alteration indices provide evidence that hot mississippi valley-type brines were once present in the Reelfoot Rift complex. The cathodoluminescent microstratigraphy of sparry dolomite cement in the Reelfoot Rift resembles that of sparry dolomite cement associated with widespread mississippi valley-type deposition in the Ozark region. If correlative cathodoluminescent zones in the sparry dolomite from the Ozark and Reelfoot Rift regions indicate broadly contemporaneous dolomite deposition, then the results show that the Ozark MVT-type hydrothermal system extended into the Reelfoot region and onto the western flank of the Nashville Dome. Independent evidence supports migration of MVT-type brines into the Ozark region from the Reelfoot Rift complex in late Paleozoic time.

  20. Rare earth elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic analyses of the Arima hot spring waters, Southwest Japan: Implications for origin of the Arima-type brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Nakai, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Iwamori, H.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compsotions of the Arima hot spring waters, a specific type of deep-seated brine (up to 6 wt.% NaCl) in the non-volcanic fore-arc region of southwest Japan, have been analyzed in order to discuss their source materials and origins. We have first examined the matrix effect associated with variable salinity (0 to 5 wt.% NaCl), and found that above 1 wt.% NaCl, the intensity of REE in ICP-MS measurement is drastically reduced due to the matrix effect. Accordingly, we have diluted the sample waters to contain ~0.6 wt.% NaCl, and then analyzed them by the standard addition method. The result shows that the abundance is appreciably high compared to near-surface waters, and exhibits almost a flat DMM-normalized pattern, which can be explained by mixing of a slab-derived fluid at relatively low temparature (400 to 500 ºC) and a near-surface water. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the brine are consistent with the above interpretation on REEs, in that the deep brine is isotopically similar to a slab-derived fluid of the subducted Philippine Sea slab. These evidences suggest that the slab-derived fluid is upwelling even in the non-volcanic region possibly through a fault zone along the tectonic line.

  1. Effects of brine concentration on lipid oxidation and fatty acids profile of hot smoked tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) stored at refrigerated temperature.

    PubMed

    Guizani, Nejib; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Al-Ruzeiqi, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Sureshchandran, Sithara

    2014-03-01

    This work evaluated the lipid oxidation and the changes in fatty acids in hot-smoked tuna (Thunnus albacares) as a function of brine concentration. Fresh, commercially harvested tuna fish samples were purchased from a local supermarket. The fish were first immersed for 30 min in a brine solution at 5, 10, or 15% sodium chloride concentration and were then smoked at 50 °C for 3 h followed by 1 h at 60 °C and 3 h at 105 °C. The fish were then dried for 17 h, cooled and stored at 4 °C. Oxidative rancidity was measured by the peroxide value (PV), and thiobarbituric acid number (TBA) and fatty acids profile by GC-MS. Oxidative rancidity increased with storage time. The PV and TBARS values were more pronounced for samples immersed in 10% brine solution during the first 27 days of storage, whereas the lowest increase was observed for samples treated with 15% salt. Fatty acid concentration exhibited changes after smoking, and this was varied with salt concentration. The palmitic acid and stearic acid, the two main saturated fatty acids in tuna, increased after smoking at all brine concentration, whereas the contents of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid decreased. In conclusion, 15% NaCl-treated tuna gave smoked product with less lipid oxidation and a fatty acid profile comparable to that for 5 and 10% NaCl-treated samples. PMID:24587535

  2. Characterization of induced struvite formation from source-separated urine using seawater and brine as magnesium sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bianxia; Giannis, Apostolos; Zhang, Jiefeng; Chang, Victor W-C; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) precipitation is widely used for nutrient recovery from source-separated urine in view of limited natural resources. Spontaneous struvite formation depletes the magnesium in hydrolyzed urine so that additional magnesium source is required to produce induced struvite for P-recovery. The present study investigated the morphology and purity of induced struvite crystals obtained from hydrolyzed urine by using seawater and desalination brine as low cost magnesium sources. The results demonstrated that both seawater and brine were effective magnesium sources to recover phosphorus from hydrolyzed urine. Crystals obtained from synthetic and real urine were revealed that the morphology was feather and coffin shape, respectively. Structural characterization of the precipitates confirmed that crystallized struvite was the main product. However, co-precipitates magnesium calcite and calcite were observed when seawater was added into synthetic and real urine, respectively. It was found that the presence of calcium in the magnesium sources could compromise struvite purity. Higher struvite purity could be obtained with higher Mg/Ca ratio in the magnesium source. Comparative analysis indicated that seawater and brine had similar effect on the crystallized struvite purity. PMID:24134888

  3. Formation of Hot Tear Under Controlled Solidification Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subroto, Tungky; Miroux, Alexis; Bouffier, Lionel; Josserond, Charles; Salvo, Luc; Suéry, Michel; Eskin, Dmitry G.; Katgerman, Laurens

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum alloy 7050 is known for its superior mechanical properties, and thus finds its application in aerospace industry. Vertical direct-chill (DC) casting process is typically employed for producing such an alloy. Despite its advantages, AA7050 is considered as a "hard-to-cast" alloy because of its propensity to cold cracking. This type of cracks occurs catastrophically and is difficult to predict. Previous research suggested that such a crack could be initiated by undeveloped hot tears (microscopic hot tear) formed during the DC casting process if they reach a certain critical size. However, validation of such a hypothesis has not been done yet. Therefore, a method to produce a hot tear with a controlled size is needed as part of the verification studies. In the current study, we demonstrate a method that has a potential to control the size of the created hot tear in a small-scale solidification process. We found that by changing two variables, cooling rate and displacement compensation rate, the size of the hot tear during solidification can be modified in a controlled way. An X-ray microtomography characterization technique is utilized to quantify the created hot tear. We suggest that feeding and strain rate during DC casting are more important compared with the exerted force on the sample for the formation of a hot tear. In addition, we show that there are four different domains of hot-tear development in the explored experimental window—compression, microscopic hot tear, macroscopic hot tear, and failure. The samples produced in the current study will be used for subsequent experiments that simulate cold-cracking conditions to confirm the earlier proposed model.

  4. Co-injection of SO2 With CO2 in Geological Sequestration: Potential for Acidification of Formation Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. R.; Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce flue gas streams containing 0.02-1.4% SO2 after traditional sulfur scrubbing techniques are employed. Due to the corrosive nature of H2SO4, it will likely be necessary to remove the residual SO2 prior to carbon capture and transport; however, it may still be economically advantageous to reintroduce the SO2 to the injection stream to mitigate the cost of SO2 disposal and/or to get credits for SO2 emissions reduction. This study examines the impact of SO2 co-injection on the pH of formation brine. Using phase equilibrium modeling, it is shown that a CO2 gas stream with 1% SO2 under oxidizing conditions can create extremely acidic conditions (pH<1), but this will occur only near the CO2 plume and over a short time frame. Nearly all of the SO2 will be lost to the brine during this first phase equilibration, within approximately a decade, and the pH after the second is only 3.7, which is the pH that would occur from the carbonic acid alone. This suggests that although SO2 will create low pH values due to the formation of H2SO4, the effect will have a very limited lifespan and a localized impact spatially. SO2 is much more soluble than CO2 and as the relative of amount of SO2 to CO2 is very small, the SO2 will quickly dissolve into the formation brine. The extent of H2SO4 formation is dependent on the redox conditions of the system. Several SO2 oxidation pathways are investigated, including SO2 disproportionation which produces both sulfate and the weaker acid, H2S. Further modeling considers a time varying, diffusion limited flux of SO2. Relative to the case of instantaneous phase equilibrium, this results in a smaller decrease in pH occurring over a longer duration. Our overall conclusion is that brine acidification due to SO2 co-injection is not likely to be significant over relevant time and spatial scales.

  5. Brine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Doty, H.W.; Wong, M.M.; Wong, C.F.; Featherstone, J.L.; Messer, P.H.

    1993-08-31

    A method is described for treating a corrosive feed geothermal brine containing suspended and dissolved scale forming constituents at least some of which comprise silicon-containing components and some of which comprise at least one recoverable metal selected from the group consisting of copper and metals below copper in the electromotive series said method comprising passing the brine through a conduit packed with at least one metal as high or higher in the electromotive series than copper for a time sufficient for a substantial portion of the recoverable metal to precipitate onto the packing in said conduit, to reduce the corrosivity of the brine, and to stabilize the scale forming constituents of the brine; and discharging from said conduit a treated brine less corrosive than the feed brine and having a substantially reduced scale forming potential.

  6. Numerical Modeling of Brine Formation and Serpentinization at the Rainbow Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, P.; Lowell, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Rainbow hydrothermal field on the Mid Atlantic Ridge is a high-temperature hydrothermal system hosted in peridotite. The vent fluids are rich in methane and hydrogen suggesting that serpentinization is occurring at depth in the system. Vent temperature of ~365°C, salinity of ~4.5 wt%, and heat output of ~500 MW suggest that Rainbow field is driven by a magmatic heat source and that phase separation is occurring at depth. To understand the origin of high salinity in the Rainbow hydrothermal fluid, we construct a 2D numerical model of two-phase hydrothermal circulation using the numerical simulator FISHES. This code uses the finite volume method to solve the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and salt equations in a NaCl-H2O fluid. We simulate convection in an open top 2D box at a surface pressure of 23 MPa and seawater temperature of 10oC. The bottom and sides of the box are insulated and impermeable, and a fixed temperature distribution is maintained at the base to ensure phase separation. We first consider a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and system depths of 2 and 1 km, respectively. The brine-derived fluid from the deeper system barely exceeds seawater, whereas the shallower system produces a short pulse of 9.0 wt% for 5 years. We then consider 1 km deep systems with a high permeability discharge zone of 5x10-13 m2 that corresponds to a fault zone, surrounded by recharge zones of 10-13, 10-14 and 10-15 m2, respectively. The model with recharge permeability of 10-14 m2 yields stable plumes that vent brine-derived fluid of 4.2 wt% for 150 years. Using the quasi- steady state of this model as a base, we estimate the rate of serpentinization along the fluid flow paths, and evolution of porosity and permeability. This analysis will indicate the extent to which serpentinization will affect the dynamics of the system and will provide insight into methane flux in the Rainbow vent field.

  7. Hot flow anomaly formation by magnetic deflection. [regions of hot plasma in earth magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onsager, T. G.; Thomsen, M. F.; Winske, D.

    1990-01-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are localized plasma structures observed in the solar wind and magnetosheath near the earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. This paper presents one-dimensional hybrid computer simulations illustrating a formation mechanism for HFAs in which the single hot ion population results from a spatial separation of two counterstreaming ion beams. The higher-density cooler regions are dominated by the background (solar wind) ions, and the lower-density hotter internal regions are dominated by the beam ions. The spatial separation of the beam and background is caused by the deflection of the ions in large-amplitude magnetic fields which are generated by ion/ion streaming instabilities.

  8. Experimental Demonstration of the Formation of Liquid Brines under Martian Polar Conditions in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Erik; Martinez, German; Elliott, Harvey; Borlina, Caue; Renno, Nilton

    2014-05-01

    Liquid water is one of the necessary ingredients for the development of life as we know it. The behavior of various liquid states of H2O such as liquid brine, undercooled liquid interfacial water, subsurface melt water and ground water [1] needs to be understood in order to address the potential habitability of Mars for microbes and future human exploration. It has been shown thermodynamically that liquid brines can exist under Martian polar conditions [2, 3]. We have developed the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber (MMEC) to simulate the entire range of Martian surface and shallow subsurface conditions with respect to temperature, pressure, relative humidity, solar radiation and soil wetness at equatorial and polar latitudes. Our experiments in the MMEC show that deliquescence of NaClO4, Mg(ClO4)2 and Ca(ClO4)2 occurs diurnally under the environmental conditions of the Phoenix landing site when these salts get in contact with water ice. Since Phoenix detected these salts and water ice at the landing site, including frost formation, it is extremely likely that deliquescence occurs at the Phoenix landing site. By layering NaClO4, Mg(ClO4)2 or Ca(ClO4)2 on top of a pure water ice slab at 800 Pa and 190 K and raising the temperature stepwise across the eutectic temperature of the perchlorate salts, we observe distinct changes in the Raman spectra of the samples when deliquescence occurs. When crossing the eutectic temperatures of NaClO4 (236 K), Mg(ClO4)2 (205 K) and Ca(ClO4)2 (199 K) [4, 5], the perchlorate band of the Raman spectrum shows a clear shift from 953 cm-1 to 936 cm-1. Furthermore, the appearance of a broad O-H vibrational stretching spectrum between 3244 cm-1 and 3580 cm-1 is another indicator of deliquescence. This process of deliquescence occurs on the order of seconds when the perchlorate salt is in contact with water ice. On the contrary, when the perchlorate salt is only subjected to water vapor in the Martian atmosphere, deliquescence was not

  9. Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, R.L. ); Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D. )

    1991-08-01

    Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.

  10. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with

  11. Time-dependent solubilization of IgG in AOT-brine-isooctane microemulsions: role of cluster formation.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, N I; Dungan, S R

    2002-04-01

    The stability and structure of protein-containing water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions were investigated by using the large protein immunoglobulin G (IgG, MW 155,000) in a mixture comprised of brine, sulfosuccinic acid bis [2-ethylhexyl]ester (sodium salt), and isooctane. We explored factors affecting the initial uptake of IgG into the w/o microemulsion and its subsequent release to a solid (precipitate) phase, and the kinetics of the latter process. Influences of such parameters as pH, ionic strength, and protein concentration on the solubilization and precipitation of bovine IgG in the organic phase are described. The structure and dynamics in microemulsions containing bovine IgG were probed by using dynamic light scattering, and it was found that the presence of IgG in the microemulsion induced strong attractive forces between the droplets. Based on results obtained by using these various experimental approaches, a model for protein solubilization and release is proposed. In this model, we propose the formation of clusters within which bovine IgG resides and which substantially slow the kinetics of protein release from the droplets to the precipitate phase. PMID:11857282

  12. Hot spot formation in electron-doped PCCO nanobridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, S.; Arpaia, R.; Gaudet, J.; Matte, D.; Baghdadi, R.; Löfwander, T.; Golubev, D.; Fournier, P.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the transport properties of optimally doped Pr2 -xCexCuO4 -δ (PCCO) nanobridges with width down to 100 nm. The critical current density of the nanobridges approaches the Ginzburg-Landau theoretical limit, which demonstrates nanostructures with properties close to the as-grown films. The current voltage characteristics are hysteretic with a sharp voltage switch, of the order of a few millivolts, that we interpret with the occurrence of a hot spot formation. The values of the retrapping current and the voltage switch obtained by modeling the heat transport in the nanobridges are very close to the experimental ones. This feature, together with the extremely short recombination times, make PCCO nanostructures attractive candidates for ultrafast single photon detectors.

  13. Large format, small pixel pitch and hot detectors at SOFRADIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Y.; Rouvie, A.; Nedelcu, A.; Augey, T.; Pere-Laperne, N.; Rubaldo, L.; Billon-Lanfrey, D.; Gravrand, O.; Rothman, J.; Destefanis, G.

    2013-10-01

    Recently Sofradir joined a very small circle of IR detector manufacturers with expertise every aspect of the cooled and uncooled IR technologies, all under one roof by consolidating all IR technologies available in France. These different technologies are complementary and are used depending of the needs of the applications mainly concerning the detection range needs as well as their ability to detect in bad weather environmental conditions. SNAKE (InGaAs) and SCORPIO LW (MCT) expand Sofradir's line of small pixel pitch TV format IR detectors from the mid-wavelength to the short and long wavelengths. Our dual band MW-LW QWIP detectors (25μm, 384×288 pixels) benefit to tactical platforms giving an all-weather performance and increasing flexibility in the presence of battlefield obscurants. In parallel we have been pursuing further infrared developments on future MWIR detectors, such as the VGA format HOT detector that consumes 2W and the 10μm pitch IR detector which gives us a leading position in innovation. These detectors are designed for long-range surveillance equipment, commander or gunner sights, ground-to-ground missile launchers and other applications that require higher resolution and sensitivity to improve reconnaissance and target identification. This paper discusses the system level performance in each detector type.

  14. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  15. Uranium-isotope disequilibrium in brine reservoirs of the Castile Formation, northern Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. I. Principles and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.; Carter, J.A.

    1984-02-01

    We evaluated uranium isotope activity ratios with respect to models for the origin of the brines in two brine reservoirs in the Castile Formation (ERDA No. 6 and WIPP No. 12). In Castile anhydrite, a completely closed water system that was continuously leaching Th-recoil-produced /sup 234/U from freshly exposed surfaces of fractured host rock would give rise to uranium 234/238 isotope activity ratio (..cap alpha..) values significantly higher than observed values. Therefore, the brine occurrences are not the result of continuous deformation. Similarly, a model assuming movement of intergranular Permian seawater into fractures was found inconsistent with observed uranium isotope systematics. The observed ..cap alpha..-values (95% confidence limits) of ERDA No. 6 (1.34 to 1.58) and WIPP No. 12 (1.74 to 2.54), used in conjunction with an inferred intial ..cap alpha../sub 0/ higher than observed values, allows calculation of reasonable finite minimum ages, involving no preferential leaching of /sup 234/U in the host rock. If the brine occurrences are inferred to have been connected at one time with a more extensive nearby hydrologic system, the Capitan limestone (..cap alpha../sub 0/ = 5.1), calculated minimum ages of isolation from that system are 700,000 to 880,000 yr for ERDA No. 6 and 360,000 to 610,000 yr for WIPP No. 12. These ranges in ages are the 95% confidence limits based on experimental determinations of ..cap alpha..-values. The ages thus derived may reflect an episode of structural deformation in the Pleistocene that allowed water to enter the resulting fractures. 16 references, 6 figures.

  16. Natural heterogeneity and evolving geochemistry of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation brine in response to continuing CO2 injection at Cranfield EOR site, Mississippi, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordsen, J. J.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Thomas, B.; Abedini, A. A.; Conaway, C. H.; Manning, M. A.; Lu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Geochemical monitoring of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (LTF) brine continues at the Cranfield CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration site to investigate the potential for the geologic storage of large volumes of CO2 in saline aquifers and depleted reservoirs. Cranfield oil field is a domal depleted oil and gas reservoir in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, with production in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones of the LTF (depth ~3000 m). CO2 flood began in July 2008. Brine samples were collected from selected production wells in March and December 2009, April 2010, and November 2011. Intensive sampling also was conducted for the first 18 days of a CO2 injection experiment below the oil-water contact (December 2009) at the Detailed Area of Study (DAS) 3-well array. The sampling objectives are to define the geochemical composition of the pre-injection brine, and to understand the geochemical changes resulting from interactions between the injected CO2, brine, and reservoir minerals. Results show that Tuscaloosa brine is Na-Ca-Cl type with total salinity ranging from ~140 to 160 g/L TDS (50 samples). Relatively large variations are observed in major divalent cations (Ca ~7,500-14,000 mg/L, Mg ~800-1,250 mg/L, Sr ~475-750 mg/L). Significant positive correlations are noted amongst Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, and Br, whereas these solutes all trend negatively with Na and Cl. These results may be interpreted as possible binary mixing between two end-member waters: (1) high Na-Cl (51 and 97 g/L, respectively), low Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~7500, 800, 475, 280 mg/L, respectively); and (2) low Na-Cl (40 and 86 g/L), high Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~14,000, 1250, 750, 480 mg/L). This apparent binary mixing has no obvious correlation to CO2 injection, which suggests that observed variations are due to natural heterogeneities in LTF brine within the Cranfield dome. The variations may indicate vertical and/or lateral proximity to a halite source (i.e. salt dome), with the high Na-Cl, low Br

  17. Biotite-brine interactions under acidic hydrothermal conditions: fibrous illite, goethite, and kaolinite formation and biotite surface cracking.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Ray, Jessica R; Jun, Young-Shin

    2011-07-15

    To ensure safe and efficient geologic CO(2) sequestration (GCS), it is crucial to have a better understanding of CO(2)-brine-rock interactions under GCS conditions. In this work, using biotite (K(Mg,Fe)(3)AlSi(3)O(10)(OH,F)(2)) as a model clay mineral, brine-biotite interactions were studied under conditions relevant to GCS sites (95 °C, 102 atm CO(2), and 1 M NaCl solution). After reaction for 3-17 h, fast growth of fibrous illite on flat basal planes of biotite was observed. After 22-70 h reaction, the biotite basal surface cracked, resulting in illite detaching from the surface. Later on (96-120 h), the cracked surface layer was released into solution, thus the inner layer was exposed as a renewed flat basal surface. The cracking and detachment of the biotite surface layer increased the surface area in contact with solution and accelerated biotite dissolution. On biotite edge surfaces, Al-substituted goethite and kaolinite precipitated. In control experiments with water under the same temperature and pressure, neither macroscopic fibrous illite nor cracks were observed. This work provides unique information on biotite-brine interaction under acidic hydrothermal conditions. PMID:21696218

  18. Metallic sulfide deposits in Winnefield salt dome, Louisiana: evidence for episodic introduction of metalliferous brines during cap rock formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    Winnfield dome is a shallow piercement salt structure that penetrates Late Jurassic through early Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata of the North Louisiana basin. Quarrying operations in the calcite and anhydrite portions of the cap rock have exposed zones of metallic sulfides and barite. A roughly laminated massive sulfide lens is exposed at the calcite to anhydrite transition zone. These sulfide concentrations are believed to have originated from the interaction of metalliferous basinal brines with reduced sulfur trapped within the cap rock. Textural relationships and variations in chemical compositions between the sulfide layers in the anhydrite portion of the cap rock suggest that distinct pulses of metalliferous brines were responsible for the sulfide concentrations. Anhydrite grains outside the mineralized areas are deformed and tightly intergrown. These textures suggest that mineralizing fluids were introduced episodically along the salt and anhydrite interface at the zone of salt dissolution before that portion of the anhydrite zone was compressed and accreted to overlying anhydrite cap rock. Therefore, the earliest formed sulfides originating by this mechanism occur at the top of the anhydrite cap rock zone, whereas the last sulfides to form are found at the base. Extensive sulfide concentrations along the anhydrite-calcite contact suggest that this contact also acted as a permeable zone allowing metalliferous brines into the cap rock. Textural and compositional relationships suggest that sulfides that formed along the anhydrite-calcite contact are locally superimposed on sulfides that formed at the salt-anhydrite contact.

  19. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  20. Mechanism of Hot Finger Formation in Mantle Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, M. Y.; Tamura, Y.; Sakaguchi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Processes of mantle melting and volcanic eruptions along subduction zones are often illustrated by the use of two-dimensional cross-section models of convergent margins. However, Quaternary volcanoes in the NE Japan arc could be grouped into ten volcano clusters striking transverse to the arc; these have an average width of ~ 50 km, and are separated by parallel gaps 30-75 km wide (Tamura et al., 2002). Moreover, the structure of the mantle wedge and arc crust beneath the NE Japan arc and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, respectively, suggest that the third dimension, lying along the strike of the arc, is necessary to understand the actual production of magmas in subduction zones (e.g., Nakajima et al., 2001; Hasegawa & Nakajima, 2004; Kodaira et al., 2007; Kodaira et al., 2008). Common periodic structural variations, having wavelengths of 80-100 km, can be observed in both areas. This grouping of volcanoes and the structural variations may be related to locally developed hot regions within the mantle wedge that have the form of inclined, 50 km-wide fingers (hot fingers). The 'hot fingers' models (Tamura et al., 2002) may play an important role in linking the 3D structures within the mantle wedge and overlying arc crust to volcanic eruptions at the surface. To explore a physical and mathematical mechanism to produce a hot finger pattern, we develop a hydrodynamic model of mantle convection in mantle wedge. A hypothesis incorporated in our model is a double diffusive mechanism of mantle materials; diffusion of composition of mantle materials is much weaker than temperature diffusion. We show that our model shows a spatiotemporal pattern in a mantle material composition, temperature, and velocity that are similar to the spatiotemporal patterns observed in the NE Japan arc.

  1. Extended asymmetric hot region formation due to shockwave interactions following void collapse in shocked high explosive

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shan, Tzu -Ray; Wixom, Ryan R.; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2016-08-11

    In both continuum hydrodynamics simulations and also multimillion atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations of shockwave propagation in single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) containing a cylindrical void, we observed the formation of an initial radially symmetric hot spot. By extending the simulation time to the nanosecond scale, however, we observed the transformation of the small symmetric hot spot into a longitudinally asymmetric hot region extending over a much larger volume. Performing reactive molecular dynamics shock simulations using the reactive force field (ReaxFF) as implemented in the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package, we showed that the longitudinally asymmetric hot region was formed bymore » coalescence of the primary radially symmetric hot spot with a secondary triangular hot zone. We showed that the triangular hot zone coincided with a double-shocked region where the primary planar shockwave was overtaken by a secondary cylindrical shockwave. The secondary cylindrical shockwave originated in void collapse after the primary planar shockwave had passed over the void. A similar phenomenon was observed in continuum hydrodynamics shock simulations using the CTH hydrodynamics package. Furthermore, the formation and growth of extended asymmetric hot regions on nanosecond timescales has important implications for shock initiation thresholds in energetic materials.« less

  2. Extended asymmetric hot region formation due to shockwave interactions following void collapse in shocked high explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Tzu-Ray; Wixom, Ryan R.; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2016-08-01

    In both continuum hydrodynamics simulations and also multimillion atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations of shockwave propagation in single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) containing a cylindrical void, we observed the formation of an initial radially symmetric hot spot. By extending the simulation time to the nanosecond scale, however, we observed the transformation of the small symmetric hot spot into a longitudinally asymmetric hot region extending over a much larger volume. Performing reactive molecular dynamics shock simulations using the reactive force field (ReaxFF) as implemented in the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package, we showed that the longitudinally asymmetric hot region was formed by coalescence of the primary radially symmetric hot spot with a secondary triangular hot zone. We showed that the triangular hot zone coincided with a double-shocked region where the primary planar shockwave was overtaken by a secondary cylindrical shockwave. The secondary cylindrical shockwave originated in void collapse after the primary planar shockwave had passed over the void. A similar phenomenon was observed in continuum hydrodynamics shock simulations using the CTH hydrodynamics package. The formation and growth of extended asymmetric hot regions on nanosecond timescales has important implications for shock initiation thresholds in energetic materials.

  3. Relationships between brine-migration pulses and deformation processes in the continental interior, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Marshak, S. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Continental-scale pulses of regional brine migration cause a wide range of geologic phenomena, including diagenesis, formation of MVT ore deposits, petroleum migration, resetting of paleomagnetic poles, and coal anthracitization. Evidence is growing that brine-migration pulses are driven largely by topographic head created during uplift. Consideration of this relationship has several new applications in structural and tectonic analysis. (1) Dating Epeirogenic Movement: Magnetization resulting from formation of diagenetic magnetite is significantly greater on structural arches than in basin interiors, suggesting that the distribution and intensity of diagenetic features define the position and age of epeirogenic movements (2) Interpretation of Tectonic Burial Depths: Great burial depths related to thrust-sheet emplacement have been suggested for strata of the eastern interior to explain high temperatures indicating by vitrinite reflectance measurements; (3) Tracking of Fluid Migration in Joints: Analysis of clays found in coal cleats shows that hydrothermal activity affects only certain parts of the fractures; (4) Analysis of Continental-Interior Rheology: Twinning patterns in limestone of the midcontinent suggest that penetrative strain developed in shallow strata throughout the continental interior during Alleghenian compression. The style of this twinning suggests that it formed at relatively high temperature. This observation is compatible with a proposal that twinning developed when strata were heated by hot brine during the great Alleghenian brine-migration pulse. Effectively, heat transfer during tectonic brine migrations weakens continental interiors, thereby permitting development of penetrative strains in shallow strata.

  4. Analysis of microstructure-dependent shock dissipation and hot-spot formation in granular metalized explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2016-07-01

    Variations in the microstructure of granular explosives (i.e., particle packing density, size, shape, and composition) can affect their shock sensitivity by altering thermomechanical fields at the particle-scale during pore collapse within shocks. If the deformation rate is fast, hot-spots can form, ignite, and interact, resulting in burn at the macro-scale. In this study, a two-dimensional finite and discrete element technique is used to simulate and examine shock-induced dissipation and hot-spot formation within low density explosives (68%-84% theoretical maximum density (TMD)) consisting of large ensembles of HMX (C4H8N8O8) and aluminum (Al) particles (size ˜ 60 -360 μm). Emphasis is placed on identifying how the inclusion of Al influences effective shock dissipation and hot-spot fields relative to equivalent ensembles of neat/pure HMX for shocks that are sufficiently strong to eliminate porosity. Spatially distributed hot-spot fields are characterized by their number density and area fraction enabling their dynamics to be described in terms of nucleation, growth, and agglomeration-dominated phases with increasing shock strength. For fixed shock particle speed, predictions indicate that decreasing packing density enhances shock dissipation and hot-spot formation, and that the inclusion of Al increases dissipation relative to neat HMX by pressure enhanced compaction resulting in fewer but larger HMX hot-spots. Ensembles having bimodal particle sizes are shown to significantly affect hot-spot dynamics by altering the spatial distribution of hot-spots behind shocks.

  5. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  6. A 3-D Model of Hot-Spot Formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    A 3-D model describing the formation of a hot-spot in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions is presented. The model includes thermal conduction and mass ablation effects in a 3-D distorted hot spot using an approach developed by Sanz. Evolution of the nonuniformity growth is calculated based on a sharp boundary model. The results of the model will be compared against 2-D DRACO and 3-D hydrodynamic code calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. Piezo-Electric Hypothesis for Hot Spot Formation Leading to Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Ramos, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    The impact to detonation sequence has been a long standing mystery in high explosives (HE). It is widely recognized that detonation begins in spatially-localized ``hot spots'' where chemistry initiates, but the physical mechanisms leading to hot spot formation are unknown. Here we revisit an old hypothesis, first suggested by Maycock and Grabenstein, that piezo-electric effects may be the cause of hot spot formation since most solid HE materials are observed to be highly piezo-electric. In this scenario, shock-induced pressure leads to electric fields of 100's MV/m, sufficient for dielectric breakdown and breaking chemical bonds, rather than via thermal effects. Extrapolation of statically measured piezo-electric coefficients for several HE materials suggests that shock pressures > 100-kbar might lead to field strengths > 100 - 1000 MV/m, but no definitive experimental proof has been obtained to support this. Here we discuss possible experiments to test this hypothesis by measuring the electric field in dynamic HE experiments correlated with hot spot formation. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  8. CO 2-rock-brine interactions in Lower Tuscaloosa Formation at Cranfield CO 2 sequestration site, Mississippi, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, J.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Horita, J.; Karamalidis, A.; Griffith, C.; Hakala, J.A.; Ambats, G.; Cole, D.R.; Phelps, T.J.; Manning, M.A.; Cook, P.J.; Hovorka, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    A highly integrated geochemical program was conducted at the Cranfield CO 2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration site, Mississippi, U.S.A.. The program included extensive field geochemical monitoring, a detailed petrographic study, and an autoclave experiment under in situ reservoir conditions. Results show that mineral reactions in the Lower Tuscaloosa reservoir were minor during CO 2 injection. Brine chemistry remained largely unchanged, which contrasts with significant changes observed in other field tests. Field fluid sampling and laboratory experiments show consistently slow reactions. Carbon isotopic composition and CO 2 content in the gas phase reveal simple two-end-member mixing between injected and original formation gas. We conclude that the reservoir rock, which is composed mainly of minerals with low reactivity (average quartz 79.4%, chlorite 11.8%, kaolinite 3.1%, illite 1.3%, concretionary calcite and dolomite 1.5%, and feldspar 0.2%), is relatively unreactive to CO 2. The significance of low reactivity is both positive, in that the reservoir is not impacted, and negative, in that mineral trapping is insignificant. ?? 2011.

  9. Preferential electron-cyclotron heating of hot electrons and formation of overdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quon, B. H.; Dandl, R. A.

    1989-10-01

    Three electron-cyclotron-heating techniques, which preferentially couple microwave power to different energy segments of the electron distribution function, have been experimentally investigated in the AMPHED facility [C. Bodeldijk, Special Supplement, Nucl. Fusion 26, 184 (1986)]. Whistler waves launched from the high-field mirror throat are strongly absorbed in a single pass across the resonant interaction layer, producing highly overdense cold background plasma but no relativistic hot particles. On the other hand, ordinary waves launched from the system side wall are only weakly damped, giving rise to local cylindrical cavity modes and preferential coupling to hot electrons in the 100 keV region. Low levels (≤5%) of upper-off-resonance heating power were shown to be most effective for preferential hot-electron plasma formation, with ˜100% of the injected power being absorbed by the energetic electrons.

  10. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  11. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-01

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ˜34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the "fast formed liquid" (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  12. Hot coronae around spiral galaxies: Probing the first principles of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Forman, William; Volgelsberger, Mark; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Kraft, Ralph; Joes, Christine; Churazov, Eugene; Bourdin, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    The presence of hot gaseous coronae in the dark matter halos of massive spiral galaxies is a fundamental prediction of all structure formation models. Yet these coronae remained unexplored for several decades, thereby posing a serious challenge to observers and theorists. Although several X-ray coronae have been detected around nearby massive spiral galaxies in the past few years, we still lack a comprehensive picture. X-ray Surveyor will provide the much needed breakthrough. Specifically, X-ray Surveyor will characterize the hot coronae in unprecedented details, explore their evolution as a function of redshift, which in turn will constrain the physical processes that play an essential role in galaxy formation from the early Universe to the present epoch.

  13. Formation Mechanisms of Cracks Formed During Hot Rolling of Free-Machining Steel Billets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongjin; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Rhee, Kiho; Ahn, Sang Bog; Lee, Duk Lak; Kim, Nack J.; Lee, Sunghak

    2012-03-01

    In this study, cracks formed in the edge side of Bi-S-based free-machining steel billets during hot rolling were analyzed in detail, and their formation mechanisms were clarified in relation with microstructure. Particular emphasis was placed on roles of bands of pearlites or C- and Mn-rich regions and complex iron oxides present in the edge side. Pearlite bands in the cracked region were considerably bent to the surface, while those in the noncracked region were parallel to the surface. This was because the alignment direction of pearlite bands was irregularly deviated up to 45 deg from the normal direction parallel to the surface, while the billet was rolled and rotated at 90 deg in the same direction between rolling passes. On the edge side, where pearlite bands were bent, iron oxides intruded deeply into the interior along pearlite bands, which worked as stress concentration sites during hot rolling and, consequently, main causes of the crack initiation in the rolled billet. On the surface of the wire rod rolled from the cracked billet, a few scabs were found when some protrusions were folded during hot rolling. In order to prevent the cracking in billets and scab formation in wire rods, (1) the increase of rolling passes and the decrease of reduction ratio for homogeneous rolling of billets and (2) the reduction in sulfur content for minimizing the formation and intrusion of complex iron oxides were suggested.

  14. Experimental Simulation of Evaporation-Driven Silica Sinter Formation and Microbial Silicification in Hot Spring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Stefan V.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Evaporation of silica-rich geothermal waters is one of the main abiotic drivers of the formation of silica sinters around hot springs. An important role in sinter structural development is also played by the indigenous microbial communities, which are fossilized and eventually encased in the silica matrix. The combination of these two factors results in a wide variety of sinter structures and fabrics. Despite this, no previous experimental fossilization studies have focused on evaporative-driven silica precipitation. We present here the results of several experiments aimed at simulating the formation of sinters through evaporation. Silica solutions at different concentrations were repeatedly allowed to evaporate in both the presence and absence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Without microorganisms, consecutive silica additions led to the formation of well-laminated deposits. By contrast, when microorganisms were present, they acted as reactive surfaces for heterogeneous silica particle nucleation; depending on the initial silica concentration, the deposits were then either porous with a mixture of silicified and unmineralized cells, or they formed a denser structure with a complete entombment of the cells by a thick silica crust. The deposits obtained experimentally showed numerous similarities in terms of their fabric to those previously reported for natural hot springs, demonstrating the complex interplay between abiotic and biotic processes during silica sinter growth. Key Words: Silica—Cyanobacteria—Fossilization—Hot springs—Stromatolites. Astrobiology 13, 163–176. PMID:23384170

  15. Silica scaling in simulated geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlmann, E.G.; Shor, A.J.; Berlinski, P.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    A 6.3 1/sec (100 GPM) titanium corrosion test loop was modified to provide a dynamic facility for studying the formation of silica deposits, their properties and fates, as a function of brine composition, temperature, and flow conditions. Scale formation was studied in a segmented heat exchanger operating under realistic conditions; the segmented design permitted examination of scale formations in five temperature regimes. The program was terminated after minimal exploratory operation because of reduced sponsor perceptions of the need for concern with scaling problems. The runs which were completed dealt cursorily with brine concentration and pH effects. Results are presented.

  16. Galaxy Mergers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Star Formation and Hot Gas Outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-06-22

    In hierarchical structure formation, merging of galaxies is frequent and known to dramatically affect their properties. To comprehend these interactions high-resolution simulations are indispensable because of the nonlinear coupling between pc and Mpc scales. To this end, we present the first adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation of two merging, low mass, initially gas-rich galaxies (1.8 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} each), including star formation and feedback. With galaxies resolved by {approx} 2 x 10{sup 7} total computational elements, we achieve unprecedented resolution of the multiphase interstellar medium, finding a widespread starburst in the merging galaxies via shock-induced star formation. The high dynamic range of AMR also allows us to follow the interplay between the galaxies and their embedding medium depicting how galactic outflows and a hot metal-rich halo form. These results demonstrate that AMR provides a powerful tool in understanding interacting galaxies.

  17. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.; Rockey, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

  18. Interaction of field-aligned cold plasma flows with an equatorially-trapped hot plasma - Electrostatic shock formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1993-01-01

    Effects of equatorially trapped hot plasma on the highly supersonic cold-plasma flow occurring during early stage plasmaspheric refilling are studied by means of numerical simulations. It is shown that the equatorially trapped hot ions set up a potential barrier for the cold ion beams and facilitate formation of electrostatic shocks by reflecting them from the equatorial region. Simulations with and without the hot plasma show different flow properties; the formation of electrostatic shocks occur only in the former case. The simulation with the hot plasma also reveals that the magnetic trapping in conjunction with the evolution of the electrostatic potential barrier produces ion velocity distribution functions consisting of a cold core and a hot ring in the perpendicular velocity. Such a distribution function provides a source of free energy for equatorial waves. The corresponding electron population is warm and field-aligned.

  19. Some Thoughts on the Disk Formation Mechanisms of Hot Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang; Cassinelli, Joe

    2015-08-01

    Although there is a lot of research on the disks of hot massive stars, both theoretically and observationally, the disk formation mechanisms still remain puzzle and have been in debate in decades. There are two main models with regarding to the mechanisms. One of them is the wind colliding models in combination with stellar rotation, magnetic fields, or/and pulsation. The other types are decretion models. Due to there is lots of discussion on the later models, we would like to take the former types into account again and show some premature results in the poster.

  20. Formation of hot particles during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kashparov, V.A.; Ivanov, Y.A.; Zvarisch, S.I.; Protsak, V.P.; Khomutinin, Y.V.; Kurepin, A.D.; Pazukhin, E.M.

    1996-05-01

    The oxidation of irradiated Chernobyl nuclear fuel at 670 to 1,170 K for 3 to 21 h resulted in its destruction into fine particles, the dispersal composition of which is well described by lognormal distribution regularity. The median radius of the formed particles does not depend on the annealing temperature and decreases with the increase of the annealing period from 10 to 3 {micro}m. Proceeding from the dispersal composition and matrix composition of the Chernobyl hot fuel particles, it can be concluded that the oxidation of nuclear fuel was one of the basic mechanisms of hot fuel particle formation during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. With oxidation in air and the dispersal of irradiated oxide nuclear fuel at as low as 670 K, ruthenium, located on the granular borders, is released. Ruthenium is oxidized to volatile RuO{sub 4}, sublimated, and condensed on materials of iron. Nickel and stainless steel can be efficiently used at high temperatures (tested to 1,200 K) for radioruthenium adsorption in accidents and for some technological operations. As the temperature of hot fuel particles annealed in inert media increases from 1,270 to 2,270 K, the relative release of radionuclides increases in the following sequence: cesium isotopes; europium isotopes; cerium isotopes; americium isotopes; and ruthenium, plutonium, and curium isotopes.

  1. Desalination of geothermal brines by means of combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pernklau, E.; Althaus, E.

    1986-01-01

    Geothermal brines with high salinity are frequently encountered. Their commercial utilization, e.g. for heat recovery, is handicapped by scaling and disposal problems. A simple method for attaining a significant reduction of salinity would solve this problem. This paper examines the possibility of desalinating by entrapment of sodium chloride in sodalite. Sodalite is formed by the reaction of a hot brine with materials containing aluminum and silicon, e.g. combustion residues. The authors have reduced the sodium chloride content of a model brine in this manner.

  2. Treatment of geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Featherstone, J.L.

    1992-03-24

    This patent describes a method of precipitating at least one metal from a brine containing the same. It comprises contacting a brine containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of iron, zinc, manganese, copper, silver and lead, and at least one scale forming species selected from the group consisting of silica and calcium compounds, with a condensate of steam, derived from the brine, in an amount to provide a mixture having a volume ratio of brine to condensate in the range of about 1:2 to 1:10 for a time sufficient to precipitate at least one of the metals and only a minor amount of the scale forming species.

  3. Effect of brine composition and brining temperature on cheese physical properties in Ragusano cheese.

    PubMed

    Fucà, N; McMahon, D J; Caccamo, M; Tuminello, L; La Terra, S; Manenti, M; Licitra, G

    2012-01-01

    Composition and physical properties of cheeses are influenced by temperature, salt, and calcium concentration of brine. This work aimed to examine conditions of brine under which the cheese matrix contracts or expands in absence of restrictions imposed by surface rind development during overnight block formation. Three experimental 4-kg blocks of Ragusano cheese were produced at 3 different stretching temperatures (70, 80, and 90°C) and cut into pieces weighing approximately 40 to 50 g. One piece from each was chemically analyzed at time 0. All other pieces were measured for weight and volume and placed in plastic bags containing 300 mL of different brine solutions (2% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; 10% NaCl with 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% Ca; 18% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; and 26% NaCl with 0.1% Ca) at 3 different temperatures (4, 12, and 20°C). After 24h of brining, the cheeses were analyzed for weight, volume, chemical, and microstructural changes. Salt concentration in brine significantly influenced composition, weight, and volume of the cheeses after brining. Salt concentration was inversely related to cheese volume and weight. Changes in weight caused by altering the brining temperature were sufficient to reach statistical significance, and statistically significant volume changes were induced by brining temperature and its interaction with salt content. The highest volume increase (30%) occurred in the cheese stored in the 2% NaCl brine at the coldest temperature, whereas the greatest volume decrease was recorded in cheeses brined in the 26% NaCl brine. Composition was not affected by brining temperature. Calcium concentration did influence weight, volume, and composition, except on a fat-on-dry-basis. When cheeses were brined without added calcium, cheese volume and weight increased at all temperatures. At high calcium levels (0.4%), syneresis occurred and volume decreased, especially at 20°C (-16.5%). Microstructural investigation with porosity measurement confirmed weight and

  4. HOT X-RAY CORONAE AROUND MASSIVE SPIRAL GALAXIES: A UNIQUE PROBE OF STRUCTURE FORMATION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Kraft, Ralph P.; Jones, Christine; David, Laurence P.; Bourdin, Herve; Gilfanov, Marat; Churazov, Eugene

    2013-08-01

    Luminous X-ray gas coronae in the dark matter halos of massive spiral galaxies are a fundamental prediction of structure formation models, yet only a few such coronae have been detected so far. In this paper, we study the hot X-ray coronae beyond the optical disks of two 'normal' massive spirals, NGC 1961 and NGC 6753. Based on XMM-Newton X-ray observations, hot gaseous emission is detected to {approx}60 kpc-well beyond their optical radii. The hot gas has a best-fit temperature of kT {approx} 0.6 keV and an abundance of {approx}0.1 Solar, and exhibits a fairly uniform distribution, suggesting that the quasi-static gas resides in hydrostatic equilibrium in the potential well of the galaxies. The bolometric luminosity of the gas in the (0.05-0.15)r{sub 200} region (r{sub 200} is the virial radius) is {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} for both galaxies. The baryon mass fractions of NGC 1961 and NGC 6753 are f{sub b,NGC1961} {approx} 0.11 and f{sub b,NGC6753} {approx} 0.09, which values fall short of the cosmic baryon fraction. The hot coronae around NGC 1961 and NGC 6753 offer an excellent basis to probe structure formation simulations. To this end, the observations are confronted with the moving mesh code AREPO and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET. Although neither model gives a perfect description, the observed luminosities, gas masses, and abundances favor the AREPO code. Moreover, the shape and the normalization of the observed density profiles are better reproduced by AREPO within {approx}0.5r{sub 200}. However, neither model incorporates efficient feedback from supermassive black holes or supernovae, which could alter the simulated properties of the X-ray coronae. With the further advance of numerical models, the present observations will be essential in constraining the feedback effects in structure formation simulations.

  5. Cosmic Rays, UV Photons, and Haze Formation in the Upper Atmospheres of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Paul B.; Walsh, Catherine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic ray ionization has been found to be a dominant mechanism for the formation of ions in dense interstellar environments. Cosmic rays are further known to initiate the highly efficient ion-neutral chemistry within star forming regions. In this talk we explore the effect of both cosmic rays and UV photons on a model hot Jupiter atmosphere using a non-equlibrium chemical network that combines reactions from the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry, the KIDA database for interstellar and protoplanetary environments and three-body and combustion reactions from the NIST database and from various irradiated gas planet networks. The physical parameters for our model atmosphere are based on HD 189733 b (Effective Temperature of 1000 K, log g = 3.3, solar metallicity, at a distance 0.03 AU from a K dwarf). The active UV photochemistry high in our model hot Jupiter atmosphere tends to destroy these hydrocarbons, but on a time-scale sufficiently slow that PAH formation could already have taken place. In most cases, carbon-bearing species formed by cosmic rays are destroyed by UV photons (e.g. C2H2, C2H4, HC3N). Conversely, carbon-bearing species enhanced by an active photochemistry are depleted when cosmic ray ionization is significant (e.g. CN, HCN and CH4). Ammonia is an interesting exception to this trend, enhanced both by an active photochemistry and a high cosmic ray ionization rate.

  6. Nuclear Star Formation in the Hot-Spot Galaxy NGC 2903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ryder, S. D.; Knapen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We present high-resolution near-infrared imaging obtained using adaptive optics and HST/NICMOS and ground-based spectroscopy of the hot-spot galaxy NGC 2903. Our near-infrared resolution imaging enables us to resolve the infrared hot spots into individual young stellar clusters or groups of these. The spatial distribution of the stellar clusters is not coincident with that of the bright H II regions, as revealed by the HST/NICMOS Pace image. Overall, the circumnuclear star formation in NGC 2903 shows a ring-like morphology with an approximate diameter of 625 pc. The SF properties of the stellar clusters and H II regions have been studied using the photometric and spectroscopic information in conjunction with evolutionary synthesis models. The population of bright stellar clusters shows a very narrow range of ages, 4 to 7 x 10(exp 6) yr after the peak of star formation, or absolute ages 6.5 to 9.5 x 10(exp 6) yr (for the assumed short-duration Gaussian bursts), and luminosities similar to the clusters found in the Antennae interacting galaxy. This population of young stellar clusters accounts for some 7 - 12% of the total stellar mass in the central 625 pc of NGC 2903. The H II regions in the ring of star formation have luminosities close to that of the super-giant H II region 30 Doradus, they are younger than the stellar clusters, and will probably evolve into bright infrared stellar clusters similar to those observed today. We find that the star formation efficiency in the central regions of NGC 2903 is higher than in normal galaxies, approaching the lower end of infrared luminous galaxies.

  7. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  8. Pressurised hot water extraction with on-line particle formation by supercritical fluid technology.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J M; Lindahl, S; Turner, C; Rodriguez-Meizoso, I

    2012-10-15

    In this work, an on-line process for pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) of antioxidants from plants as well as drying of the extract in one step by particle formation based on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) has been developed. This process has been called WEPO®, water extraction and particle formation on-line. With this process, dried extracts from onion with the same composition of quercetin derivatives as non-dried extracts have been obtained as a fine powder with spherical particles from 250 nm to 4 μm in diameter. The major compounds present in the extract were quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin-4'-glucoside and quercetin. An auxiliary inert gas (hot N(2)) was used to enhance the drying process. Parameters such as temperature (120 °C), SC-CO(2) and N(2) pressures (80 and 12.5 bar, respectively) and flow rate of SC-CO(2) (10 ml/min), have been settled by trial-and-error in order to achieve a fine and constant spray formation. Water content, size and morphology, antioxidant capacity and quercetin content of the particles were studied to evaluate the efficiency of the WEPO process. Results were compared with the ones from extracts obtained by continuous flow PHWE followed by freeze-drying. Results showed that both processes gave similar results in terms of antioxidant capacity, concentration of quercetin derivatives and water content, while only WEPO was able to produce defined spherical particles smaller than 4 μm. PMID:23442613

  9. Chemical investigations of Atlantis II and discovery brines in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, Lars-Göran; Dyrssen, David; Granéli, Anders

    1980-12-01

    Analytical data for the Atlantis II and Discovery deeps in the Red Sea are given. The data were collected in March and June 1976 during the 22nd cruise of R/V Akademik Kurchatov in the Indian Ocean. On board analyses were performed of density, chlorinity, Mg, Ca, Sr and trace elements. The salinity, calculated from the density, is related to the chlorinity by S = 1.67 Cl + 4.02. The Ca-salinity relation is linear for both deeps showing that intermediate waters are formed by mixing of the brines with Red Sea water (RSDW). The hot brine (62°C) in the Atlantis II deep contains approx. 80 mg/kg of Fe and Mn while the warm brine (45°C) in the Discovery deep has a very low concentration of Fe and approx. 50 mg/kg of Mn. Mixing of RSDW containing 2 ml/l of oxygen with the anoxic deep brines causes precipitation of hydrous Mn(IV) and Fe(III) hydroxides. These two processes occur at different depths in the two deeps due to the formation of the warm (48-49°) intermediate brine in the Atlantis II deep. The oxidation-hydrolysis reactions proposed are supported by alkalinity-depth profiles and measurements of pH. These reactions also explain most of the trace element distributions and the composition of the SiO 2-Fe(III) hydroxide slurry recovered by some water samplers in the Atlantis II deep.

  10. Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: Relevance for groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels

    2015-04-01

    variability at 10 cm level. We suggest that the mechanism behind the formation of chloroform is an unspecific chlorination of organic matter, caused by microbial activity in the soil forming trichloroacetyl compounds. Laboratory measurements on intact soil cores have identified that the F and H horizons in the forest soil are the main producers of chloroform. Despite various attempts to identify the mechanisms responsible for the variability within a visually and chemically homogeneous area we have not yet succeeded. Parameters like soil respiration, inorganic and total organic chlorine, organic matter and soil structure were studied without any significant difference in favour of hot spots. By the use of 13C-isotopes we could identify the natural origin of the chloroform, and over a three years period we could conclude that the hot spots were permanent on the sites. At the same time a significant seasonal variation were measured depending on temperature and soil moisture.

  11. A THREE-PHASE CHEMICAL MODEL OF HOT CORES: THE FORMATION OF GLYCINE

    SciTech Connect

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures {approx}40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, occurring at {approx}200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH{sub 2}, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  12. A Three-phase Chemical Model of Hot Cores: The Formation of Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH2CH2COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures ~40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 × 10-11-8 × 10-9, occurring at ~200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH2, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  13. CO2/brine migrations in a laterally closed reservoir system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Han, W.; Lee, P.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic CO2 storage is considered as a promising solution for the mitigation of global CO2 emission levels. In assessing pressure and/or CO2 saturation distribution in a reservoir scale system, many studies have assumed that geologic formations consist of impermeable upper and lower boundaries to both supercritical CO2 and brine, and laterally open system. Under these conditions, the primary direction of brine flow is horizontal, as CO2 displaces the brine. However, in certain geologic situations, storage formation may laterally be compartmented due to presence of low-permeability zones creating a closed system. In this study we intended to assess the CO2/brine fluxes between the targeted storage formation and the upper and lower seals in a laterally closed reservoir system. The simulations were conducted using TOUGH2 with ECO2N module. A hypothetical two-dimensional radial model was designed to assess the spatial distribution of pressure build-up and the supercritical CO2 plume over time in a laterally closed system. The storage formation of 100 m thickness is radially extended to 10,000m and is located at 1,000 m below from the ground surface bounded by overlying and underlying seals of 100 m thickness. The CO2 injection rate was set to be 30 kg/s and the life-time of this hypothetical project was 30 years (10 years of injection followed by 20 years of monitoring period). The simulation results showed distinct CO2/brine flow regimes at three different zones; the dry-out zone, the two-phase zone, and the brine zone. At the dry-out zone, the direction of CO2 flux was from the storage formation toward the overlying and underlying seals while the brine flux was from the over- and underlying seals toward the storage formation. The CO2 and brine fluxes per unit area showed respectively up to 6×10-5 kg/s/m2 and 1×10-4 kg/s/m2 during the injection period, and decreased after injection ceased. At the two-phase zone, the CO2/brine migration was similar to that at dry

  14. Mechanism of hot-rolling crack formation in lean duplex stainless steel 2101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-hui; Li, Jing-yuan; Wang, Yi-de

    2016-04-01

    The thermoplasticity of duplex stainless steel 2205 (DSS2205) is better than that of lean duplex steel 2101 (LDX2101), which undergoes severe cracking during hot rolling. The microstructure, microhardness, phase ratio, and recrystallization dependence of the deformation compatibility of LDX2101 and DSS2205 were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), Thermo-Calc software, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the phase-ratio transformations of LDX2101 and DSS2205 were almost equal under the condition of increasing solution temperature. Thus, the phase transformation was not the main cause for the hot plasticity difference of these two steels. The grain size of LDX2101 was substantially greater than that of DSS2205, and the microhardness difference of LDX2101 was larger than that of DSS2205. This difference hinders the transfer of strain from ferrite to austenite. In the rolling process, the ferrite grains of LDX2101 underwent continuous softening and were substantially refined. However, although little recrystallization occurred at the boundaries of austenite, serious deformation accumulated in the interior of austenite, leading to a substantial increase in hardness. The main cause of crack formation is the microhardness difference between ferrite and austenite.

  15. Prediction of Hot Tear Formation in Vertical DC Casting of Aluminum Billets Using a Granular Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Drezet, J.-M.; Phillion, A. B.; Rappaz, M.

    2013-09-01

    A coupled hydromechanical granular model aimed at predicting hot tear formation and stress-strain behavior in metallic alloys during solidification is applied to the semicontinuous direct chill casting of aluminum alloy round billets. This granular model consists of four separate three-dimensional (3D) modules: (I) a solidification module that is used for generating the solid-liquid geometry at a given solid fraction, (II) a fluid flow module that is used to calculate the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid, (III) a semisolid deformation module that is based on a combined finite element/discrete element method and simulates the rheological behavior of the granular structure, and (IV) a failure module that simulates crack initiation and propagation. To investigate hot tearing, the granular model has been applied to a representative volume within the direct chill cast billet that is located at the bottom of the liquid sump, and it reveals that semisolid deformations imposed on the mushy zone open the liquid channels due to localization of the deformation at grains boundaries. At a low casting speed, only individual pores are able to form in the widest channels because liquid feeding remains efficient. However, as the casting speed increases, the flow of liquid required to compensate for solidification shrinkage also increases and as a result the pores propagate and coalesce to form a centerline crack.

  16. Hot-gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells-dechlorination and soot formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D.; Gelb, A.; Lord, G.; Simons, G.

    1984-01-01

    Two separate aspects of hot-gas conditioning for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) were investigated: potential high temperature chloride sorbent materials were screened and tested and carbon deposition on MCFC components was studied experimentally to determine guidelines for maximizing MCFC efficiency while avoiding carbon fouling. Natural minerals containing sodium carbonate were identified as the most promising candidates for economical removal of chlorides from coal gasifier effluents at temperatures of about 800 K (980 F). The mineral Shortite was tested in a fixed bed and found to perform remarkably well with no calcination. Measurements showed that carbon deposition can occur in the equilibrium carbon free region because of the relative rates of the relevant reactions. On all surfaces tested, the Boudouard carbon formation reaction is much faster than the water-gas shift reaction which is much faster than the methanation reaction. This means that the normal practice of adding steam to prevent carbon formation will only succeed if flows are slow enough for the water shift reaction to go substantially to completion. More direct suppression of carbon formation can be achieved by CO2 addition through anode recycle to force the Boudouard reaction backward.

  17. N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation under the influence of a hot Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro E-mail: ogihara@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the formation of multiple-planet systems in the presence of a hot Jupiter (HJ) using extended N-body simulations that are performed simultaneously with semianalytic calculations. Our primary aims are to describe the planet formation process starting from planetesimals using high-resolution simulations, and to examine the dependences of the architecture of planetary systems on input parameters (e.g., disk mass, disk viscosity). We observe that protoplanets that arise from oligarchic growth and undergo type I migration stop migrating when they join a chain of resonant planets outside the orbit of an HJ. The formation of a resonant chain is almost independent of our model parameters, and is thus a robust process. At the end of our simulations, several terrestrial planets remain at around 0.1 AU. The formed planets are not equal mass; the largest planet constitutes more than 50% of the total mass in the close-in region, which is also less dependent on parameters. In the previous work of this paper, we have found a new physical mechanism of induced migration of the HJ, which is called a crowding-out. If the HJ opens up a wide gap in the disk (e.g., owing to low disk viscosity), crowding-out becomes less efficient and the HJ remains. We also discuss angular momentum transfer between the planets and disk.

  18. A PHYSICAL LINK BETWEEN JET FORMATION AND HOT PLASMA IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qingwen; Wang Dingxiong; Cao Xinwu; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: dxwang@hust.edu.cn E-mail: lho@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-06-10

    Recent observations suggest that in black hole X-ray binaries jet/outflow formation is related to the hot plasma in the vicinity of the black hole, either in the form of an advection-dominated accretion flow at low accretion rates or in a disk corona at high accretion rates. We test the viability of this scenario for supermassive black holes using two samples of active galactic nuclei distinguished by the presence (radio-strong) and absence (radio-weak) of well-collimated, relativistic jets. Each is centered on a narrow range of black hole mass but spans a very broad range of Eddington ratios, effectively simulating in a statistical manner the behavior of a single black hole evolving across a wide spread in accretion states. Unlike the relationship between the radio and optical luminosity, which shows an abrupt break between high- and low-luminosity sources at an Eddington ratio of {approx}1%, the radio emission-a measure of the jet power-varies continuously with the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosity, roughly as L{sub R} {proportional_to} L{sub X}{sup 0.6-0.75}. This relation, which holds for both radio-weak and radio-strong active galaxies, is similar to the one seen in X-ray binaries. Jet/outflow formation appears to be closely linked to the conditions that give rise to the hot, optically thin coronal emission associated with accretion flows, both in the regime of low and high accretion rates.

  19. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  20. Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

  1. Brine rejection and cascades in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, C.; Luneva, M.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of sea ice is accompanied by brine rejection, where the ice releases much of its salt into the underlying water. This causes densification of the seawater which consequently sinks. On the continental shelf the dense plume may reach all the way to the sea bed. If the horizontal density gradient is sufficient, a dense water cascade can occur, transporting the brine down the continental slope and ultimately into the deep ocean. The fate of this brine is poorly represented in ocean models because (1) the coarse horizontal resolution does not capture the small scale over which brine release occurs and (2) the coarse vertical resolution cannot resolve the dense water cascades that transport the dense brine from the continental shelf into the deep ocean. This work focuses on exploring ways of altering the vertical grid of an ocean model in order to allow the transport of brine from the Arctic Shelf to Arctic Basin via dense cascades. We present results from a 7 km and 18km resolution pan-Arctic ocean/sea ice model (NEMO SHELF - LIM2). Idealised model experiments indicate that using a hybrid vertical grid enables the model to resolve dense water flows down and along the Arctic continental slope. The hybrid coordinates include stretching the vertical grid to align with the seabed topography in shallow shelf waters (sigma coordinates) and allowing it to be horizontal when the water depth is greater (z coordinates). It also involves limiting how steep the grid cells can slope when there is steep topography. A passive tracer that tracks the salt introduced to the ocean when ice forms and brine is rejected was included in the model. Initial pan-Arctic experiments using realistic forcing and initial conditions suggest that with the improved vertical grid the brine tracer crosses the shelf break but the locations where the tracer enters the deep Arctic Basin are limited. As the Arctic moves towards being seasonally ice covered, brine transport pathways are likely to

  2. A role of {delta}-ferrite in edge-crack formation during hot-rolling of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, F.; Brodtka, A.; Cho, J.Y.; Szpunar, J.A.; Zielinska-Lipiec, A.; Sunwoo, J.H.

    1997-10-15

    Austenitic stainless steels are substantially harder during hot-rolling than either ferritic or mild steels. The objective of this study is to verify the possible correlation between the edge-crack formation during hot-rolling and the presence of {delta} ferrite in austenitic stainless steel. Hot-rolled plates of austenitic stainless steels, examined at room temperatures, contain up to 9% of {delta} ferrite in austenitic matrix. The distribution of ferrite in steel plate is inhomogeneous: the highest ferrite content is located in the vicinity of the plate edge. Moreover, the content of {delta} ferrite changes irregularly across the plate thickness. The results obtained from analysis of several plates suggest a correlation between the maximum content of {delta} ferrite in steel microstructure and the length of the edge-crack formed during hot-rolling: the higher the volume fraction of ferrite, the longer the edge-crack.

  3. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio η were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and η. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  4. Flux threshold measurements of He-ion beam induced nanofuzz formation on hot tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. W.; Hijazi, H.; Bannister, M. E.; Unocic, K. A.; Garrison, L. M.; Parish, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    We report measurements of the energy dependence of flux thresholds and incubation fluences for He-ion induced nano-fuzz formation on hot tungsten surfaces at UHV conditions over a wide energy range using real-time sample imaging of tungsten target emissivity change to monitor the spatial extent of nano-fuzz growth, corroborated by ex situ SEM and FIB/SEM analysis, in conjunction with accurate ion-flux profile measurements. The measurements were carried out at the multicharged ion research facility (MIRF) at energies from 218 eV to 8.5 keV, using a high-flux deceleration module and beam flux monitor for optimizing the decel optics on the low energy MIRF beamline. The measurements suggest that nano-fuzz formation proceeds only if a critical rate of change of trapped He density in the W target is exceeded. To understand the energy dependence of the observed flux thresholds, the energy dependence of three contributing factors: ion reflection, ion range and target damage creation, were determined using the SRIM simulation code. The observed energy dependence can be well reproduced by the combined energy dependences of these three factors. The incubation fluences deduced from first visual appearance of surface emissivity change were (2-4) × 1023 m-2 at 218 eV, and roughly a factor of 10 less at the higher energies, which were all at or above the displacement energy threshold. The role of trapping at C impurity sites is discussed.

  5. Thermodynamic Aspects of the Formation of Sulfate Minerals from Hot Gaseous Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giere, R.; Majzlan, J.

    2006-12-01

    Minerals may form by solid-state reactions or by dissolution and precipitation from a fluid phase, be it magma, aqueous medium, or gas. The latter phase was traditionally not considered as important as the other ones, although it may be essential in some geological environments. Components of minerals (e.g., sulfur) are commonly transported by hot gases in volcanoes. Others may form in burning coal dumps or by burning fossil fuels for energy production. We have identified a number of minerals which precipitated from the hot gases escaping into the atmosphere from the smoke stack of a coal-fired power plant. This power plant uses coal or a mixture of coal and used tires to produce electricity. The phases identified by TEM are anglesite (PbSO4), gunningite (ZnSO4?H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), and yavapaiite (KFe(SO4)2). In addition to these crystalline phases, amorphous sulfate materials and soot have been identified. All these materials were captured by filtering the escaping gases beyond the last filters intended to remove any particles from the gas stream. Therefore, they must have formed by precipitation from the hot gas and may present a significant pollution load in the vicinity of power plants. Verhulst et al. (1996) have shown that several metals are most likely transported as chloride complexes in the gas phase. Their assumption correlates well with the finding that the chloride-richer coal+tire mixture increases considerably amounts of emitted metals. Using thermodynamic data for these and other sulfate minerals, we are trying to understand and model the precipitation process of these minerals from hot gases at ambient pressures. In this contribution, we focus on the mineral mikasaite (trigonal Fe2(SO4)3). This mineral has been reported only from burning coal dumps (Miura et al. 1994). Using acid-solution calorimetry, we have determined the enthalpy of formation of mikasaite from elements at T = 298.15 K. We have further estimated the standard entropy of this

  6. Brine stability study

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-04-15

    This is a study of the brine formulations that we were using in our testing were stable over time. The data includes charts, as well as, all of the original data from the ICP-MS runs to complete this study.

  7. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  8. Constraining Effects of Brine Leakage from Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, A.; Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.; McCray, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Research has shown that pressure build up associated with injection of CO2 into a deep saline aquifer has the potential to promote brine leakage into overlying formations. In order to understand and quantify chemical changes in an underground source of drinking water (USDW) invaded by deep saline brines, we analyzed over 90,000 brine geochemical data entries from the NETL NATCARB brine database to identify potential brine constituents of concern. Using a variety of statistical methods and EPA regulatory levels or standards (RLS) we narrowed the list of brine constituents of potential concern to USDWs to TDS, thallium, chloride, sulfate and arsenic. Somewhat surprisingly, the distribution of reported pH had a fairly narrow distribution around a median value of 7.4, with over 78% of values complying with EPA recommended secondary standard for drinking water acidity. The pH distribution implies that unlike pure CO2 leakage, far-field brine leakage (i.e., brine not in contact with CO2) is not expected to bear a low-pH signature, thus suggesting use of other means of geochemical monitoring for brine leakage, such as electrical conductivity. Geochemical mixing models of brine and dilute water were used to constrain mixing ratios where RLS values are exceeded for the TDS, thallium and chloride. TDS and chloride exceed the EPA secondary standards at a brine/USDW mixing ratio of 0.012 and 0.459, respectively. The thallium maximum contaminant level (MCL) is exceeded at a brine/USDW mixing ratio of 0.3753, smaller than the chloride mixing ratio. However, sorption and/or desorption processes may alter thallium concentrations along a leakage pathway resulting in lower concentrations in the aquifer than predicted by simple mixing models. While leakage into USDWs has received considerable attention, brine contamination of groundwater used for irrigation of agricultural crops is also an important area of research. Our calculations suggest that almost all crops grown in the United

  9. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  10. Atlantis II Deep geothermal brine system. Hydrographic situation in 1977 and changes since 1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, M.

    1980-02-01

    The geothermal brine system of the Atlantis II Deep in the Red Sea was reinvestigated hydrographically and chemically in November 1977. A comparison with results from earlier investigations confirms an increase of the hot brine volume, as suggested by the 1972 measurements ( SCHOELL, Bundesanstalt für Bodenforschung, Hannover, 1063 pp. 1974). The rate of increase is evidently parallel to the rate of temperature increase. The salinity of the lower brine was nearly constant during this period. The nearby Discovery Deep brine is evidently unaffected by the changes in the Atlantis II Deep as its temperature was constant within ±0.1°C during this time.

  11. Parent brine of the castile evaporites (Upper Permian), Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkland, Douglas W.; Denison, Rodger E.; Dean, Walter E.

    2000-01-01

    The Upper Permian (lower Ochoan) Castile Formation is a major evaporite sequence (∼10,000 km3) of calcite, anhydrite, and halite in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Traditionally the Castile brine has been considered to have been derived from seawater. This tradition has recently been challenged by two versions of the closed-basin drawdown model. They call for deposition from a mixed brine, in part marine and in large part nonmarine. They propose drawdown of as much as 500 m to form a major sink for ground water issuing from the surrounding Capitan reef complex. A large fraction of the solute in the brine body is inferred to have been recycled from older Permian evaporites on the surrounding shelf. Strontium-isotope analyses show no evidence that meteoric ground water was contributed to the Castile brine. From a stratigraphic, geographic, and lithologic array of 65 samples of anhydrite, gypsum, and calcite, 59 have an 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.706923 (Δsw of -225.0), a ratio that is the same as that of strontium in early Ochoan ocean water. If considerable (>15%) influx of meteoric water had occurred, enough continental strontium would have been introduced to have resulted in higher ratios. Low bromide values (20-40 ppm) in Castile halite, which have been used to argue for meteoric influx and for recycled salt, probably resulted from diagenesis. During shallow burial by halite, centimeter-size, bottom-grown crystals of gypsum were altered to nodular anhydrite. The rising water of dehydration caused the halite to recrystallize. During the recrystallization, some bromide was expelled. Despite the large volume of water that evaporated annually from its surface (∼52 km3/yr, assuming an evaporation rate of 2 m/yr), the Castile brine body never completely desiccated. The surrounding shelf was flat, hot, and generally dry. It probably could not have supplied a significant volume of meteoric spring water to the basin over tens of thousands of years. More likely

  12. Formation of Chromium Coating and Comparative Examination on Corrosion Resistance with 13Cr Steel in CO2-SATURATED Simulated Oilfield Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jiaojuan; Xie, Faqin; Lin, Naiming; Yao, Xiaofei; Tian, Wei; Tang, Bin

    2013-08-01

    In order to enhance the surface properties of P110 oil casing tube steel and increase its usage during operation, chromium coating was fabricated by pack cementation. Scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, element distribution and phase constitutions of the coating. Comparative examinations on corrosion resistance between chromium coating and 13Cr stainless steel in CO2-saturated simulated oilfield brine were carried out via electrochemical measurements. The results showed that the obtained coating was uniform and compact, mainly consisted of CrxCy and doped with minor Cr2N. Chromizing treatment made it possible to create on the working surface of P110 steel with enhanced corrosion resistance, and the chromium coating indicated lower pitting corrosion sensitivity than that of 13Cr stainless steel.

  13. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  14. Hot spot formation of chloroform in forest soils caused pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    High concentration of chloroform in groundwater is usually attributed to anthropogenic input, but we have found that the groundwater beneath some pristine areas contained chloroform from 1 - 10 µg/L. Groundwater containing chloroform that exceeds 1 µg/L could not be used for drinking water according to Danish regulations. The strict demands on groundwater quality may have to be taken into account when decisions are made regarding the change of land use in order to protect major recharge areas from pollution with nitrate and pesticides resulting from high-yield agriculture production. The terrestrial environment and especially hot spots in forest soils seem to be important contributors to apparent pollution of groundwater with chloroform. We performed a field study to investigate concentration and fluxes of chloroform to the groundwater from in four coniferous forests in order to increase knowledge on the hot spot formation and fate of natural chloroform. We investigated four stations over a period of several years in order to measure the net-formation of chloroform. Field measurements soil air concentrations of chloroform were monitored in five soil profiles down to the groundwater table. Meteorological data were recorded at all stations In the hotspots up to 120 ppbv was found in soil air under the spruce forest, to be compared to an ambient atmospheric concentration of 0.02 ppbv. The concentration of chloroform in soil air showed seasonal variation with a maximum in August-September. The chloroform concentration decreased with depth in all profiles during the summer half-year to about 20 % of concentration in the production layer. However, the concentration is still high enough to give an equilibrium concentration in the upper groundwater of 1-10 µg/L. Stable carbon isotopic analyses of chloroform from the uppermost groundwater in different parts of the forests and from soil water showed values from δ13C = -13 ‰ to -27 ‰, corresponding to the ratio in

  15. A 3D coupled hydro-mechanical granular model for the prediction of hot tearing formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A. B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.

    2012-07-01

    A new 3D coupled hydro-mechanical granular model that simulates hot tearing formation in metallic alloys is presented. The hydro-mechanical model consists of four separate 3D modules. (I) The Solidification Module (SM) is used for generating the initial solid-liquid geometry. Based on a Voronoi tessellation of randomly distributed nucleation centers, this module computes solidification within each polyhedron using a finite element based solute diffusion calculation for each element within the tessellation. (II) The Fluid Flow Module (FFM) calculates the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid. (III) The Semi-solid Deformation Module (SDM) is used to simulate deformation of the granular structure via a combined finite element / discrete element method. In this module, deformation of the solid grains is modeled using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive law. (IV) The Failure Module (FM) is used to simulate crack initiation and propagation with the fracture criterion estimated from the overpressure required to overcome the capillary forces at the liquid-gas interface. The FFM, SDM, and FM are coupled processes since solid deformation, intergranular flow, and crack initiation are deeply linked together. The granular model predictions have been validated against bulk data measured experimentally and calculated with averaging techniques.

  16. Hot spring siliceous stromatolites from Yellowstone National Park: assessing growth rate and laminae formation.

    PubMed

    Berelson, W M; Corsetti, F A; Pepe-Ranney, C; Hammond, D E; Beaumont, W; Spear, J R

    2011-09-01

    Stromatolites are commonly interpreted as evidence of ancient microbial life, yet stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood. We apply radiometric tracer and dating techniques, molecular analyses and growth experiments to investigate siliceous stromatolite morphogenesis in Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. We examine rates of stromatolite growth and the environmental and/or biologic conditions that affect lamination formation and preservation, both difficult features to constrain in ancient examples. The "main body" of the stromatolite is composed of finely laminated, porous, light-dark couplets of erect (surface normal) and reclining (surface parallel) silicified filamentous bacteria, interrupted by a less-distinct, well-cemented "drape" lamination. Results from dating studies indicate a growth rate of 1-5 cm year(-1) ; however, growth is punctuated. (14)C as a tracer demonstrates that stromatolite cyanobacterial communities fix CO(2) derived from two sources, vent water (radiocarbon dead) and the atmosphere (modern (14)C). The drape facies contained a greater proportion of atmospheric CO(2) and more robust silica cementation (vs. the main body facies), which we interpret as formation when spring level was lower. Systematic changes in lamination style are likely related to environmental forcing and larger scale features (tectonic, climatic). Although the OPP stromatolites are composed of silica and most ancient forms are carbonate, their fine lamination texture requires early lithification. Without early lithification, whether silica or carbonate, it is unlikely that a finely laminated structure representing an ancient microbial mat would be preserved. In OPP, lithification on the nearly diurnal time scale is likely related to temperature control on silica solubility. PMID:21777367

  17. Corrosion Resistances of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals with Yttrium and Tungsten Additions in Hot Calcium Chloride Brine & Natural Seawater: Fe48Mo14CR15Y2C15B6 and Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Lian, T; Saw, C; Hailey, P; Choi, J; Yang, N; Blue, C; Peter, W; Payer, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Branagan, D J; Beardsley, M B; Aprigliano, L

    2006-10-12

    The passive film stability of several Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found to be comparable to that of stainless steels and Ni-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022), based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. Electrochemical studies of the passive film stability of SAM1651 are reported here. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provide corrosion resistance; boron (B) enables glass formation; and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). Yttrium-containing SAM1651, also known as SAM7 (Fe{sub 48.0}Cr{sub 15.0}Mo{sub 14.0}B{sub 6.0}C{sub 15.0}Y{sub 2.0}), has a critical cooling rate (CCR) of approximately 80 Kelvin per second, while yttrium-free SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) has a higher critical cooling rate of approximately 600 Kelvin per second. SAM1651's low CCR enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous material in practical materials processes. While the yttrium enables a low CCR to be achieved, it makes the material relatively difficult to atomize, due to increases in melt viscosity. Consequently, the powders have irregular shape, which makes pneumatic conveyance during thermal spray deposition difficult. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. SAM1651 may also experience crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying, due to the formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which depletes the matrix of key alloy elements, whereas SAM1651 can be applied as coatings with the same corrosion resistance as a fully-dense completely amorphous melt-spun ribbon, provided that its amorphous

  18. Detection of neural activity in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a "hot defensive bee ball".

    PubMed

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kiya, Taketoshi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Ono, Masato; Yoshida, Tadaharu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica). Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a "hot defensive bee ball" by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The European honeybee (A. mellifera ligustica), on the other hand, does not exhibit this behavior, and their colonies are often destroyed by a hornet attack. In the present study, we attempted to analyze the neural basis of this behavior by mapping the active brain regions of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. First, we identified an A. cerana homolog (Acks = Apis cerana kakusei) of kakusei, an immediate early gene that we previously identified from A. mellifera, and showed that Acks has characteristics similar to kakusei and can be used to visualize active brain regions in A. cerana. Using Acks as a neural activity marker, we demonstrated that neural activity in the mushroom bodies, especially in Class II Kenyon cells, one subtype of mushroom body intrinsic neurons, and a restricted area between the dorsal lobes and the optic lobes was increased in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. In addition, workers exposed to 46°C heat also exhibited Acks expression patterns similar to those observed in the brains of workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball, suggesting that the neural activity observed in the brains of workers involved in the hot defensive bee ball mainly reflects thermal stimuli processing. PMID:22431987

  19. Lamination Formation, CO2 Uptake And Environmental Effects On Morphology: Siliceous Stromatolite Formation In A Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Spear, J. R.; Hammond, D. E.; Pepe-Ranney, C.; Beaumont, W.

    2010-12-01

    Siliceous stromatolites were collected from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park in order to investigate stromatolite morphogenesis and growth rate. The majority of the stromatolite is composed of relatively porous light and dark layers of silica-coated filaments. The light layers (~150 μm) predominantly consist of surface normal filaments and the dark layers (~50 μm) are composed of reclining filaments. The main body lamination is interrupted by another style that drapes the entire structure, contains coccoidal as well as filamentous microbial forms, is well-cemented with silica, and includes a significant population of pennate diatoms. Over the course of stromatolite growth, the main body style and the drape style lamination alternated, but the majority of the growth is composed of the light/dark couplets. Radiometric dating (228Th/228Ra, 228Ra/226Ra, and 137Cs) indicate that the growth of a 5 cm stromatolite occurred on the order of years (not tens or hundreds of years), and in situ growth experiments reveal that the light/dark laminae couples do not represent daily, weekly or seasonal cycles. 14C analysis reveals that organic matter from the main body consistently contains lower Δ14C versus the drape fabric. As CO2 from the hydrothermal vent waters is radio-carbon dead (which would result in lower Δ14C values), we interpret the main body to have formed when spring level was deeper or flowing more vigorously, resulting in a greater influence from spring derived CO2 during photosynthetic CO2 uptake, and the drape to have formed when spring level was shallower or less vigorous, resulting in a greater incorporation of atmospheric CO2. More vigorous flow is likely to also affect the spring temperature. Combining the radiometric age dating, in situ growth experiments, and Δ14C analysis suggests that growth of the light/dark couplets is sporadic and linked to rising water levels, whereas formation of the drape style lamination represents falling water levels

  20. Hot, metastable hydronium ion in the Galactic centre: formation pumping in X-ray-irradiated gas?

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Schilke, Peter; Bergin, Edwin A; Emprechtinger, Martin

    2012-11-13

    With a 3.5 m diameter telescope passively cooled to approximately 80 K, and a science payload comprising two direct detection cameras/medium resolution imaging spectrometers (PACS and SPIRE) and a very high spectral resolution heterodyne spectrometer (HIFI), the Herschel Space Observatory is providing extraordinary observational opportunities in the 55-670 μm spectral range. HIFI has opened for the first time to high-resolution spectroscopy the submillimetre band that includes the fundamental rotational transitions of interstellar hydrides, the basic building blocks of astrochemistry. We discuss a recent HIFI discovery of metastable rotational transitions of the hydronium ion (protonated water, H(3)O(+)), with rotational level energies up to 1200 K above the ground state, in absorption towards Sagittarius B2(N) in the Galactic centre. Hydronium is an important molecular ion in the oxygen chemical network. Earlier HIFI observations have indicated a general deficiency of H(3)O(+) in the diffuse gas in the Galactic disc. The presence of hot H(3)O(+) towards Sagittarius B2(N) thus appears to be related to the unique physical conditions in the central molecular zone, manifested, for example, by the widespread presence of abundant H(3)(+). One intriguing theory for the high rotational temperature characterizing the population of the H(3)O(+) metastable levels may be formation pumping in molecular gas irradiated by X-rays emitted by the Galactic centre black hole. Alternatively, the pervasive presence of enhanced turbulence in the central molecular zone may give rise to shocks in the lower-density medium that is exposed to energetic radiation. PMID:23028163

  1. Mechanism of the formation of peripheral coarse grain structure in hot extrusion of Al-4.5Zn-1Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eivani, A. R.; Zhou, J.; Duszczyk, J.

    2016-04-01

    Microstructural evolution leading to peripheral coarse grain (PCG) structure in hot extruded Al-4.5Zn-1Mg rods is investigated. The extent of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) in the as-extruded product falls not in line with the basis over which the existing mechanisms for interpretation of PCG formation are built. A new mechanism is therefore proposed based on partial DRX during extrusion and nucleation and abnormal growth of statically recrsystallised grains.

  2. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  3. Scale formation and descaling in hot rolling of low carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basabe Mancheno, Vladimir Vinicio

    In this research, the effects of gas composition, elapsed time of reaction and temperature on scale formation and descaling of low carbon steel were investigated and results were discussed from the viewpoint of the phase composition of the scales, oxidation rates, oxidation mechanisms, adhesion, fracture mechanics, porosity and residual scale. The phase composition and morphology of scales grown under conditions similar to those of reheating furnaces were analyzed. Low carbon steel was oxidized over the temperature range 1000-1250°C in gas mixtures of O 2-CO2-H2O-N2, O2-H 2O-N2 and O2-CO2-N2. The mole fraction of each phase, wustite (FeO), magnetite (Fe3O 4) and hematite (Fe2O3) was determined by the direct comparison method Two types of scales were observed. The first type was a crystalline scale with an irregular outer surface composed mostly of wustite, and a negligible amount of magnetite. The second type was the classical three-layer scale composed of wustite, magnetite and hematite. In general, the experiments showed that the furnace atmosphere, oxidation time and temperature influence the phase composition of the scales. Low carbon steel was oxidized in air over the temperature range 600-1200°C for 120 s to approximate the formation of secondary and tertiary scale in hot rolling. The mole fraction of wustite, magnetite and hematite was determined by the direct comparison method The phase composition of the scales changed with temperature and time. During the initial 30 s of oxidation, wustite was the predominant phase in the temperature range 800-1200°C, and as oxidation proceeded, the percentages of magnetite and hematite increased. In addition, the texture of the scales was investigated by orientation imaging microscopy (OIM); it was found that temperature influences the texture of the scales. The experiments indicated that 850°C is the ideal temperature for the finishing mill in order to reduce surface defects and work roll wear. The adhesion of

  4. Hot spot formation and stagnation properties in simulations of direct-drive NIF implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Andrew J.; Obenschain, Stephen P.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate different proposed methods of increasing the hot spot energy and radius in inertial confinement fusion implosions. In particular, shock mistiming (preferentially heating the inner edge of the target's fuel) and increasing the initial vapor gas density are investigated as possible control mechanisms. We find that only the latter is effective in substantially increasing the hot spot energy and dimensions while achieving ignition. In all cases an increase in the hot spot energy is accompanied by a decrease in the hot spot energy density (pressure) and both the yield and the gain of the target drop substantially. 2D simulations of increased vapor density targets predict an increase in the robustness of the target with respect to surface perturbations but are accompanied by significant yield degradation.

  5. Shallow Groundwater and Brine Processes in Antarctica: Linking Seasonal and Interannual Changes in Active Layer Hydrology to Ecosystem Change and Thermokarst Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    We report on measurements of soil hydrological and thermal properties from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDV), and relate them to changes in the spatial patterns of shallow groundwater flow (water tracks), landscape subsidence (thermokarst), and microbial and invertebrate ecosystem response. We show that shallow groundwater in the MDV is primarily derived from snowfall and seasonal ground ice melt, but is evaporatively concentrated during the summer flow period to produce saline to hypersaline active layer solutions. Multi-year profiles of soil temperature and soil moisture indicate that water track flow is largely limited to the duration of active layer conditions (~2 months) and that water track discharge is characterized by an early season pulse as ground ice melts, and a late season pulse as solutions flowing downslope accumulate at the base of the water tracks. Evaporative concentration of water track fluids, coupled with soil salt dissolution, and/or cation exchange reactions, result in enrichment of water track fluids in chloride and sulfate salts (depending on local soil chemistry) such that initially fresh snowmelt becomes saline to hypersaline over several km of groundwater flow. These brines shape soil ecosystems in the MDV by controlling salinity-dependent habitat suitability for invertebrates and microbial organisms. We show that these soil salts and shallow groundwater solutions accumulate in local depressions to form ponds, and that where these ponds are located above buried ice, the presence of salts leads to expansion of the basins to form large thermokarst depressions. Because water tracks are primarily snow-fed, and are moderated by shallow groundwater processes, they represent a component of the Antarctic hydrological system that is likely to respond rapidly to regional changes in temperature and precipitation, altering Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems, carbon budgets, and ground ice distribution.

  6. Hydrocarbon generation and brine migration in the central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in mineralized natural fractures from six Devonian shale cores were used to document hydrocarbon generation and brine migration in the central Appalachian basin. The sequence of formation of four regional fracture sets containing the inclusions was used to constrain the relative timing of fluid evolution. The earliest formed fluid inclusions are single-phase liquid inclusions containing a complex mixture of methane, ethane, higher hydrocarbons, and nitrogen. These inclusions formed during burial of the Devonian shales and early hydrocarbon generation in the oil window. As burial proceeded to a maximum and hydrocarbon generation entered the gas phase, later formed fluid inclusions record the presence of a more methane-rich fluid with minor ethane and nitrogen. Either during maximum burial or early uplift of the Devonian shale section, regional stress relaxation was accompanied by regional brine migration. Fluid inclusions record the influx of a methane-saturated, sodium chloride-rich brine and subsequent mixing with a presumably in situ-calcium-rich brine and subsequent mixing with a presumably in-situ calcium-rich brine. The migration pathway is presumed to be the Devonian shale detachment zone and underlying Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. This migration may be related to the fluids forming Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Present-day brine compositions reflect this ancient mixing. Brines from deep Cambrian through Silurian rocks are more calcium-chloride rich than brines from shallower Devonian and younger rocks. The sodium chloride-rich brines from Upper Devonian through Pennsylvanian rocks become more dilute as a result of mixing with meteoric water.

  7. Brine and gas recovery from geopressured systems. I. Parametric calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Riney, T.D.

    1984-02-01

    A series of parametric calculations was run with the S-CUBED geopressured-geothermal simulator MUSHRM to assess the effects of important formation, fluid and well parameters on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoir systems. The specific parameters considered are formation permeability, pore-fluid salinity, temperature and gas content, well radius and location with respect to reservoir boundaries, desired flow rate, and possible shale recharge. It was found that the total brine and gas recovered (as a fraction of the resource in situ) were most sensitive to formation permeability, pore-fluid gas content, and shale recharge.

  8. Ion association in natural brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  9. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit, R.; Hofmann, H.; Kolleck, R.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating. In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  10. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Veit, R.; Kolleck, R.; Hofmann, H.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-17

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating.In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  11. Hot ammonia around young O-type stars. III. High-mass star formation and hot core activity in W51 Main

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddi, C.; Ginsburg, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-05-01

    Context. This paper is the third in a series of NH3 multilevel imaging studies in well-known, high-mass star-forming regions. The main goal is to characterize kinematics and physical conditions of (hot and dense) circumstellar molecular gas around O-type young stars. Aims: We want to map at subarcsecond resolution highly excited inversion lines of NH3 in the high-mass star-forming region W51 Main (distance = 5.4 kpc), which is an ideal target to constrain theoretical models of high-mass star formation. Methods: Using the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), we mapped the hot and dense molecular gas in W51 Main with ~0.2 arcsec-0.3 arcsec angular resolution in five metastable (J = K) inversion transitions of ammonia (NH3): (J,K) = (6, 6), (7, 7), (9, 9), (10, 10), and (13, 13). These lines arise from energy levels between ~400 K and ~1700 K above the ground state. We also made maps of the (free-free) continuum emission at frequencies between 25 and 36 GHz. Results: We have identified and characterized two main centers of high-mass star formation in W51 Main, which excite hot cores and host one or multiple high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) at their centers: the W51e2 complex and the W51e8 core (~6'' southward of W51e2). The former breaks down into three further subcores: W51e2-W, which surrounds the well-known hypercompact (HC) HII region, where hot NH3 is observed in absorption, and two additional dusty cores, W51e2-E (~0.8 arcsec to the East) and W51e2-NW (~1'' to the North), where hot NH3 is observed in emission. The velocity maps toward the HC HII region show a clear velocity gradient along the east-west in all lines. The gradient may indicate rotation, although any Keplerian motion must be on smaller scales (<1000 AU) as we do not directly observe a Keplerian velocity profile. The absence of outflow and/or maser activity and the low amount of molecular gas available for accretion (~5 M⊙, assuming [NH3]/[H2] = 10-7) with respect to the mass of the central

  12. The Formation of Glycine in Hot Cores: New Gas-grain Chemical Simulations of Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin

    2012-07-01

    Organic molecules of increasing complexity have been detected in the warm envelopes of star-forming cores, commonly referred to as "hot cores". Spectroscopic searches at mm/sub-mm wavelengths have uncovered both amines and carboxylic acids in these regions, as well as a range of other compounds including alcohols, ethers, esters, and nitriles. However, the simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), has not yet been reliably detected in the ISM. There has been much interest in this molecule, due to its importance to the formation of proteins, and to life, while the positive identification of interstellar molecules of similar or greater complexity suggests that its existence in star-forming regions is plausible. I will present the results of recent models of hot-core chemistry that simulate the formation of both simple and complex molecules on the surfaces or within the ice mantles of dust grains. I will also present results from the first gas-grain astrochemical model to approach the question of amino-acid formation in hot cores. The formation of glycine in moderate abundance is found to be as efficient as that for similarly complex species, while its sublimation from the grains occurs at somewhat higher temperatures. However, simulated emission spectra based on the model results show that the degree of compactness of high-abundance regions, and the density and temperature profiles of the cores may be the key variables affecting the future detection of glycine, as well as other amino acids, and may explain its non-detection to date.

  13. The effect of type I migration on the formation of terrestrial planets in hot-Jupiter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, M. J.; Nelson, R. P.

    2007-09-01

    Context: Our previous models of a giant planet migrating through an inner protoplanet/planetesimal disk find that the giant shepherds a portion of the material it encounters into interior orbits, whilst scattering the rest into external orbits. Scattering tends to dominate, leaving behind abundant material that can accrete into terrestrial planets. Aims: We add to the possible realism of our model by simulating type I migration forces which cause an inward drift, and strong eccentricity and inclination damping of protoplanetary bodies. This extra dissipation might be expected to enhance shepherding at the expense of scattering, possibly modifying our previous conclusions. Methods: We employ an N-body code that is linked to a viscous gas disk algorithm capable of simulating: gas accretion onto the central star; gap formation in the vicinity of the giant planet; type II migration of the giant planet; type I migration of protoplanets; and the effect of gas drag on planetesimals. We use the code to re-run three scenarios from a previous work where type I migration was not included. Results: The additional dissipation introduced by type I migration enhances the inward shepherding of material but does not severely reduce scattering. We find that >50% of the solids disk material still survives the migration in scattered exterior orbits: most of it well placed to complete terrestrial planet formation at <3 AU. The shepherded portion of the disk accretes into hot-Earths, which survive in interior orbits for the duration of our simulations. Conclusions: Water-rich terrestrial planets can form in the habitable zones of hot-Jupiter systems and hot-Earths and hot-Neptunes may also be present. These systems should be targets of future planet search missions.

  14. Assessment of the factors affecting protective alumina formation under hot corrosion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, Michael Nathan

    In this study, the influence of microstructure, composition, and phase constitution on the Type I (900°C) and Type II (700°C) hot corrosion resistance of MCrAlY and β-NiAl base alloys was investigated. The Type II hot corrosion resistance of MCrAlY alloys is generally enhanced by microstructural refinement. This can be attributed to the more rapid establishment of a protective Al2O3-rich scale due to the higher density of short-circuit diffusion paths for Al (phase boundaries). However, it was shown that for a given bulk composition, the compositions of the individual phases is also extremely important. If one phase is lean in an element which is highly beneficial from a hot corrosion standpoint, e.g., Cr, Type II hot corrosion resistance is quite poor, regardless of the microstructural scale. In addition, coarse reactive-element-rich phases, which are commonly found in MCrAlY alloys, can be incorporated into the thermally grown Al2O 3 scale and act as initiation sites for Type II attack. This stresses the importance of reactive element content and distribution in MCrAlY coatings. During Type I hot corrosion exposure of β-Ni-36Al (at. %) base alloys, the incubation stage is greatly extended by the addition of 5% Pt, Co, or Cr. In each case, the beneficial effects can be linked to an enhanced ability to rapidly form a protective Al2O3 scale, and to heal this scale when it sustains damage during exposure. With regard to Type II hot corrosion, individual additions of 5 at. % Pt or Cr are beneficial, largely for the same reason; however, additions of 5 at. % Co and co-additions of 5 at. % Pt + 5 at. % Cr result in a decrease in the duration of the incubation stage. Subsurface phase transformations that occur in the latter systems prevent the alloy from maintaining the growth of the Al2O3 scale. This mechanism is discussed in detail. Finally, the influence of alloy composition and exposure environment on the kinetics of the θ→α Al2O3 transformation in scales

  15. The significance of Rb-Sr glauconite ages, Bonneterre Formation, Missouri; Late Devonian-Early Mississippian brine migration in the midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, H.J. ); Kish, S.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Rb-Sr mean model ages of 370 {plus minus} 10 Ma for glauconites from the Cambrian lower Bonneterre Formation in southern and central Missouri are in excellent agreement with a Rb-Sr isochron age of 359 {plus minus} 22 Ma for glauconites from the Magmont mine (Viburnum Trend) in the southeast Missouri lead district. The lower Bonneterre and Magmont mines ages probably reflect isotopic resetting, most likely associated with dolomitization and/or Mississippi Valley-type ore formation in the southeast Missouri lead district. The temporal relation between widespread dolomitization and ore formation in Missouri is unclear, but mounting evidence for two Devonian disturbances permits the following interpretation: (1) a Devonian timing (380-400 Ma) for widespread dolomitization, and (2) a Late Devonian-Early Mississippian timing (360-370 Ma) for ore formation in southeast Missouri. Late Devonian-Early Mississippian fluids associated with the earliest stages of collisional tectonics and metamorphism to the south and southeast may have been important in the formation of southeast Missouri ore deposits. These tectonically driven waters may themselves have been the Mississippi Valley-type ore fluids, entering Missouri by way of the Black Warrior basin and Reelfoot rift and/or the Arkoma basin. Alternatively, the movement of orogenic fluids hundreds of kilometers distant may have initiated and distally influenced the migration of more locally derived Mississippi Valley-type ore fluids. Broad regions of Missouri and adjacent areas experienced heating and crustal flexing in the Late Devonian, and consequently, preservation of elevated temperatures in Mississippi Valley-type fluids as they move great lateral distances may not be necessary for ore formation in southeast Missouri.

  16. Stability of brines on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brass, G. W.

    1980-04-01

    The detection of high chlorine and sulfate abundances and duricrusts on Mars strongly suggests the occasional presence of brines on the Martian surface. Ternary phase diagrams for the likely chloride and sulfate brines indicate that the minimum temperature at which a brine can be stable is near 210 K with a water concentration of approximately 70 wt % and a high concentration of calcium chloride. The dominance of sulfate over chlorine in the Martian regolith suggests precipitation of salts at temperatures higher than the minimum.

  17. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of brines from three oil- and gas-producing sandstones in eastern Ohio, with applications to the geochemical tracing of brine sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, K.J.; Angelo, Clifford G.; Masters, Robert W.; Sedam, Alan C.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic characteristics of selected inorganic constituents are reported for brines from the Berea Sandstone of Mississippian age, the Clinton sandstone, Albion Sandstone of Silurian age, and the Rose Run formation of Cambrian and Ordovician age in 24 counties in eastern Ohio. Ionic concentrations of dissolved constituents in brines from these formations generally fall in the following ranges (in millimoles per kilogram of brine): Na, Cl > 1,000; 100 < Ca, Mg < 1,000; 1 < K, Br, Sr, Li, Fe, SO4 < 100; Mn, Zn, Al, I, HCO3, SiO2 < 1. Mean ionic concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, K, SO4 and Br, and mean values of density and dissolved solids are significantly different at the 95-percent confidence level in each formation. Only potassium has a unique concentration range in each formation. Selected concentration ratios are identified as potential indicators for geochemical tracing of brines having some history of dilution. The k:Na ratios work best for identifying the source formation of an unidentified brine. Isotopic characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen indicate a meteoric origin for the water matrix of the brines. Sulfur isotopes may have utility for differentiating brines from oxidizing ground water.

  18. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be used directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  19. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be usedmore » directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  20. Molecular formation along the atmospheric mass loss of HD 209458b and similar Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.

    2016-02-01

    The chemistry along the mass loss of Hot Jupiters is generally considered to be simple, consisting mainly of atoms, prevented from forming more complex species by the intense radiation field from their host stars. In order to probe the region where the temperature is low (T<2000 K), we developed a 1D chemical and photochemical reaction model of the atmospheric mass loss of HD 209458b, involving 56 species, including carbon chain and oxygen-bearing ones, interacting through 566 reactions. The simulation results indicate that simple molecules like OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ are formed inside the region, considering that residual H2 survives in the exosphere, a possibility indicated by recent observational work. The molecules are formed and destroyed within a radial distance of less than 107 km, but the estimated integrated column density of OH+, a potential tracer of H2, is high enough to allow detection, which, once achieved, would indicate a revision of chemical models of the upper atmosphere of Hot Jupiters. For low density Hot Jupiters receiving less intense XUV radiation from their host stars than HD 209458b, molecular species could conceivably be formed with a higher total column density.

  1. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting byproduct selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N2, N2O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 1024 photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH4+. To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. PMID:23276425

  2. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. PMID:23276425

  3. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  4. SURFACE CONTAINMENT FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the probability of significant releases of geothermal brine to the surface environment through unplanned or accidental events. It then evaluates the containment measures that may be used to prevent environmental damage. The results indicate that major spills ...

  5. Galaxy formation with local photoionization feedback - II. Effect of X-ray emission from binaries and hot gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, R.; Vogelsberger, M.; Stinson, G. S.; Hennawi, J. F.; Marinacci, F.; Springel, V.; Macciò, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    We study how X-rays from stellar binary systems and the hot intracluster medium (ICM) affect the radiative cooling rates of gas in galaxies. Our study uses a novel implementation of gas cooling in the moving-mesh hydrodynamics code AREPO. X-rays from stellar binaries do not affect cooling at all as their emission spectrum is too hard to effectively couple with galactic gas. In contrast, X-rays from the ICM couple well with gas in the temperature range 104-106 K. Idealized simulations show that the hot halo radiation field has minimal impact on the dynamics of cooling flows in clusters because of the high virial temperature ( ≳ 107 K), making the interaction between the gas and incident photons very ineffective. Satellite galaxies in cluster environments, on the other hand, experience a high radiation flux due to the emission from the host halo. Low-mass satellites ( ≲ 1012 M⊙) in particular have virial temperatures that are exactly in the regime where the effect of the radiation field is maximal. Idealized simulations of satellite galaxies including only the effect of host halo radiation (no ram pressure stripping or tidal effects) fields show a drastic reduction in the amount of cool gas formed (˜40 per cent) on a short time-scale of about 0.5 Gyr. A galaxy merger simulation including all the other environmental quenching mechanisms, shows about 20 per cent reduction in the stellar mass of the satellite and about ˜30 per cent reduction in star formation rate after 1 Gyr due to the host hot halo radiation field. These results indicate that the hot halo radiation fields potentially play an important role in quenching galaxies in cluster environments.

  6. HVOF Spraying of Fe-Based MMC Coatings with In Situ Formation of Hard Particles by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röttger, A.; Weber, S. L.; Theisen, W.; Rajasekaran, B.; Vaßen, R.

    2012-03-01

    Thick (2-3 mm) Fe-base coatings with admixed ferrotitanium (Fe30Ti70) were applied to austenitic steel by a high-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF). Hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) was carried out to the decrease porosity and to increase the material strength, wear resistance, and adhesive bond strength of the deposited coating to the substrate material. SEM and XRD investigations confirmed the formation of hard titanium carbide (TiC) particles during HIP treatment as a result of strong carbon diffusion out of the metal matrix and into the Fe30Ti70 particles. The mechanical and wear properties of the densified coatings were investigated by means of shear tests, hardness measurements, and abrasive wear tests. A comparison of the coatings in the as-sprayed and the HIPed state showed a large increase in the wear resistance due to in situ TiC formation.

  7. Stellar scattering and the formation of hot Jupiters in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, J. G.; Beaugé, C.

    2015-04-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJs) are usually defined as giant Jovian-size planets with orbital periods P<=10 days. Although they lie close to the star, several have finite eccentricities and significant misalignment angle with respect to the stellar equator, leading to ~20% of HJs in retrograde orbits. More than half, however, seem consistent with near-circular and planar orbits. In recent years, two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the excited and misaligned subpopulation of HJs: Lidov-Kozai migration and planet-planet scattering. Although both are based on completely different dynamical phenomena, at first hand they appear to be equally effective in generating hot planets. Nevertheless, there has been no detailed analysis comparing the predictions of both mechanisms, especially with respect to the final distribution of orbital characteristics. In this paper, we present a series of numerical simulations of Lidov-Kozai trapping of single planets in compact binary systems that suffered a close fly-by of a background star. Both the planet and the binary component are initially placed in coplanar orbits, although the inclination of the impactor is assumed random. After the passage of the third star, we follow the orbital and spin evolution of the planet using analytical models based on the octupole expansion of the secular Hamiltonian. We also include tidal effects, stellar oblateness and post-Newtonian perturbations. The present work aims at the comparison of the two mechanisms (Lidov-Kozai and planet-planet scattering) as an explanation for the excited and inclined HJs in binary systems. We compare the results obtained through this paper with results in Beaugé & Nesvorný (2012), where the authors analyse how the planet-planet scattering mechanisms works in order to form this hot Jovian-size planets. We find that several of the orbital characteristics of the simulated HJs are caused by tidal trapping from quasi-parabolic orbits, independent of the driving mechanism

  8. Synthetic (Hydrothermal) Hematite-Rich Mars-Analog Spherules from Acid-Sulfate Brines: Implications for Formation and Diagenesis of Hematite Spherules in Outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) orbiter discovered a large area at Meridiani Planum (MP) covered with the Fe-oxide hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) [1,2]. This discovery and favorable landing site characteristics led to selection of MP as the landing site for the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover (MER) [3]. The Athena science payload onboard the Opportunity rover identified hematite-rich spherules (mean spherule diameter approx.4.2+/-0.8 mm) embedded in S-rich outcrop rock and also as lag deposits of whole and broken spherules [4,5,6,7,8,9]. Although the chemical and mineralogical compositions of spherules are not fully constrained, Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and chemical analyses from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) are consistent with a hematite mineralogical composition and an oxide bulk chemical composition consisting of Fe2O3. MGS-TES, also provides an important constraint that emission from the hematite-rich spherules is dominated by emission along the crystallographic c-axis [1,2,10,11]. The formation of hematite-rich spherules with similar chemical, mineralogical, morphological, and crystallographic properties to the MP spherules is rare on Earth, to date, only two natural analogs have been proposed; one from Utah (Navaho Concretions) and the other from Mauna Kea, Hawaii [12,13]. In this study, we synthesized in the laboratory hematite-rich spherules using conditions that may have existed on Early Mars [14] and compared their properties to those for MP hematite spherules of Mars and the analog spherules from Utah and Mauna Kea in order to assess their relative merit as MP hematite spherule analogs. Such comparisons yield clues to the formation pathway for MP spherules.

  9. Ignition kernel formation and lift-off behaviour of jet-in-hot-coflow flames

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenhof, E.; Tummers, M.J.; van Veen, E.H.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2010-06-15

    The stabilisation region of turbulent non-premixed flames of natural gas mixtures burning in a hot and diluted coflow is studied by recording the flame luminescence with an intensified high-speed camera. The flame base is found to behave fundamentally differently from that of a conventional lifted jet flame in a cold air coflow. Whereas the latter flame has a sharp interface that moves up and down, ignition kernels are continuously being formed in the jet-in-hot-coflow flames, growing in size while being convected downstream. To study the lift-off height effectively given these highly variable flame structures, a new definition of lift-off height is introduced. An important parameter determining lift-off height is the mean ignition frequency density in the flame stabilisation region. An increase in coflow temperature and the addition of small quantities of higher alkanes both increase ignition frequencies, and decrease the distance between the jet exit and the location where the first ignition kernels appear. Both mechanisms lower the lift-off height. An increase in jet Reynolds number initially leads to a significant decrease of the location where ignition first occurs. Higher jet Reynolds numbers (above 5000) do not strongly alter the location of first ignition but hamper the growth of flame pockets and reduce ignition frequencies in flames with lower coflow temperatures, leading to larger lift-off heights. (author)

  10. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  11. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO< sub> 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  12. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  13. In situ observations of early oxide formation in steel under hot-rolling conditions.

    PubMed

    Melfo, W M; Dippenaar, R J

    2007-02-01

    A technique was developed to study in situ the early stages of the reaction between iron and air. Using a high-temperature microscope, we observed at temperatures between 1000 degrees C and 1050 degrees C and within the first 30 s of reaction, the formation of iron-oxide layers on the surface of low-carbon steel. We observed the nucleation and growth of a first layer of iron oxide and the consecutive formation in sequence, of higher iron oxides sweeping over the surface of the former oxide. The grain boundaries of the steel substrate remain visible for quite some time following exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere indicating that diffusion through steel grain boundaries may have a determining influence on the formation of oxides. These findings emphasize the importance of conducting further studies to better understand the kinetics and mechanisms by which iron-oxide layers form in the early stages of oxidation. PMID:17359249

  14. CFD assessment of the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide formation from RD-170 hot-fire testing at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Mcconnaughey, Paul; Warsi, Saif; Chen, Yen-Sen

    1994-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology has been used to assess the exhaust plume pollutant environment of the RD-170 engine hot-firing on the F1 Test Stand at Marshall Space Flight Center. Researchers know that rocket engine hot-firing has the potential for forming thermal nitric oxides (NOx), as well as producing carbon monoxide (CO) when hydrocarbon fuels are used. Because of the complicated physics involved, however, little attempt has been made to predict the pollutant emissions from ground-based engine testing, except for simplified methods which can grossly underpredict and/or overpredict the pollutant formations in a test environment. The objective of this work, therefore, has been to develop a technology using CFD to describe the underlying pollutant emission physics from ground-based rocket engine testing. This resultant technology is based on a three-dimensional, viscous flow, pressure-based CFD formulation, where wet CO and thermal NOx finite-rate chemistry mechanisms are solved with a Penalty function method.

  15. Effect of ferrite formation on abnormal austenite grain coarsening in low-alloy steels during hot rolling process

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, Hitoshi; Ueno, Masakatsu; Yagi, Akira

    1998-05-01

    Abnormal coarsening of austenite ({gamma}) grains occurred in low-alloy steels during a seamless pipe hot-rolling process. Often, the grains became several hundred micrometer in diameter. This made it difficult to apply direct quenching to produce high-performance pipes. The phenomenon of grain coarsening was successfully reproduced using a thermomechanical simulator, and the factors which affected grain coarsening were clarified. The mechanism was found to be basically strain-induced grain growth which occurred during reheating at around 930 C. Furthermore, once a pipe temperature decreased to the dual-phase region after the minimal hot working and prior to the reheating process, the grain coarsening was more pronounced. It was understood that the formation of ferrite along grain boundaries had the role of reducing the migration of grain boundaries into neighboring grains, leaving a strain-free, recrystallized region behind. This abnormal grain coarsening was found to be effectively prevented by an addition of Nb, the content of which varied depending on the C content. The effect of the Nb addition was confirmed by an in-line test.

  16. Effect of microstructure of carbon steel on magnetite formation in simulated Hot Conditioning environment of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Prafful Kumar; Kiran Kumar, M.; Kain, Vivekanand

    2015-09-01

    The objective of present investigation is to establish the role of starting microstructure of carbon steel on the magnetite formation behaviour in Hot Conditioning simulated environment. Two grades of carbon steel (low and high carbon) were subjected to selective heat-treatments to generate different microstructures: martensite, tempered martensite and modified ferrite-pearlite. Oxidation was carried out in lithiated water of pH 10-10.2 in a static autoclave at 270 °C. The results of the investigation clearly establish that: (a) high carbon steel (0.63% C) showed a relatively higher rate of oxidation over the low carbon (0.08% C) grade at all the test durations and (b) the oxidation rates for both the grades were sensitive to microstructural differences at initial stages of oxidation while the differences narrowed down after 72 h of exposure. The oxide formed was established to be magnetite on all the specimens.

  17. Solubility of Nd in brine

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, F.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1993-12-31

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl{sub 2}, with an ionic strength of 7.8M (9.4m). The experimental solubility is much less than that estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. The predominant solid compound of Nd (III) at each pcH was determined from X-ray diffraction patterns.

  18. Hot spot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shocked HMX crystals with nanovoids: a large-scale reactive molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Lou, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yangeng; Song, Huajie; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-07-14

    We report million-atom reactive molecular dynamic simulations of shock initiation of β-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) single crystals containing nanometer-scale spherical voids. Shock induced void collapse and subsequent hot spot formation as well as chemical reaction initiation are observed which depend on the void size and impact strength. For an impact velocity of 1 km s(-1) and a void radius of 4 nm, the void collapse process includes three stages; the dominant mechanism is the convergence of upstream molecules toward the centerline and the downstream surface of the void forming flowing molecules. Hot spot formation also undergoes three stages, and the principal mechanism is kinetic energy transforming to thermal energy due to the collision of flowing molecules on the downstream surface. The high temperature of the hot spot initiates a local chemical reaction, and the breakage of the N-NO2 bond plays the key role in the initial reaction mechanism. The impact strength and void size have noticeable effects on the shock dynamical process, resulting in a variation of the predominant mechanisms leading to void collapse and hot spot formation. Larger voids or stronger shocks result in more intense hot spots and, thus, more violent chemical reactions, promoting more reaction channels and generating more reaction products in a shorter duration. The reaction products are mainly concentrated in the developed hot spot, indicating that the chemical reactivity of the hmx crystal is greatly enhanced by void collapse. The detailed information derived from this study can aid a thorough understanding of the role of void collapse in hot spot formation and the chemical reaction initiation of explosives. PMID:27307079

  19. Effects of alloy composition and casting speed on structure formation and hot tearing during direct-chill casting of Al-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno; Savran, V. I.; Katgerman, L.; Eskin, D. G.

    2004-11-01

    Effects of casting speed and alloy composition on structure formation and hot tearing during direct-chill (DC) casting of 200-mm round billets from binary Al-Cu alloys are studied. It is experimentally shown that the grain structure, including the occurrence of coarse grains in the central part of the billet, is strongly affected by the casting speed and alloy composition, while the dendritic arm spacing is mostly dependent on the casting speed. The hot cracking pattern reveals the maximum hot-tearing susceptibility in the range of low-copper alloys (1 to 1.5 pct) and at high casting speeds (180 to 200 mm/min). The clear correlation between the amount of nonequilibrium eutectics (representing the reserve of liquid phase in the last stage of solidification) and hot tearing is demonstrated. A casting speed-copper concentration-hot-tearing susceptibility chart is constructed experimentally for real-scale DC casting. Computed dimensions of the solidification region in the billet are used to explain the experimentally observed structure patterns and hot cracking. Thermomechanical finite-element simulation of the solidifying billet was used as a tool for testing the applicability to DC casting of several hot-tearing criteria based on different principles. The results are compared to the experimentally observed hot tearing. It is noted that hot-tearing criteria that account for the dynamics of the process, e.g., strain rate, actual stress-strain situation, feeding rate, and melt flow, can be successfully used for the qualitative prediction of hot tearing.

  20. Hot-electron plasma formation and confinement in the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ress, D.B.

    1988-06-01

    The tandem mirror experiment-upgrade (TMX-U) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the first experiment to investigate the thermal-barrier tandem-mirror concept. One attractive feature of the tandem magnetic mirror as a commercial power reactor is that the fusion reactions occur in an easily accessible center-cell. On the other hand, complicated end-cells are necessary to provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and improved particle confinement of the center-cell plasma. In these end-cells, enhanced confinement is achieved with a particular axial potential profile that is formed with electron-cyclotron range-of-frequency heating (ECRF heating, ECRH). By modifying the loss rates of electrons at spatially distinct locations within the end-cells, the ECRH can tailor the plasma potential profile in the desired fashion. Specifically, the thermal-barrier concept requires generation of a population of energetic electrons near the midplane of each end-cell. To be effective, the transverse (to the magnetic field) spatial structure of the hot-electron plasma must be fairly uniform. In this dissertation we characterize the spatial structure of the ECRH-generated plasma, and determine how the structure builds up in time. Furthermore, the plasma should efficiently absorb the ECRF power, and a large fraction of the electrons must be well confined near the end-cell midplane. Therefore, we also examine in detail the ECRH power balance, determining how the ECRF power is absorbed by the plasma, and the processes through which that power is confined and lost. 43 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Insights into Microbial Mats and Possible Stromatolite Formation from Little Hot Creek, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, D.; Ciscato, E. R.; Trubl, G. G.; García-Maldonado, J. Q.; Berelson, W.; Johnson, H.; Stevenson, B. S.; Stamps, B. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A carbonate-rich, partially lithified microbial mat from Little Hot Creek (Long Valley Caldera, CA) was studied as a potential proxy for ancient stromatolites. This microbial mat was characterized through a combination of water chemistry, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and incubation experiments. Four distinct layers were observed in three replicate microbial mat samples based on color, texture, and microbial composition. The bacterial populations changed significantly across the mat layers: layer A (top) was dominated by the phyla Cyanobacteria (55%), Chloroflexi (14%), and Bacteroidetes (11%); layer B was dominated by Cholorflexi (57%) and Bacteroidetes (17%); layer C was dominated by Nitrospirae (23%) and Chlorobi (11%); and layer D was dominated by Nitrospirae (35%). Microbial diversity increased with depth (from layer A to layer D). The fraction of inorganic carbon and its δ13C values as well as the δ13Corg, however, remained nearly constant throughout the mat at 0.93 ± 0.03, -1.22 ± 0.10‰, and -20.44 ± 0.27‰, respectively. SEM images of the carbonate revealed similar features and highly conserved structure between layers. Incubations with δ13Cbicarbonate showed bicarbonate uptake in all layers of the mat with the highest rate of uptake occurring with the top layer in the light. The growth experiments, the microbial taxonomy and diversity, and the SEM analysis suggest top-down mat growth, with each layer originating from the "A" (top) layer. Incubation experiments with nutrient additions to each mat layer showed enhanced growth in the presence of added Mg2+ and Mn2+, but growth was inhibited with the addition of Fe2+. This data suggests that Mg2+ and Mn2+ may play an important and overlooked role in the growth of microbial mats and the biological origin of stromatolites.

  2. Method for protecting stainless steel pipe and the like in geothermal brine service from stress corrosion cracking, and articles made thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Amend, W.E.; Kitz, K.R.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method for protecting a stainless steel flow-conducting component used in hot geothermal brine service from chloride stress corrosion caused by contact of geothermal brine with an exterior surface of the component. It comprises: thermally coating the exterior surface with a metal having an electrode potential more negative than that of the stainless steel being protected.

  3. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young’s Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young’s modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young’s modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank’s solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion. PMID:26914329

  4. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young's Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young's modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young's modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank's solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion. PMID:26914329

  5. Formation of hot-electron ensembles quasiequilibrated in momentum space by ultrafast momentum scattering of highly excited hot electrons photoinjected into the Γ valley of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Hiroshi; Kanasaki, Jun'ichi; Tanimura, Katsumi; Sjakste, Jelena; Vast, Nathalie; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    We study ultrafast scattering dynamics of hot electrons photoinjected with high excess energies in the Γ valley of the conduction band of GaAs, using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. At ultrafast rates of the order of 10 fs, the packets in the Γ valley are transformed into hot-electron ensembles (HEEs) quasiequilibrated in momentum space but not in energy space. The energy relaxation of the HEEs takes place as a whole on a longer time scale with rates dependent only on the excess energy, irrespective of the momenta of hot electrons. Both momentum scattering and energy relaxation are ruled by the electron-phonon interaction.

  6. Conclusions after eleven years of studying brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Bills, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was established to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in the United States. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. WIPP performance assessment activities raised the concern that the brine could cause anoxic corrosion of metal in the waste storage drums and waste inventory, potentially producing large quantities of hydrogen gas, which would affect the long-term performance of Thee repository. Th WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program was developed to investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences. The WIPP is excavated in the Salado Formation, which is bedded salt of Permian age. The sediments exposed in the excavations consist of clear halite and polyhalitic halite, halite containing clay, thin clay seams, and interbedded anhydrite layers. The clear halite beds contain little brine and are effectively impermeable. The clay within the salt and in the clay seams contains brine that is released to the excavations, although virtually all of the brine release occurs within the first few years of mining. Consequently, by the time the waste storage rooms at the WIPP are filled and sealed, most of the brine that can be derived from the clay will have evaporated. These is no observed evidence from the WIPP excavations that brine will seep into the working from the anhydrite beds. It has been postulated, however, that brine could seep through the underlying anhydrite Marker Bed 139 (MB139). Recently acquired data on the hydrologic properties of MB139 show that, even if flow through the anhydrite occurs, the brine released to the storage rooms could only corrode a small percentage of the susceptible metal in the repository.

  7. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation of carbon: From spallation to formation of hot critical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Ionin, A. A.; Makarov, S. V.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2012-07-01

    Strong ablative shock waves were generated on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface by intense IR femtosecond laser pulses in a broad fluence range and their basic parameters (pressure, velocity) were acquired by means of a non-contact broadband ultrasonic technique. At moderate laser fluences (F ≥ 0.3 J/cm2), ultrafast formation of a dense, strongly-heated (supercritical) carbon phase is expected, which expands on a fluence-dependent picosecond timescale in the form of a point-like three-dimensional explosion, driving a multi-GPa shock wave both in ambient air and the graphite target. At higher laser fluences (F > 5 J/cm2), critical electron-ion plasma is formed instantaneously during the exciting femtosecond laser pulse, with its strong plasma absorption initiating a TPa-level shock wave (the maximum shock wave pressure ≈ 3 TPa is more than twice the previous maximum for carbon). Because of the ablative removal of the laser-heated surface carbon layer, the following time-integrated structural studies indicate the formation of a mixture of diamond and graphite nanocrystallites or, in other words, glassy carbon only in the redeposition products.

  9. Flux threshold measurements of nano-fuzz formation by He-ion beam impact on hot tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. W.; Hijazi, H.; Bannnister, M. E.; Garrison, L. M.; Parish, C. M.; Unocic, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    We report measurements of the energy dependence of flux thresholds and incubation fluences for He-ion induced nano-fuzz formation on hot tungsten surfaces using real-time sample imaging of tungsten target emissivity change together with accurate ion-beam flux-profile measurements. The measurements were carried out at the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at ion energies from 218 eV to 8.5 keV, using a high-flux deceleration module and beam flux monitor for optimizing the decel optics on the low energy MIRF beamline. The measurements suggest that nano-fuzz formation proceeds only if a critical rate of change of trapped He density in the W target is exceeded. The energy dependence of three factors contributing to the overall energy dependence, ion reflection, ion range and target damage creation, were determined using the SRIM simulation code. The observed energy dependence can be well reproduced by the combined energy dependences of these three factors. The incubation fluences deduced from first visual appearance of surface emissivity change were 2-4x1023/m2 at 218 eV, and roughly a factor of 10 less at the higher energies, which were all at or above the displacement energy threshold. Additional measurements at 100 and 200 keV, using beams from the MIRF HV-platform-based ECR source will be presented. Research sponsored by the LDRD program at ORNL, managed by UT-Battelle for the USDOE, and by the DOE OFES.

  10. Formation and stellar spin-orbit misalignment of hot Jupiters from Lidov-Kozai oscillations in stellar binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kassandra R.; Storch, Natalia I.; Lai, Dong

    2016-03-01

    Observed hot Jupiter (HJ) systems exhibit a wide range of stellar spin-orbit misalignment angles. This paper investigates the inward migration of giant planets due to Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations induced by a distant stellar companion. We conduct a large population synthesis study, including the octupole gravitational potential from the stellar companion, mutual precession of the host stellar spin axis and planet orbital axis, tidal dissipation in the planet and stellar spin-down in the host star due to magnetic braking. We consider a range of planet masses (0.3-5 MJ) and initial semimajor axes (1-5 au), different properties for the host star, and varying tidal dissipation strengths. The fraction of systems that result in HJs depends on planet mass and stellar type, with fHJ = 1-4 per cent (depending on tidal dissipation strength) for Mp = 1 MJ, and larger (up to 8 per cent) for more massive planets. The production efficiency of `hot Saturns' (Mp = 0.3MJ) is much lower, because most migrating planets are tidally disrupted. We find that the fraction of systems that result in either HJ formation or tidal disruption, fmig ≃ 11-14 per cent is roughly constant, having little variation with planet mass, stellar type and tidal dissipation strength. The distribution of final HJ stellar obliquities exhibits a complex dependence on the planet mass and stellar type. For Mp = (1-3)MJ, the distribution is always bimodal, with peaks around 30° and 130°. The distribution for 5MJ planets depends on host stellar type, with a preference for low obliquities for solar-type stars, and higher obliquities for more massive (1.4 M⊙) stars.

  11. Astrochemistry and star formation in nearby galaxies: from galaxy disks to hot nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, S.

    2016-05-01

    Studying the molecular phase of the interstellar medium in galaxies is fundamental for the understanding of the onset and evolution of compact and extended star formation, and of the growth of supermassive black holes. Molecular line emission is an excellent tracer of chemical, physical and dynamical conditions in the cold neutral gas. Key molecules in extragalactic studies are e.g. HCN, HCO+, HC3N, SiO, CH3OH, H2O. Furthermore, we can use IR excited molecular emission to probe the very inner regions of luminous infrared galaxies allowing us to get past the optically thick dust barrier of the compact obscured nuclei where lines of CO, HCN and HCO+ in their vibrational ground state (ν=0) may be self-absorbed. Finally, molecular outflows and their chemistry are briefly discussed - including new ALMA results on for example the outflow of the lenticular galaxy NGC1377 and a study of the chemistry of the outflow of the quasar Mrk231.

  12. Cold streams in early massive hot haloes as the main mode of galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Dekel, A; Birnboim, Y; Engel, G; Freundlich, J; Goerdt, T; Mumcuoglu, M; Neistein, E; Pichon, C; Teyssier, R; Zinger, E

    2009-01-22

    Massive galaxies in the young Universe, ten billion years ago, formed stars at surprising intensities. Although this is commonly attributed to violent mergers, the properties of many of these galaxies are incompatible with such events, showing gas-rich, clumpy, extended rotating disks not dominated by spheroids. Cosmological simulations and clustering theory are used to explore how these galaxies acquired their gas. Here we report that they are 'stream-fed galaxies', formed from steady, narrow, cold gas streams that penetrate the shock-heated media of massive dark matter haloes. A comparison with the observed abundance of star-forming galaxies implies that most of the input gas must rapidly convert to stars. One-third of the stream mass is in gas clumps leading to mergers of mass ratio greater than 1:10, and the rest is in smoother flows. With a merger duty cycle of 0.1, three-quarters of the galaxies forming stars at a given rate are fed by smooth streams. The rarer, submillimetre galaxies that form stars even more intensely are largely merger-induced starbursts. Unlike destructive mergers, the streams are likely to keep the rotating disk configuration intact, although turbulent and broken into giant star-forming clumps that merge into a central spheroid. This stream-driven scenario for the formation of discs and spheroids is an alternative to the merger picture. PMID:19158792

  13. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, H.J.; Judkins, R.R.

    1995-06-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of carboniferous materials in a gasifier consists predominantly of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and, for air-blown units, N{sub 2} in various proportions at temperatures ranging from about 400 to 1000{degree}C. Depending on the source of the fuel, smaller concentrations of H{sub 2}S, COS, and NH{sub 3} can also be present. The gas phase is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials used in the gasifier can occur. Therefore, there are numerous concerns about materials performance in coal gasification systems, particularly at the present time when demonstration-scale projects are in or nearing the construction and operation phases. This study focused on the subset of materials degradation phenomena resulting from carbon formation and carburization processes, which are related to potential operating problems in certain gasification components and subsystems. More specifically, it examined the current state of knowledge regarding carbon deposition and a carbon-related degradation phemonenon known as metal dusting as they affect the long-term operation of the gas clean-up equipment downstream of the gasifier and addressed possible means to mitigate the degradation processes. These effects would be primarily associated with the filtering and cooling of coal-derived fuel gases from the gasifier exit temperature to as low as 400{degree}C. However, some of the consideratins are sufficiently general to cover conditions relevant to other parts of gasification systems.

  14. Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter

  15. Corrosion Resistances of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals with Yttrium and Tungsten Additions in Hot Calcium Chloride Brine & Natural Seawater: Fe48Mo14Cr15Y2C15B6 and W-Containing Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haslam, J; Day, S; Lian, T; Saw, C; Hailey, P; Choi, J; Yang, N; Blue, C; Peter, W; Payer, J; Branagan, D J

    2006-10-20

    Yttrium-containing SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48.0}Cr{sub 15.0}Mo{sub 14.0}B{sub 6.0}C{sub 15.0}Y{sub 2.0}), has a critical cooling rate (CCR) of approximately 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) with no yttrium has a higher critical cooling rate of approximately 600 Kelvin per second. SAM1651's low CCR enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous material in practical materials processes. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provide corrosion resistance; boron (B) enables glass formation; and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). The passive film stability of these Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found to be superior to that of conventional stainless steels, and comparable to that of Ni-based alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates.

  16. Studies of brine chemistry and scaling at the Salton Sea geothermal field, 1977-1979. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Summarized are the results of investigations of brine chemistry, the effects of brine acidification and organic additives on the rate of scale formation and scale composition, and the use of other additives for scale control. A bibliography of reports describing these studies is included. Recommendations are given for techniques and approaches for further testing of additives for silica scale control.

  17. INFLATION OF A DIPOLE FIELD IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS: TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAGNETODISK FORMATION IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE OF A HOT JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, V. M.; Boyarinsev, E. L.; Boyko, A. A.; Zakharov, Yu. P.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Lammer, H.

    2013-05-20

    Giant exoplanets at close orbits, or so-called hot Jupiters, are supposed to have an intensive escape of upper atmospheric material heated and ionized by the radiation of a host star. An interaction between outflowing atmospheric plasma and the intrinsic planetary magnetic dipole field leads to the formation of a crucial feature of a hot Jupiter's magnetosphere-an equatorial current-carrying magnetodisk. The presence of a magnetodisk has been shown to influence the topology of a hot Jupiter's magnetosphere and to change a standoff distance of the magnetopause. In this paper, the basic features of the formation of a hot Jupiter's magnetodisk are studied by means of a laboratory experiment. A localized central source produces plasma that expands outward from the surface of the dipole and inflates the magnetic field. The observed structure of magnetic fields, electric currents, and plasma density indicates the formation of a relatively thin current disk extending beyond the Alfvenic point. At the edge of the current disk, an induced magnetic field was found to be several times larger than the field of the initial dipole.

  18. A ceramic/slag interface as an analog for accretion of hot refractory objects and rim formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, J. M.; Bunch, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Refractory inclusions or Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) from carbonaceous chondrites span a wide range of bulk compositions that cannot be explained either by segregation from a gas of solar composition at different points in the condensation sequence or by fractional crystallization from a parent liquid. CAI's are commonly rimmed by Wark-Lovering (W-L) rims, a series of nearly monomineralic layers that have been a source of controversy since the variety of rim sequences occurring on different types of CAI's from Allende were described. The origin of these distinctive features has not yet been resolved, with proponents of accretion, condensation, flash heating, ablation, evaporation, etc. Rims have generated considerable interest because they potentially contain clues to conditions experienced by CAI's after the formation of the inclusion and prior to incorporation into the parent body. Ceramic bricks in contact with hot steel slag may produce reaction products in rimlike fashion similar to those found in CAI's. The similarity between the mineralogy of blast furnace slags and CAI's has long been recognized, with both containing unusual phases not found in terrestrial materials. We provide here a comparison between a ceramic brick/slag multiple-layered interface and a multiple-layered interface between a melilite-perovskite object and a melilite-spinel object in the Allende inclusion USNM 4691-1. These results have implications in interpreting the origin of rims and the textures and compositions of CAI's.

  19. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers. PMID:18093589

  20. Effect of ferrite formation on abnormal austenite grain coarsening in low-alloy steels during the hot rolling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, Hitoshi; Yagi, Akira; Ueno, Masakatsu

    1998-05-01

    Abnormal coarsening of austenite (γ) grains occurred in low-alloy steels during a seamless pipe hotrolling process. Often, the grains became several hundred micrometers in diameter. This made it difficult to apply direct quenching to produce high-performance pipes. The phenomenon of grain coarsening was successfully reproduced using a thermomechanical simulator, and the factors which affected grain coarsening were clarified. The mechanism was found to be basically strain-induced grain rowth which occurred during reheating at around 930 °C. Furthermore, once a pipe temperature decreased to the dual-phase region after the minimal hot working and prior to the reheating process, the grain coarsening was more pronounced. It was understood that the formation of ferrite along grain boundaries had the role of reducing the migration of grain boundaries into neighboring grains, leaving a strain-free, recrystallized region behind. This abnormal grain coarsening was found to be effectively prevented by an addition of Nb, the content of which varied depending on the C content. The effect of the Nb addition was confirmed by an in-line test.

  1. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    PubMed

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product. PMID:22175873

  2. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  3. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation.

  4. Saline groundwaters and brines in the Canadian Shield: Geochemical and isotopic evidence for a residual evaporite brine component

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, D.J. ); Gregoire, D.C. ); Raven, K.G. )

    1994-03-01

    Saline Ca-Na/Cl type groundwaters and brines sampled in deep mines over an extensive area of the Canadian Precambrian Shield have elevated Br/Cl ratios which may indicate that the chlorinity of these waters was derived from the infiltration of residual evaporitic brines, remnants of the great marine incursion of the Paleozoic era. Boron concentrations in these waters are generally low (i.e., < [approximately] 2 mg/L) relative to seawater or Alberta Basin Devonian formation waters. However, the [sup 11]B/[sup 10]B ratios of these waters are significantly greater than the average value for continental crustal rocks with the highest values ([approximately]4.19) approaching that of present-day seawater (4.20). Moreover, the boron isotopic ratios generally trend to higher values with increasing chlorinity which supports the conclusion from the Br-Cl relationship that most of the chloride in shield brines is of marine origin, rather than a product of water/rock interactions. If this is correct, crystalline rocks must then be sufficiently permeable on a regional scale to have allowed the brine to infiltrate to depths of several kilometers where it now resides. The presence of saline groundwaters in crystalline has important implications for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, which proposes disposal of waste fuel in a repository constructed at a depth of 500-1000 m in plutonic rock.

  5. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  6. Recovery of base materials from geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Duyvesteyn, W.P.C.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for the recovery of substantially pure Zn from a reservoir of geothermal brine confined under pressure at elevated temperature at subterranean levels, the brine also containing recoverable and mounts of lead and silver which comprises: tapping and bringing to the earth's surface a portion of the geothermal brine; allowing the brine to flash at atmospheric pressure to produce steam for use in the generation of electrical power; cooling the flashed brine; extracting Pb and Ag from the brine by cementation by adding a metal selected from the group consisting of Zn, Fe and Al to the cooled brine, removing the cemented Pb and Ag from the brine by solid/liquid separation; mixing the brine impoverished in the Pb and Ag with a substantially immiscible anionic solvent selective to the extraction of Zn to produce a spent brine and a Zn loaded anionic extractant; the anionic solvent being dissolved in a diluent of water immiscible organic solvent, recycling the spent brine to the reservoir of geothermal brine; subjecting the Zn-loaded anionic extractant to mixing with an aqueous solution to produce a Zn-loaded aqueous Zn chloride solution, separating the Zn-loaded aqueous solution from the anionic extractant, adjusting the pH of the Zn-containing aqueous solution, if necessary, to a pH sufficient to promote the separation of the Zn by cationic extraction, subjecting the Zn-loaded aqueous solution to extraction with a cationic solvent selective to Zn; the cationic solvent being dissolved in a diluent of a water-immiscible organic solvent, stripping the Zn from the loaded cationic extractant using a sulfuric acid electrolyte solution, the volume ratio of the cationic solvent to the sulfuric acid solution being such as to provide a Zn electrolyte solution of Zn concentration sufficient for the recovery of Zn therefrom, and then electrowinning the Zn from the electrolyte solution to provide a product of substantially pure Zn.

  7. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  8. The accelerated testing of cements in brines

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    Cementitious materials may be employed in settings where they face prolonged exposure to Mg-rich brines. This study evaluated the possibility of using high temperatures to accelerate brine-cement reaction rates. Class-H cement coupons were tested in Mg-K-Na-C1- SO{sub 4} brines to 100{degrees}C. MgC1{sub 2}-NaC1 solutions were also employed in a test sequence that extended to 200{degrees}C. It was found that accelerated testing could be used successfully to evaluate the compatability of cementitious materials with such brines.

  9. Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behavior of this system to pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage—CO2 displacing brine—through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5-20 MPa), temperatures (25-50°C), and ionic strengths (0-5 mol kg-1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  10. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

    2013-05-21

    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested. PMID:23621086

  11. Brine inclusions in halite and the origin of the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporites of Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, J.; Weinberg, A.; Das, N.; Holland, H.D.

    1996-09-01

    Brines were extracted from fluid inclusions in Lower Salt halite of the Middle Devonian Prairie Formation in Saskatchewan, Canada. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography and were found to be of the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type. They do not fall along a simple evaporation trend. Brines from clear, diagenetic halite are significantly lower in Na{sup +} and higher in Mg{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup {minus}} than brines from cloudy, subaqueously formed halite with chevron structures. The isotopic composition of strontium and sulfur in anhydrite associated with the halites was found to be the same as that of Middle Devonian seawater. The composition of the inclusion brines can be derived from that of modern seawater by evaporation, extensive dolomitization of limestone, and albitization of clay minerals. Other evolution paths are, however, also feasible, and it is impossible to rule out effects due to the addition of nonmarine waters (hydrothermal solutions, surface runoff, and groundwater), or dissolutional recycling of existing evaporites within the Prairie evaporite basin. These analyses and published data on brine inclusions in halite from a number of Phanerozoid evaporite deposits show that the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type brine is more common than the Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4} type, which is expected from evaporation of modern seawater.

  12. Wettability from Capillarity of CO2-Brine-Rock Systems at Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report results of an investigation into the impact of reservoir conditions on wetting through direct observations of their impact on the capillary strength of the system. Eight capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50 °C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 M kg-1 NaCl) representative of subsurface reservoirs. A ninth measurement using an N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The semi-dynamic capillary pressure core flooding technique was used with in situ saturation monitoring. In all cases, the capillarity of the system, scaled by the interfacial tension, were equivalent to the N2-water system within measurement uncertainty. Thus reservoir conditions did not have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system through a variation in wetting. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is strongly water wetting and invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  13. Corrigendum to "Isotopic and geochemical characterization of fossil brines of the Cambrian Mt. Simon sandstone and Ironton-Galesville formation from the Illinois Basin, USA" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 165 (2015) 342-360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.; Freiburg, Jared T.

    2016-08-01

    The original Fig. 4 incorrectly represented data from Clayton et al. (1966). The deuterium values were reported in percent deuterium and mistaken by the authors as per mille. The corrected Fig. 4 Corrigendum is given and shows the data from Clayton et al. (1966) plotting in a similar manner as other published data for groundwater in the Illinois Basin. The data from Clayton et al. (1966) was not used in the discussion of the deep-seated Cambrian brines, and, therefore, this misrepresentation does not affect the conclusions of the original manuscript. The authors apologize for the oversight.

  14. Impact of Brine Extraction and Well Placement Optimization on Geologic Carbon Storage Capacity Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjdanesh, R.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Capacity of carbon dioxide storage aquifers depends on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational designs. The injection well numbers, well spacing and location, open versus closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without extraction of brine are of the parameters that impact the capacity of a storage site. Brine extraction from storage formations has been introduced as an effective strategy for enhancing the storage capacity and mitigating the risk of rapid pressure buildup. It is proposed that extracted brine can be disposed within an overlying formation or will be desalinated at surface facilities. Optimal well placement and rate of CO2 injection/brine extraction control achieving a predefined pressure constraint at the end of a specific period of storage operation. Reservoir simulation study is required to solve the two-phase flow of gas/brine and pressure buildup in the aquifer. Numerical simulation of geological storage using multiple injectors and extractors is costly and time consuming. Instead, analytical simulation can provide the results with a very good accuracy in a fraction of time compared to the numerical simulation. In this study, an analytical solution was implemented for pressure buildup calculation. The analytical model includes the effects of two-phase relative permeability, CO2 dissolution into reservoir brine and formation of a dry-out zone around the wellbore. Through the optimization algorithm coupled with analytical model, the optimal rates and locations of CO2 injectors and brine extractors were estimated, while simultaneously satisfying the pressure constraint to avoid fracture pressure in all injectors. The optimized results of analytical model was verified with a numerical simulator for several reservoir conditions, well configurations and operating constraints. The comparison of the results shows that the analytical model is a reliable tool for preliminary capacity estimation of saline aquifers and

  15. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  16. Origin and Evolution of Li-rich Brines at Clayton Valley, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, L. A.; Bradley, D. C.; Hynek, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is the key component in Li-ion batteries which are the primary energy storage for electric/hybrid cars and most electronics. Lithium is also an element of major importance on a global scale because of interest in increasing reliance on alternative energy sources. Lithium brines and pegmatites are the primary and secondary sources, respectively of all produced Li. The only Li-brine in the USA that is currently in production exists in Clayton Valley, NV. The groundwater brines at Clayton Valley are located in a closed basin with an average evaporation rate of 142 cm/yr. The brines are pumped from six aquifer units that are composed of varying amounts of volcanic ash, gravel, salt, tufa, and fine-grained sediments. Samples collected include spring water, fresh groundwater, groundwater brine, and meteoric water (snow). The brines are classified as Na-Cl waters and the springs and fresh groundwater have a mixed composition and are more dilute than the brines. The Li content of the waters in Clayton Valley ranges from less than 1 μg/L (snow) up to 406.9 mg/L in the lower ash aquifer system (one of six aquifers in the basin). The cold springs surrounding Clayton Valley have Li concentrations of about 1 mg/L. A hot spring located just east of Clayton Valley contains 1.6 mg/L Li. The Li concentration of the fresh groundwater is less than 1 mg/L. Hot groundwater collected in the basin contain 30-40 mg/L Li. Water collected from a geothermal drilling north of Silver Peak, NV, had water with 4.9 mg/L Li at a depth of >1000m. The δD and δ18O isotopic signatures of fresh groundwater and brine form an evaporation path that extends from the global meteoric water line toward the brine from the salt aquifer system (the most isotopically enriched brine with ave. δD = -3.5, ave. δ18O = -67.0). This suggests that mixing of inflow water with the salt aquifer brine could have played an important role in the evolution of the brines. Along with mixing, evaporation appears to

  17. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  18. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. PMID:25746960

  19. Deep well injection of brine from Paradox Valley, Colorado: Potential major precipitation problems remediated by nanofiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Thordsen, J.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Groundwater brine seepage into the Dolores River in Paradox Valley, Colorado, increases the dissolved solids load of the Colorado River annually by ~2.0 x 108 kg. To abate this natural contamination, the Bureau of Reclamation plans to pump ~3540 m3/d of brine from 12 shallow wells located along the Dolores River. The brine, with a salinity of 250,000 mg/L, will be piped to the deepest (4.9 km) disposal well in the world and injected mainly into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone. Geochemical modeling indicates, and water-rock experiments confirm, that a huge mass of anhydrite (~1.0 x 104 kg/d) likely will precipitate from the injected brine at downhole conditions of 120??C and 500 bars. Anhydrite precipitation could increase by up to 3 times if the injected brine is allowed to mix with the highly incompatible formation water of the Leadville Limestone and if the Mg in this brine dolomitizes the calcite of the aquifer. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that nanofiltration membranes, which are selective to divalent anions, provide a new technology that remediates the precipitation problem by removing ~98% of dissolved SO4 from the hypersaline brine. The fluid pressure used (50 bars) is much lower than would be required for traditional reverse osmosis membranes because nanofiltration membranes have a low rejection efficiency (5-10%) for monovalent anions. Our results indicate that the proportion of treatable brine increases from ~60% to >85% with the addition of trace concentrations of a precipitation inhibitor and by blending the raw brine with the effluent stream.

  20. Friends of Hot Jupiters. IV. Stellar Companions Beyond 50 au Might Facilitate Giant Planet Formation, but Most are Unlikely to Cause Kozai–Lidov Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Bryan, Marta; Crepp, Justin R.; Batygin, Konstantin; Crossfield, Ian; Hansen, Brad; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Morton, Timothy D.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Wang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    Stellar companions can influence the formation and evolution of planetary systems, but there are currently few observational constraints on the properties of planet-hosting binary star systems. We search for stellar companions around 77 transiting hot Jupiter systems to explore the statistical properties of this population of companions as compared to field stars of similar spectral type. After correcting for survey incompleteness, we find that 47 % +/- 7 % of hot Jupiter systems have stellar companions with semimajor axes between 50 and 2000 au. This is 2.9 times larger than the field star companion fraction in this separation range, with a significance of 4.4σ . In the 1–50 au range, only {3.9}-2.0+4.5 % of hot Jupiters host stellar companions, compared to the field star value of 16.4 % +/- 0.7 % , which is a 2.7σ difference. We find that the distribution of mass ratios for stellar companions to hot Jupiter systems peaks at small values and therefore differs from that of field star binaries which tend to be uniformly distributed across all mass ratios. We conclude that either wide separation stellar binaries are more favorable sites for gas giant planet formation at all separations, or that the presence of stellar companions preferentially causes the inward migration of gas giant planets that formed farther out in the disk via dynamical processes such as Kozai–Lidov oscillations. We determine that less than 20% of hot Jupiters have stellar companions capable of inducing Kozai–Lidov oscillations assuming initial semimajor axes between 1 and 5 au, implying that the enhanced companion occurrence is likely correlated with environments where gas giants can form efficiently.

  1. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  2. How metalliferous brines line Mexican epithermal veins with silver

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie J.; Simmons, Stuart F.; Stoffell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We determined the composition of ~30-m.y.-old solutions extracted from fluid inclusions in one of the world's largest and richest silver ore deposits at Fresnillo, Mexico. Silver concentrations average 14 ppm and have a maximum of 27 ppm. The highest silver, lead and zinc concentrations correlate with salinity, consistent with transport by chloro-complexes and confirming the importance of brines in ore formation. The temporal distribution of these fluids within the veins suggests mineralization occurred episodically when they were injected into a fracture system dominated by low salinity, metal-poor fluids. Mass balance shows that a modest volume of brine, most likely of magmatic origin, is sufficient to supply the metal found in large Mexican silver deposits. The results suggest that ancient epithermal ore-forming events may involve fluid packets not captured in modern geothermal sampling and that giant ore deposits can form rapidly from small volumes of metal-rich fluid. PMID:23792776

  3. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the

  4. Some Like It Hot: Linking Diffuse X-ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, S.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Walker, L.; Brandt, W. N.; Charlton, J. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2014-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies (CGs) are ideal laboratories in which to study the effects of environmentally-driven galaxy evolution due to their high galaxy number densities and low velocity dispersions, which cause frequent and prolonged galaxy-galaxy interactions. In our study to better understand the origin and properties of hot gas in poor systems of galaxies, we present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in a sample of 19 CGs observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Our analysis shows that the hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations, even in CGs where the hot gas is clearly associated with the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and combine them with HI masses from the literature to find that high-baryonic-mass CGs are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint X-ray emission attributed to star formation. We also use a new physically motivated definition of fossil groups (evolved galaxy groups where most of the mass is concentrated within a single galaxy) to investigate the hot gas properties of three compact fossil systems in our sample. In addition, we find that the most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because the cold gas has been exhausted in star formation, heated to X-ray temperatures, or removed from the galaxies by ram-pressure stripping. Finally, the optical colors that trace the recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is not dependent on the recent assembly of stellar mass in the most massive galaxies. This work has been supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Ontario Early Researcher Award Program, and NASA.

  5. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  6. An Evaluation of Geopressured Brine Injectability

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E.; Netherton, R.

    1980-12-16

    We-have developed an apparatus with a capability for evaluating geopressured brine injectability at elevated pressures and temperatures. The apparatus utilizes membrane filters as injection zone reservoir analogs and permits injectability tests to be performed in accordance with Barkman and Davidson Methdology. A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22-25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-{micro}m and 10.0-{micro}m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130{degree}C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and raw (untreated) brine were evaluated. Test results indicated raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.

  7. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  8. PVC flexible liners as corrosion protection for brine treatment tanks in chlor-alkali plants

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-de-Obanos, M.; Marin, S.

    1999-11-01

    Three flexible PVC sheets were evaluated to determine their suitability as liners to protect existing steel tanks handling treated brine at 55 C in a membrane technology Chlor-Alkali plants. The evaluation included: characterization of liners and plasticizers (by Soxhlet technique, Infrared Spectroscopy (IRS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)); quantification of brine pollutants by Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) and weight-loss/volume ratios; observation of the superficial damage produced by extended immersion in acid hot brine by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); and the estimation of remaining properties in high temperature oxidative atmospheres (per ASTM D 3045). As a result of this evaluation, remaining property curves as a function of time and temperature are presented for high temperature atmospheric exposure. These curves are related to actual service and to changes in liner hardness. Economics of using flexible PVC liners are compared to flakeglass filled thermosetting coatings. The conclusions are that, even though flexible PVC linings are disposable, they protect steel against hot acid brine corrosion, and they are economically attractive compared to flakeglass filled coatings. In addition PVC linings may be more reliable because remaining PVC properties can be measured using nondestructive hardness measurements. PVC linings are not recommended above 65 C in corrosive service because life is notably reduced.

  9. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

  10. Technology transfer report: feasibility study for the use of geothermal brine in the Ashdod area, Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    The hydrothermal potential of the Ashdod area, Israel, was evaluated to determine its suitability as the low grade energy source required to operate the Ashdod desalination plant. An estimated 1250 cubic meters per hour of 120/sup 0/C brine would be adequate to supply the hot water necessary for operating the desalination plant. Considerable interest in oil exploration in the Ashdod area resulted in the drilling of six wells into the Jurassic formations by Oil Exploration (Investments) Ltd. (OEL) in 1976-1980. A small amount of oil was found in two wells, Ashdod 2 and 5. The remaining wells were abandoned as ''dry holes''. Evaluation of the drill cuttings, cores, and the electric logs defined two lithologic units of potential interest for hydrothermal exploitation, the Zohar and Shderot Dolomites. Investigation of the hydrothermal potential of the Jurassic formations underlying the Ashdod area has revealed that the aquifer temperatures range between 85 and 92/sup 0/C. The hydrologic parameters are not well defined; however the matrix permeability of the dolomites and limestones is probably between 1 and 10 md. This is insufficient permeability for a large scale pumping operation such as the one required to operate the desalination plant. Therefore, successful utilization of the resource requires the presence of significant fractures and/or connected vugs in the formation. The very low well productivity and formation plugging may indicate that permeability of the fracture zones may easily be impaired, suggesting that the fracture zones are not suitable production intervals. Until a test is conducted on a properly completed well, it is not possible to evaluate the deliverability of wells tapping these aquifers. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Brine resistance of window materials for a Borehole Televiewer tool

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The Borehole Televiewer is a data logging tool that was developed to inspect boreholes and evaluate geological formations. Window failures were observed after the manufacturer of the tool replaced the elastomeric windows with windows made from polyimide (Vespel), a plastic material noted for its high thermal stability. In this work, it was demonstrated that while Vespel was quite stable thermally at 250/sup 0/C in an inert environment (argon), stress cracking occurred in the presence of brine at these temperatures over a period of 2 to 3 hours. Somewhat longer exposures to brine (24 hours) at 260/sup 0/C and 20.7 MPa resulted in extensive chemical reversion of polyimides. Acids and amines were detected by infrared analysis. In contrast, the mechanical and chemical properties of Teflon (poly(tetrafluorethylene)) were unaffected after exposure to brine under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, it was recommended that acoustic windows for the Borehole Televiewer be made of Teflon. It was also recommended that the configuration of the window be modified to allow for the tendency of Teflon to flow under stress.

  12. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  13. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  14. Improved Rare Earth Element Sorption from Simulated Geothermal Brines: Effect of Gassed versus Degassed Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    A study exploring sorption and stripping characteristics of sorption media when simulated geothermal brines are degassed or not degassed. Experiments were done at 70°C. The brines used in this study were formulated by Tusaar. The two brines used/simulated are labeled 1M and 1CF. The data consists of a Word file explaining the results and an Excel file of the data.

  15. A kinetic model of the formation of the hot oxygen geocorona 2. Influence of O{sup +} ion precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisikalo, D.V.; Shematovich, V.I.; Gerard, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The authors model oxygen precipitation in the upper atmosphere by a Monte Carlo treatment of the Boltzman equation, during geomagnetically unstable times. They attempt to simulate the O precipitation for the storm conditions on September 17, 1971. They find that O precipitation greatly modifies the electron velocity distribution for the bulk oxygen population in the upper atmosphere, resulting in an enhanced hot O tail density.

  16. Experimental multi-phase CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term CO2 saturated brine-rock experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations when CO2-saturated brines were reacted with limestone rocks. The CO2-saturated brine-limestone reactions were characterized by compositional and mineralogical-changes in the aquifer fluid and formation rocks that were dependent on initial brine composition as were the changes in formation porosity, especially dissolved sulfate. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone rocks relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions occured on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  17. Electric power generation using geothermal brine resources for a proof of concept facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankin, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory systems study of a geothermal proof-of-concept facility is being conducted. This study is the initial phase (Phase 0) of a project to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using hot brine resources for electric power production and other industrial applications. Phase 0 includes the conceptual design of an experimental test-bed facility and a 10-MWe power generating facility.

  18. Experimental study of the stability and activity of brines on the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altheide, Travis S.

    This work contributes to the understanding of liquid water stability, with an emphasis on the role that dissolved solutes may have had on liquid water formation on Mars, past and present. In chapter 2, the stability of liquid water under martian conditions is explored through experiments on ferric sulfate brines. First, it is demonstrated that such brines can be formed starting from typical martian mineralogy. Ferric sulfates are quite soluble, up to 48 wt%, and can form solutions which remain liquid down to 205 +/-1 K at the eutectic. As a result of low water activities, these solutions exhibit evaporation rates 20 times lower than pure water. The combination of a low eutectic point and low evaporation rates allow subsurface liquids to be stable at high martian latitudes, where the majority of gullies and viscous flow features are located. Thus, the characteristics of ferric sulfate brines were further investigated in chapter 3, where the viscous properties of such solutions were measured, with respect to changing temperature and concentration. Using these results, the viscosity of these solutions on the formation of gullies was considered, where calculated fluid flow velocities were found to be in accordance with some estimates from image analyses of gully formations. In chapter 4, other Mars-relevant brines were studied and characterized under martian surface conditions. Magnesium and ferrous sulfate, and magnesium and ferric chloride brines were found to stabilize water, through lower evaporation rates and freezing point depression, much like the ferric sulfate brines. For these sulfate brines, it was found that the thermodynamic process of phase change, i.e. ice formation and/or salt crystallization, can affect the kinetic process of evaporation, through very low water activities in solution. Furthermore, in chapter 5 these studies were extended to recent results from the Phoenix mission, by examining the stability of perchlorate brines under conditions

  19. Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osif, T.L.

    1985-08-01

    Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  20. Carbonation of brine impacted fractionated coal fly ash: implications for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Nyambura, Muriithi Grace; Mugera, Gitari Wilson; Felicia, Petrik Leslie; Gathura, Ndungu Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Coal combustion by-products such as fly ash (FA), brine and CO(2) from coal fired power plants have the potential to impact negatively on the environment. FA and brine can contaminate the soil, surface and ground water through leaching of toxic elements present in their matrices while CO(2) has been identified as a green house gas that contributes significantly towards the global warming effect. Reaction of CO(2) with FA/brine slurry can potentially provide a viable route for CO(2) sequestration via formation of mineral carbonates. Fractionated FA has varying amounts of CaO which not only increases the brine pH but can also be converted into an environmentally benign calcite. Carbonation efficiency of fractionated and brine impacted FA was investigated in this study. Controlled carbonation reactions were carried out in a reactor set-up to evaluate the effect of fractionation on the carbonation efficiency of FA. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of fresh and carbonated ash were evaluated using XRF, SEM, and XRD. Brine effluents were characterized using ICP-MS and IC. A factorial experimental approach was employed in testing the variables. The 20-150 μm size fraction was observed to have the highest CO(2) sequestration potential of 71.84 kg of CO(2) per ton of FA while the >150 μm particles had the lowest potential of 36.47 kg of CO(2) per ton of FA. Carbonation using brine resulted in higher degree of calcite formation compared to the ultra-pure water carbonated residues. PMID:20970918

  1. Some Like it Hot: Linking Diffuse X-Ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mulchaey, John S.; Walker, Lisa May; Brandt, Willian N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L(x-T) and (L(x-sigma), even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and Hi masses are great than or equal to 10(sup (11.3) solar mass are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 micron star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due togas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  2. Some like it hot: Linking diffuse X-ray luminosity, baryonic mass, and star formation rate in compact groups of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Brandt, William N.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2014-08-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L{sub X} -T and L{sub X} -σ, even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and H I masses ≳ 10{sup 11.3} M{sub ☉} are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 μm star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due to gas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  3. Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-05-01

    U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs. PMID:24780334

  4. Comparison of brines relevant to nuclear waste experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.

    1983-05-01

    The ionic compositions of 18 brines used in nuclear waste-related laboratory tests or obtained from field tests are described and compared. Also described are the origin of each brine, its predominant use for laboratory testing, and its relavancy for future testing. The brines include Brines A and B (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)/generic), Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) Composite Permian Brine P and Equilibrated Permian P No. 2, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)-Sandia High-Level Waste (HLW) package interactions test brines (flow and downhole), ERDA-6 brines (flow and downhole), WIPP Inclusions No. 1 and No. 2, Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brine, German quinare Brine Q, US Geological Survey bittern NBT-6a, saturated NaCl (20/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C), and standard seawater.

  5. Stability of plutonium(VI) in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Okajima, S.

    1993-12-01

    The redox stability of plutonium (VI) in WIPP brine was investigated by monitoring the oxidation state as a function of time using a combination of absorption spectrometry, radiochemical counting and filtration. Studies were performed with Pu-239 and Pu-238 in four WIPP brines at concentrations between 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}8} M for durations as long as two years. Two synthetic brines, Brine A and ERDA-6, and two underground collected brines, DH-36 and G-Seep, were used. The stability of Pu(VI) depended on the brine composition and the speciation of the plutonium in that brine. When carbonate was present, a Pu(VI)-carbonate complex was observed that was stable. In the absence of carbonate, Pu(VI) hydrolytic species predominated which had a wide range of stability in the brines investigated. The results reported will help define the speciation of plutonium in WIPP brine and hence its potential for migration.

  6. Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

  7. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-09-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation.

  8. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 15. BRINE AND EVAPORITE CHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The Brine and Ev...

  9. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing, technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs.

  10. Brine heterogeneity and dispersed interstitial advective flow underneath the sea of galilee, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Y.; Katz, A.; Kastner, M.; Nishri, A.; Jannasch, H.

    2003-04-01

    Saline groundwater from submerged sources is today the main source of salts to the Sea of Galilee, supplying annually 72,000 tons chloride to the lake. MOSQUITO flux-meters were deployed during April to September 2001 at seven shallow Kinneret sites in order to study the dispersed interstitial flow. Each instrument carried 3-5 Osmo-Samplers that continuously sampled pore fluids at various depths in the sediment (0-45 cm). Samples were analyzed for their chemistry and for concentration of Na-fluorescein that was previously injected into the sediment. In general, oncentrations of conservative elements (e.g. Cl, Na, B) increase with depth into the sediment at all sites. However, concentrations vary significantly from one site to another. For instance, in sub-lacustrine brines next to the Tiberias Hot Springs Cl concentration reaches more than 14,500 mg/l at 35 cm below lake floor (not much less than the 18,000 mg/l in the nearby on-shore springs), while at other stations, brines are diluted by meteoric water to less than 1,500 mg/l Cl. Ion ratios in pore water indicate that the shallow parts of Lake Kinneret are underlain by several, separate, brine pockets, that are sometimes located very close to each other and discharge to the same area. Pore water at the east and northwest of the lake have Na/Cl ionic ratios between 0.7 and 0.8, similar to that of the overlying lake water, while at the west and south, ratios are significantly lower (<0.6 and <0.5, respectively), indicating larger degree of evaporation of the original brine end-member. Brines next to Tiberias Hot Springs have significantly higher Br/Cl and lower Mg/Cl ratios than pore water from other sites. Eastern shore sub-lacusrine brines (next to Gofra) are distinguished by their very high Sr/Cl and B/Cl ratios. Advective flow rates were derived from temporal patterns of Na-fluorescein concentration in pore water. Flow rates were between 0 and 80 cm/yr. Annual fluxes through the shallow part of the lake are

  11. High intensity ultrasound effects on meat brining.

    PubMed

    Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2007-08-01

    Pork loin (longissimus dorsi) samples of two different geometries, cylinders and slabs, were immersed in saturated NaCl brine for 45min under different conditions: without brine agitation (STAT), with brine agitation (AG) and with ultrasound application (US) at eight levels of ultrasonic intensity. Moisture content change and NaCl gain were considered in order to evaluate the difference in the brining treatments. No significant differences were found in moisture and NaCl content of samples treated under STAT conditions and AG conditions, while the influence of ultrasound on the mass transfer process during meat brining depended on the intensity applied. There was an ultrasonic intensity threshold above which the influence of ultrasound appeared. At the highest level of intensity studied, the water content of samples was significantly higher than the initial water content of meat. As regards NaCl transfer, once above the intensity threshold, the increase in the NaCl content was proportional to the applied ultrasonic intensity. Not statistically significant differences were found for sample geometry. PMID:22061236

  12. Modeling of highly brines transport in large water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T. P.; Lepikhin, A. P.; Parshakova, Y. N.; Tiunov, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the numerical modeling of a dilution and transport of highly brines in large water bodies taking into account the density stratification effects. This problem has an exceptional importance for the guarantee of ecological security of the Kama Reservoir in the conditions of extending exploitation of Verhnekamsk deposit of potassium and magnesium salts - one of the largest in the world. The output of million of tones of the potassium fertilizer is accompanied by the producing of the same quantity of highly brines demanding utilization. With the existing technologies the desalination of such quantity of brines is extremely energy-capacious and almost inapplicable. That is why main way for the brine utilization is the release into the surface water bodies or underground water-bearing horizons. Since the uncertainty level in the parameter setting for underground water-bearing horizons is higher than that for the surface water bodies, under the same or close conditions the release into the surface water bodies is considerably less dangerous. The main water body able to assimilate such huge amount of the removed brines is the upper part of the Kama Reservoir located within the Solikamsk-Berezniki industrial centre. The wastewater arriving from this centre make a decisive contribution to the formation of hydrochemical regime of Kama river. We suggested two-dimensional imitational hydrodynamical model allowing to determine the possible pollution zones depending on the flow rate and concentration of pollutant, flow rate and water level in the Kama river and wind characteristics in the zone of pollutant discharge. This model allows not only to calculate the distribution of pollution zones for various pollutant sources but also to estimate the consequences of emergencies. The Kama river near the Solikamsk-Berezniki industrial centre has complex morphometry. For the complete and efficient accounting for the morphometry peculiarities the non-linear orthogonal

  13. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  14. Experimental Work Conducted on MgO Inundated Hydration in WIPP-Relevant Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Xiong, Y.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is being emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an engineered barrier to mitigate the effect of microbial CO2 generation on actinide mobility in a postclosure repository environment. MgO will sequester CO2 and consume water in brine or water vapor in the gaseous phase. Martin Marietta (MM) MgO is currently being emplaced in the WIPP. A fractional-factorial experiment has been performed to study the inundated-hydration of MM MgO as a function of its particle size, solid-to-liquid ratio, and brine type. MgO hydration experiments have been carried out with three MgO particle sizes and two solid-to-liquid ratios in three WIPP-related brines: ERDA-6, GWB and simplified GWB. ERDA-6 is a synthetic NaCl-rich brine typical of a Castile brine reservoir below the repository. GWB is a synthetic MgCl2- and NaCl-rich brine representative of intergranular brines from the Salado Formation at or near the stratigraphic horizon of the repository. Simplified GWB contains amounts of Mg, Na, and Cl similar to those in GWB without other minor constituents. The hydration products include brucite (Mg(OH)2) and phase 5 (Mg3(OH)5Cl4H2O). In addition to phase 5, MgO hydration in GWB or simplified GWB produces brucite, whereas MgO hydrated in ERDA-6 only produces brucite. The MgO particle size has had a significant effect on the formation of hydration products: small MgO particles have hydrated before the large particles. MgO has hydrated faster in simplified GWB than in the other two brines. In ERDA-6, the solid-to-liquid ratio has affected the brine pH due to the presence of CaO (~1 wt %) as an impurity in MM MgO. GWB has sufficient dissolved Mg to buffer pH despite small amounts of CaO. Both our results and thermodynamic modeling indicate that phase-5 is the stable Mg-OH-Cl phase in Mg-Na-Cl-dominated brines with ionic strengths and chemical compositions similar to that of GWB. In contrast, phase-3 (Mg2(OH)3Cl4H2O) is the stable phase in the MgCl2

  15. Experimental Studies of the Formation/Deposition of Sodium Sulfate in/from Combustion Gases. [hot corrosion in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    Processes related to the hot corrosion of gas turbine components were examined in two separate investigations. Monochromatic laser light was used to probe condensation onset and condensate film growth (via interference of reflected light) on electrically heated ribbons immersed in seeded, flat flame combustion product gases. Boron trichloride is used as the seed gas in these preliminary experiments conducted to obtain precise measurements of the dew point/deposition rates. Because of the importance of gaseous Na(g) as a precursor to NaSO4 formation, the kinetics and mechanisms of the heterogeneous reaction H(g) + NaCl(s) yields Na(g) + HCl(g) was studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy combined with microwave discharge-vacuum flow reactor techniques at moderate temperatures. Preliminary results indicate the H-atom attack of solid NaCl vaporization is negligible; hence the corresponding gas phase (homogeneous) reaction no role in the observed Na(g) production.

  16. The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.

    1996-02-01

    The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied.

  17. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  18. Trace-metal distributions in seawater and anoxic brines in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saager, Paul M.; Schijf, Johan; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    1993-04-01

    The vertical distribution of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd) is reported for seawater and the anoxic brines of Tyro and Bannock Basins in the eastern Mediterranean. In normal Mediterranean seawater, the distribution of dissolved trace metals is governed by water mass circulation, as well as by local input sources. For Cd and possibly Cu, steady-state behaviour is not a viable assumption, probably as a result of anthropogenic sources. In agreement with previous reports, no correlation was observed between dissolved Ni, Cu, Cd and the major nutrients. At the seawater-brine interface, all trace metals show dramatic changes in concentration. In the brines, the concentrations of dissolved Fe and Mn are strongly elevated compared to overlying waters, yet probably limited by formation of solid sulfide and/or carbonate phases. The distributions of dissolved Fe and sulfide show a remarkable mirror image of those found previously in the Orca brine (Gulf of Mexico) and the ionic concentration products are approximately the same in all three basins. The difference in absolute Fe and sulfide concentrations is thought to be caused by a high supply of Fe to Orca Basin. Concentrations of dissolved Ni, Cu and Cd in the brines are at least one order of magnitude lower than in overlying waters, most likely due to formation of solid sulfide phases. We believe these data provide the first indication of substantial nickel-sulfide (co) precipitation within an anoxic basin. Particulate metal concentrations are elevated at the seawater-brine interface and are probably associated with the presence of solid sulfide phases. In addition, the extreme density gradient at the interface will slow the sinking rate of particles and lead to accumulation of particles at the interface due to accumulation.

  19. Formation of Highly Misoriented Fragments at Hot Band Grain Boundaries During Cold Rolling of Interstitial-Free Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrin, Nasima; Quadir, Md. Zakaria; Ferry, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The deformation heterogeneities that form in the vicinity of prior hot band grain boundaries in a 75 pct cold-rolled interstitial-free steel have been investigated by 3D electron backscatter diffraction. Grain boundary-affected regions occupy a large fraction of the overall material volume. The coexistence of several features, such as steep orientation gradients up to 5 deg/ μm, high-angle boundary networks, and thin, elongated grain boundary fragments, has confirmed the highly complex nature of these regions. Most notably, these thin boundary fragments were found to be significantly misoriented from any of the deformed grains immediately adjacent to the boundary. Overall, grain boundary regions adopt the so-called `deformation banding' mode of deformations on both the micro ( e.g., steep gradients)- and nano ( e.g., thin fragments)-length scales. Grain boundary structures comprise the essential features to act as preferred sites for recrystallization. The discovery of numerous thin grain boundary fragments in the deformation microstructure provides a plausible explanation for the origin of recrystallized grains with orientations other than those found within the adjoining deformed grains in the vicinity of grain boundaries; this phenomenon has been commonly observed in texture data for many years but remained unexplained.

  20. 6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  1. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were

  2. Sulfur and Trace Metal Chemistry of a Methane Charged Brine Pool and Adjacent Porewaters in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooly, W. P.; Cable, J. E.; Carney, R. S.; Macko, S. A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2007-12-01

    A systematic study of a methane brine pool on the Louisiana continental slope reveals the extent to which steep chemical gradients associated with an anoxic hypersaline basin control the establishment and distribution of chemosynthetic organisms. The seep site, located in the Green Canyon lease block (GC233), provides habitat for a bivalve-dominated community of chemosynthetic mussels ( Bathymodiolus childressi). The pool is a brine-filled pockmark centered over a salt diapir buried within 500 m of the seafloor along which methane and vent fluids migrate to the surface. The depression slopes along its southern margin where brine overflows onto the seafloor. This study sought to establish the chemistry of the brine in an effort to better understand fluid transport to the seafloor and the extent to which brine influences chemosynthetic activity at a methane seep site. Ten sediment push cores were collected during submersible operations within the brine spillway and in upslope background sediments distal to the pool. Initial chemical analyses indicate the brine (128 ppt) is anoxic, chloride-rich (1994.8 mM) and sulfur-poor ([SO42-] = 0.4 mM, [HS-] = 8.2 uM). Steep porewater Cl- and Sr2+ concentration gradients observed in sediments downslope of the brine pool clearly indicate mixing between brine and seawater end members. Porewater sulfur profiles from sediments within the brine outflow indicate complete sulfate consumption within 30 cm below seafloor and sulfide production as great as 5 mM. The paired isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate and sulfide (Δ34SSO4-HS = 40‰) is consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction, potentially driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane or non-methane hydrocarbons. The brine was nearly devoid of dissolved Mo (22 nM) and enriched in Mn (6.3 uM), relative to measured seawater casts ([Mo] = 112 nM; [Mn] below detection). Dissolved Mo enrichments, up to 392.8 nM, in surficial sediments decrease with depth may indicate brine

  3. Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation or Detection of Ecological Species of Synechococcus Inhabiting a Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Melendrez, Melanie C.; Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Olsen, Millie T.; Bryant, Donald A.; Heidelberg, John F.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Cohan, Frederick M.; Ward, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept—that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B') of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B' lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B' lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes), and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal diversification

  4. Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation or Detection of Ecological Species of Synechococcus Inhabiting a Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat.

    PubMed

    Melendrez, Melanie C; Becraft, Eric D; Wood, Jason M; Olsen, Millie T; Bryant, Donald A; Heidelberg, John F; Rusch, Douglas B; Cohan, Frederick M; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept-that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B') of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B' lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B' lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes), and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal diversification. PMID

  5. Radial velocity variable, hot post-AGB stars from the MUCHFUSS project. Classification, atmospheric parameters, formation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, N.; Geier, S.; Kupfer, T.; Bloemen, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Heber, U.; Barlow, B. N.; Østensen, R. H.

    2016-03-01

    In the course of the MUCHFUSS project we recently discovered four radial velocity (RV) variable, hot (Teff≈ 80 000-110 000 K) post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Among them, we found the first known RV variable O(He) star, the only second known RV variable PG 1159 close binary candidate, as well as the first two naked (i.e., without planetary nebula (PN)) H-rich post-AGB stars of spectral type O(H) that show significant RV variations. We present a non-LTE spectral analysis of these stars along with one further O(H)-type star whose RV variations were found to be not significant. We also report the discovery of a far-infrared excess in the case of the PG 1159 star. None of the stars in our sample displays nebular emission lines, which can be explained well in terms of a very late thermal pulse evolution in the case of the PG 1159 star. The "missing" PNe around the O(H)-type stars seems strange, since we find that several central stars of PNe have much longer post-AGB times. Besides the non-ejection of a PN, the occurrence of a late thermal pulse, or the re-accretion of the PN in the previous post-AGB evolution offer possible explanations for those stars not harbouring a PN (anymore). In the case of the O(He) star J0757, we speculate that it might have been previously part of a compact He transferring binary system. In this scenario, the mass transfer must have stopped after a certain time, leaving behind a low-mass close companion that may be responsible for the extreme RV shift of 107.0 ± 22.0 km s-1 that was measured within only 31 min.

  6. Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in brines affect supercritical CO2-brine-biotite interactions: ion exchange, biotite dissolution, and illite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Ray, Jessica R; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-01-01

    For sustainable geologic CO(2) sequestration (GCS), a better understanding of the effects of brine cation compositions on mica dissolution, surface morphological change, and secondary mineral precipitation under saline hydrothermal conditions is needed. Batch dissolution experiments were conducted with biotite under conditions relevant to GCS sites (55-95 °C and 102 atm CO(2)). One molar NaCl, 0.4 M MgCl(2), or 0.4 M CaCl(2) solutions were used to mimic different brine compositions, and deionized water was used for comparison. Faster ion exchange reactions (Na(+)-K(+), Mg(2+)-K(+), and Ca(2+)-K(+)) occurred in these salt solutions than in water (H(+)-K(+)). The ion exchange reactions affected bump, bulge, and crack formation on the biotite basal plane, as well as the release of biotite framework ions. In these salt solutions, numerous illite fibers precipitated after reaction for only 3 h at 95 °C. Interestingly, in slow illite precipitation processes, oriented aggregation of hexagonal nanoparticles forming the fibrous illite was observed. These results provide new information for understanding scCO(2)-brine-mica interactions in saline aquifers with different brine cation compositions, which can be useful for GCS as well as other subsurface projects. PMID:22607371

  7. Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Geopressured-Geothermal Brine

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-01

    This white paper presents a unique plan for an Oil Industry-DOE cost sharing research project for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR) of medium and heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal brine. This technology would provide an environmentally clean method of recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by the industry, but presently under scrutiny by federal and state air quality agencies, as well as provide an alternative to the very expensive operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection. An example test reservoir is a shallow, small structural reservoir about 1-l/2 miles long by 1/2 mile wide. It is presently producing heavy oil (18.6 API gravity) from 5 wells, and is marginally economic. One of three nearby geopressured-geothermal wells could be re-entered and recompleted to supply about 400 F brine from 13-16,000 feet. This brine can be used to heat and drive the heavy oil. It is anticipated that about one million barrels of oil may be recovered by this project. Over 3 million barrels are estimated to be in place; only 2.7% of the oil in place has been produced. The suggested teaming arrangement includes: (1) EG&G Idaho, Inc., which presently provides technical and management support to DOE in the Gulf EG&G would supply coordination, management and Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program. technical support to DOE for the Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Project. (2) A small business which would supply the field, geologic and well data, production wells, and production operation. They would cost-share the project and provide revenue from increased production (5% of increased production) to help offset DOE costs. Though DOE would cost-share brine supply and injection system, they would not assume well ownership. The small business would supply engineering and operations for brine supply, injection system, and collection of field producing and injection data. Phase 1--Geologic, reservoir

  8. Unconventional gas sources. Volume IV. Geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: study objectives, regional geology and prospect evaluation, reservoir engineering, drilling and well costs, production and water disposal facilities, pressure maintenance, geothermal and hydraulic energy assessment, operating expense, economic evaluation, environmental considerations, legal considerations, and risks analysis. The study addresses only sandstone brine reservoirs in the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast onshore areas. (MHR)

  9. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  10. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  11. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  12. Brines and evaporites: analogs for Martian life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Fahlen, T. F.; Landheim, R.; Klovstad, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Data from recent Mars missions suggest that Mars almost certainly had abundant liquid water on its surface at some time in the past. As a result, Mars has emerged as a key solar system target that could have harbored some form of life in the past, and which could perhaps still possess remnants of life in brine-containing permafrost. As Mars lost its atmosphere it became cold and dry. Any remaining water on the surface may have formed saline brine pockets within the permafrost. These brine pockets may either be an "oasis" for an extant Martian biota, or the last refuge of an extinct Martian biota. Eventually, these brine pockets would have dried to form evaporites. Evaporites are deposits that result from the evaporation of saline water, which on earth represent primarily halite (NaCl), gypsum, (CaSO 42H 2O), and anhydrite (CaSO 4). Evaporites that contain bacterial and algal assemblages exist on earth today and are well known in the fossil record. The most likely organism type to survive in a brine or evaporite on earth is a halophile. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of microbes to survive in frozen evaporites. Washed mid-log phase and stationary phase cultures of Haloarcula-G (a species isolated by us during a previous study) and Halobacterium salinarum were either suspended in brine (25% NaCl solution), dried, and then exposed to -20 or -80 °C. For comparison, cultures of Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were treated similarly, except they were resuspended in 0.5% NaCl solution. Also, to mimic a brine pocket samples of washed mid-log phase cells of each organism were placed in an aqueous solution of 25% NaCl, or in their respective nutrient medium containing 25% NaCl. Periodically, samples of the cells were removed and tested for survival. Data from these experiments suggest that halophiles survive better than non-halophiles under low temperature conditions. These observations would suggest that

  13. Nature and origin of RSL: Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines in the near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Marion; Beck, Pierre; Schmitt, Bernard; Pommerol, Antoine; McEwen, Alfred; Chevrier, Vincent; Brissaud, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    If water has likely flowed on Mars in its early history, the current presence of liquid water is debatable. However, some recently discovered fea-tures named "Recurrent Slope Lineae" (RSL) suggest that superficial liquid can occur on present day Mars in a transient state [McEwen et al., 2011]. RSL are dark (up to 40% darker than the surrounding areas), narrow (0.5-5 m) and are mostly found in the southern mid-latitudes. Repeated MRO/HiRISE images reveal that they appear and grow during warm seasons and fade and disappear during cold seasons. They develop on steep slopes (25°-40°), favoring equator-facing slopes, times and places with peak temperatures of ~250-300K. The most likely formation process of RSL involves the presence of liquid brines near the surface. Brines are more stable on Mars than pure water [e.g. Chevrier et al., 2009] because salts can depress the freezing point of water by up to 70 K. However, this hypothesis suffers from the lack of clear identification of brines with the high resolution CRISM spectra. The mineralogical characterization of RSL is challenging because RSL are much smaller than the ~18 m pixel scale of CRISM data but spectral features diagnostic of water or brines [Hanley et al., 2010] are not observable even on the largest RSL. The goal of our study is to reproduce with laboratory experiments some hydration and dehydration cycles of different kind of brines mixed with basaltic soil. These experiments aim to understand the spectroscopic behavior of brines during these processes and to determine the diagnostic spectral features that we can expected to find for Martian RSL. We found that, if the surface displays a low albedo from the beginning of the hydration to the end of the dehydration, diagnostic brines absorption bands are only observed when the liquid film is formed. This is consistent with our current RSL observations. In the future, we need to acquire some new CRISM data when the formation of liquid brines is the most

  14. Using brine extraction to isolate the pressure responses from CO2 injection operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Many potential carbon dioxide (CO2) injection sites are in large sedimentary basins, and it seems reasonable to expect that multiple operators will be injecting into the same formation. While the supercritical CO2 plumes are not expected to intersect, the pressure responses will most likely overlap. This will lead to overlapping Areas-of-Review (AoR), leading to complications for both the operators and the regulators. Also, existing injection operations will be impacted by new operations that come online at a later time, and as such existing AoRs will need to be updated to account for the pressure interference. One option to avoid pressure interference is to locate injection operations far from one other. However, this would greatly reduce the overall storage efficiency of the injection formation and increase the regulatory burden by requiring a basin-wide planning process. Active pressure management through brine production is one option to limit the spatial extent of the pressure responses, thereby avoiding pressure interference while also allowing for a greater spatial density of injection operations. For example, each injection operation could be surrounded by a ring of brine production wells, not dissimilar to an enhanced oil recovery operation, thereby limiting the far field impact of the CO2 injection. In this presentation we use a hypothetical model based on a section of the Illinois Basin to show the effectiveness of brine extraction in isolating the pressure responses of multiple injection operations. The model domain contains several injection wells, with the different injection operations brought on-line in a time-staggered fashion. The impact of factors such as brine extraction rates and extraction well spacing on the AoRs is investigated. A vertically integrated approach is used to numerically solve the two-phase flow problem, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the simulations. The results of this study show that brine extraction can be

  15. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  16. CO2-Brine Rheology Could Suppress Leakage From Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Clarens, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) in the deep subsurface is an attractive means for storing large volumes of CO2 over the long term. GCS is predicated on there being minimal leakage of CO2 to the surface since this would negate the climate change benefits and could also create a human health risk. Despite the importance of understanding leakage processes to GCS deployment, the phenomena remain especially difficult to characterize because CO2, driven by buoyant forces out of host formations, must travel over long length scales, encountering varied geologic formations and endogenous brines, and experiencing a wide range of shear, temperature and pressure conditions that result in complex phase behavior. This study explores the rheology of CO2-brine mixtures in an effort to better characterize the geophysics of a rising parcel of CO2 in the subsurface. Experimental work in this area to date has assumed that CO2-brine mixtures will exhibit simple Newtonian behavior. The hypothesis of this work is that CO2-brine mixtures will move through porous media generating high shear rates, caused by the small pore sizes, that could result in more complex flow phenomena. The rheological properties of single and multiphase CO2-brine mixtures were measured over a range of GCS-relevant temperature, pressure, ionic strength, and shear conditions using a rotational rheometer fitted with a high-pressure vessel and a low viscosity measurement unit. Under liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) conditions CO2-brine mixtures were found to exhibit consistently Newtonian behavior with the effective viscosity generally increasing with respect to CO2(aq) concentration. A small dip in viscosity occurs at the pressure corresponding to the transition of CO2 from liquid to gas but this minor effect is not likely to have an appreciable impact on leakage rates. More significantly, under vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) conditions, CO2-brine suspensions exhibit complex viscoelastic behavior that could

  17. Origin of halite brine in the Onondaga Trough near Syracuse, New York State, USA: Modeling geochemistry and variable-density flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Kappel, W.M.; Plummer, L.N.

    2007-01-01

    Halite brine (saturation ranging from 45 to 80%) lies within glacial sediments that fill the Onondaga Trough, a bedrock valley deepened by Pleistocene glaciation near Syracuse, New York State, USA. The most concentrated brine occupies the northern end of the trough, about 10 km downgradient of the northern limit of halite beds in the Silurian Salina Group, the assumed source of salt. The chemical composition of the brine and its radiocarbon age suggest that the brine originally formed about 16,700 years ago through dissolution of halite by glacial melt water and later mixed with saline bedrock water. Two hypotheses regarding the formation of the brine pool were tested through variable-density flow simulations using SEAWAT. Simulation results supported the first hypothesis that the brine pool was derived from a source in the glacial sediments and then migrated to its current position, where it has persisted for over 16,000 years. A second hypothesis that the brine pool formed through steady accumulation of brine from upward flow of a source in the underlying bedrock was not supported by simulation results, because the simulated age distribution was much younger than the age estimated from geochemical modeling. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  18. Protein synthesis in brine shrimp embryos and rabbit reticulocytes. The effect of Mg2+ on binary (eukaryotic initiation factor 2 X GDP) and ternary (eukaryotic initiation factor 2 X GTP X met-tRNAf) complex formation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, H B; Woodley, C L; Wahba, A J

    1983-03-25

    We have prepared eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) from rabbit reticulocytes and Artemia embryos and studied the effect of Mg2+ on binary (eIF-2 X GDP) and ternary (eIF-2 X GTP X Met-tRNAf) complex formation. Under conditions where Mg2+ inhibits Met-tRNAf binding to reticulocyte eIF-2, ternary complex formation with Artemia eIF-2 is not inhibited. Similarly, the formation of eIF-2 X GDP with Artemia eIF-2 is stimulated by Mg2+, whereas the corresponding reticulocyte binary complex is strongly inhibited. In the presence of 1 mM Mg2+, the isolated Artemia eIF-2 X GDP complex is stable in the absence of any added nucleotide, but readily exchanges bound GDP for free GTP. However, the reticulocyte eIF-2 X GDP complex is significantly more stable in the presence of GTP, and nucleotide exchange is dependent upon the addition of a factor isolated from either the postribosomal supernatant or the high salt wash of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes. This factor also stimulates Met-tRNAf binding to both Artemia and reticulocyte eIF-2. PMID:6550599

  19. Formation of a long-lived hot field reversed configuration by dynamically merging two colliding high-β compact toroidsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H. Y.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Barnes, D.; Putvinski, S.; Rostoker, N.; Sevier, L.; Tuszewski, M.; Anderson, M. G.; Andow, R.; Bonelli, L.; Brandi, F.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Bystritskii, V.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Feng, P.; Galeotti, L.; Garate, E.; Giammanco, F.; Glass, F. J.; Gornostaeva, O.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Hollins, M.; Isakov, I.; Jose, V. A.; Li, X. L.; Luo, Y.; Marsili, P.; Mendoza, R.; Meekins, M.; Mok, Y.; Necas, A.; Paganini, E.; Pegoraro, F.; Pousa-Hijos, R.; Primavera, S.; Ruskov, E.; Qerushi, A.; Schmitz, L.; Schroeder, J. H.; Sibley, A.; Smirnov, A.; Song, Y.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Sun, X.; Thompson, M. C.; Van Drie, A. D.; Walters, J. K.; Wyman, M. D.

    2011-05-01

    A high temperature field reversed configuration (FRC) has been produced in the newly built, world's largest compact toroid (CT) facility, C-2, by colliding and merging two high-β CTs produced using the advanced field-reversed θ-pinch technology. This long-lived, stable merged state exhibits the following key properties: (1) apparent increase in the poloidal flux from the first pass to the final merged state, (2) significantly improved confinement compared to conventional θ-pinch FRCs with flux decay rates approaching classical values in some cases, (3) strong conversion from kinetic energy into thermal energy with total temperature (Te + Ti) exceeding 0.5 keV, predominantly into the ion channel. Detailed modeling using a new 2-D resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, LamyRidge, has demonstrated, for the first time, the formation, translation, and merging/reconnection dynamics of such extremely high-β plasmas.

  20. Isolation and identification of oxidation products of guaiacol from brines and heated meat matrix.

    PubMed

    Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the formation of the oxidation products of guaiacol in brines and heated meat matrix: 6-nitrosoguaiacol, 4-nitroguaiacol and 6-nitroguaiacol. For this purpose we applied a newly developed HPLC-UV and LC-MS method. For the first time, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined in brine and meat (containing guaiacol and sodium nitrite), which had been heated to 80°C and subsequently subjected to simulated digestion. Application of 500mg/L ascorbic acid to the brines reduced guaiacol degradation at pH3 and simultaneously inhibited the formation of 6-nitrosoguaiacol compared to brines containing only 100mg/L of ASC. The oxidation products were isolated with a new extraction method from meat samples containing 400mg/kg sodium nitrite at pH3.6 following simulated digestion. When oxygen was added, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined even at legally allowed levels (150mg/kg) of the curing agent. Finally, we developed a new LC-MS method for the separation and qualitative determination of the four main smoke methoxyphenols. PMID:26937586

  1. Giant uranium deposits formed from exceptionally uranium-rich acidic brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Antonin; Rozsypal, Christophe; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel

    2012-02-01

    Giant uranium deposits were formed during the Mesoproterozoic era, 1.6-1.0 Gyr ago, in both Canada and Australia. The deposits are thought to have formed from large-scale circulation of brines at temperatures of 120-200 °C that percolated between sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline basement rocks. However, the precise conditions for transport of the uranium in these brines are poorly understood. Here we use mass spectrometry to analyse the uranium content of brines preserved in naturally occurring fluid inclusions in ore deposits from the Athabasca Basin, Canada. We measure concentrations of uranium in the range 1.0×10-6-2.8×10-3moll-1. These concentrations are three orders of magnitude above any other common crustal fluids. Experimentally, we measure the solubility of uranium as a function of NaCl content and pH, in mixtures that are analogous to ore-forming brines at 155°C. To account for the high uranium content observed in the Athabasca deposits, we find that the brines must have been acidic, with a pH between 2.5 and 4.5. Our results strongly suggest that the world's richest uranium deposits formed from highly concentrated uranium-bearing acidic brines. We conclude that these conditions are a necessary requirement for the formation of giant uranium deposits in relatively short periods of time of about 0.1-1 Myr, similar to other world-class deposits of lead-zinc and gold.

  2. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  3. Hot-gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells-dechlorination and soot formation. Final report, May 19, 1981-July 19, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, D.; Gelb, A.; Lord, G.; Simons, G.

    1984-01-01

    Two separate aspects of hot-gas conditioning for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) were investigated under this contract: potential high temperature chloride sorbent materials were sreened and tested and carbon deposition on MCFC components was studied experimentally to determine guidelines for maximizing MCFC efficiency while avoiding carbon fouling. Natural minerals containing sodium carbonate were identified as the most promising candidates for economical removal of chlorides from coal gasifier effluents at temperatures of about 800 K (980/sup 0/F). The mineral Shortite was tested in a fixed bed and found to perform remarkably well with no calcination. Using Shortite we were able to achieve the program goal of less than 1 ppmV chlorides at 800 K. Shortite is an abundant mineral with no competing commercial demand, so it should provide an economical chloride cleanup sorbent. Measurements showed that carbon deposition can occur in the equilibrium carbon freee region because of the relative rates of the relevant reactions. On all surfaces tested, the Boudouard carbon formation reaction is much faster than the water-gas shift reaction which is much faster than the methanation reaction. This means that the normal practice of adding steam to prevent carbon formation will only succeed if flows are slow enough for the water shift reaction to go substantially to completion. More direct suppression of carbon formation can be achieved by CO/sub 2/ addition through anode recycle to force the Boudouard reaction backward. Addition of steam or CO/sub 2/ must be minimized to attain the highest possible MCFC efficiency. 28 references, 31 figures, 22 tables.

  4. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  6. Buoyancy-driven CO2/brine flow at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Kim, K.; Han, W.; Kim, T.; Kim, J.; Park, E.

    2013-12-01

    Suitable geological formations should guarantee a long-term safe and reliable storage of the injected supercritical CO2. In this study we targeted the cases of gravity-driven CO2 plume migration in a storage formation and the resulting CO2 leakage to overlying formation through a possible fractures or abandoned wells. A laboratory experiment and numerical model for two-phase core-flooding tests were designed to understand the buoyancy effect on supercritical CO2 migration under reservoir conditions. A series of core flooding tests were performed with Berea sandstone cores which have 20 % porosity and 1.7×10-13 m2 permeability. Unlike the normal core-flooding tests, the core was set up in a vertical direction and the CO2 was released at the bottom of the core to investigate the gravity effect on CO2 migration. During the test, the downstream pressure was maintained at 10 MPa, and the confining pressure was kept at 20 MPa. The temperature was set to be 40 °C to reflect the 1 km subsurface environment. The CO2-flooding (drainage) tests with brine-saturated core were performed with various CO2-release periods. The CO2 saturation was measured with a linear X-ray scanner. In addition to laboratory experiments, numerical simulations were performed to provide further insight into the CO2 migration behavior. TOUGH2 with ECO2N module was used to simulate CO2/brine core-flooding tests. Dimensionless numbers (Capillary number and Bond number) were calculated with the simulation results at various time points covering both the release and monitoring period.

  7. Protein synthesis in brine shrimp embryos. Regulation of the formation of the ternary complex (Met-tRNAf X eIF-2 X GTP) by two purified protein factors and phosphorylation of Artemia eIF-2.

    PubMed

    Woodley, C L; Roychowdhury, M; MacRae, T H; Olsen, K W; Wahba, A J

    1981-07-01

    We have purified from the ribosomal wash of dormant and developing embryos of Artemia two proteins, Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B). These factors are essential for ternary complex formation and binding of [35S]-Met-tRNAf to 40-S ribosomal subunits with 15-30 microgram eIF-2/ml of reaction mixture. On polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in dodecylsulfate, Co-eIF-2(A) is composed of a single polypeptide of Mr 65 000, whereas Co-eIF-2(B) contains polypeptides of Mr 105000 and 112000. Co-eIF-2(A) is sensitive to 4.5 microM aurintricarboxylic acid but Co-eIF-2(B) requires approximately 15 microM aurintricarboxylic acid to give 50% inhibition of ternary complex formation. The stimulatory activity of both factors is abolished by pretreatment of the proteins with N-ethylmaleimide. Artemia eIF-2 rapidly bonds [3H]GDP or [3H]GTP and at 15 degrees C the initiation factor rapidly equilibrates bound nucleotides with free GDP or GTP. Both Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B) have no effect on the exchange or the amount of nucleotide bound. The small subunit (Mr 43 000) of Artemia eIF-2 is phosphorylated in the presence of the rabbit reticulocyte heme-repressible kinase. Tryptic digestion of [32P]phosphorylated eIF-2 produces a single major phosphopeptide and several minor ones. Acid hydrolysis of these phosphopeptides, as well as of [32P]phosphorylated eIF-2, demonstrates that the radioactivity is predominantly associated with phosphoserine. Phosphorylated Artemia eIF-2 is active in ternary complex formation, in AUG-dependent binding of [35S]Met-tRNAf to 40-S ribosomal subunits and in cell-free protein synthesis. Both Co-eIF-2(A) and Co-eIF-2(B) stimulate ternary complex formation with phosphorylated eIF-2. A kinase that phosphorylates the small subunit of eIF-2 is present in the post-ribosomal supernatant as well as in the ribosomal wash of developing Artemia embryos. PMID:6912815

  8. Global magnetosphere-like 3D structure formation in kinetics by hot magnetized plasma flow characterized by shape of the particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, Vladimir

    The task was to provide an analytical elementary magnetosphere-like model in kinetics for verification of the 3D EM PIC codes created for space/aerospace and HED plasmas applications. Kinetic approach versus cold MHD approach takes into account different behavior in the EM fields of resonant and non resonant particles in the velocity phase space, which appears via shape characteristics of the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) and via the spatial dispersion effect forming the collisionless dissipation in the EM fields. The external flow is a hot collisionless plasma characterized by the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) with different shapes: Maxwellian, kappa, etc. The flow is in a “hot regime”: it can be supersonic but its velocity remains less the thermal velocity of the electrons. The “internal” part of the magnetosphere formed by trapped particles is the prescribed 3D stationary magnetization considered as a spherical “quasiparticle” with internal magnetodipole and toroidal moments represented as a broadband EM driver. We obtain after the linearization of Vlasov/Maxwell equations a self-consistent 3D large scale kinetic solution of the classic problem. Namely, we: model the “outer” part of the magnetosphere formed by external hot plasma flow of the flyby particles. Solution of the Vlasov equation expressed via a tensor of dielectric permittivity of nonmagnetized and magnetized flowing plasma. Here, we obtain the direct kinetic dissipative effect of the magnetotail formation and the opposite diamagnetic effect of the magnetosphere “dipolization”. We get MHD wave cone in flow magnetized by external guiding magnetic (GM) field. Magnetosphere in our consideration is a 3D dissipative “wave” package structure of the skinned EM fields formed by the “waves” excited at frequency bands where we obtain negative values and singularities (resonances) of squared EM refractive index of the cold plasma. The hot regime

  9. Rainy Periods and Bottom Water Stagnation Initiating Brine Accumulation and Metal Concentrations: 1. The Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol-Strick, Martine

    1987-06-01

    A working hypothesis is proposed to account for the present accumulation of brines in isolated pockets of the ocean floor and for the formation of the underlying organic and metal-rich sediments. These are the Tyro and Bannock basins in the East Mediterranean, the Red Sea Deeps, and the Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Initiation of brine-derived deposition in the Red Sea Deeps and Orca Basin occurred between 12,000 and 8000 years B.P. This time bracket also encompasses the formation of the latest East Mediterranean sapropel and the wettest global climate since the last glacial maximum. This wet period first appeared in the tropics around 12,000 years B.P, then in the subtropical and middle latitudes. During the same period, the 23,000 year precession cycle brought the summer insolation of the northern hemisphere to its peak at 11,000 years B.P. with retreating northern hemisphere ice sheets. The Red Sea Deeps and the Orca Basin became anoxic during this humid period, and metal-rich sapropel deposition then began. In contrast, the Tyro and Bannock basins began accumulating a brine long before and persisted beyond this climatic stage. The hypothesis involves two propositions: (1) As in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, marine anoxia was mainly the consequence of the large influx of continental runoff and local precipitation. Longer residence time of bottom waters, so-called "stagnation," in silled rimmed basins would have resulted from lower salinity at the sea surface in areas of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico and (2) Miocene or older evaporites underlie these basins or outcrop on their flanks. Leaching from these evaporites was an ongoing process before the quasi-stagnation phase, but the initial leachate, much less saline than the present brines, was continuously flushed by bottom circulation. The climate-induced quiescence of bottom waters in these basins enabled the leachate to accumulate. The

  10. Multiphase flow of carbon dioxide and brine in dual porosity carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentland, Christopher; Oedai, Sjaam; Ott, Holger

    2014-05-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations presents a challenge in terms of multiphase flow characterisation. Project planning requires an understanding of multiphase flow characteristics such as the relationship between relative permeability and saturation. At present there are only a limited number of relative permeability relations for carbon dioxide-brine fluid systems, most of which are measured on sandstone rocks. In this study coreflood experiments are performed to investigate the relative permeability of carbon dioxide and brine in two dual porosity carbonate systems. Carbon dioxide is injected into the brine saturated rocks in a primary drainage process. The rock fluid system is pre-equilibrated to avoid chemical reactions and physical mass transfer between phases. The pressure drop across the samples, the amount of brine displaced and the saturation distribution within the rocks are measured. The experiments are repeated on the same rocks for the decane-brine fluid system. The experimental data is interpreted by simulating the experiments with a continuum scale Darcy solver. Selected functional representations of relative permeability are investigated, the parameters of which are chosen such that a least squares objective function is minimised (i.e. the difference between experimental observations and simulated response). The match between simulation and measurement is dependent upon the form of the functional representations. The best agreement is achieved with the Corey [Brooks and Corey, 1964] or modified Corey [Masalmeh et al., 2007] functions which best represent the relative permeability of brine at low brine saturations. The relative permeability of carbon dioxide is shown to be lower than the relative permeability of decane over the saturation ranges investigated. The relative permeability of the brine phase is comparable for the two fluid systems. These observations are consistent with the rocks being water-wet. During the experiment

  11. The Spar Lake strata-Bound Cu-Ag deposit formed across a mixing zone between trapped natural gas and metals-bearing brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Landis, Gary P.; Whelan, Joseph F.; Rye, Robert O.; Moscati, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Ore formation at the Spar Lake red bed-associated strata-bound Cu deposit took place across a mixing and reaction zone between a hot oxidized metals-transporting brine and a reservoir of “sour” (H2S-bearing) natural gas trapped in the host sandstones. Fluid inclusion volatile analyses have very high CH4 concentrations (≥1 mol % in most samples), and a sample from the fringe of the deposit has between 18 and 36 mol % CH4. The ratio of CH4/CO2 in fluid inclusions appears to vary regularly across the deposit, with the lowest CH4/CO2 ratios from high-grade chalcocite-bearing ore, and the highest from the chalcopyrite-bearing fringe. The helium R/Ra isotope ratios (0.23–0.98) and concentrations define a mixture between crustal and atmospheric helium. The volatiles in fluid inclusions (CH4, CO2, H2S, SO2, H2, H2O, and other organic gases) and values of fO2 and temperature calculated from the volatiles data all show gradations across the deposit that are completely consistent with such a mixing and reaction zone. Other volatiles from the fluid inclusions (HCl, HF, 3He, Msup>4He, N2, Ar) characterize the brine and give evidence for only shallow crustal fluids with no magmatic influences. The brine entered the gas reservoir from below and along the axis of the deposit and migrated out along bedding to the southwest, northeast, and northwest. Metals-transporting brines may have been fed into the host sandstones from the East Fault, but that remains uncertain. Abundant ore-stage Fe and Mn calcite cements from the reduced fringe have δ13C values as low as −18.4‰, and many values less than −10‰, which indicate that significant carbonate was generated by oxidation of organic carbon from the natural gas. The zone of calcite cements with very low δ13C values approximately envelopes chalcocite-bearing ore. Sulfur isotope data of Cu, Pb, and Fe sulfides and barite indicate derivation of roughly half of the orebody sulfide directly from sour gas H2S. That sour gas H

  12. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  13. Evaporation of brine from Searles Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, W.B.

    1917-01-01

    The bed of crystalline salts known as Searles Lake, in southeastern California, contains the most valuable potash-bearing brine known in the United States. This salt body has an exposed surface area estimated at 11 or 12 square miles and an average depth of about 70 feet. For the most part it is firm and compact enough to support a wagon and team even during wet seasons, when it is' sometimes flooded with a thin sheet of water that dissolves the surface salts to a slight extent. The deposit contains in the interstices between the salt crystals a saturated brine the volume of which is estimated to be more than 25 per cent of that of the entire saline mass.

  14. Geothermal brines and sludges: a new resource

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    Development of cost efficient biochemical processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges is the main thrust of a major R&D effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This effort has led to the design of an environmentally acceptable, technically and economically feasible new technology which converts geothermal wastes into products with significant commercial potential. These include valuable metals recovery with a metal extraction and recovery efficiency of better then 80% over short periods of time (5-25 hours). The new technology also yields valuable salts, such as potassium chloride and generates high quality pigment free silica. The basic technology is versatile and can, with slight modifications, be used in the treatment of hypersaline as well as low salinity brines and sludges. Concurrently traces of toxic metals, including radium are removed to levels which are within regulatory limits. The current status of the new biochemical technology will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Do brine shrimp diagnose cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Hodes, M E; Thomas, J; Morgan, S; Merritt, A D

    1975-11-01

    The nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are dependent upon the function of their salt gland to maintain osmotic pressure within narrow limits. A number of drugs interfere with this function and are lethal to the nauplii. Saliva and serum from normal persons, patients with cystic fibrosis, and obligate heterozygotes were tested for lethal effect against brine shrimp nauplii. At salt concentrations between 100 mM and 2.5 no difference was found among the phenotypes. At lower concentrations a difference was noted occasionally between some normal subjects and some individuals carrying one or two genes for cystic fibrosis. Data from an independent series of experiments indicate that the naupliar deaths result from distorted ratios of Na+/K+ and not from a specific gene product. No difference was noted in the O2 uptake of nauplii treated with saliva or serum obtained from normal subjects, patients with cystic fibrosis, or obligate heterozygotes. PMID:1187245

  16. Gamma and alpha radiolysis of salt brines

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Simonson, S.A.

    1984-11-01

    Gamma radiolysis of Permian Basin brine leads to equilibrium gas pressure of about 100 atm. at 75/sup 0/C and about 40 atm. at 150/sup 0/C, providing the gas space is very small and/or the total dose is very high. Dose rate dependence is being investigated but is not yet established. Alpha radiolysis of Permian Bsin brine is still being pursued, but it is clear that equilibrium gas pressures will be much higher than with gamma radiolysis. Gas compositions in all cases have been about two parts H/sub 2/ to one part O/sub 2/. Efforts to simulate these results with computer models have been quite successful. 8 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  17. Magma formation in hot-slab subduction zones: Insights from hydrogen isotopes in Cascade Arc melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walowski, K. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Hauri, E. H.; Clynne, M. A.; Rea, J.; Rasmussen, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In a comparison of arcs globally, primitive basaltic magmas in the Cascades have slightly lower H2O concentrations, consistent with the hotter nature of the young subducted plate [Ruscitto et al., 2012]. In addition, geodynamic models [Syracuse et al., 2010] and geochemical studies [Cooper et al., 2012] agree that slab surface temperatures beneath the Cascade arc axis are hotter, on average, than in many other arcs. Data on volatiles and their relationships to fluid mobile trace elements are key to understanding volatile recycling and the formation of arc magmas. Here, we present the first data on hydrogen isotopes (D/H) in basaltic melt inclusions (MI) from the Cascades, as measured by NanoSIMS, in conjunction with a complete dataset on volatile, major, and trace elements in the MI. Recent work on MI from the Marianas [Shaw et al., 2012] has shown the potential for using δD to understand the cycling of hydrous fluids through subduction zones. Our samples were collected from cinder cones in the Lassen region of the southern Cascades (6 calc-alkaline basalts [CAB] and 2 transitional between CAB and low-K tholeiite [LKT]), and 2 basaltic tephra units from Mount St. Helens (MSH) that have OIB-like trace element characteristics, which is common in the central part of the arc. Using the maximum volatile contents at each cone to represent the undegassed magma, we find values of 2.1-3.4 wt% H2O and 500-1200 ppm CO2 for CABs and 1.15-1.30 wt% H2O and 750-850 ppm CO2 for transitional LKTs (all corrected to be in eq. with Fo90 olivine) in the Lassen Region. At MSH, we find 1.7 wt% H2O and <300 ppm CO2 for the OIB samples. For CABs from the Lassen Region, (Sr/P)N correlates with slab fluid tracers such as H2O/Ce and Cl/Nb, indicating a link between volatile and trace element enrichment of the mantle wedge, but transitional LKTs deviate slightly from the overall pattern. At MSH, values of (Sr/P)N, H2O/Ce, and Cl/Nb are lower than those in the Lassen Region, and are more

  18. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent. PMID:11933129

  19. pH pre-corrected liquid hot water pretreatment on corn stover with high hemicellulose recovery and low inhibitors formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Qiang; Jiang, Wei; Jia, Jing-Xia; Xu, Jian

    2014-02-01

    A challenge for lignocellulosic pretreatment is how to retain hemicellulose as much as possible. To reduce the degradation of hemicellulose and increase the recovery of sugars, an effective pH pre-corrected liquid hot water pretreatment (LHWP) was developed by employing a small amount of NaOH (⩽5/100g substrate) to accelerate the hemicellulose deacetylation and simultaneously pre-correct the acid hydrolyzate in situ. The results showed that the pH pre-correction can control the hydrolyzate pH. Under the pretreatment severity (PS) of 4.0, the pH pre-corrected LHWP reduced the hemicellulose degradation by 35.3-92.3%, decreased furfural formation by 90.5-99.8%. The highest hemicellulose recovery of 96.38% was obtained with pH pre-corrected by 2g NaOH/100g substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) on the whole slurry from the pH pre-corrected LHWP showed that the hemicellulose retained in the solid residue did not bring significant resistance to cellulose EH (p=0.837). PMID:24374029

  20. Difficulty in the Formation of Counter-orbiting Hot Jupiters from Near-coplanar Hierarchical Triple Systems: A Sub-stellar Perturber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yuxin; Suto, Yasushi

    2016-03-01

    Among 100 transiting planets with a measured projected spin-orbit angle λ, several systems are suggested to be counter-orbiting. While these cases may be due to the projection effect, the mechanism that produces a counter-orbiting planet has not been established. A promising scenario for counter-orbiting planets is the extreme eccentricity evolution in near-coplanar hierarchical triple systems with eccentric inner and outer orbits. We examine this scenario in detail by performing a series of systematic numerical simulations, and consider the possibility of forming hot Jupiters (HJs), especially a counter-orbiting one under this mechanism with a distant sub-stellar perturber. We incorporate quadrupole and octupole secular gravitational interaction between the two orbits, and also short-range forces (correction for general relativity, star and inner planetary tide, and rotational distortion) simultaneously. We find that most systems are tidally disrupted and that a small fraction of the surviving planets turn out to be prograde. The formation of counter-orbiting HJs in this scenario is possible only in a very restricted parameter region, and thus is very unlikely in practice.

  1. DISTINCTIVE LOCALIZATION OF GROUP 3 LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT SYNTHESIZING CELLS DURING BRINE SHRIMP DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Yong; Song, Hwa Young; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Kyung Joo; Jo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suhng Wook; Lee, Seung Gwan; Lee, Boo Hyung

    2015-07-01

    Despite numerous studies on late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, their functions, roles, and localizations during developmental stages in arthropods remain unknown. LEA proteins protect crucial proteins against osmotic stress during the development and growth of various organisms. Thus, in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the crucial regions protected against osmotic stress as well as the distinctive localization of group 3 (G3) LEA(+) cells during brine shrimp development. Several cell types were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA, including neurons, muscular cells, APH-1(+) cells, and renal cells. The G3 LEA(+) neuronal cell bodies outside of the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles to the central body, but those inside the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles toward the deutocerebrum without innervating the central body. The cell bodies inside the mushroom body received axons of the G3 LEA(+) sensory cells at the medial ventral cup of the nauplius eye. Several glands were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA during the nauplius stages of brine shrimp, including the sinus, antennal I and II, salt, and three ectodermal glands. This study provides the first demonstration of the formation of G3 LEA(+) sinus glands at the emergence stages of brine shrimp. These results suggest that G3 LEA protein is synthesized in several cell types. In particular, specific glands play crucial roles during the emergence and nauplius stages of brine shrimp. PMID:25781424

  2. Influence of brine concentration and temperature on composition, microstructure, and yield of feta cheese.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D J; Motawee, M M; McManus, W R

    2009-09-01

    The protein matrix of cheese undergoes changes immediately following cheesemaking in response to salting and cooling. Normally, such changes are limited by the amount of water entrapped in the cheese at the time of block formation but for brined cheeses such as feta cheese brine acts as a reservoir of additional water. Our objective was to determine the extent to which the protein matrix of cheese expands or contracts as a function of salt concentration and temperature, and whether such changes are reversible. Blocks of feta cheese made with overnight fermentation at 20 and 31 degrees C yielded cheese of pH 4.92 and pH 4.83 with 50.8 and 48.9 g/100 g of moisture, respectively. These cheeses were then cut into 100-g pieces and placed in plastic bags containing 100 g of whey brine solutions of 6.5, 8.0, and 9.5% salt, and stored at 3, 6, 10, and 22 degrees C for 10 d. After brining, cheese and whey were reweighed, whey volume measured, and cheese salt, moisture, and pH determined. A second set of cheeses were similarly placed in brine (n = 9) and stored for 10 d at 3 degrees C, followed by 10 d at 22 degrees C, followed by 10 d at 3 degrees C, or the complementary treatments starting at 22 degrees C. Cheese weight and whey volume (n = 3) were measured at 10, 20, and 30 d of brining. Cheese structure was examined using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Brining temperature had the greatest influence on cheese composition (except for salt content), cheese weight, and cheese volume. Salt-in-moisture content of the cheeses approached expected levels based on brine concentration and ratio of brine to cheese (i.e., 4.6, 5.7 and 6.7%). Brining at 3 degrees C increased cheese moisture, especially for cheese with an initial pH of 4.92, producing cheese with moisture up to 58 g/100 g. Cheese weight increased after brining at 3, 6, or 10 degrees C. Cold storage also prevented further fermentation and the pH remained constant, whereas at 22 degrees C the pH dropped as low as p

  3. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    SciTech Connect

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at a proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ

  4. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore » proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir

  5. Polyacrylamide polymer viscosity as a function of brine composition

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Stacy, N.; Collins, A.G.

    1981-05-01

    A computer model has been developed which predicts the viscosity of polymer and oil field brine mixtures. The polymers used were Amoco- Sweepaid 103 and Dow- Pusher 500 polyacrylamide polymers. All of the experiments were conducted at 1200 ppM polymer concentration. The computer input consists of the ionic strength of the brine in the mixture and the fraction of that ionic strength due to sodium ions. The computer program makes predictions of viscosity by referencing a family of viscosity curves for various mixtures of sodium chloride and calcium chloride in 1200 ppM polymer solutions. The model has been tested using 59 mixtures of brines and polymers. The ionic strength of the brine in the mixtures varied from 0.0018 to 0.025. The fraction of the brines' total ionic strength due to sodium ions varied from 0.22 to 0.49. The brines consisted predominantly of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate ions.

  6. The origin of brines and salts in Chilean salars: a hydrochemical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, François; Alonso, Hugo; Salazar, Carlos

    2003-11-01

    Northern Chile is characterized by a succession of north-south-trending ranges and basins occupied by numerous saline lakes and salt crusts, collectively called salars. Fossil salt crusts are found to the west in the extremely arid Central Valley, while active salars receiving permanent inflows fill many intravolcanic basins to the east in the semiarid Cordillera. Sea salts and desert dust are blown eastward over the Cordillera, where they constitute an appreciable fraction of the solute load of very dilute waters (salt content<0.1 g/l). The weathering of volcanic rocks contributes most components to inflow waters with salt content ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 g/l. However, the average salt content of all inflows is much higher: about 3.2 g/l. Chemical composition, Cl/Br ratio, and 18O- 2H isotope contents point to the mixing of very dilute meteoric waters with present lake brines for the origin of saline inflows. Ancient gypsum in deep sedimentary formations seems to be the only evaporitic mineral recycled in present salars. Saline lakes and subsurface brines are under steady-state regime. The average residence time of conservative components ranges from a few years to some thousands years, which indicates a permanent leakage of the brines through bottom sediments. The infiltrating brines are recycled in the hydrologic system where they mix with dilute meteoric waters. High heat flow is the likely driving force that moves the deep waters in this magmatic arc region. Active Chilean salars cannot be considered as terminal lakes nor, strictly speaking, as closed basin lakes. Almost all incoming salts leave the basin and are transported elsewhere. Moreover, the dissolution of fossil salt crusts in some active salars also carries away important fluxes of components in percolating brines. Evaporative concentration of inflow waters leads to sulfate-rich or calcium-rich, near-neutral brines. Alkaline brines are almost completely lacking. The alkalinity/calcium ratio of inflow

  7. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; Howard, Kevin; Harris, Linden; Parodi, Jurek; Kawashima, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  8. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept was developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying for these solutions. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management in spacecraft brine dewatering system designs. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other observations from testing are reported.

  9. Laboratory-scale interaction between CO2-rich brine and limestone and sandstone under supercritical CO2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rios, Maria; Cama, Jordi; Luquot, Linda; Soler, Josep

    2014-05-01

    A test site for a prospective CO2 geological storage is situated in Hontomín (Burgos, northern Spain) with a reservoir rock that is composed of limestone (calcite) and sandstone (66 wt.% calcite, 28 wt.% quartz and 6 wt.% microcline). During and after CO2 injection, the resulting CO2-rich acid brine will likely promote the dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite) and aluminosilicates (microcline). Since the reservoir Hontomín brine contains sulfate, gypsum (or anhydrite at depth) may precipitate. These coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions may induce changes in porosity and pore structure of the repository rocks. Percolations experiments with mechanically fractured cores (8.6 mm in diameter and 18 mm length) were performed under CO2 supercritical conditions (Pfluid = 150 bar; pCO2 ≡ 90 bar and T = 60 ºC) in order to evaluate and quantify variations in fracture permeability, preferential path formation and fracture volume. The brine sulfate content and the flow rate were varied. Regarding limestone, as the synthetic brines circulated through the fracture, the fracture permeability initially increased slowly, to thereafter increase rapidly. This change was due to a localized dissolution process (wormhole formation) along the core that occurred regardless gypsum precipitation. Nonetheless, the originated fracture volume in the sulfate-rich brine experiments was a factor of two smaller than that in sulfate-free brine experiments. Also, an increase in flow rate from 0.2 to 60 mL/h increased the volume of both dissolved calcite and precipitated gypsum. Regarding sandstone, permeability increased gradually with time. Nonetheless, this increase was not always continuous due to eventual fracture clogging. Formation of wormholes was observed. Acknowledgements This study was financed by CIUDEN (Ciudad de la Energía), the Compostilla OXYCFB300 project and the PANACEA project (European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant

  10. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  11. The decay of hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs.

  12. Effect of injection wells with partially perforated completion on CO2/brine flow distribution and injectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Jung, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration is a viable technology to reduce the concentration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. The success of an injection project requires large amounts of dry supercritical CO2 to be injected into brine saturated aquifers within the subsurface. However, solid salt precipitation causes a reduction of permeability, having adverse effects on well injectivity as well as pressure build-up. This study evaluated the accumulation of precipitated salt, brine flux patterns, and pressure build-up for two well constructions, 1) partially completed with 4 injection intervals and 2) fully completed throughout the thickness of the target formation. This study found that when a partially completed well is implemented, precipitation of solid salt experiences a greater radial extent then a fully completed well. Both well designs showed non-localized salt precipitation in low permeability formations (5 and 50 mD) and localized salt precipitation at high permeability (250 and 500 mD). It was also found that two different brine flux patterns occurred; under low-k conditions the brine flux was primarily outward and parallel to the direction of the CO2 migration and salt precipitation became limited. While under high-k conditions there developed back-flow of the brine to the tail of the plume as the plume experienced greater vertical movement, and the counter-flowing brine sustained the precipitation process amplifying salt precipitation. When this process occurred the permeability reduction factor became orders of magnitude less then when non-localized salt precipitation occurred, and formed an impermeable barrier around the injection well. The formation of this barrier was found to have the effect of increasing the pressure build-up near the well in regions of the reservoir in which it occurred. A sensitivity analysis on the anisotropic/isotropic nature of the reservoir and the value of the critical porosity was also conducted. The

  13. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine

    SciTech Connect

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundy, Jon; Mavrogenes, John; Tattitch, Brian; Sparks, Steve; Gilmer, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are characterised by a close spatial and temporal association with small, hypabyssal intrusions of silicic magmas in volcanic arcs. PCD formation requires elevated chlorine and water to concentrate copper in magmatic hypersaline liquids (or brines), and elevated sulphur to precipitate copper-rich sulphides. These twin requirements are hard to reconcile with experimental and petrological evidence that voluminous chlorine-rich, hydrous silicic magmas, of the variety favourable to copper enrichment, lack sufficient sulphur to precipitate directly the requisite quantities of sulphides. These features are, however, consistent with observations of active volcanic arcs whereby PCDs can be viewed as roots of dome volcanoes above shallow reservoirs where silicic magmas accumulate over long time spans. During protracted periods of dormancy metal-enriched dense brines accumulate in and above the silicic reservoir through slow, low-pressure degassing. Meanwhile cogenetic volatile-rich mafic magmas and their exsolved, sulphur and CO2-rich fluids accumulate in deeper reservoirs. Periodic destabilisation of these reservoirs leads to short-lived bursts of volcanism liberating sulphurous gases, which react with the shallow-stored brines to form copper-rich sulphides and acidic vapours. We test this hypothesis with a novel set of 'porphyry in a capsule' experiments designed to simulate low-pressure (1-2 kbar) interaction of basalt-derived, sulphur-rich gases with brine-saturated, copper-bearing, but sulphur-free, granite. Experiments were run at 720-850 ° C in cold-seal apparatus with basaltic andesite, loaded with H2O and S, situated below dacite, loaded with H2O, Cl and Cu. At run conditions both compositions are substantially degassed and crystallized. S-rich gas from the basaltic andesite ascends to react with Cu-rich brines exsolved from the dacite, Our experiments reveal the direct precipitation of copper-sulphide minerals, in vugs and veins

  15. CO2-brine-mineral Reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H.; Galy, A.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.; Members Of The Crius Project

    2011-12-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in brines is a prime mechanism for stabilising the light supercritical CO2 in geological carbon storage. However the rates of dissolution are very uncertain as they likely depend on the heterogeneity of the flow of CO2, the possibility of convective instability of the denser CO2-saturated brines and on fluid-mineral reactions which buffer brine acidity. We report the results of sampling brines and gases during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. The injected CO2 was spiked with isotopically enriched noble gases at the start of injection. Brines and gases were sampled at production wells daily for 3 months after initiation of CO2 injection and again for two weeks after 5 months. The noble gas spikes were detected at producing wells within days of injection but signals continued for weeks, and at some producers for the duration of the sampling period, attesting to the complexity of gas-species pathways. Interpretation of the water chemistry is complicated by the previous history of the oil field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. However water sampled from some producing wells during the phase of CO2 injection showed monotonic increases in alkalinity and in concentrations of major cations to levels in excess of those in the injected water. The marked increase in Na, and smaller increases in Ca, Mg, Si, K and Sr are interpreted primarily to result from silicate dissolution with either dissolution or precipitation of calcite. The precipitation of calcite driven by the rise in pH consequent on dissolution of silicates is as predicted by previous modelling (Knaus et al., 2005, Chemical Geology) and as observed in natural analogue systems (Kampman et al., 2009, Earth Planetary Science Letters). A key question is the extent to which the rates of dissolution are controlled by the surface reaction rates of the minerals versus the rate at which CO2 can dissolve in formation brines. Simple flow

  16. Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

  17. Corrosion of austenitic alloys in aerated brines

    SciTech Connect

    Heidersbach, R.; Shi, A.; Sharp, S.

    1999-11-01

    This report discusses the results of corrosion exposures of three austenitic alloys--3l6L stainless steel, UNS N10276, and UNS N08367. Coupons of these alloys were suspended in a series of brines used for processing in the pharmaceutical industry. The effects of surface finish and welding processes on the corrosion behavior of these alloys were determined. The 316L coupons experienced corrosion in several environments, but the other alloys were unaffected during the one-month exposures of this investigation. Electropolishing the surfaces improved corrosion resistance.

  18. Graphite corrosion and hydrogen release from HTR fuel elements in Q-brine

    SciTech Connect

    Fachinger, J.; Zhang, Z.X.; Brodda, B.G.

    1995-12-31

    Industrial reprocessing for High Temperature Reactors (HTR) fuel elements has never been installed in Germany. The spent fuel elements are being considered for final disposal in a rock salt repository in the deep geologic underground. Safety analysis requires the assumption of an accidental water ingress into the repository, resulting in the formation of a concentrated salt solution with the typical composition of a quinary brine. After corrosive penetration of the container walls, the brine may finally contact the fuel elements directly and mobilize radionuclides. Duve et al. investigated the leaching of the fission products and actinides from HTR fuel elements in Q-brine. The mobilization of {sup 14}C by graphite corrosion is one of the last data bases required as a source term for the release estimation of radionuclides in the final safety analysis. The evaluation of the hydrogen release was prescribed by the licensing board, because an excessive gas pressure may affect the overall integrity of the geological barrier. {sup 14}C occurs as dissolved organic and inorganic compounds in the brine. The leaching rate or organic {sup 14}C decreases from about 80 Bq to 1 Bq. The amount of organic {sup 14}C decreases from about 80 Bq to 1 Bq during leaching. The release of inorganic {sup 14}C ceases within 4 months. About 100 ppm of the total {sup 14}C inventory was released during leaching. Gaseous {sup 14}C has never been detected. The gas formation is based on the radiolytic degradation of water, with a formation rate of 0.04 to 0.11 ml/d. Gas chromatographic analysis of the gas proved that hydrogen is the main component of the released gas. Tritium and {sup 85}Kr were detected as traces with radio gas chromatography.

  19. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources. PMID:14649868

  20. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Hull; Carolyn Bishop

    2004-02-01

    Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface

  1. Integrated modeling and experimental programs to predict brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.; Vaughn, P.; Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation of the performance of the WIPP repository involves modeling of brine and gas flow in the host rocks of the Salado Formation, which consist of halite and anhydrite interbeds. Numerous physical, chemical, and structural processes, must be understood to perform this modeling. Gas generation within the repository is strongly coupled to the amount of brine inflow to the repository because brine aids in the corrosion of metals and associated generation of hydrogen gas. Increasing gas pressure in the repository decreases the rate of brine inflow. Ultimately, the gas pressure may exceed the brine pressure and gas may flow out of the repository. Relative-permeability curves and a correlation between threshold pressure and permeability taken from studies reported in the literature were used in PA models prior to being experimentally verified as appropriate for WIPP. In addition, interbed permeabilities were treated as constant and independent of effective stress in early models. Subsequently, the process of interbed fracturing (or fracture dilation) was recognized to limit gas pressures in the repository to values below lithostatic, and assumed (and unverified) relationships between porosity, permeability, and pore pressure were employed. Parameter-sensitivity studies performed using the simplified models identified important parameters for which site-specific data were needed. Unrealistic modeling results, such as room pressures substantially above lithostatic, showed the need to include additional processes in the models. Field and laboratory experimental programs have been initiated in conjunction with continued model development to provide information on important processes and parameters.

  2. Spectroscopic determination of hypochlorous acid, in chloride brine solutions, featuring 5 MeV proton beam line experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Thomas; Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Wetteland, Christopher; Lu, Ningping

    2003-04-01

    The irradiation effects of 4.9 MeV protons on salt repository related brines are investigated spectrophotometrically. The induced formation of hypochlorous acid is determined up to doses of 11 kGy in 3.7 M MgCl 2·6H 2O and in a multicomponent brine of high concentration: Brine G. The build-up of hypochlorous acid to a steady-state concentration is found to be independent on the chloride concentration. The ultimate objective of this experiment is the estimation of the G value for HOCl in which meaningful predictions of long-term redox conditions in a nuclear repository strongly depend on. This paper describes our first steps towards the determination of HOCl.

  3. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  4. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs. PMID:25894951

  6. Possible Martian brines: Radar observations and models

    SciTech Connect

    Zent, A.P.; Fanale, F.P. ); Roth, L.E. )

    1990-08-30

    The 1971 and 1973 Goldstone 12.6-cm radar observations of Mars are separate data sets which include reflectivity as a function of latitude, longitude, and season. It has been argued that secular reflectivity variations of Mars' surface are indicated by the data and that shallow subsurface melting is the causal mechanism most compatible with the observations; however, the melting hypothesis conflicts with accepted notions of the state and distribution of water on Mars. The authors examine the data to identify temporal and spatial domains within which statistically significant changes in measured reflectivity are clustered. A few reflectivity changes may be genuine; others may be due to ephemeris errors or binning during data reduction. Brines which might satisfy the best supported reflectivity variations are out of equilibrium with the chemical megaenvironment. It is unclear whether such a brine, if emplaced in the Martian regolith at a depth shallow enough to affect the radar reflectivity, could survive even a single freeze-thaw cycle. They suggest that some combination of unique scattering properties or some as yet unidentified process other than melting is responsible for any genuine reflectivity variations.

  7. Possible Martian brines - Radar observations and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Fanale, Fraser P.; Roth, Ladislav E.

    1990-01-01

    The 1971 and 1973 Goldstone 12.6-cm radar observations of Mars are separate data sets which include reflectivity as a function of latitude, longitude, and season. It has been argued that secular reflectivity variations of Mars' surface are indicated by the data and that shallow subsurface melting is the causal mechanism most compatible with the observations; however, the melting hypothesis conflicts with accepted notions of the state and distribution of water on Mars. The data are examined to identify temporal and spatial domains within which statistically significant changes in measured reflectivity are clustered. Brines which might satisfy the best supported reflectivity variations are out of equilibrium with the chemical megaenvironment. It is unclear whether such a brine, if emplaced in the Martian regolith at a depth shallow enough to affect the radar reflectivity, could survive even a single freeze-thaw cycle. Some combination of unique scattering properties or some as yet unidentified process other than melting is responsible for any genuine reflectivity variations.

  8. Relative permeability hysteresis and capillary trapping characteristics of supercritical CO2/brine systems: An experimental study at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarabadi, Morteza; Piri, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    We present the results of an experimental study on the effects of hysteresis on capillary trapping and relative permeability of CO2/brine systems at reservoir conditions. We performed thirty unsteady- and steady-state drainage and imbibition full-recirculation flow experiments in three different sandstone rock samples, low- and high-permeability Berea and Nugget sandstones. The experiments were carried out at various flow rates with both supercritical CO2 (scCO2)/brine and gaseous CO2 (gCO2)/brine fluid systems. The unsteady-state experiments were carried out with a wide range of flow rates to establish a broad range of initial brine saturations (Swi). This allowed investigation of the sensitivity of residual trapped CO2 saturation (S) to changes in Swi. The values were successfully compared with those available in the literature. For a given Swi, the trapped scCO2 saturation was less than that of gCO2 in the same sample. This was attributed to brine being less wetting in the presence of scCO2 than in the presence of gCO2. Post-imbibition dissolution of trapped CO2 and formation of dissolution front was also investigated. During the steady-state experiments, scCO2 and brine were co-injected with monotonically increasing or decreasing fractional flows to perform drainage and imbibition processes. We carried out seven sets of steady-state flow tests with various trajectories generating a comprehensive group of relative permeability hysteresis curves. The scanning curves revealed distinct features with potentially important implications for storage of scCO2 in geological formations. For both series of experiments, the ratio of S to initial CO2 saturation (1- Swi) was found to be much higher for low initial CO2 saturations. The results indicate that very promising fractions (about 49 to 83%) of the initial CO2 saturation can be stored through capillary trapping.

  9. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept is being developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management designs typically used in spacecraft systems. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches currently envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other early observations from testing are reported.

  10. OIL CONTENT IN PRODUCED BRINE ON TEN LOUISIANA PRODUCTION PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of the oil content of brine effluents from offshore crude oil production platforms was conducted for the Oil and Hazardous Spills Branch of the Environmental Protection Agency. The objectives were to determine the amount of oil in the brine, and to determine the factors ...

  11. Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, P S

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the moisture distribution in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Brine-salted cheeses usually develop reasonably smooth and predictable gradients of decreasing moisture from center to surface, resulting from outward diffusion of moisture in response to inward diffusion of salt. However, patterns of moisture variation within brine-salted pasta filata cheeses, notably pizza cheese, are more variable and less predictable because of the peculiar conditions that occur when warm cheese is immersed in cold brine. In this study, cold brining resulted in less moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine. Also it created substantial temperature gradients within the cheese, which persisted after brining and influenced the movement of moisture within the cheese independently of that caused by the inward diffusion of salt. Depending on brining conditions and age, pizza cheese may contain decreasing, increasing, or irregular gradients of moisture from center to surface, which may vary considerably at different locations within a single block. This complicates efforts to obtain representative samples for moisture and composition testing. Dicing the entire block into small (e.g., 1.5 cm) cubes and collecting a composite sample after thorough mixing may serve as a practical sampling approach for manufacturers and users of pizza cheese that have ready access to dicing equipment. PMID:11324629

  12. Density-Thermal-Driven Groundwater Flow and Brine Transport Near Salt Domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidzadeh, Z.; Tsai, F. T.; Mirbagheri, S.; Ghasemzadeh, H.

    2012-12-01

    A major environmental and economic concern in many parts of the world is progressive salinization of groundwater system. Therefore, understanding the sources and flow patterns of encroachment of saline or brine water into freshwater aquifers is necessary for groundwater resources management. Flow patterns near salt domes in deep formation is of interest in this study because of complexity of different driving forces from salt concentration, thermal, and fluid pressure gradients. Because of rock formation and relative high temperature in the vicinity of salt domes, fluid salinity is much higher than seawater and density variation in the brine waters exceeds 20% with respect to fresh water. Groundwater flow, salt transport and heat transport equations are strongly coupled. Moreover, it is necessary to include the dispersive flux of total fluid mass in the flow equation. In this study, a two-dimensional density-thermal-driven groundwater flow induced by salt mass fraction gradient and temperature gradient near a hypothetical salt dome is considered. A fully implicit finite difference method has been developed to solve three coupled governing equations. The classical Elder problems and the Henry problem were used as benchmarks to verify the numerical code for solving the coupled flow and heat equations and the coupled flow and transport equations. Then, the numerical model is applied to a hypothetical salt dome problem to simulate upward density-thermal-driven groundwater flow and brine transport.

  13. Pressure buildup and brine migration during CO2 storage in multilayered aquifers.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens T; Zhou, Quanlin

    2013-03-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into deep saline formations may induce large-scale pressure increases and migration of native fluid. Local high-conductivity features, such as improperly abandoned wells or conductive faults, could act as conduits for focused leakage of brine into shallow groundwater resources. Pressurized brine can also be pushed into overlying/underlying formations because of diffuse leakage through low-permeability aquitards, which occur over large areas and may allow for effective pressure bleed-off in the storage reservoirs. This study presents the application of a recently developed analytical solution for pressure buildup and leakage rates in a multilayered aquifer-aquitard system with focused and diffuse brine leakage. The accuracy of this single-phase analytical solution for estimating far-field flow processes is verified by comparison with a numerical simulation study that considers the details of two-phase flow. We then present several example applications for a hypothetical CO2 injection scenario (without consideration of two-phase flow) to demonstrate that the new solution is an efficient tool for analyzing regional pressure buildup in a multilayered system, as well as for gaining insights into the leakage processes of flow through aquitards, leaky wells, and/or leaky faults. This solution may be particularly useful when a large number of calculations needs to be performed, that is, for uncertainty quantification, for parameter estimation, or for the optimization of pressure-management schemes. PMID:22880722

  14. Experimental measurements of the Solubility of CO2 in the brine of the Oriskany sandstone aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.; Pique, P.; Jones, R.J.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2006-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany sandstone formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at pressures between 100 and 450 bars and at temperatures of 21 and 75 ºC. In addition, data on CO2 solubility in pure water were collected over the same pressure range as a means of verifying reliability of experimental technique. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (2003). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated.

  15. Radiocesium activity reduction in boar meat by brining.

    PubMed

    Dvorák, P; Kunová, V; Kunová, J; Benová, K

    2008-02-01

    Meat of wild boar with an intial (137)Cs activity concentration of 103 Bq kg(-1) of fresh mass was treated by brining. Dry-salting reduced the (137)Cs activity only by about 12-18%. Subsequent brining was done by using both pure sodium chloride and a mixture of sodium chloride and potassium nitrate. After double-brine exchange, the (137)Cs activity concentration was reduced by at least 72%. The double-brine exchanges were done for two time intervals (the first each 24 h and the second each 7 days). There were no differences in the (137)Cs activity reduction for these two time intervals. From the technological point of view, the repeated exchange of the brine solution represents a relative easy method of (137)Cs activity reduction in contaminated pork meat. PMID:17882446

  16. Stable Isotopic Signatures in the Isolated Brine Cyroecosystem of Lake Vida Reveal Evidence of both Abiotic and Biotic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. E.; Ostrom, N. E.; Glazer, B. T.; McKay, C.; Kenig, F.; Loeffler, F. E.; Fritsen, C. H.; Doran, P. T.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Vida in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica harbors ice-entrained brine that has been isolated from surface processes for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, temperature of -13.4 °C, lack of oxygen, and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. As an example, the brine contains excessive quantities of both reduced and oxidized nitrogen in nearly all forms, which in several cases are the highest levels found among natural ecosystems on Earth. Though this cryoecosystem appears to be relatively inhospitable, we have evidence that microbial life persists in abundance (cell levels over 107 cells per mL), is capable of protein production at in situ temperatures, and harbors a unique, but not necessarily novel, assemblage of bacterial phylotypes spanning at least eight phyla. In order to assess in situ microbial activities occurring today and in the past, and test hypotheses concerning energy generation in the brine cryoecosystem, the stable isotope signatures of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen have been characterized in liquid and dissolved gas phases of the brine. The data provide evidence for both biotic and potentially abiotic formation of different fractions. The site preference of 15N-nitrous oxide (-3.64) suggests that the primary source of this dissolved gas, which is found at levels as high as 86 μM, is biologically produced by denitrification pathways. This appears to be consistent with detection of Marinobacter and Psychrobacter-related bacterial rRNA gene sequences and isolates in the brine microbial community. On the other hand, dissolved hydrogen present in the brine harbors an δH-H2 isotope signature suggesting that abiotic (potentially via serpentinization) or biotic production is equivocal based on the significant levels of fractionation observed. We postulate however, that a serpentinization production route is more favorable in this system that lies in a basin comprised of Ferrar dolerite sills and granite

  17. Origin of fluids from oil/gas fields and hot springs in the Green Tuff region of Japan: 129I results from halogen-rich fluids in the Akita and Niigata Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Tomaru, H.; Lu, Z.; Fehn, U.; Muramatsu, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Green Tuff region in the Akita and Niigata Basins, Japan, hosts major occurrences of oil and gas as well as of mineral deposits. We measured halogen concentrations and 129I/I ratios in oil and gas field brines and hot springs in order to determine the origin of iodine and, indirectly, of hydrocarbons in this area and their association with geological processes during the opening of the Japan Sea. Based on the concentration of iodine, the samples fall into three categories: Group A (I >200μM), Group B (200μM>I >100μM), and Group C (I <100μM). Samples in Groups A and B come predominantly from oil/gas fields and have 129I/I ratios below 350×10-15, corresponding to ages essentially in the Eocene period. In contrast, samples in Group C are generally from hot springs and have 129I/I ratios mostly above 400×10-15, corresponding to Miocene ages. These results indicate that source formations for Group C are associated with the active opening of the Japan Sea, but that those for Groups A and B are organic-rich segments of the late Eocene to Oligocene formations or of the older basement rocks accreted before the opening of the Japan Sea. Because the reservoir formations of oil and gas reservoirs are predominantly of Middle to Late Miocene age, mobilization of these brines could have been associated with the tectonic processes during the opening of the Japan Sea which also led to the formation of the hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate Kuroko Deposits in the same area. The hot springs of Group C probably reflect more directly these processes. Because of the close association of iodine with methane and other hydrocarbons, oil and gas in this area probably is derived also from sources of Eocene age, i.e. considerably older than the Green Tuff formations they currently are residing in.

  18. Effects of a Regional Aquifer on the Evolution of a Dense CO2-Charged Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskell, A.; Daniels, K.; Bickle, M. J.; Pegler, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) within geological reservoirs is recognised as an important solution to combat the observed changes in the Earth's climate attributed to the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Such storage must be long-term and secure thus the ability to model the fate of CO2 and CO2-charged brines as they migrate within through geological carbon storage reservoirs is critical to obtaining regulatory approval. However, the complexities of flow in natural heterogeneous reservoirs make it essential to test model results against observations of real systems; this can be difficult due to their inaccessibility and the expense of gathering adequate data. At Green River, CO2 and CO2-charged brines leak into overlying aquifers during migration to the surface through the Little Grand Fault. As the CO2-charged brine leaks it forms a series of gravity currents and mixes with the formation fluids. Downhole fluid samples from the upper aquifer of the Navajo Sandstone suggest that regional aquifer flow and sedimentological heterogeneities have a large impact on the evolution and mixing of the CO2-charged plume1. Theoretical studies show that by imposing a regional background flow we alter the dynamics and evolution of a dense plume. To test the theory, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted; a constant flux of a denser brine solution was released from a point source at the base of a porous medium filled with flowing fresh water. We present here the theory and laboratory experiments and compare these findings to the vertical variation of conservative tracers, i.e. Na and Cl, within the formation fluids of the Navajo Sandstone. 1) Kampman, N., Maskell, A. and others, 2014. Drilling and sampling a natural CO2 reservoir: Implications for fluid flow and CO2-fluid-rock reactions during CO2 migration through the overburden. Chemical Geology 369, 51-82.

  19. Experiments of CO2 Solubility in the Synthetic Brine from the Erdos Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Solubility trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers is accepted to be the promising method in terms of carbon capture and storage (CCS). CO2 solubility at geological sequestration conditions is of great significance in evaluating the carbon capture potential of brine formation. Unfortunately, most CO2 solubility studies focus mainly on single-salt solutions, and only sparse literature exist for the data of CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions containing the mixture of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. To fill the research gap, an experimental investigation on the CO2 solubility in the synthetic brine is carried out. The samples were extracted through the injection wells of the Shenhua Carbon Capture and Storage project in the Erdos Basin located in northern China. The proportion of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ was determined by chemical analysis of the samples in the aquifers. The synthetic brine is used in this study, and the experimental process were improved to lower the risk of penetration of the supercritical fluid. Solubility data were measured over the temperature and pressure ranges of 318-348 K and 8-11 MPa. In the range studied, the average absolute deviation of CO2 solubility between literature and experimental results was 2.7%, and the maximum absolute deviation was less than 5.4%. Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky (KK) equation was established to analyze the experimental data and the effect of different ions on CO2 solubility was quantified using an optimization process. The liner fit between the CO2 solubility and mixed ion concentration is satisfied with correlation coefficient of 0.91. The proposed model and experimental data therefore possess broad adaptability to geological carbon storage. This ambiguity in the mechanism of the ion effect drives our efforts toward a better understanding of the factors controlling CO2 solubility in formation brine.

  20. Inhibition of low and high alloy steels in the system brine/elemental sulfur/H sub 2 S

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, G. ); Bruckhoff, W. )

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion problems in sulfur producing North German sour gas wells have prompted an investigation into the performance of low and high alloy materials in brine/H{sub 2}S/elemental sulfur systems and the applicability of inhibitors. Experimental results proved that not sulfanes (H{sub 2}S{sub x}) but elemental sulfur is the oxidant in the corrosion reaction. However, direct contact of elemental sulfur (liquid or solid) with the sulfide covered metal surface is essential. Under these conditions low alloy and duplex steels are attacked by sulfur/brine suspensions at 90-140{degrees}C under 25 bar H{sub 2}S and 25 bar CO{sub 2} hot pressure at high corrosion rates (10-100 mm/a). Commercial inhibitors were found to decrease the corrosion rate of low alloy and duplex steels below 0.1 mm/a even under the above-mentioned severe conditions.

  1. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.; Palandri, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO2, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO2 with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO2 with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO2-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO2-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO2, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO2 co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO2. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO2 is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 ??C and 6% at 120 ??C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO2 is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 ??C and 300 bar. The storage of CO 2 in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO2 and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO2 in carbonate mineral phases. Brine desiccation was observed in all experiments containing a discrete CO2 phase

  2. δ37Cl variations with depth in Mount Simon Sandstone basinal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, T.; Ader, M.; Locke, R.; Agrinier, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Mount Simon Sandstone (MSS) is the deepest sedimentary formation of the Illinois Basin (USA). This formation was chosen by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium to demonstrate the potential for carbon dioxide (CO2) geological storage. Chlorine isotopes were used to investigate saline fluids from MSS to better understand their origin and present day hydrodynamic regime. Basinal brines were sampled at 10 different depths (from -1499m to -2128m) using a Westbay* multilevel groundwater characterization and monitoring system in September 2011. For all samples (n = 10), Cl isotope compositions were measured using the classical method [1] and were duplicated. The δ37Cl data exhibit a clear upward trend within the MSS, ranging from 0.2 × 0.03 ‰ in the deepest part of the formation to -0.8 × 0.05 ‰ in the upper part. The two samples from the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone (the unit above the MSS and the Eau Claire Formation caprock) were determined to be non-representative [2]. We interpret the δ37Cl trend observed in the MSS in terms of known geological processes that fractionate chlorine isotopes: (a) evaporation of ancient seawater that leads primary brine to form [3,4]; and (b) fluid transport processes occurring during and after burial diagenesis, which are known to be able to further modify the Cl isotopic signature of evaporation, such as chemical diffusion [5] or ion filtration [6]. However, isotope compositions expected for primary brines are lower than observed, thus not explaining the full range of the MSS trend. The likelihood of these hypotheses must now be investigated with respect to other geochemical tracers. This on-going work clearly illustrates that Cl isotopes have a strong potential to characterize important aspects of long-term hydrology for formation waters.

  3. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  4. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of /sup 3/H, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 85/Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for /sup 85/Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for /sup 85/Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta.

  5. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  6. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  7. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann; Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the

  8. Evaporite diagenesis driven by synsedimentary evolution of brines

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Back-reaction of brines has modified cyclic shallow water carbonate-sulfate-halite sequences (Permian) in the Palo Duro basin, Texas Panhandle. Successive parts of regressive evaporite cycles were deposited from progressively more highly evaporated seawater. The reaction of the brine with sediments deposited during earlier parts of each cycle was the major force criving diagenetic reactions and determining the final mineralogy. Normal marine limestones at the base of cycles were dolomitized in the shallow subsurface environments by brines that precipitated brine-pool evaporites in the upper parts of cycles. Gypsum dehydrated to anhydrite at burial depths of 1-2m beneath the brine-pool floor as brine salinity increased toward halite saturation. Diagenetic limpid dolomite and anhydrite replacing halite were probably derived from mixed meteoric and evaporated-marine brines squeezed from mudstone beds during compaction in the shallow subsurface. Anhydrite and halite pervasively cemented and partly replaced carbonates and gypsum. The resulting low permeability limited later diagenetic alteration, so that the early diagenetic textures and mineralogy were preserved in the burial environment. Reduction in permeability occurred before the transgression initiating the next cycle; the only major result of the introduction of seawater into the evaporite environment was dissolution of the last-deposited few meters of halite.

  9. Copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Jafar; Alamdari, Abdolmohammad

    2009-07-30

    The present study aims at investigation of copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation process. The produced brine containing heavy metals is usually returned to the reservoir for water flooding or is discarded to the surroundings. Therefore, surface waters or underground waters may be polluted due to probable contact to these discarded waters. Removal experiments were carried out at room temperature in a bench-scale crystallizer equipped with a draft tube. In order to gain an insight into the influence of soluble compounds in the industrial natural brine on the precipitation process, some comparative experiments were performed both on a sample of natural brine and on a synthetic simulated brine in the absence of natural impurities. A metal removal practice by coprecipitation of copper through CaCO(3) precipitates induced by reaction of Na(2)CO(3) and CaCl(2) reduced the copper concentration (Cu(2+)) from 0.27 ppm in the synthetic brine to 0.06 ppm. This removal of 78% required only 1g of precipitate per 0.15 mg copper metal. Analysis of the experimental results suggested that about 5% of the copper removal from the synthetic brine was through the mechanism of incorporation into the crystal lattice, and around 95% was through the adsorption on the crystal faces. PMID:19157701

  10. Hot Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  11. Hot Tickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…

  12. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-03-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  13. Formation of bioactive N-doped TiO2 on Ti with visible light-induced antibacterial activity using NaOH, hot water, and subsequent ammonia atmospheric heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Masakazu; Endo, Naoko; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Furuya, Maiko; Yokota, Kotoe; Abiko, Yuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) treated with NaOH and hot water, and heated in an ammmonia (NH3) gas atmosphere for 1 or 3h exhibited in vitro apatite formation within 7days when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the treated Ti decomposed methylene blue and showed excellent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli under visible light irradiation. The surface treatment resulted in the formation of a fine network of N-doped anatase-type titania (TiO2-xNx) on the Ti surface, which was responsible for both the apatite formation in SBF and the visible light-induced antibacterial activity. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of our simple method for producing novel bioactive Ti with visible light-induced antibacterial activity, which could be applied to orthopaedic and dental implants without the risk of infection. PMID:27208442

  14. Proteolysis in Manchego-type cheese salted by brine vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Pavia, M; Trujillo, A J; Guamis, B; Ferragut, V

    2000-07-01

    A new salting procedure based on the brine vacuum impregnation of porous products was tested on Manchego-type cheese and compared with conventional brine immersion. Its effect on cheese proteolysis throughout a 90-d ripening period was determined. Three cheese regions were evaluated (the rind, the middle, and the internal regions). The parameters analyzed were total N, water-soluble N, soluble N in trichloroacetic acid and soluble N in phosphotungstic acid by using the Kjeldahl method, casein profile by urea-PAGE, and peptide profile of the water soluble nitrogen extract by reverse-phase HPLC. Free amino acid formation was monitored with a spectrophotometric method by using a Cd-ninhydrin reagent. Globally, proteolysis was significantly affected by ripening stage (increasing throughout all the maturation period studied) and cheese region (rind showed a proteolysis pattern different from the middle and internal regions). The salting procedure only affected cheese proteolysis in the rind, whereas conventional brine-salted cheeses showed lower proteolysis than vacuum-impregnated cheeses. PMID:10908050

  15. Brine contamination of shallow ground water and streams in the Brookhaven Oil Field, Lincoln County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to define areas of brine contamination in shallow freshwater aquifers commonly used for streams that drain the Brookhaven Oil Field, was conducted from October 1983 to September 1984. The Brookhaven Oil Field covers approximately 15 sq mi in northwestern Lincoln County, Mississippi. Since 1943, disposal of approximately 544.2 million barrels of brine pumped from the oil producing zone (lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation) has contaminated the Citronelle aquifer, the Hattiesburg aquifers, and streams that drain the oil field. Approximately 5 sq mi of the shallow Citronelle aquifer contain water with chloride concentrations higher than normal for this area ( > 20 mg/L). Brine contamination has moved from the source laterally through the Citronelle aquifer to discharge into nearby streams and vertically into the underlying Hattiesburg aquifers. Contamination is most noticeable in Shaws Creek when streamflow originates primarily from groundwater inflow (approximately 87% of the time during the study). Additional study is required to define contaminant plumes, rates of groundwater movement and geohydrochemical reactions between the contaminant and aquifer materials. These data would allow accurate predictions of location, extent and degree of contamination in the study area. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Wettability phenomena at the CO2-brine-mineral interface: implications for geologic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibo; Edwards, Ian M; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers results in chemical and transport processes that are impacted by the wettability characteristics of formation solid phases in contact with connate brines and injected CO(2). Here, the contact angle (θ) at the CO(2)-brine-mineral interface is studied for several representative solids including quartz, microcline, calcite, kaolinite, phlogopite, and illite under a range of GCS conditions. All were found to be water wetting (θ < 30°) with subtle but important differences in contact angles observed between the surfaces. Temperature and pressure conditions affected the results but did not produce discernible trends common to all surfaces. Brine composition, in terms of pH and ionic strength, was a better predictor of interfacial behavior. For the nonclays, the wettability is impacted by the pH at the point of zero charge of the solid. For the clays, the response was more complex. Under nonequilibrium conditions, hysteretic effects were observed when CO(2) was dissolving into the bulk fluid and this effect varied between minerals. Contact angle was found to decrease during the CO(2) phase transition from supercritical or liquid phase to gas phase. These results are useful for developing a more complete understanding of leakage through caprocks and capillary trapping in GCS. PMID:22857395

  17. Cryogenic brines as a diagenetic fluid: using clumped isotopes to reconstruct the cementation history of sediments in the ANDRILL 2A core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, P. T.; Dunham, D.; Fielding, C. R.; Frank, T. D.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    The ANDRILL 2A core contains a succession of Neogene glaciomarine deposits, cemented by up to 20 wt% carbonate. Isotopic analysis of the cements yielded extremely negative d18O values, indicating either formation from isotopically negative fluids or at extremely high temperature. In outcrop, such values could be interpreted as being the result of meteoric diagenesis, but the lack of any exposure horizons in the core precludes such an interpretation. A previous study of the pore fluids described a brine below 200m, with an extremely negative δ18O value (c. -10‰), probably formed by batch-freezing seawater on the continental margin. The present study integrates ∆47­ values of the cements with traditional approaches to further assess the nature of diagenetic fluids and processes. Isotopic data suggest three sources of carbonate: marine, methane reducing, and the aforementioned brines. Marine carbonate indicates δ13C and water δ18O within the range typical of seawater (c. -1‰), whereas the cryogenic brines show more negative values. A few samples exhibited extremely low δ13C values, the lowest below -25‰; the only feasible source for these cements would be the oxidation of methane. The shallow cements' signatures diminish with depth as cryogenic brines begin to dominate the isotopic signal. Biogenic materials show an increased influence of this brine at depth, the deepest buried shells are isotopically indistinguishable from adjacent cements. These analyses show that these cryogenic brines play a major role in the diagenetic history of this site. Clumped isotopic results support previous interpretations using traditional methods, which have identified cryogenic brine as a major cementing agent in the subsurface of Southern McMurdo Sound. Because cryogenic brines have likely formed throughout Earth history, results have the potential to change the way diagenesis is evaluated in sedimentary successions that formed in polar environments.

  18. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extractionmore » control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.« less

  19. Morphology of Florida Escarpment chemosynthetic brine seep community sites

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, C.K.; Spiess, F.N.; Curray, J.R.; Twitchell, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Florida Escarpment near 26/sup 0/N was surveyed with Deep-Two, Seabeam, and GLORIA in the area where chemosynthetic communities were discovered via ALVIN in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. Seabeam bathymetry and GLORIA images indicate that the escarpment is a generally straight cliff with average slopes of about 45/sup 0/ from 2,200 to more than 3,250 m. The escarpment's face is cut by 2-km wide box canyons whose head walls are as steep as the intervening escarpment's face. The shapes of these canyons are difficult to explain with the traditional models of canyon formation. Sidescan sonar images and bottom photographs reveal that the escarpment's face is composed of a series of long, straight bedding-plane terraces which are truncated along nearly vertical orthogonal joints. Exposure of these truncated strata indicate the face of the escarpment is eroded. The contact between the basal escarpment and the flat-lying abyssal hemipelagic sediments is abrupt. Apparently, chemosynthetic communities line extensive sections of the escarpment base where reduced brines seep out into the sea floor. The morphology suggests joints and deep seeps are controlling factors in scarp retreat.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative changes in detrital reservoir rocks caused by CO2-brine-rock interactions during first injection phases (Utrillas sandstones, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrezueta, E.; Ordóñez-Casado, B.; Quintana, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and interpret qualitative and quantitative changes at rock matrix scale of lower-upper Cretaceous sandstones exposed to supercritical (SC) CO2 and brine. The effects of experimental injection of CO2-rich brine during the first injection phases were studied at rock matrix scale, in a potential deep sedimentary reservoir in northern Spain (Utrillas unit, at the base of the Cenozoic Duero Basin).

    Experimental CO2-rich brine was exposed to sandstone in a reactor chamber under realistic conditions of deep saline formations (P ≈ 7.8 MPa, T ≈ 38 °C and 24 h exposure time). After the experiment, exposed and non-exposed equivalent sample sets were compared with the aim of assessing possible changes due to the effect of the CO2-rich brine exposure. Optical microscopy (OpM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aided by optical image analysis (OIA) were used to compare the rock samples and get qualitative and quantitative information about mineralogy, texture and pore network distribution. Complementary chemical analyses were performed to refine the mineralogical information and to obtain whole rock geochemical data. Brine composition was also analyzed before and after the experiment.

    The petrographic study of contiguous sandstone samples (more external area of sample blocks) before and after CO2-rich brine injection indicates an evolution of the pore network (porosity increase ≈ 2 %). It is probable that these measured pore changes could be due to intergranular quartz matrix detachment and partial removal from the rock sample, considering them as the early features produced by the CO2-rich brine. Nevertheless, the whole rock and brine chemical analyses after interaction with CO2-rich brine do not present important changes in the mineralogical and chemical configuration of the rock with respect to initial conditions, ruling out relevant precipitation or dissolution at these early

  1. Reflux Brines and Saline Groundwater, Murray Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, I.; Weaver, T. R.; Swane, I.

    2001-12-01

    Groundwater in the Murray Basin typically becomes more saline along its flowpaths; however, geochemical data, particularly Br/Cl ratios, indicate limited dissolution of salt from the aquifer is occurring. In the southern Murray Basin, recharge of groundwater to the deeper aquifers (Renmark Formation) is generally considered to occur at the highlands at the south basin margin while recharge to the shallow unconfined Parilla Sands aquifer occurs across much of the region. Regionally, discharge of groundwater occurs within the centre of the basin in zones of salt lakes. Groundwater in the regional recharge area of the southern Murray Basin shows dramatic variations in salinity (TDS contents ranging from 650 to >100,000 mg/L) over distances of a few kilometres in both shallow and deep aquifers. While the variation in topography is low (<70 m over 15,000 km2), local recharge and discharge processes control groundwater composition. Fresher groundwater underlies sand ridges that contain freshwater lakes located above the water table. The high salinity areas underlie a major palaeochannel, the Douglas Depression, which forms a topographic low. This depression contains abundant salt lakes and playas that represent local discharge sites for shallow groundwater. Stable isotope data show that the water in the high salinity zones underwent evaporation. Major element data (particularly Mg/Ca/SO4 ratios) indicate that the saline groundwaters have precipitated gypsum. Together the data indicate that brines produced in these saline lakes reflux into the underlying aquifers to depths of up to 180 m. In the semi-arid environment of SE Australia, reflux brines in both local and regional discharge areas are important in controlling the distribution of salinity in the Murray Basin as a whole. The observation that both shallow and deep aquifers show similar chemical trends implies that there is significant vertical interconnection throughout the basin. The confining layers are thin

  2. The sup 36 Cl ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, east Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.; Margaritz, M.A.; Hollos, G. ); Paul, M.; Boaretto, E. ); Hillaire-Marcel, C. ); Taieb, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The depression in the East African Rift which includes both Lake Magadi and Lake Natron forms a closed basin within which almost all the dissolved chloride originates in precipitation, since there is no important source of very ancient sedimentary chloride. This provides an ideal setting for the evaluation of the {sup 36}Cl methodology as a geochemical and hydrological tracer. The main source of recent water, as represented by the most dilute samples measured, is characterized by a {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratio of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}, in agreement with the calculated value expected in precipitation. Surface evaporation increases the chlorinity of the local freshwater inflow by about a factor of 110 without changing the isotopic ratio, indicating that little chloride enters the system in the form of sediment leachate. A second type of brine found in the basin occurs in a hot deep groundwater reservoir and is characterized by lower {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios (<1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}). By comparing this value with the 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} in recent recharge, one obtains an approximate salt accumulation age of 760 Ka which is consistent with thee time of the first appearance of the lake. These older brines also have lower {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H values which indicate that they were recharged during a climatically different era. The {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in the inflowing waters and in the accumulated brine, together with the known age of the Lake Magadi basin, may be used to estimate the importance of the hypogene and epigene, as opposed to the meteoric, mode of {sup 36}Cl production. Such a calculation shows that the hypogene and epigene processes together contribute less than 6% of the total {sup 36}Cl present in the lake.

  3. 7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, skins were rolled in borax and packed into barrels, such as those seen in background. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  4. Occurrence of aspartyl proteases in brine after herring marinating.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz; Lepczyński, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herrings are marinated in a brine consisting of salt and acetic acid. During marinating, various nitrogen fractions diffuse from fish flesh to the brine, causing significant nutritional quality losses of the raw material. In this study, it has been demonstrated for the first time that proteases diffuse from the fish to the marinating brine. Using ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on pepstatin-A agarose bed the aspartyl proteases were purified and concentrated over 2600-fold from a marinating brine. Pepstatin-A completely inhibited the activity of the purified preparation. The preparation was active against fluorogenic substrates specific for cathepsin D and E and inactive against substrates specific for cysteine cathepsins. Depending on incubation time, the preparation showed pH-optimum at 2.0 or 4.5. The 2D SDS-PAGE separation demonstrated the presence of a few proteins with molecular weights and pI values typical of cathepsin D, E and pepsin. PMID:26471581

  5. 53. Interior of launch support building, brine chiller, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Interior of launch support building, brine chiller, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  6. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  7. Uranium-thorium series radionuclides in brines and reservoir rocks from two deep geothermal boreholes in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, southeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukin, Jeffrey G.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Teh-Lung, Ku; Elders, Wilfred A.

    1987-10-01

    Naturally occurring U and Th series radionuclides have been analyzed in high temperature brines (~300°C, 25 wt% dissolved solids) and associated rocks from two deep geothermal wells located on the northeastern margin of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). These data are part of a study of the SSGF as a natural analog of possible radionuclide behavior near a nuclear waste repository constructed in salt beds, and permit evaluation of some characteristics of water-rock interaction in the SSGF. Rock/Brine concentration ratios ( Rc = (dpm/ g) rock/(dpm/ g) brine) were found to vary from near unity for isotopes of Ra, Pb and Rn to about 5 × 10 5 for 232Th. The high sorptivity of 232Th is closely followed by that of 238U and 234U ( Rc ~ 5 × 10 4), suggesting that U is retained in the +4 oxidation state by the reducing conditions in the brines. The relatively high solubility of 210Pb and 212Pb is attributed to formation of chloride complexes, while the high Ra solubility is attributed to chloride complexing, a lack of suitable adsorption sites due to the high brine salinity and temperature, and the reducing conditions that prevent MnO 2 and RaSO 4 from forming. The 228Ra /226Ra ratios in the brines are approximately equal to those of their parents ( 232Th /230Th ) in associated rocks, indicating that Ra equilibration in the brine-rock system is achieved within the mean life of 228Ra (8.3 years). The 224Ra /228Ra ratios in these brines are about 0.7, indicating that either (1) brine composition is not homogeneous and 224Ra decays in fracture zones deficient in Ra and Th as the brine travels to the wellhead or (2) Ra equilibration in the brine-host rock system is not complete within the mean life of 224Ra (5.2 days) because the desorption of 224Ra from the solid phase is impeded. The 228Ac /228Ra activity ratio in the SSGF brines studied is <0.1, and from this ratio the residence time of 228Ac in the brine before sorption onto solid surfaces is estimated to be <70

  8. Investigation of SH and CS radicals formation dynamics inside the hot filament chemical vapor deposition environment by means of cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzaianu, Madalina Dora

    2008-10-01

    The addition of traces amounts of sulfur containing gasses, such as H 2S, during the hot filament chemical vapor deposition of diamond thin films involving methane and hydrogen as a carrier gas, proved to enhance the formation of the nano-structured diamond and cause significant changes in the film growth behavior. The sulfur-incorporated nanocrystalline diamond, showing interesting electronic and tribological properties, raised scientific inquires about the fundamental mechanisms occurring inside the HFCVD reactor during the diamond growth. A better insight into the gas-phase and heterogeneous underlying processes can generate new ides for the customizing and optimization of the diamond synthesis in the view of new prospects of valuable technological applications. The SH and CS radicals, thought to be among the important precursors in the gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry, were studied by means of Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS), a powerful non-intrusive, self-calibrating spectroscopic diagnostic tool, employed to detect the A(0) ← X(0) transition near 323 and 259 nm for SH and CS, respectively, and the A(0) ← X(1) transition near 352 nm for the SH radical. CRDS is particularly suitable to detect SH and CS radicals due to its high sensitivity, discrimination and spatial resolution, as well as the ability to provide absolute values of species concentrations. The fitting of the measured CRD decay traces of the SH and CS radicals provided the corresponding ringdown times. The substantial changes in the ringdown times observed when the filament temperature was raised to 2700 +/- 50 K (from 4.04 +/- 0.04 to 0.260 +/- 0.003 mus for SH and from 4.12 +/- 0.05 to 3.04 +/- 0.03 mus for CS, respectively) are compatible with the presence of SH and CS radicals. A simulation of the rotationally resolved SH and CS spectra near UV, based on the analysis of the radicals' Doppler line width, led to an estimate of their effective rotational temperature. The values

  9. A phase field model for brine channels in sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Valeria; Fabrizio, Mauro; Grandi, Diego

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we present a phenomenological mathematical model for describing the features of the brine channels in sea ice. The differential system is composed of the Ginzburg-Landau and Cahn-Hilliard equations, in addition to the heat equation, that controls the ice-liquid phase transition by the temperature and hence the establishment of brine channels. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  10. Dense, Viscous Brine Behavior in Heterogeneous Porous Medium Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. Johnson; Pedit, J.A.; Gasda, S.E.; Farthing, M.W.; Murphy, L.L.; Knight, S.R.; Brubaker, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of dense, viscous calcium bromide brine solutions used to remediate systems contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is considered in laboratory and field porous medium systems. The density and viscosity of brine solutions are experimentally investigated and functional forms fit over a wide range of mass fractions. A density of 1.7 times, and a corresponding viscosity of 6.3 times, that of water is obtained at a calcium bromide mass fraction of 0.53. A three-dimensional laboratory cell is used to investigate the establishment, persistence, and rate of removal of a stratified dense brine layer in a controlled system. Results from a field-scale experiment performed at the Dover National Test Site are used to investigate the ability to establish and maintain a dense brine layer as a component of a DNAPL recovery strategy, and to recover the brine at sufficiently high mass fractions to support the economical reuse of the brine. The results of both laboratory and field experiments show that a dense brine layer can be established, maintained, and recovered to a significant extent. Regions of unstable density profiles are shown to develop and persist in the field-scale experiment, which we attribute to regions of low hydraulic conductivity. The saturated-unsaturated, variable-density ground-water flow simulation code SUTRA is modified to describe the system of interest, and used to compare simulations to experimental observations and to investigate certain unobserved aspects of these complex systems. The model results show that the standard model formulation is not appropriate for capturing the behavior of sharp density gradients observed during the dense brine experiments. PMID:20444520

  11. Heat flow and brine generation following the Chesapeake Bay bolide impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.

    2003-01-01

    Calculations indicate that the impact of an asteroid or comet on the Atlantic Coastal Plain 35 million years ago created subsequent hydrothermal activity and conditions suitable for phase separation and the creation of the brine observed in the groundwater at the site today. A calculation of groundwater velocity using Darcy's law suggests flow rates are insufficient to have moved the water out of the crater within 35 million years. A similar calculation using Pick's law demonstrates that solutes cannot have escaped by molecular diffusion since the impact. Simulations from other investigators using shock-physics codes indicate that the crust would have been vaporized or melted down to at least 2 km at the time of impact. Based on these calculations, a simulation of heat conduction was made assuming a 1000 ??C initial crustal temperature. The hot crust acted as a heat source, with temperatures peaking in the overlying sediment about 10,000 years later. The pressure and temperature conditions within the sediment during that time would have been favorable for phase separation and generation of a residual brine, which may be found today in the inner crater. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of brines and evaporites of Lake Katwe, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasedde, Hillary; Kirabira, John Baptist; Bäbler, Matthäus U.; Tilliander, Anders; Jonsson, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Lake Katwe brines and evaporites were investigated to determine their chemical, mineralogical and morphological composition. 30 brine samples and 3 solid salt samples (evaporites) were collected from different locations of the lake deposit. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of the samples including Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), ion chromatography, and potentiometric titration. The mineralogical composition and morphology of the evaporites was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Physical parameters of the lake brines such as density, electrical conductivity, pH, and salinity were also studied. The results show that the lake brines are highly alkaline and rich in Na+, Cl-, CO32-, SO42-, and HCO3- with lesser amounts of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Br-, and F- ions. The brines show an intermediate transition between Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types. Among the trace metals, the lake brines were found to be enriched in B, I, Sr, Fe, Mo, Ba, and Mn. The solid salts are composed of halite mixed with other salts such as hanksite, burkeite and trona. It was also observed that the composition of the salts varies considerably even within the same grades.

  13. Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

    1999-07-01

    Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes

  14. Anoxic Corrosion of Steel and Lead in Na - Cl ± Mg-Dominated Brines in Atmospheres Containing CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselle, G. T.; Johnsen, S.; Allen, C.; Roselle, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository developed by the U.S. Department of Energy for the disposal of transuranic radioactive waste in bedded salt (Permian Salado Fm.). In order to minimize radionuclide release from the repository it is desirable to maintain these species in their least-soluble form (i.e., low oxidation states). Post-closure conditions in the WIPP will control the speciation and solubility of radionuclides in the waste. Microbially-produced CO2 from cellulosic, plastic and rubber materials in the waste may acidify any brine present and increase the actinide solubilities. Thus, the DOE emplaces MgO in the repository to buffer fCO2 and pH within ranges favoring lower actinide solubilities. Large quantities of low-C steel and Pb present in the WIPP may also consume CO2. We present initial results from a series of multiyear experiments investigating the corrosion of steel and Pb alloys under WIPP-relevant conditions. The objective is to determine the extent to which these alloys consume CO2 via the formation of carbonates or other phases, potentially supporting MgO in CO2 sequestration. In these experiments steel and Pb coupons are immersed in brines under WIPP-relevant conditions using a continuous gas flow-through system. The experimental apparatus maintains the following conditions: pO2 < 5 ppm; temperature of 26 °C; relative humidity at 78%±10%; and a range of pCO2 values (0, 350, 1500 and 3500 ppm, balance N2). Four high-ionic-strength-brines are used: Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine associated with the Salado Fm.; Energy Research and Development Administration WIPP Well 6 (ERDA-6), a predominately Na-Cl brine; GWB with organic ligands (EDTA, acetate, citrate, and oxalate); and ERDA-6 with the same organic ligands. Steel coupons removed after 6 months show formation of several phases dependent on the pCO2. SEM analysis with EDS shows the presence of a green Fe (±Mg)-chlori-hydroxide phase at p

  15. Brine: a computer program to compute brine migration adjacent to a nuclear waste canister in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, G.D.; Fuller, M.E.

    1980-06-10

    This report presents a mathematical model used to predict brine migration toward a nuclear waste canister in a bedded salt repository. The mathematical model is implemented in a computer program called BRINE. The program is written in FORTRAN and executes in the batch mode on a CDC 7600. A description of the program input requirements and output available is included. Samples of input and output are given.

  16. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  17. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (<10,000 ppm TDS) waters. These modified procedures have been successfully tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly

  18. Dynamic Formation of a Hot Field Reversed Configuration with Improved Confinement by Supersonic Merging of Two Colliding High-β Compact Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Guo, H. Y.; Tuszewski, M.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Barnes, D.; Rostoker, N.; Anderson, M. G.; Andow, R.; Bonelli, L.; Brandi, F.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Bystritskii, V.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Feng, P.; Galeotti, L.; Garate, E.; Giammanco, F.; Glass, F. J.; Gornostaeva, O.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Hollins, M.; Isakov, I.; Jose, V. A.; Li, X. L.; Luo, Y.; Marsili, P.; Mendoza, R.; Meekins, M.; Mok, Y.; Necas, A.; Paganini, E.; Pegoraro, F.; Pousa-Hijos, R.; Primavera, S.; Ruskov, E.; Qerushi, A.; Schmitz, L.; Schroeder, J. H.; Sibley, A.; Smirnov, A.; Song, Y.; Sun, X.; Thompson, M. C.; van Drie, A. D.; Walters, J. K.; Wyman, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    A hot stable field-reversed configuration (FRC) has been produced in the C-2 experiment by colliding and merging two high-β plasmoids preformed by the dynamic version of field-reversed θ-pinch technology. The merging process exhibits the highest poloidal flux amplification obtained in a magnetic confinement system (over tenfold increase). Most of the kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy with total temperature (Ti+Te) exceeding 0.5 keV. The final FRC state exhibits a record FRC lifetime with flux confinement approaching classical values. These findings should have significant implications for fusion research and the physics of magnetic reconnection.

  19. HOT STARS WITH HOT JUPITERS HAVE HIGH OBLIQUITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Fabrycky, Daniel; Johnson, John Asher

    2010-08-01

    We show that stars with transiting planets for which the stellar obliquity is large are preferentially hot (T{sub eff} > 6250 K). This could explain why small obliquities were observed in the earliest measurements, which focused on relatively cool stars drawn from Doppler surveys, as opposed to hotter stars that emerged more recently from transit surveys. The observed trend could be due to differences in planet formation and migration around stars of varying mass. Alternatively, we speculate that hot-Jupiter systems begin with a wide range of obliquities, but the photospheres of cool stars realign with the orbits due to tidal dissipation in their convective zones, while hot stars cannot realign because of their thinner convective zones. This in turn would suggest that hot Jupiters originate from few-body gravitational dynamics and that disk migration plays at most a supporting role.

  20. REVIEW OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS USED FOR CHARACTERIZING BRINE POCKETS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, S. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Pant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository built and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for disposal of radioactive transuranic waste. The repository is located in the southeastern part of New Mexico at 658.5 m from the surface in the bedded salt deposit (Salado Formation) of the Delaware Basin. Pressurized brine reservoirs were encountered while drilling (1mile north) into the Castile Formation which underlies the WIPP repository. Typically these pockets are located below 1000m which precludes use of high resolution surface geophysical methods. The operator decided to use direct borehole logging and time domain electromagnetic induction method (TDEM) to characterize the possible existence of brine pockets under the WIPP underground workings. The scope of the present review is limited to TDEM analysis only. The geophysical loggings of boreholes are an integral part of subsurface drilling and provide isolated point-samples of the drilled interior. The geophysical logs are typically records of the electrical properties (resistivity logs) of the subsurface strata and logging process is relatively more direct and intrusive. The TDEM is a surface geophysical technique which is non-intrusive with low spatial frequency resolution and provides averaged information about the subsurface units. In the TDEM method, electrical impulses are provided into the subsurface via large electrical coils on the surface. The recording of subsequent transient decay functions from receiver coils provides the data used in the analysis. Due to the depth involved at the WIPP site large transmitter loops (500m by 500m) were required. The primary geophysical characteristic being exploited to investigate the brines at the WIPP site is related to the fact that the brine saturated rocks are electrically more conductive than the bedded salt deposit overlying the Castile Formation. Typically the TDEM data are processed and analyzed to generate geoelectric profiles

  1. Hot Meetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Mary

    2002-01-01

    A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.

  2. ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

    2002-02-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  3. Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wright, R.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  4. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  5. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  6. Unique Prokaryotic Consortia in Geochemically Distinct Sediments from Red Sea Atlantis II and Discovery Deep Brine Pools

    PubMed Central

    Siam, Rania; Mustafa, Ghada A.; Sharaf, Hazem; Moustafa, Ahmed; Ramadan, Adham R.; Antunes, Andre; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Uli; Marsis, Nardine G. R.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Sogin, Mitchell; Ferreira, Ari J. S.; Dorry, Hamza El

    2012-01-01

    The seafloor is a unique environment, which allows insights into how geochemical processes affect the diversity of biological life. Among its diverse ecosystems are deep-sea brine pools - water bodies characterized by a unique combination of extreme conditions. The ‘polyextremophiles’ that constitute the microbial assemblage of these deep hot brines have not been comprehensively studied. We report a comparative taxonomic analysis of the prokaryotic communities of the sediments directly below the Red Sea brine pools, namely, Atlantis II, Discovery, Chain Deep, and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Analyses of sediment samples and high-throughput pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified environmental 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) revealed that one sulfur (S)-rich Atlantis II and one nitrogen (N)-rich Discovery Deep section contained distinct microbial populations that differed from those found in the other sediment samples examined. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, and Euryarchaeota were the most abundant bacterial and archaeal phyla in both the S- and N-rich sections. Relative abundance-based hierarchical clustering of the 16S rDNA pyrotags assigned to major taxonomic groups allowed us to categorize the archaeal and bacterial communities into three major and distinct groups; group I was unique to the S-rich Atlantis II section (ATII-1), group II was characteristic for the N-rich Discovery sample (DD-1), and group III reflected the composition of the remaining sediments. Many of the groups detected in the S-rich Atlantis II section are likely to play a dominant role in the cycling of methane and sulfur due to their phylogenetic affiliations with bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction. PMID:22916172

  7. Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Crude Oil/Brine Displacement in Calcite Mesopores.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, Mohammad; Piri, Mohammad; Goual, Lamia

    2016-04-12

    Unconventional reservoirs such as hydrocarbon-bearing shale formations and ultratight carbonates generate a large fraction of oil and gas production in North America. The characteristic feature of these reservoirs is their nanoscale porosity that provides significant surface areas between the pore walls and the occupying fluids. To better assess hydrocarbon recovery from these formations, it is crucial to develop an improved insight into the effects of wall-fluid interactions on the interfacial phenomena in these nanoscale confinements. One of the important properties that controls the displacement of fluids inside the pores is the threshold capillary pressure. In this study, we present the results of an integrated series of large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed to investigate the effects of wall-fluid interactions on the threshold capillary pressures of oil-water/brine displacements in a calcite nanopore with a square cross section. Fully atomistic models are utilized to represent crude oil, brine, and calcite in order to accommodate electrostatic interactions and H-bonding between the polar molecules and the calcite surface. To this end, we create mixtures of various polar and nonpolar organic molecules to better represent the crude oil. The interfacial tension between oil and water/brine and their contact angle on calcite surface are simulated. We study the effects of oil composition, water salinity, and temperature and pressure conditions on these properties. The threshold capillary pressure values are also obtained from the MD simulations for the calcite nanopore. We then compare the MD results against those generated using the Mayer-Stowe-Princen (MSP) method and explain the differences. PMID:27010399

  8. Magnesium isotopic fractionation between Mg salts and brine in the course of evaporation of marine derived brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Netta; Lazar, Boaz; Halicz, Ludwik; Ittai, Gavrieli

    2014-05-01

    The Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg) of seawater-derived-brines and Mg-salts that precipitate from such brines during the course of evaporation were measured in laboratory experiments, in Mg-salts from the geological record and in the Dead Sea brine system. Mg evaporites are one of the sink fluxes in the global Mg geochemical cycle and play an important role in the evolution of hypersaline water bodies during the Phanerozoic including the modern Dead Sea and its predecessors, from the Pliocene Sedom Lagoon to the Late Pleistocene brine lakes1,2. The advanced evaporative evolution of marine derived brines includes precipitation of a series of Mg minerals3: epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), hexahydrite (MgSO4·6H2O), kieserite (MgSO4·H2O), kainite (MgSO4KCl·3H2O), carnallite (KMgCl3·6H2O), bischofite (MgCl2·6H2O) and in some cases polyhalite (K2MgCa2(SO4)4·2H2O). To the best of our knowledge, just two Mg isotopic fractionation factors between Mg salts and brines (Δ26Mgsalt-brine) were determined up to date: the equilibrium fractionation between epsomite and MgSO4 solution was found to be about 0.6o4 and the fractionation between carnallite and Dead Sea brine was found to be 0.6o,5. Here we provide Mg isotope fractionation factors based on δ26Mg measurement in brines and precipitating Mg-salts during the evaporation path of seawater. The sequence of Mg salts precipitated in our evaporation experiments was as follows: Mg-sulfate salts started to precipitate at Li scale degree of evaporation (DELi) of >50. The next salts to precipitate were Mg-K-sulfate salts at DELi ≡90, followed by Mg-K-chloride salts at DELi >150 and by Mg-chloride salt at DELi=195 (the end of the experiment). Our isotopic measurements show that Mg isotopes fractionate significantly and in different directions depending on the Mg mineral phase. The Δ26Mgsalt-brine for carnallite was greater than 0.6o and the Δ26Mgsalt-brine for kainite was about -1.2o. These results were corroborated by the δ26Mg

  9. MN Carbonates in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla: Possible Evidence of Brine Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of secondary phases in martian meteorites lies in their potential to provide clues about the martian environments responsible for their formation. During this study, we analyzed a number of carbonate-bearing fracture surfaces from the Nakhla meteorite. Here we describe the physical and chemical properties of several manganese-calcium-rich siderites. Additionally, we describe a potential model for the formation and alteration of these carbonates, and we suggest constraints on the conditions responsible for their precipitation. Nakhla is an olivine-bearing clinopyroxenite with minor amounts of feldspar, FeS, and Fe oxides. Secondary mineral assemblages include vein filling clay with embedded iron oxides, a calcium sulfate, amorphous silica, chlorapatite, halite and carbonates. Bridges and Grady suggested that the carbonates in Nakhla formed from brine evaporation. Isotope studies of the Mn rich siderite are also consistent with formation from hydrothermal fluids with an upper T constraint of 170 C.

  10. Redox states of underground brine system along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xueyan; Yu, Zhigang; Ning, Jinsong; Chen, Hongtao; Mi, Tiezhu

    2008-05-01

    Underground brine samples were collected along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, Shangdong, China in two field investigations in 2003. The brines are confined in the Quaternary sediment and underwent a series of geochemical changes. The redox states of these brines were assessed qualitatively based on the measurements of Eh and redox-sensitive species such as DO, NO NO{3/-}, Mn2+, Fe2+, SO{4/2-} in the brines. The redox condition of the underground brine is anoxic, and the redox reactions that controlled the redox potential of brines should be Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain XI10 Isolated from the Brine-Seawater Interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guishan; Fauzi Haroon, Mohamed; Zhang, Ruifu; Hikmawan, Tyas

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain XI10 was isolated from the brine-seawater interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain XI10, a gammaproteobacterium that synthesizes polysaccharides for biofilm formation when grown in liquid culture. PMID:26966209

  12. System-Level Numerical Simulation of Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide Using a Brine and Carbon Dioxide Leakage Risk Analysis Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kihm, J.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    A series of system-level numerical simulations of geologic storage of carbon dioxide was performed using a brine and carbon dioxide leakage risk analysis model. This model is composed of three parts as a system. The first part is a process-level simulation of multiphase fluid flow and heat transport in a target storage formation. A multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model TOUGH2 is implemented for the first part. The second part is a process-level simulation of brine and carbon dioxide leakage toward overlying aquifers and ground surfaces through wells and/or faults. A semi-analytical leakage model ELSA (Princeton Model) is implemented for the second part. The third part is a system-level probabilistic simulation of rates and amounts of brine and carbon dioxide leakage toward overlying aquifers and ground surfaces through wells and/or faults. A Monte Carlo probabilistic model is implemented for the third part. This model is applied to three different cases of hypothetical layered aquifer systems with alternation of sandstone (aquifer) and shale (aquitard). The first aquifer system is horizontal and has 100 abandoned wells. The second aquifer system is horizontal and has 100 abandoned wells and a fault. The third aquifer system is inclined and has 100 abandoned wells. For each case of the aquifer systems, the total simulation time period is set equal to 1,000 years including the carbon dioxide injection period of 50 years. The system-level numerical simulation results show that the carbon dioxide injection results in pore fluid pressure increase and thus causes brine and carbon dioxide leakage through the abandoned wells and/or fault. During the early time period, the pore fluid pressure increases in the target storage formation, and brine begins to leak through the abandoned wells and/or fault. Later, when the carbon dioxide plume reaches the bottom of the abandoned wells and/or fault, carbon dioxide begins to leak, and the brine leakage decreases. In

  13. Isolation and identification of oxidation products of syringol from brines and heated meat matrix.

    PubMed

    Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed new extraction and detection methods (using HPLC-UV and LC-MS), making it possible to analyze the smoke phenol syringol and its oxidation products nitrososyringol, nitrosyringol, and the syringol dimer 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol, which were identified in heated meat for the first time. Preliminary brine experiments performed with different concentrations of ascorbic acid showed that high amounts of this antioxidant also resulted in almost complete degradation of syringol and to formation of the oxidation products when the brines were heated at low pH values. Heat treatment (80°C) and subsequent simulated digestion applied to meat samples containing syringol, ascorbic acid and different concentrations of sodium nitrite produced 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol even at a low nitrite level in the meat matrix, while nitroso- and nitrosyringol were isolated only after the digestion experiments. Increasing amounts of oxygen in the meat matrix decreased the syringol concentration and enhanced the formation of the reaction products in comparison to the samples without added oxygen. PMID:27085115

  14. The stability and interfacial properties of functionalized silica nanoparticles dispersed in brine studied by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lara, Lucas S.; Rigo, Vagner A.; Miranda, Caetano R.

    2015-10-01

    The charge accumulation and surface tension of overall neutral functionalized silica nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in brine (NaCl and CaCl2) were studied using large scale fully atomistic molecular dynamics. Sulphonic (SA) and ethylene-glycol (EG) functional groups have been incorporated in the NP surface respectively, covering both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic characters. For the latter, groups with one (EG) and two (PEG2) monomers were considered. The ion distribution in electrolyte aqueous solution and its accumulation around NPs were monitored for different salt concentrations (from 0.05 up to 1 wt%), and temperature (300 and 350 K) at 1 atm. At certain conditions, the ion accumulation surrounding the overall neutral NPs leads to a formation of electrical double layers (EDL). Compared with the monovalent ions (NaCl), the accumulation of divalent ions (CaCl2) was found to be more pronounced and the thickness of the EDL around the NPs is more compact. According to the functional group attached, the EDL width also reduces going from EG, to PEG2, to SA. Our simulations suggest that the EDL formation, its narrowing, the large variation of the interface tension, followed by a steep increase in ion mobility are conditions which may precede instability of functionalized NPs dispersion in brine.

  15. Measurement of electrical impedance of a Berea sandstone core during the displacement of saturated brine by oil and CO2 injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Xue, Ziqiu; Park, Hyuck; Kiyama, Tamotsu; Zhang, Yi; Nishizawa, Osamu; Chae, Kwang-seok

    2015-12-01

    Complex electrical impedance measurements were performed on a brine-saturated Berea sandstone core while oil and CO2 were injected at different pressures and temperatures. The saturations of brine, oil, and CO2 in the core were simultaneously estimated using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. The formation factor of this Berea core and the resistivity indexes versus the brine saturations were calculated using Archie's law. The experimental results found different flow patterns of oil under different pressures and temperatures. Fingers were observed for the first experiment at 10 MPa and 40 °C. The fingers were restrained as the viscosity ratio of oil and water changed in the second (10 MPa and 25 °C) and third (5 MPa and 25 °C) experiments. The resistivity index showed an exponential increase with a decrease in brine saturation. The saturation exponent varied from 1.4 to 4.0 at different pressure and temperature conditions. During the oil injection procedure, the electrical impedance increased with oil saturation and was significantly affected by different oil distributions; therefore, the impedance varied whether the finger was remarkable or not, even if the oil saturation remained constant. During the CO2 injection steps, the impedance showed almost no change with CO2 saturation because the brine in the pores became immobile after the oil injection.

  16. Formation waters from Cambrian-age strata, Illinois Basin, USA: Constraints on their origin and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panno, Samuel V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Locke, Randall A.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Wimmer, Bracken; Iranmanesh, Abbas; Kelly, Walton R.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, brine samples from the Cambrian-age Mount Simon Formation (the deepest, most inaccessible sedimentary rock formation of the Illinois Basin) and the overlying Ironton-Galesville Formation were collected as part of a major research effort evaluating the feasibility of sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations. Halide and halide/cation ratios (especially Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios) from groundwater samples collected during this investigation suggest that the brines of the Cambrian-age strata formed by the evaporation of seawater well beyond the point of halite precipitation. The Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios, the presence of Mississippi-Valley-Type (MVT) ore mineralization in close proximity to the Illinois Basin, and the tectonic history of the region and the Illinois Basin suggest that components of ore-forming brines and perhaps crystalline basement brine are likely still present within the Mount Simon Formation. Halide and cation/halide ratio plots show that these brines have mixed with and have been diluted by subaerially evaporated seawater, seawater and dilute groundwater. Movement of brines out of the Mount Simon Formation and/or exchange with brines of other formations is constrained by the overlying, siltstone- and shale-rich Eau Claire Formation, a low-permeability layer. The most plausible interpretation of the halide and halide/cation ratio data is that the brines of the Cambrian-age strata were introduced to the Illinois Basin from outside of the basin, perhaps when the Illinois Basin was connected to the Arkoma (Oklahoma and Arkansas) and Black Warrior Basins (Alabama and Mississippi) via the Reelfoot Rift during Cambrian and early Ordovician time. In addition, the presence of some percentage of high NaCl, low Cl/Br brines from the crystalline basement is suggested given the geochemical relationships of the halide and cation/halide ratios and the tectonic history of the Illinois Basin. Finally, halide and cation/halide ratios determined

  17. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  18. Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1982-01-26

    The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

  19. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  20. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  1. Brines in Crustal Processes: Important Roles Inferred From Experimental Studies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Concentrated salt solutions are increasingly implicated as active agents in many fluid-mediated deep- and mid-crust processes, including rock-melting, charnockitic alteration, trace-element depletion and enrichment, regional metasomatism including dehydration and rehydration, albitization, deep-crustal oxidation, and formation of economic mineral deposits. Unique properties of saline aqueous fluids at high P and T, recently revealed by experimental work, provide new explanations for these metasomatic features and encourage further search for a brine connection in other outstanding problems of metamorphism. Specific properties of high P-T NaCl solutions favorable for deep-crustal metasomatism are high solubility for some rock-forming components, especially CaO and FeO, even at high salt concentration, very low H2O activity as a consequence of pressure-induced dissociation, allowing compatibility with anhydrous (granulite facies) mineral assemblages, and high ability to infiltrate mineral grain boundaries. The high affinity of alkali chloride brines for CaO can explain trace element mobility in high grade metamorphism, by virtue of the high solubility of apatite, and the puzzling phenomenon of subsolidus charnockitic alteration, as in South India, in which orthopyroxene is formed from the incongruent dissolution of calcic amphibole. The great pressure effect on lowering H2O activity in concentrated pore-fluid brines causes fluid-present melting points of crustal rocks to swerve sharply to higher temperatures with increasing depth, in contrast to the behavior in the presence of pure H2O. This fact could account for the formation of swarms of granite intrusions in shear-zone-related settings, such as the Caledonide granites of Scotland and northern Ireland. It is postulated that salty solutions of deep-seated origin inhibit melting as they rise through the lower crust, but induce large-scale melting at mid-crust levels because of increase of H2O activity by release of

  2. Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines on mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, M.; Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Pommerol, A.; McEwen, A.; Chevrier, V.; Brissaud, O.; Séjourné, A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent geomorphological observations as well as chemical and thermodynamic studies demonstrate that liquid water should be stable today on the Martian surface at some times of the day. In Martian conditions, brines would be particularly more stable than pure water because salts can depress the freezing point and lower the evaporation rate of water. Despite this evidence, no clear spectral signature of liquid has been observed so far by the hyperspectral imaging spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM. However, past spectral analysis lacks a good characterization of brines' spectral signatures. This study thus aims to determine how liquid brines can be detected on Mars by spectroscopy. In this way, laboratory experiments were performed for reproducing hydration and dehydration cycles of various brines while measuring their spectral signatures. The resulting spectra first reveal a very similar spectral evolution for the various brine types and pure water, with the main difference observed at the end of the dehydration with the crystallization of various hydrated minerals from brines. The main characteristic of this spectral behavior is an important decoupling between the evolution of albedo and hydration bands depths. During most of the wetting/drying processes, spectra usually display a low albedo associated with shallow water absorption band depths. Strong water absorption band depth and high albedo are respectively only observed when the surface is very wet and when the surface is very dry. These experiments can thus explain why the currently active Martian features attributed to the action of a liquid are only associated with low albedo and very weak spectral signatures. Hydration experiments also reveal that deliquescence occurs easily even at low temperature and moderate soil water vapor pressure and could thus cause seasonal darkening on Mars. These experiments demonstrate that the absence of water absorptions in CRISM in the middle afternoon does not rule out water

  3. Brine evolution and mineral deposition in hydrologically open evaporite basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Wood, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    A lumped-parameter, solute mass-balance model is developed to define the role of water outflow from a well-mixed basin. A mass-balance model is analyzed with a geochemical model designed for waters with high ionic strengths. Two typical waters, seawater and a Na-HCO3 ground water, are analyzed to illustrate the control that the leakage ratio (or hydrologic openness of the basin) has on brine evolution and the suite and thicknesses of evaporite minerals deposited. The analysis suggests that brines evolve differently under different leakage conditions. -from Authors

  4. Durability of high performance concrete in magnesium brine

    SciTech Connect

    Tumidajski, P.J.; Chan, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    The durability of six concretes exposed to magnesium brine was monitored for 24 months. These concretes incorporated ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, and fly ash. The Young`s moduli, chloride penetrations, and median pore diameters were measured. There was a cyclic nature to these properties due to the complicated interaction of hydration with magnesium, chloride and sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures, in combination with a long initial cure, provided the most durable concrete. Concrete with 65% slag had the best overall durability to the brines tested.

  5. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  6. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  7. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site. PMID:23971876

  8. Comparing (semi-) analytic solutions used to model the impact of deep carbon injection on the displacement and pressurization of the resident brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Kraemer, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into deep saline formations is seen as one possible technology for mitigating carbon emissions from utilities. The safety of the sequestered carbon dioxide is the focus of many studies with leakage through faults or abandoned wells as some of the main failure mechanisms. The focus of this study is on the displacement of resident brine and the resulting changes in pressure due to the injection of large volumes of super-critical phase carbon dioxide into the subsurface. The movement of brine becomes important if it travels vertically and reaches an existing or potential underground source of drinking water where an increase in salt content may threaten the viability of the drinking water source. Vertical displacement of brine may occur slowly through confining layers, or more rapidly through faults and abandoned wells. This presentation compares several (semi-) analytic solutions to determine their applicability to the problem of brine pressurization and displacement. The goal is to find ranges of formation parameters (e.g., formation seal conductivity, distance to lateral boundary, … ) for which simplifying assumption are justifiable Each simplification in the conceptual model (e.g., neglecting the lateral boundary turns a bounded domain into an infinite one) leads to a simpler (semi-) analytic solution. The process involves a solution hierarchy from the most complex solution down to the basic Theis solution. A software tool-kit implementing several (semi-) analytic solutions was developed for this study to facilitate the comparison of the solutions.

  9. Formation of biogenic sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides in a near-neutral pH hot spring: Implications for the origin of microfossils in high-temperature, Fe-rich environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Chen, Shun; Xu, Hengchao

    2013-12-01

    small hot spring that is informally called "Fe-waterfall spring" and is located in the Rehai geothermal area discharges hot (42 to 73°C), near-neutral (pH = 7.65) Fe-rich water. Submerged reddish precipitates are composed largely of ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, opal-A, quartz, and anorthite, as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the bacterial community in these precipitates is mainly composed of Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, β-proteobacteria, Deinococci-Thermus, and Chlorobi. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy examinations show that abundant sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides, which exhibit different morphologies and sizes, are present in Fe-rich precipitates. These sheath-like structures are composed of ferrihydrite rather than more crystalline lepidocrocite or goethite. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and nano secondary ion mass spectrometry reveal that they are mainly composed of Fe, Si, and O, together with some trace elements. Most of the sheath-like structures are not morphologically comparable to biogenic Fe oxyhydroxides produced by known chemolithotrophic Fe oxidizers, which is consistent with the fact that no chemolithotrophic Fe oxidizers were identified by molecular analysis in the precipitates. We suggest that the sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides are formed through passive Fe sorption and nucleation onto the cell walls of various thermophiles rather than by the direct metabolic activities of chemolithotrophic Fe oxidizers. Biogenic sheath-like Fe oxyhydroxides in Fe-waterfall spring have important implications for geochemical cycles driven by microorganisms, the origin of microfossils, and the formation of banded iron formations (BIFs) in the Archean ocean.

  10. A First Look at Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data in an Area of Altered Volcanic Rocks and Carbonate Formations, Hot Creek Range, South Central Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.; Mouat, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Three flight lines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected in 128 bands between 1.2 and 2.4 microns in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada on July 25, 1984. The flight lines are underlain by hydrothermally altered and unaltered Paleozoic carbonates and Tertiary rhyolitic to latitic volcanics in the Tybo mining district. The original project objectives were to discriminate carbonate rocks from other rock types, to distinguish limestone from dolomite, and to discriminate carbonate units from each other using AIS imagery. Because of high cloud cover over the prime carbonate flight line and because of the acquisition of another flight line in altered and unaltered volcanics, the study has been extended to the discrimination of alteration products. In an area of altered and unaltered rhyolites and latites in Red Rock Canyon, altered and unaltered rock could be discriminated from each other using spectral features in the 1.16 to 2.34 micron range. The altered spectral signatures resembled montmorillonite and kaolinite. Field samples were gathered and the presence of montmorillonite was confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  11. First results of an integrated monitoring concept to detect brine migration processes in freshwater aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, M.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Wagner, F.; Schröder, S.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of new carbon dioxide emissions is an important contribution to realise climate change mitigation solutions. One possibility consists in the long-term storage of industrial produced greenhouse gas in deep saline aquifers. The most important research focus of the multidisciplinary integrated project BRINE is to ensure the safe storage operation. This research work refers to an area in eastern Brandenburg (Germany). However, the analysis can be applied to regions with comparable geological characteristics. The relevant reservoir horizon is located within a classic anticlinal structure, generated by salt tectonic processes. Due to the local geological site specifics, the CO2 injection could cause a pressure build-up and thus a brine migration in the reservoir layer. For this reason, an adequate monitoring system for the observation of possible brine displacement into upper freshwater aquifers is essential. For both the qualitatively and quantitatively investigation a combination of several geophysical methods is needed. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a measurement method with a comparatively high spatial resolution on small scales. Therefore it will be generally used for borehole and near subsurface investigations. The presented monitoring concept focusses on three potential pathways. Beside regional fault-zones, also formation defects in the upper aquitards and leakages around the wellbore could promote a saltwater migration. The main objective is to find an optimal combination of several electrode arrays like surface, surface-downhole and cross-borehole configurations to detect time-lapse effects of the resistivity distribution in the subsurface. By means of numerical modelling studies of different salinisation scenarios, we have tested several standard and several adapted electrode arrays. In order to further improve the results, an inversion code based on the measured resistance ratios is used. Parallel to the large-scale modelling

  12. Implications of formation water movement based on isotopic data and elemental geochemistry, southwestern Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Frape, S.K.; Dollar, P.; Fritz, P.; Travail, R.A.; McNutt, R.H.; MacQueen, R.W.

    1986-08-01

    Formation waters in Paleozoic sediments analyzed for /sup 2/H, /sup 18/O, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, tritium, and major/minor contents show the following. (1) The stable isotope contents are typical for formation brines, but have /sup 18/O and /sup 2/H values that group according to formation age, with waters in Cambrian strata being most depleted; and the most concentrated brines do not compare well to known Michigan basin brines. Many waters are Ca-Na-Cl brines similar to typical Canadian shield brines, although the origin of the various chemical species may be masked by intense rock-water interaction. (2) The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr values for Cambrian brines range from 0.7095 to 0.7102. In one detailed study, the brine and calcite cement had the same value (0.7095), which is slightly higher than Cambrian seawater (0.7091-0.7092), and indicates that the cement precipitated from the brine during diagenesis. The reservoir rock has a /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr value of 0.7330, indicating little or no water/rock exchange. Sr isotopic values for Ordovician brines range from 0.7095 to 0.7103, which is higher than Ordovician seawater (0.7085). In contrast, the Silurian Salina Formation brines and Silurian seawater values are the same (0.7085-0.7087). Despite an active tectonic history, causing considerable faulting and movement within Paleozoic and Precambrian rock strata, the isotopic results for the Cambrian indicate isotopic equilibrium between brine and cement; therefore, these formation waters have not moved since the calcite formed.

  13. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT FOR BRINE PITS. CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING FOR BRINE PUMPS. CONCRETE PIPE TRENCH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-808-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100677. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING RISKS POSED BY BRINES CONTAINING DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic disposal of supercritical carbon dioxide in saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas fields will cause large volumes of brine to become saturated with dissolved CO2 at concentrations of 50 g/l or more.  As CO2 dissolves in brine, the brine de...

  15. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines...

  16. Treatment of RO brine-towards sustainable water reclamation practice.

    PubMed

    Ng, H Y; Lee, L Y; Ong, S L; Tao, G; Viawanath, B; Kekre, K; Lay, W; Seah, H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment and disposal of RO brine is an important part in sustaining the water reclamation practice. RO brine generated from water reclamation contains high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds. Cost-effective technologies for treatment of RO brine are still relatively unexplored. Thus, this study aim to determine a feasible treatment process for removal of both organic and inorganic compounds in RO brine generated from NEWater production. The proposed treatment consists of biological activated carbon (BAC) column followed by capacitive deionization (CDI) process for organic and inorganic removals, respectively. Preliminary bench-scale study demonstrated about 20% TOC removal efficiency was achieved using BAC at 40 mins empty bed contact time (EBCT) while the CDI process was able to remove more than 90% conductivity reducing it from 2.19 mS/cm to only about 164 microS/cm. More than 90% cations and anions in the BAC effluent were removed using CDI process. In addition, TOC and TN removals of 78% and 91%, respectively were also attained through this process. About 90% water recovery was achieved. This process shows the potential of increased water recovery in the reclamation process while volume for disposal can be further minimized. Further studies on the sustainable operation and process optimization are ongoing. PMID:18776632

  17. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-07-01

    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery. PMID:23726709

  18. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines current developments

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.

    1997-03-10

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the R&D effort allowed to identify a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became a basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource and therefore differs, the emerging technology has to be also flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  19. Mechanical Behaviour of Reservoir Rock Under Brine Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Richa; Ranjith, P. G.; Choi, S. K.; Haque, A.; Yellishetty, Mohan; Hong, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic emissions (AE) and stress-strain curve analysis are well accepted ways of analysing crack propagation and monitoring the various failure stages (such as crack closure, crack initiation level during rock failure under compression) of rocks and rock-like materials. This paper presents details and results of experimental investigations conducted for characterizing the brittle failure processes induced in a rock due to monocyclic uniaxial compression on loading of two types of sandstone core samples saturated in NaCl brines of varying concentration (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15 % NaCl by weight). The two types of sandstone samples were saturated under vacuum for more than 45 days with the respective pore fluid to allow them to interact with the rocks. It was observed that the uniaxial compressive strength and stress-strain behaviour of the rock specimens changed with increasing NaCl concentration in the saturating fluid. The acoustic emission patterns also varied considerably for increasing ionic strength of the saturating brines. These observations can be attributed to the deposition of NaCl crystals in the rock's pore spaces as well some minor geo-chemical interactions between the rock minerals and the brine. The AE pattern variations could also be partly related to the higher conductivity of the ionic strength of the high-NaCl concentration brine as it is able to transfer more acoustic energy from the cracks to the AE sensors.

  20. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  1. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  2. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Current developments

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Bajsarowicz, V.; McCloud, M.

    1997-07-07

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the r and D effort identified a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became the basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource, the emerging technology has to be flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  3. Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchini, Jean-francois; Khaing, Hnin; Reed, Donald T

    2010-01-01

    When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

  4. Retained Austenite Decomposition and Carbide Formation During Tempering a Hot-Work Tool Steel X38CrMoV5-1 Studied by Dilatometry and Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchbacher, Christoph; Zinner, Silvia; Leitner, Harald

    2012-12-01

    The microstructural development of a hot-work tool steel X38CrMoV5-1 during continuous heating to tempering temperature has been investigated with the focus on the decomposition of retained austenite (Stage II) and carbide formation (Stages III and IV). Investigations have been carried out after heating to 673.15 K, 773.15 K, 883.15 K (400 °C, 500 °C, 610 °C) and after a dwell time of 600 seconds at 883.15 K (610 °C). Dilatometry and atom probe tomography were used to identify tempering reactions. A distinctive reaction takes place between 723.15 K and 823.15 K (450 °C and 550 °C) which is determined to be the formation of M3C from transition carbides. Stage II could be evidenced with the atom probe results and indirectly with dilatometry, indicating the formation of new martensite during cooling. Retained austenite decomposition starts with the precipitation of alloy carbides formed from nanometric interlath retained austenite films which are laminary arranged and cause a reduction of the carbon content within the retained austenite. Preceding enrichment of substitutes at the matrix/carbide interface in the early stages of Cr7C3 alloy carbide formation could be visualised on the basis of coarse M3C carbides within the matrix. Atom probe tomography has been found to be very useful to complement dilatational experiments in order to characterise and identify microstructural changes.

  5. Assessment of brine migration risks along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, 'renewable' methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas and coal. Additionally, these technologies may also create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply. For example, the injection of CO2 into the subsurface causes an increase in pressure reaching far beyond the actual radius of influence of the CO2 plume, potentially leading to large amounts of displaced salt water. In this work we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale the spatial scale required for this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, as the regional hydrogeology has to be considered. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt domes are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence has to be taken into account. We put the focus of our investigations on the latter type of scenario, since there is still a poor understanding of the role that salt diapirs would play in CO2 storage projects. As there is hardly any field data available on this scale, we compare different levels of model complexity in order to identify the relevant processes for brine displacement and simplify the modeling process wherever possible, for example brine injection vs. CO2 injection, simplified geometries vs. the complex formation geometry and the role of salt induced density differences on flow. Further we investigate the impact of the

  6. Advective, Diffusive and Eruptive Leakage of CO2 and Brine within Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, N. H.; Han, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated a natural analogue for CO2 leakage near the Green River, Utah, aiming to understand the influence of various factors on CO2 leakage and to reliably predict underground CO2 behavior after injection for geologic CO2 sequestration. Advective, diffusive, and eruptive characteristics of CO2 leakage were assessed via a soil CO2 flux survey and numerical modeling. The field results show anomalous CO2 fluxes (> 10 g m-2 d-1) along the faults, particularly adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). Combined to similar isotopic ratios of gas and progressive evolution of brine chemistry at springs and geysers, a gradual decrease of soil CO2 flux from the Little Grand Wash (LGW; ~36,259 g m-2 d-1) to Salt Wash (SW; ~1,428 g m-2 d-1) fault zones reveals the same CO2 origin and potential southward transport of CO2 over 10-20 km. The numerical simulations overtly exhibit lateral transport of free CO2 and CO2-rich brine from the LGW to SW fault zones through the regional aquifers (e.g., Entrada, Navajo, Kayenta, Wingate, White Rim). CO2 travels predominantly as an aqueous phase (Xco2=~0.045) as previously suggested, giving rise to the convective instability that further accelerates CO2 dissolution. While the buoyant free CO2 always tends to ascend, a fraction of dense CO2-rich brine flows laterally into the aquifer and mixes with the formation fluids during upward migration along the fault. The fault always enhances advective CO2 transport regardless of its permeability (k). However, only the low-k fault scenario engenders development of CO2 anticlinal trap within the shallow aquifers (Entrada and Navajo), concentrating high CO­­­2 fluxes (~1,273 g m-2 d-1) within the northern footwall of the LGW fault similar to the field. Moreover, eruptive CO2 leakage at a well

  7. Characterization of dissolved organic material in the interstitial brine of Lake Vida, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawley, Kaelin M.; Murray, Alison E.; Doran, Peter T.; Kenig, Fabien; Stubbins, Aron; Chen, Hongmei; Hatcher, Patrick G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2016-06-01

    Lake Vida (LV) is located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Victoria Valley, East Antarctica) and has no inflows, outflows, or connectivity to the atmosphere due to a thick (16 m), turbid ice surface and cold (<-20 °C) subsurface alluvium surrounding the lake. The liquid portion of LV has a salinity about seven times that of seawater and is entrained in ice and sediment below the ice cap. This subzero (-13.4 °C), anoxic brine supports a microbial community, which has low levels of activity and has been isolated from the atmosphere for at least 2800 14C years before present. The brine has high dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC; 580 mg-C L-1 or greater); the study of which provides a unique opportunity to better understand biological and/or abiotic processes taking place in an isolated saline ecosystem with no external inputs. We isolated two sub-fractions of LV dissolved organic matter (DOM) by chemical separation using XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in series. This separation was followed by physical separation using ultrafiltration to isolate a higher molecular weight (HMW) fraction that was retained by the membrane and a salty, dilute low molecular weight fraction. This analytical path resulted in three, low salt sub-fractions and allowed comparison to other Antarctic lake DOM samples isolated using similar procedures. Compared to other Antarctic lakes, a lower portion of the DOC was retained by XAD-8 (∼10% vs. 16-24%) resin, while the portions retained by XAD-4 (∼8%) resin and the 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (∼50%) were similar. The 14C radiocarbon ages of the XAD-8 (mean 3940 ybp), XAD-4 (mean 4048 ybp) and HMW (mean 3270 ybp) fractions are all older than the apparent age of ice-cover formation (2800 ybp). Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry showed that compounds with two and three nitrogen atoms in the molecular formulas were common in both the LV-XAD8 and LV-XAD4 fractions, consistent with microbial production and processing. The long-term oxidation

  8. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  9. Formation of the Wiesloch Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the extensional setting of the Upper Rhinegraben, SW Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfaff, Katharina; Hildebrandt, Ludwig H.; Leach, David L.; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Markl, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the Wiesloch area, Southwest Germany, is controlled by graben-related faults of the Upper Rhinegraben. Mineralization occurs as vein fillings and irregular replacement ore bodies consisting of sphalerite, banded sphalerite, galena, pyrite, sulfosalts (jordanite and geocronite), barite, and calcite in the Middle Triassic carbonate host rock. Combining paragenetic information, fluid inclusion investigations, stable isotope and mineral chemistry with thermodynamic modeling, we have derived a model for the formation of the Wiesloch deposit. This model involves fluid mixing between ascending hot brines (originating in the crystalline basement) with sedimentary formation waters. The ascending brines originally had a near-neutral pH (around 6) and intermediate oxidation state, reflecting equilibrium with granites and gneisses in the basement. During fluid ascent and cooling, the pH of the brine shifted towards more acidic (around 4) and the oxidation state increased to conditions above the hematite-magnetite buffer. These chemical characteristics contrast strongly with those of the pore and fracture fluid residing in the limestone aquifer, which had a pH between 8 and 9 in equilibrium with calcite and was rather reduced due to the presence of organic matter in the limestone. Mixing between these two fluids resulted in a strong decrease in the solubility of silver-bearing sphalerite and galena, and calcite. Besides Wiesloch, several Pb-Zn deposits are known along the Upper Rhinegraben, including hydrothermal vein-type deposits like Badenweiler and the Michael mine near Lahr. They all share the same fluid origin and formation process and only differ in details of their host rock and fluid cooling paths. The mechanism of fluid mixing also seems to be responsible for the formation of other MVT deposits in Europe (e.g., Reocin, Northern Spain; Treves, Southern France; and Cracow-Silesia, Poland), which show notable

  10. Volatile Contents of Mafic Magmas From Cinder Cones in the Central Oregon High Cascades: Implications for Magma Formation and Mantle Conditions in a Hot Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscitto, D. M.; Wallace, P. J.; Johnson, E. R.; Kent, A.

    2009-12-01

    Naturally quenched basalt and basaltic andesite melt inclusions from tephra erupted from monogenetic vents in the Central Oregon High Cascades record pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents. The Cascades arc is an unusually hot setting characterized by slow (< 5 cm/a) subduction of young (< 16 Ma) oceanic crust. The Central Oregon segment of the arc has experienced the highest mafic output rate over the past 2 Ma and exhibits a wide range of primitive compositions reflecting a heterogeneous mantle source. Maximum volatile contents from six calc-alkaline cinder cones range from ~1.7-4.0 wt% H2O, 1200-2200 ppm S and 300-1300 ppm Cl. Volatile/HFSE ratios (100-520, 7-22, and 3-11 for H2O/Zr, S/Zr, and Cl/Zr, respectively), which should reflect the extent of volatile recycling from the subducted slab, are low compared to those from the southern Cascades (Shasta) and other arcs (Mexico, Central America, Kamchatka). A weak positive correlation is observed between (H2O, S, and Cl)/Zr and Ba/Nb ratios suggesting that small extents of slab-derived fluid added to the mantle wedge are responsible for observed volatile contents. Melt inclusion compositions are evolved (Fo77-84 host olivines, 4.3-6.6 wt% MgO), and modeling indicates that the trapped melts fractionated from primitive parental magmas by 28-55% crystallization (ol +cpx +spl ±plag) before being trapped as inclusions. Primary calc-alkaline basaltic (CAB) melts can be generated by 5-23% partial melting of a variably depleted mantle (≤ 5% previous melt extraction). Implied mantle temperatures are 25-50 C above the dry peridotite solidus (1300-1380 C at 1.5-2.0 GPa), considerably hotter than those calculated for other arcs and similar to back-arc basin mantle conditions. Additionally, a subset of H2O-rich basaltic andesite melt inclusions are highly depleted in HFSE. These melts (North-Sister-type) cannot be generated from the CAB mantle source. High SiO2 (53-54 wt%) and low trace element abundances suggest that

  11. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  12. Brine-induced advection of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons to arctic bottom waters

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.R. ); Hachmeister, L.E. ); McNabb, G.D. Jr. ); Smith, G.S. ); Manen, C.A. ); Sharpe, H.E.

    1991-05-01

    Extruded brine, generated during sea ice formation in nearshore arctic waters, will sink to the bottom and can form a stable bottom boundary layer. This layer can persist for periods of up to 4-6 months. Limited quantities of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons resulting from a spill of crude oil or refined petroleum distillate products during periods of ice growth can be transported as conservative components to the benthos with sinking brine. Once incorporated into the stable bottom boundary layer, these aromatic components are no longer subject to loss by evaporative processes, and they only can be diluted by ultimately mixing with uncontaminated water masses, a process that proceeds slowly throughout the ice-covered period. This mechanism for the transport of dissolved hydrocarbons has been demonstrated through a laboratory test-tank simulation and a chemical/physical oceanographic field program conducted in the Chukchi Sea near Pt. Frankline, AK (March 1985). The results are pertinent to shallow nearshore oil and gas exploration, development, production, and transportation activities in high latitude marine systems.

  13. Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

    2007-02-07

    In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

  14. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  15. Potential for preservation of halobacteria and their macromolecular constituents in brine inclusions from bedded salt deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, James K.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Onstott, Tullis C.

    1997-07-01

    Halobacteria cultured from salt deposits as old as 200 m.y. are assumed to be dormant halobacteria entombed in the brine inclusions that formed during deposition of the salt crystals. Hypersaline lakes may have also existed on early Mars. If so, evaporite minerals containing frozen brine inclusions may occur on the surface of Mars today. Analyses of samples of recently-deposited salt from Laguna Grande de la Sal in New Mexico revealed the presence of viable halobacteria. 16S rDNA from archae and eubacteria was also detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of directly-extracted DNA from Laguna Grande de la Sal sal. In contrast, no halophilic bacteria were cultured from 200 my polyhalite from the Salado Formation in New Mexico nor was archaea 16S rDNA detected by PCR amplification of DNA extracts from salt. A combination of microbiological, molecular, and geochemical approaches are being used to probe bedded salt deposits for evidence of microbial entrapment in primary fluid inclusions. A chronosequence of bedded salts from Death Valley, California that range in age from 0 to 200 kyr is the subject of current investigations to constrain the length of time that viable halophilic bacteria and associated macromolecules can be detected in bedded salts.

  16. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL LBNL and SNL for the UFD Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupled processes involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and studies conducted at Sandia, Los Alamos, and Berkeley National Laboratories. Interest into the disposal of heat-generating waste in salt has led to interest into water distribution and migration in both run-of-mine crushed and intact geologic salt. Ideally a fully coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical simulation is performed using numerical models with validated constitutive models and parameters. When mechanical coupling is not available, mechanical effects are prescribed in hydraulic models as source, boundary, or initial conditions. This report presents material associated with developing appropriate initial conditions for a non-mechanical hydrologic simulation of brine migration in salt. Due to the strong coupling between the mechanical and hydrologic problems, the initial saturation will be low for the excavation disturbed zone surrounding the excavation. Although most of the material in this report is not new, the author hopes it is presented in a format making it useful to other salt researchers.

  17. Resolution-independent modelling of environmental effects in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include ram-pressure stripping of both hot and cold gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Fu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The quenching of star formation in satellite galaxies is observed over a wide range of dark matter halo masses and galaxy environments. In the recent Guo et al. and Fu et al. semi-analytic + N-body models, the gaseous environment of the satellite galaxy is governed by the properties of the dark matter subhalo in which it resides. This quantity depends of the resolution of the N-body simulation, leading to a divergent fraction of quenched satellites in high- and low-resolution simulations. Here, we incorporate an analytic model to trace the subhaloes below the resolution limit. We demonstrate that we then obtain better converged results between the Millennium I and II simulations, especially for the satellites in the massive haloes (log Mhalo = [14, 15]). We also include a new physical model for the ram-pressure stripping of cold gas in satellite galaxies. However, we find very clear discrepancies with observed trends in quenched satellite galaxy fractions as a function of stellar mass at fixed halo mass. At fixed halo mass, the quenched fraction of satellites does not depend on stellar mass in the models, but increases strongly with mass in the data. In addition to the overprediction of low-mass passive satellites, the models also predict too few quenched central galaxies with low stellar masses, so the problems in reproducing quenched fractions are not purely of environmental origin. Further improvements to the treatment of the gas-physical processes regulating the star formation histories of galaxies are clearly necessary to resolve these problems.

  18. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pH<5 and are the product of evaporation of Dead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  19. Radiolytically-induced gas production in plutonium-spiked WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Okajima, S.; Brush, L.H.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    Gas generation due to alpha particle deposition was investigated in four WIPP relevant brines; WIPP brine A, ERDA-6, DH-36 and G8-B. This was done by spiking each brine with plutonium-239 and periodically sampling the gas phase to determine the nature of the gaseous products and the rates of gas generation. The predominant gas generated radiolytically was hydrogen, with yields ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 molec/100 eV for the four brines tested. Plutonium (VI) was stable in two synthetic brines, WIPP brine A and ERDA-6 but was rapidly reduced in the underground collected brines DH-36 and G8-B, although most of the plutonium remained in solution.

  20. Dewetting of silica surfaces upon reactions with supercritical CO2 and brine: pore-scale studies in micromodels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin; Kneafsey, Timothy J; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2012-04-01

    Wettability of reservoir minerals and rocks is a critical factor controlling CO(2) mobility, residual trapping, and safe-storage in geologic carbon sequestration, and currently is the factor imparting the greatest uncertainty in predicting capillary behavior in porous media. Very little information on wettability in supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2))-mineral-brine systems is available. We studied pore-scale wettability and wettability alteration in scCO(2)-silica-brine systems using engineered micromodels (transparent pore networks), at 8.5 MPa and 45 °C, over a wide range of NaCl concentrations up to 5.0 M. Dewetting of silica surfaces upon reactions with scCO(2) was observed through water film thinning, water droplet formation, and contact angle increases within single pores. The brine contact angles increased from initial values near 0° up to 80° with larger increases under higher ionic strength conditions. Given the abundance of silica surfaces in reservoirs and caprocks, these results indicate that CO(2) induced dewetting may have important consequences on CO(2) sequestration including reducing capillary entry pressure, and altering quantities of CO(2) residual trapping, relative permeability, and caprock integrity. PMID:22404561

  1. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extraction control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.

  2. Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia M. Wilson

    2009-11-30

    Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

  3. Biotite dissolution in brine at varied temperatures and CO2 pressures: its activation energy and potential CO2 intercalation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Jun, Young-Shin

    2012-10-16

    For sustainable geologic CO(2) sequestration (GCS), it is important to understand the effects of temperature and CO(2) pressure on mica's dissolution and surface morphological changes under saline hydrothermal conditions. Batch experiments were conducted with biotite (Fe-end member mica) under conditions relevant to GCS sites (35-95 °C and 75-120 atm CO(2)), and 1 M NaCl solution was used to mimic the brine. With increasing temperature, a transition from incongruent to congruent dissolution of biotite was observed. The dissolution activation energy based on Si release was calculated to be 52 ± 5 kJ mol(-1). By comparison with N(2) experiments, we showed that CO(2) injection greatly enhanced biotite's dissolution and its surface morphology evolutions, such as crack formation and detachment of newly formed fibrous illite. For biotite's dissolution and morphological evolutions, the pH effects of CO(2) were differentiated from the effects of bicarbonate complexation and CO(2) intercalation. Bicarbonate complexation effects on ion release from biotite were found to be minor under our experimental conditions. On the other hand, the CO(2) molecules in brine could get into the biotite interlayer and cause enhanced swelling of the biotite interlayer and hence the observed promotion of biotite surface cracking. The cracking created more reactive surface area in contact with brine and thus enhanced the later ion release from biotite. These results provide new information for understanding CO(2)-brine-mica interactions in saline aquifers with varied temperatures and CO(2) pressures, which can be useful for GCS site selection and operations. PMID:22989382

  4. Groundwater Quality Impacts Related to Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into a Shallow, Unconfined Limestone Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, D. H.; Hou, Z.; Dai, Z.; Zheng, L.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the impact of leaks related to geologic carbon sequestration on groundwater quality is limited by the complexity of subsurface aquifers and the geochemical reactions that control drinking water compositions. As a result, there is a high uncertainty associated with predictions, hampering monitoring plans, interpretation of the monitoring results, and mitigation plans for a given site. As a part of the National Risk Assessment Program (NRAP), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a model of the Edwards Aquifer in Texas has been developed to examine the geochemical impacts of leakage of CO2 and brine containing trace metals into an oxidizing unconfined, carbonate aquifer. We use STOMP-CO2-R, which is a multiphase flow simulator, coupled with the reactive transport module ECKEChem, both developed at PNNL, to simulate CO2 sequestration in deep saline formations and the associated reactions with formation minerals. The limestone almost entirely consists of calcite, with lesser amounts of dolomite and trace metals adsorbed on minor amounts of clay and iron oxides. A reduced order model of this more complex chemistry and physics based model has been developed to be included in a framework for quantifying the overall risks associated with CO2 injection, leaks and groundwater impacts. The aquifer model uses reduced-order models, provided by other NRAP groups, of CO2 and brine leakage from wellbores and faults as inputs. Geochemical input parameters were varied to determine parameter sensitivity and to generate a response surface of output variables. The output variables were pH < 6.5 or TDS > 500 ppm plume size and CO2 flux to atmosphere, as well the volume of aquifer with trace metal concentrations greater than their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels. The uncertain input parameters were CO2/brine leak rate, brine composition, mineral surface area and volumetric percent, equilibrium coefficients, and kinetic rates

  5. Modeling of brine migration through fault zones as a result of CO2 injection into a saline aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.; Jolie, E.; Kühn, M.

    2012-04-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers has become a widely considered option for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. However, these storage operations also bear the risk of CO2 leakage and upward brine migration from deep saline formations into potable groundwater, especially in faulted reservoirs. This study investigates the impact of fault-permeability on upward brine migration as a result of CO2 injection into a saline aquifer. In a first step, we set up a static 3D geological structure model of a prospective CO2 storage site with a size of 40 km x 40 km x 23 m. Faults are implemented as multiple virtual discrete grid cells, allowing to assign individual flow-related petrophysical properties and taking into account the central fault core of low-permeability and the outer damage zone of high permeability. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were performed on a high performance computing cluster system. The prospective CO2 storage site is located in the Northeast German Basin and is characterized by saline multi-layer aquifers located in the Middle Bunter as a part of an anticline structure originating from salt-tectonic processes. The Middle Bunter, Muschelkalk and Keuper formations were selected to assess brine migration through faults triggered by the injection of 1.7 Mt CO2/year. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fürstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault systems represented by four discrete faults in the model with a thickness of 20 m each. In order to determine the impacts of fault core and damage zone transmissibility on upward brine migration and pressure elevation in the overburden, different leakage scenarios were investigated taking into account varying fault core and damage zone permeabilities. The undertaken simulation studies underline that detailed knowledge on fault permeability is of uttermost importance for the

  6. Barefoot on Hot Ground: Formation Temperatures of Plio-Pleistocene Soil Carbonates in East Africa Based on the Clumped Isotope in Carbonate (Δ47) Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, B. H.; Eiler, J. M.; Levin, N. E.; Cerling, T. E.

    2008-12-01

    We utilize the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer to investigate paleoenvironments of human evolution in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Analyses were made using a new automated online peripheral that reduces the human workload and improves the success rate of this analysis. Paleotemperatures for Plio-Pleistocene soil carbonates that formed >50cm below the paleosurface range between ~30°C and 40°C; some of this temperature variation is temporally systematic and coherent across depositional facies. Present day mean annual temperature in this region averages 29°C, and there is very little seasonal variation in average monthly temperature (<4°C), although daily maximum temperatures often exceed 40°C. These clumped isotope paleotemperatures seem unexpectedly high because soil temperatures at >50 cm depth are strongly buffered against diurnal and short-term (i.e., weeks) temperature variations. Possible explanations for these high temperatures include 1) much higher mean annual or mean seasonal air temperatures during parts of the Plio-Pleistocene, 2) a temporal bias of soil carbonate formation towards short-lived extreme temperature events, 3) nonequilibrium or diagenetic isotope effects, and 4) persistent elevation of soil temperatures relative to air temperatures. A brief deployment of remote temperature sensors near Lake Turkana revealed that soil temperatures were considerably higher than air temperatures. Temperatures at 50 cm depth were stable between 35°C and 37°C; those at 10 cm ranged diurnally between 44°C (day) and 33°C (night). Air temperatures in the shade ranged between 37°C (day) and 26°C (night). These study localities were sparsely vegetated, and the elevated soil temperatures are consistent with surface heating by solar radiation. A survey of previous data reveals that temperatures well above 45°C are common for surfaces receiving direct solar radiation. The relevant boundary condition for soil temperature is

  7. Stabilization of high mercury contaminated brine purification sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J Ming; Lo, Tony; Walsh, Tony; Lam, Tak

    2004-09-10

    The highly leachable mercury contaminants of brine purification sludge (BPS) generated from the Hg-cell electrolysis process in chlorine production can be stabilized in the treatment procedure employing ferric-lignin derivatives (FLD) (Ligmet binder) and Portland cement (PC). The stabilization effectiveness has been examined by time-based multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests and sequential TCLP tests. In a period of 50 days, the multiple TCLP tests showed a variation of less than 90 microg l(-1) for the leachable mercury level, and the sequential TCLP tests for the same sample displayed a declining TCLP mercury level. Based on this study, the stabilization of approximately 2000 t of brine purification sludge has been successfully processed with the ferric-lignin derivatives treatment. PMID:15363526

  8. Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, C.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extracted from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  9. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  10. Bundling of bovine and brine shrimp (Artemia) microtubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacRae, T H

    1984-06-01

    Cell-free extracts from embryos of the brine shrimp (Artemia) induced bundling of bovine microtubules assembled in the presence of glycerol and Mg++. Sedimentation of microtubules through sucrose cushions and subsequent electrophoresis revealed that bundling occurred independently of accessory proteins tightly bound to the microtubules. Bovine microtubules containing microtubule-associated proteins (MAPS) or assembled with taxol did not bundle. The unusual polymerization properties of homogeneous Artemia tubulin, bundling in the absence of added factors and the small number of microtubules assembled in crude embryo extracts upon addition of taxol precluded a complete comparative study of Artemia and bovine microtubule bundling. Interesting properties of the in vitro assembly of Artemia microtubules were, however, elaborated and putative Artemia MAPs were observed as a consequence of the work with brine shrimp embryos. PMID:6744423

  11. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  12. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  13. Larval brine shrimp (Nauplii): a potentially useful model to study cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bargman, G J

    1976-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of cystic fibrosis is the abnormal handling of electrolytes by exocrine glands. The present study has examined the possibility that diminished respiratory energy formation is a primary biochemical error responsible for this abnormality. Using oxygen consumption of intact larval brine shrimp, quantitative differences have been observed from reaction of mixed mouth saliva between CF heterozygotes and CF homozygotes. In addition, information demonstrating a correlation between a biochemical abnormality and disease severity was observed. The differences observed in inhibition by saliva from both CF homozygotes and obligate heterozygotes may occur as the result of 1) interference with electron transfer from organic fuel molecules to molecular oxygen or 2) interference with the mechanism responsible for generating the biochemical reducing power necessary for multiple biosynthetic reactions. PMID:996791

  14. Immiscible fluids (CO 2-brines) in optical fluorite, Nordvik-Taimyr, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokof'ev, Vsevolod Y.; Baksheev, Ivan A.; Korytov, Feodor Y.; Touret, Jacques

    2006-07-01

    Fluid inclusion investigations in optical fluorite from the Nordvik salt dome caprock (Khatanga Gulf, Taimyr Peninsula, Russia) show that the fluorite has been formed at a temperature of about 300 °C, from CO 2-brine immiscible hydrothermal fluids. Unmixing occurred at a depth of several kilometres, resulting in the liberation of dense CO 2-rich fluids, which played a significant role in helping the diapir to reach its intrusive character. Compared to other optical fluorite deposits in Russia, the exceptional quality of the Nordvik occurrence is due to a relatively high formation temperature, as well as a high salinity (30-35 wt% NaCl eq.) of hydrothermal aqueous fluids. To cite this article: V.Y. Prokof'ev et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  15. Deposit model for closed-basin potash-bearing brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2011-01-01

    Closed-basin potash-bearing brines are one of the types of potash deposits that are a source of potash production within the United States, as well as other countries. Though these deposits are of highly variable size, they are important sources of potash on a regional basis. In addition, these deposits have a high potential of co- and by-product production of one or more commodities such as lithium, boron, magnesium, and others.

  16. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  17. Predicting amounts of radiolytically produced species in brine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.A.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1983-11-01

    The corrosion of iron overpack materials for nuclear waste forms in salt is highly dependent upon the species produced by the radiolysis of brines which may contact the metal. A computer code has been developed to predict the concentrations of the radiolytically produced species as a function of time using published values for radiation yields of species, chemical reaction rate constants, and parameters derived from experimental evidence.

  18. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation

  19. POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE-RICH POLYPHENLENESULFIDE BLEND TOP COATINGS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL IN 300 DEGREE CELCIUS BRINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA, T.; JUNG, D.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated usefulness of a coating system consisting of an underlying polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) layer and top polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-blended PPS layer as low friction, water repellent, anti-corrosion barrier film for carbon steel steam separators in geothermal power plants. The experiments were designed to obtain information on kinetic coefficient of friction, surface free energy, hydrothermal oxidation, alteration of molecular structure, thermal stability, and corrosion protection of the coating after immersing the coated carbon steel coupons for up to 35 days in CO{sub 2}-laden brine at 300 C. The superficial layer of the assembled coating was occupied by PTFE self-segregated from PPS during the melt-flowing process of this blend polymer; it conferred an outstanding slipperiness and water repellent properties because of its low friction and surface free energy. However, PTFE underwent hydrothermal oxidation in hot brine, transforming its molecular structure into an alkylated polyfluorocarboxylate salt complex linked to Na. Although such molecular transformation increased the friction and surface free energy, and also impaired the thermal stability of PTFE, the top PTFE-rich PPS layer significantly contributed to preventing the permeation of moisture and corrosive electrolytes through the coating film, so mitigating the corrosion of carbon steel.

  20. Constraints on upward migration of hydraulic fracturing fluid and brine.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, Samuel A; Sharma, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to aid extraction of oil and gas from black shales have raised concerns regarding potential environmental effects associated with predictions of upward migration of HF fluid and brine. Some recent studies have suggested that such upward migration can be large and that timescales for migration can be as short as a few years. In this article, we discuss the physical constraints on upward fluid migration from black shales (e.g., the Marcellus, Bakken, and Eagle Ford) to shallow aquifers, taking into account the potential changes to the subsurface brought about by HF. Our review of the literature indicates that HF affects a very limited portion of the entire thickness of the overlying bedrock and therefore, is unable to create direct hydraulic communication between black shales and shallow aquifers via induced fractures. As a result, upward migration of HF fluid and brine is controlled by preexisting hydraulic gradients and bedrock permeability. We show that in cases where there is an upward gradient, permeability is low, upward flow rates are low, and mean travel times are long (often >10⁶  years). Consequently, the recently proposed rapid upward migration of brine and HF fluid, predicted to occur as a result of increased HF activity, does not appear to be physically plausible. Unrealistically high estimates of upward flow are the result of invalid assumptions about HF and the hydrogeology of sedimentary basins. PMID:23895673

  1. Constraints on Upward Migration of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid and Brine

    PubMed Central

    Flewelling, Samuel A; Sharma, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to aid extraction of oil and gas from black shales have raised concerns regarding potential environmental effects associated with predictions of upward migration of HF fluid and brine. Some recent studies have suggested that such upward migration can be large and that timescales for migration can be as short as a few years. In this article, we discuss the physical constraints on upward fluid migration from black shales (e.g., the Marcellus, Bakken, and Eagle Ford) to shallow aquifers, taking into account the potential changes to the subsurface brought about by HF. Our review of the literature indicates that HF affects a very limited portion of the entire thickness of the overlying bedrock and therefore, is unable to create direct hydraulic communication between black shales and shallow aquifers via induced fractures. As a result, upward migration of HF fluid and brine is controlled by preexisting hydraulic gradients and bedrock permeability. We show that in cases where there is an upward gradient, permeability is low, upward flow rates are low, and mean travel times are long (often >106 years). Consequently, the recently proposed rapid upward migration of brine and HF fluid, predicted to occur as a result of increased HF activity, does not appear to be physically plausible. Unrealistically high estimates of upward flow are the result of invalid assumptions about HF and the hydrogeology of sedimentary basins. PMID:23895673

  2. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (<1.30 log10 cfu/mL) for all species assayed. The maximum death rate (kmax) was 9.98, 51.37, 38.35 and 53.01 h(-1), while the time for 4 log10 reductions (4Dr) was 0.96, 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 h for E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. Brine dilutions increased Fp and 4Dr, while decreased kmax. A cluster analysis showed that E. coli had an overall quite different behaviour being the most resistant species, but the others bacteria behaved similarly, especially S. aureus and S. enterica. Partial Least Squares regression showed that the most influential phenols on microbial survival were EDA (dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid), HyEDA (EDA linked to hydroxytyrosol), hydroxytyrosol 4-glucoside, tyrosol, and oleoside 11-methyl ester. Results confirm the adverse habitats of table olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27375250

  3. Dissolution of CO2 in Brines and Mineral Reactions during Geological Carbon Storage: AN Eor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H.; Galy, A.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in formation brines is likely to be a major process which stabilises stored CO2 on longer time scales and mitigates CO2 migrating through storage complexes. However very little is known about the likely rates of CO2 dissolution as CO2 flows through natural heterogeneous brine filled reservoirs. Here we report the results of sampling fluids over 6 months after a phase of CO2 injection commenced for enhanced oil recovery coupled with injection of isotopically enriched 3He and 129Xe. Modelling of the changes in fluid chemistry has previously been interpreted to indicate significant dissolution of silicate minerals where fluids remained close to saturation with calcite. These calculations, which are based on modal decomposition of changes in cation concentrations, are supported by changes in the isotopic compositions of Sr, Li and Mg. Analysis of Sr-isotopic compositions of samples from outcrops of the Frontier Formation, which forms the reservoir sampled by the EOR experiment, reveals substantial heterogeneity. Silicate mineral compositions have 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.709 and 0.719 whereas carbonate cements have values around 0.7076. Calculation of CO2 dissolution based on simplified 2-D flow models shows that fluids likely sample reservoir heterogeneities present on a finer scale with CO2 fingers occupying the most permeable horizons and most water flow in the adjacent slightly less permeable zones. Smaller time scale variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios are interpreted to reflect variations in flow paths on small length scales driven by invading CO2.

  4. Geochemical Modeling of CO2, Brine, and Reservoir Rock Interactions in the Knox Group, Western Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Parris, T. M.; Bowersox, J.; Harris, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Regionally extensive dolostones and sandstones in the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group could provide commercial-scale CO2 storage capacity in the Illinois Basin of Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana. This 1200 m thick interval of dolostone and less abundant quartz sandstone is a prospective sequestration target in the southern part of the Illinois Basin, where the Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone, a main sequestration target in the central part of the basin, is thin to absent, or deeply buried. The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) has successfully injected 690 tons of CO2 into the Knox Group through a 2477 m deep well (KGS #1 Blan well) at a test site in western Kentucky. To understand the long-term fate of CO2 stored in a saline reservoir in the Knox group, this study uses TOUGHREACT to model geochemical reactions among injected CO2, brine, and the reservoir rocks. Data collected in the KGS #1 Blan well, including rock cores, deep brine water samples, temperatures, and pressures, are the main data sources. A kinetic batch model is used first to simulate the impacts of dissolved CO2 on a mineral assemblage representing the Gunter Sandstone, a subgroup of the Knox Formation. The mineral assemblage consists of mainly quartz and dolomite with small amount of k-feldspar. The batch simulation results show precipitation of calcite, magnesite, illite, and quartz and dissolution of dolomite and k-feldspar. A 1-D radial reactive transport model is being constructed to simulate the injection test to evaluate the migration of the injected CO2, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and changes of porosity and permeability of formation rocks. The reactive model will be used to simulate hypothetical commercial scale injection scenarios to evaluate the long-term impacts of large scale CO2 injection on the Knox reservoir.

  5. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    populations in the field and to compare the field subdwarf population with the globular clusters’ hot subdwarfs. New fast-moving subdwarfs will allow the mass of the Galactic dark matter halo to be constrained and additional unbound hyper-velocity stars may be discovered. Subdwarf O/B stars and extremely low mass white dwarfs: atmospheric parameters and abundances, formation and evolution, binaries, planetary companions, pulsation, and kinematics.

  6. Parameterization of and Brine Storage in MOR Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, J.; Lowell, R. P.; Cummings, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Single-pass parameterized models of high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers use observational constraints such as vent temperature, heat output, vent field area, and the area of heat extraction from the sub-axial magma chamber to deduce fundamental hydrothermal parameters such as total mass flux Q, bulk permeability k, and the thickness of the conductive boundary layer at the base of the system, δ. Of the more than 300 known systems, constraining data are available for less than 10%. Here we use the single pass model to estimate Q, k, and δ for all the seafloor hydrothermal systems for which the constraining data are available. Mean values of Q, k, and δ are 170 kg/s, 5.0x10-13 m2, and 20 m, respectively; which is similar to results obtained from the generic model. There is no apparent correlation with spreading rate. Using observed vent field lifetimes, the rate of magma replenishment can also be calculated. Essentially all high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers undergo phase separation, yielding a low chlorinity vapor and a high salinity brine. Some systems such as the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the 9°50’N sites on the East Pacific Rise vent low chlorinity vapor for many years, while the high density brine remains sequestered beneath the seafloor. In an attempt to further understand the brine storage at the EPR, we used the mass flux Q determined above, time series of vent salinity and temperature, and the depth of the magma chamber to determine the rate of brine production at depth. We found thicknesses ranging from 0.32 meters to ~57 meters over a 1 km2 area from 1994-2002. These calculations suggest that brine maybe being stored within the conductive boundary layer without a need for lateral transport or removal by other means. We plan to use the numerical code FISHES to further test this idea.

  7. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-06-10

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the

  8. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  9. Evaluation of geopressured brine injectability: Department of Energy, Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E.; Netherton, R.

    1980-10-28

    A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22 to 25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-..mu..m and 10.0-..mu..m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130/sup 0/C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and untreated brine were evaluated. Test results indicated that raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.

  10. (abstract) A Polarimetric Model for Effects of Brine Infiltrated Snow Cover and Frost Flowers on Sea Ice Backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    A polarimetric scattering model is developed to study effects of snow cover and frost flowers with brine infiltration on thin sea ice. Leads containing thin sea ice in the Artic icepack are important to heat exchange with the atmosphere and salt flux into the upper ocean. Surface characteristics of thin sea ice in leads are dominated by the formation of frost flowers with high salinity. In many cases, the thin sea ice layer is covered by snow, which wicks up brine from sea ice due to capillary force. Snow and frost flowers have a significant impact on polarimetric signatures of thin ice, which needs to be studied for accessing the retrieval of geophysical parameters such as ice thickness. Frost flowers or snow layer is modeled with a heterogeneous mixture consisting of randomly oriented ellipsoids and brine infiltration in an air background. Ice crystals are characterized with three different axial lengths to depict the nonspherical shape. Under the covering multispecies medium, the columinar sea-ice layer is an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium composed of ellipsoidal brine inclusions preferentially oriented in the vertical direction in an ice background. The underlying medium is homogeneous sea water. This configuration is described with layered inhomogeneous media containing multiple species of scatterers. The species are allowed to have different size, shape, and permittivity. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is extended to account for the multispecies in the derivation of effective permittivities with distributions of scatterer orientations characterized by Eulerian rotation angles. Polarimetric backscattering coefficients are obtained consistently with the same physical description used in the effective permittivity calculation. The mulitspecies model allows the inclusion of high-permittivity species to study effects of brine infiltrated snow cover and frost flowers on thin ice. The results suggest that the frost cover with a rough interface

  11. Origins of Hot Jupiters, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods less than ~10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances (a > 2AU) in protostellar disks, only to subsequently experience large-scale inward migration to the small orbital radii at which they are observed. Here, we propose that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population forms in situ, with the Galactically prevalent short-period super-Earths acting as the source population. Our calculations suggest that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protostellar disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated for solid cores of 10-20 Earth masses, in line with the conventional picture of core-nucleated accretion. This formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional planets, reminiscent of those observed in large numbers by NASA’s Kepler Mission and Doppler velocity surveys. However, dynamical interactions during the early stages of planetary systems' evolutionary lifetimes tend to increase the mutual inclinations of exterior, low-mass companions to hot Jupiters, making transits rare. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  12. Origins of Hot Jupiters, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods less than ~10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances (a > 2AU) in protoplanetary disks, only to subsequently experience large-scale inward migration to the small orbital radii at which they are observed. Here, we propose that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population forms in situ, with the Galactically prevalent short-period super-Earths acting as the source population. Our calculations suggest that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated for solid cores of 10-20 Earth masses, in line with the conventional picture of core-nucleated accretion. The planetary conglomeration process, coupled with subsequent gravitational contraction and spin down of the host star, drives sweeping secular resonances through the system, increasing the mutual inclinations of exterior, low-mass companions to hot Jupiters. Accordingly, this formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional non-transiting planets, reminiscent of those observed in large numbers by NASA’s Kepler Mission and Doppler velocity surveys. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  13. Imaging an Englacial Brine Conduit within a -17°C Polar Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgeley, J.; Pettit, E. C.; Carr, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Mikucki, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite cold ice, there is evidence of an active zone of englacial brine that taps the subglacial brine reservoir of Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys (average annual air temperature -17°C). As part of the MIDGE (Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Exploration) project, our geophysical study aims to reveal the hydraulic path of brine through Taylor Glacier prior to surface discharge at Blood Falls. We collected ground-penetrating-radar surveys at the terminus of Taylor Glacier that show a horizontal, linear scattering zone, the first evidence for englacial brine near Blood Falls. The scattering zone extends from Blood Falls upglacier and its trend matches that of past brine discharge cracks. By measuring depression of the basal ice reflector, we estimate a > 4% liquid brine content at the edge of the englacial scattering zone, assuming even dispersal of water within the ice column extending from the top of the scattering zone to the basal reflector. The brine content likely increases towards the center of the scattering zone as the underlying, depressed basal reflector disappears altogether. The concentration of brine at the center of the scattering zone may involve processes such at cryoconcentration and active input of brine from a nearby source. We use hydraulic potential models to map the source pathway of the englacial brine; the glacier's significant surface relief drives channelization of subglacial fluids. On the northern side of the eastward flowing glacier, channeled fluids are trapped between ice-cored moraines to the north and east and an area of high hydraulic potential to the south. The trapped fluids pond beneath and upglacier from Blood Falls and provide a likely source pool for the observed englacial brine. Although Blood Falls is a unique feature, our results suggest that polar glaciers can support subglacial and englacial hydraulic systems despite a temperature difference between the ice and the brine of nearly 10°C.

  14. Induced Seismicity of the Paradox Valley Brine Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Foxall, W.; Daley, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Paradox Valley Unit (PVU) is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and is built to control the water quality of the Dolores River - a feeder of the Colorado River. Brine is extracted along the river from several shallow wells. Before it is injected into a 4.8km deep well for long-term storage, it is filtered at a surface-treatment facility. The target zone of the injection is a subhorizontal formation of a Mississippian-age limestone. The first injection test started in 1991, continuous injections started in 1996 and are still ongoing. The injection of the fluid in the underground induces micro-seismicity that is monitored by the USBR with the 15-station Paradox Valley Seismic Network. This network located more then 5700 events in the 20 years since the injection started. The locations of the seismic events give crucial insights to the pathways of the injected fluid. In this study we analyze the seismicity up to the end of 2011, which does not include the magnitude 3.9 event that caused a temporary shut down of the PVU in January 2013. The largest event included in our study period is an event with M4.3 of May 2000. The majority (75%) of events are micro-seismic events with magnitudes of 1 or smaller; only 74 events have magnitudes larger or equal to 2.5 of which only 4 are larger or equal to 3.5. Most of the seismicity is constrained to the vicinity of the injection well with roughly 80% of the events occurring within a 4km radius. However, there is one active zone more then 10 km away from the injection well that showed first activity in late 2010. More than 500 micro-seismic events occurred within several weeks in this new zone. The goal behind this study is to understand the processes behind a long-term injection of fluid into the underground where no circulation takes place. While other such projects exist, such as different wastewater injections, none of them has been monitored as well as the Paradox Valley seismicity and or has been going on

  15. Effects of shield brine on the safe disposal of waste in deep geologic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E. A.; Sykes, J. F.

    2009-08-01

    The salinity of groundwater increases with depth in the Canadian Shield (up to 1.3 kg/L of density). The existence of brine can be critically important for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, as dense brine can significantly retard the upward migration of radionuclides released from repositories. Static and flushing conditions of the deep brine are analyzed using a U-tube analogy model. Velocity reduction due to the presence of dense brine is derived under flushing conditions. A set of illustrative numerical simulations in a two-dimensional cross section is presented to demonstrate that dense brine can significantly influence regional groundwater flow patterns in a shield environment. It is implied from the results that (1) the existence of Shield brine can be an indicator of a hydrogeologically stable environment, (2) activities near ground surface may not perturb the stable groundwater environment in the deep brine region, and thus, (3) the deep brine region can be considered as a candidate geologic site for the safe disposal of waste. In addition to brine, other issues associated with long-term waste disposal, such as geological, glacial and seismic events, may need to be considered for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel in a shield environment.

  16. Modeling the interaction of mine brines with chloride minerals of potassium-magnesium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article is devoted to study of dynamics of saturation degree of suprasalt brines with respect to major chloride minerals of salt strata in the initial phase of an accident related to discontinuity of waterproof stratum in the mine of the Verkhnekamskoe salt deposit (Berezniki-3 mine, 1986). Physicochemical modeling has showed that the brines discharged into mine are in equilibrium with halite during all period of observation. At the same time, their degree of saturation with respect to sylvite and carnallite regularly decreases with the increase in inflow of the suprasalt Cl-Na brines. The initial stage of suprasalt brine penetration into mine is characterized by an increase in the saturation degree with respect to the considered chloride minerals, which is showed on the chart presented in the article. However, there are brines oversaturated with respect to halite, which occurs over a brief period. In contrast to the mine brines of different genesis being in equilibrium or close to equilibrium with sylvite, saturation index (SI) for this mineral decreases in the suprasalt brine. This allows one to recommend the use of this parameter in the study of the mine brines to timely detect suprasalt brines entering the mine.

  17. Whistler Solitons in Plasma with Anisotropic Hot Electron Admixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse modulation instability of whistler waves in plasma, with a small admixture of hot anisotropic electrons, is discussed. If the hot particles temperature anisotropy is positive, it is found that, in such plasma, longitudinal perturbations can lead to soliton formation for frequencies forbidden in cold plasma. The soliton is enriched by hot particles. The frequency region unstable to transverse modulation in cold plasma in the presence of hot electrons is divided by stable domains. For both cases the role of hot electrons is more significant for whistlers with smaller frequencies.

  18. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO2 in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO2 was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO2 injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO2 injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO2 breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO3- and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO2 plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO2 concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO2 could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  20. Brine-Wetted Snow on the Surface of Sea Ice: A Potentially Vast and Overlooked Microbial Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, J. W.; Ewert, M.; Bowman, J. S.; Colangelo-Lillis, J.; Carpenter, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    On the hemispheric scale, snow on the surface of sea ice significantly impacts the exchange of mass and energy across the ocean-ice-atmosphere interface. The snow cover over Arctic sea ice plays a central role in Arctic photochemistry, including atmospheric depletion events at the onset of spring, and in ecosystem support, by determining the availability of photosynthetically active radiation for algal primary production at the bottom of the ice. Among the non-uniformities of snow relevant to its larger-scale roles is salt content. When snow is deposited on the surface of new sea ice, brine expelled onto the ice surface during ice formation wicks into the snow by capillary action, forming a brine-wetted or saline snow layer at the ice-snow interface. A typical salinity for this basal snow layer in the Arctic (measured on a 3-cm depth interval of melted snow) is about 20 (ppt by optical salinometer), with maxima approaching 30 ppt, thus higher than the salinity of melted surface sea ice (< 12 ppt). Although the physical-chemical properties of this brine-wetted layer have been examined in recent years, and the (assumed) air-derived microbial content of overlying low-salinity snow is known to be low in winter, basal saline snow is essentially unexplored as a microbial habitat. As part of an NSF-supported project on frost flowers, we investigated snow overlying coastal sea ice off Barrow, Alaska, in February 2010 (since snow buries frost flowers). Sterile (ethanol-rinsed) tools were used to open snow pits 60 cm wide, record temperature by thermoprobe at 3-cm depth intervals, and collect samples from newly exposed snow walls for salinity (3-cm intervals) and biological measurements (6-cm intervals). The latter included counts of bacterial abundance by epifluorescence microscopy and assays of extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS). We also sampled snow on a larger scale to extract sufficient DNA to analyze microbial community composition (ongoing work), as well as

  1. Magnesium Oxide Carbonation Rate Law in Saturated Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemer, M. B.; Allen, C.; Deng, H.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is the only engineered barrier certified by the EPA for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy repository for transuranic waste in southeast New Mexico. MgO reduces actinide solubility by sequestering CO2 generated by the biodegradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials. Demonstration of the effectiveness of MgO is essential for WIPP recertification. In order to be an effective barrier, the rate of CO2 sequestration should be fast compared to the rate CO2 production, over the entire 10,000 year regulatory period. While much research has been conducted on the kinetics of magnesium oxide carbonation in waters with salinity up to that of sea water, we are not aware of any work on determining the carbonation rate law in saturated brines at low partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm), which is important for performing safety assessments of bedded salt waste repositories. Using a Varian ion-trap gas- chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (GC/MS) we experimentally followed the CO2 sequestration kinetics of magnesium oxide in salt-saturated brines down to a PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm. This was performed in a closed reactor with a known initial PCO2. The results of this study show that carbonation is approximately first order in PCO2, in saturated brines. We believe that this method will benefit the study of the detailed kinetics of other similar processes.

  2. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  3. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  4. Evolution of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in elliptical galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.

  5. Alteration of Caprock Fracture Geometries During Flow of CO2-acidified Brine: Informing Basin-scale Leakage Models From Pore-scale modeling and Core-scale Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. R.; Peters, C. A.; Fitts, J. P.; Nogues, J. P.; Celia, M. A.; Dobossy, M.; Janzen, A.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, geologic carbon sequestration leakage assessment models do not account for geochemical alteration of potential leakage pathways such as fractures in the caprock formation. Leakage of CO2-acidified brine may lead to geochemical alterations of the fracture geometry that may alter fracture permeability. Accurate prediction of CO2 leakage potential requires bridging the gap between small-scale models and laboratory experiments, which have limited scope in space and time, and basin-scale leakage models. Results from two CO2-acidified brine flow-through experiments performed on artificially-fractured carbonate caprock samples will be presented. Although the two experiments used core samples taken from the same formation only centimeters apart, they resulted in two very different outcomes with respect to fracture permeability evolution. One experiment exhibited extensive deterioration along the fracture due primarily to dissolution of calcite, while the other exhibited a net decrease in fracture permeability due to a combination of mineral precipitation and particle clogging. The stark difference observed in the two experiments, for rocks from the same formation, suggests caprock fracture evolution is highly sensitive to variations in mineral spatial heterogeneity, brine composition and flow conditions. In addition to the laboratory experiments, we have developed a reactive-transport pore-network model that is capable of simulating alterations in network permeability and porosity due to flow of a CO2-acidified brine phase through carbonate rocks. The pore-network model will help us identify the important flow and geochemical conditions in which precipitation and dissolution occur. These small-scale projects will be used to inform a basin-scale leakage model of the pertinent range of geochemical conditions that should be tested in order to determine 1-D permeability evolution of leakage pathways. Finally, simplified mathematical rules will be derived to describe

  6. Electrically Conducting, Ca-Rich Brines, Rather Than Water, Expected in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.; Knauth, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    If Mars ever possessed a salty liquid hydrosphere, which later partly evaporated and froze down, then any aqueous fluids left near the surface could have evolved to become dense eutectic brines. Eutectic brines, by definition, are the last to freeze and the first to melt. If CaC12-rich, such brines can remain liquid until temperatures below 220 K, close to the average surface temperature of Mars. In the Martian subsurface, in intimate contact with the Ca-rich basaltic regolith, NaC1-rich early brines should have reacted to become Ca-rich. Fractional crystallization (freezing) and partial melting would also drive brines toward CaC12-rich compositions. In other words, eutectic brine compositions could be present in the shallow subsurface of Mars, for the same reasons that eutectic magma compositions are common on Earth. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica, a CaC12-rich eutectic brine, provides a possible terrestrial analog, particularly because it is fed from a basaltic aquifer. Owing to their relative density and fluid nature, brines in the Martian regolith should eventually become sandwiched between ice above and salts beneath. A thawing brine sandwich provides one explanation (among many) for the young gullies recently attributed to seepage of liquid water on Mars. Whether or not brine seepage explains the gullies phenomenon, dense, CaC12-rich brines are to be expected in the deep subsurface of Mars, although they might be somewhat diluted (temperatures permitting) and of variable salt composition. In any case, they should be good conductors of electricity.

  7. Evaporite Caprock Integrity. An experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Megan M.; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A.

    2012-07-25

    Characterization and geochemical data are presented from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO 2-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO 2-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well asmore » porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO 2-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO 2-enhanced oil recovery operations.« less

  8. Evaporite caprock integrity: an experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan M; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    We present characterization and geochemical data from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO(2)-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO(2)-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well as porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO(2)-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO(2)-enhanced oil recovery operations. PMID:22831758

  9. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole m