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1

Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens  

SciTech Connect

Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

Hagvall, Lina [Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Baron, Jens Malte [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Boerje, Anna [Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Weidolf, Lars [Discovery DMPK and Bioanalytical Chemistry, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal, SE-421 83 Moelndal (Sweden); Merk, Hans [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Karlberg, Ann-Therese [Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)], E-mail: karlberg@chem.gu.se

2008-12-01

2

Method for forming metal contacts  

DOEpatents

Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

2013-09-17

3

Potent contact allergen in the rubber plant guayule (Parthenium argentatum).  

PubMed

Chemical and dermatotoxicological investigations of the natural and processed resin of the Mexican rubber plant, guayule (Parthenium argentatum), has established the presence of a sesquiterpene cinnamic acid ester (guayulin A) that is a potent elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis in experimental animals. The guayule contact allergen is comparable to the poison ivy skin allergens as an elicitor of dermatitis in sensitized guinea pigs. PMID:7466403

Rodriguez, E; Reynolds, G W; Thompson, J A

1981-03-27

4

Front contact solar cell with formed emitter  

DOEpatents

A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA)

2012-07-17

5

Pion form factor from a contact interaction.  

SciTech Connect

In a Poincare-covariant vector-boson-exchange theory, the pion possesses components of pseudovector origin, which materially influence its observable properties. For a range of such quantities, we explore the consequences of a momentum-independent interaction, regularized in a symmetry-preserving manner. The contact interaction, while capable of describing pion static properties, produces a form factor whose evolution for Q{sup 2} > 0.17 GeV{sup 2} disagrees markedly with experiment and whose asymptotic power-law behavior conflicts strongly with perturbative QCD.

Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Bashir, A.; Cloet, I. C.; Roberts, C. D. (Physics); (Univ. Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo); (Univ. of Washington); (Peking Univ.)

2010-01-01

6

Pion form factor from a contact interaction  

SciTech Connect

In a Poincare-covariant vector-boson-exchange theory, the pion possesses components of pseudovector origin, which materially influence its observable properties. For a range of such quantities, we explore the consequences of a momentum-independent interaction, regularized in a symmetry-preserving manner. The contact interaction, while capable of describing pion static properties, produces a form factor whose evolution for Q{sup 2}>0.17 GeV{sup 2} disagrees markedly with experiment and whose asymptotic power-law behavior conflicts strongly with perturbative QCD.

Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Bashir, A. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacan 58040 (Mexico); Cloeet, I. C. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Roberts, C. D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2010-06-15

7

A reproducing kernel smooth contact formulation for metal forming simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a meshfree smooth contact formulation for application to metal forming problems. The continuum-based contact formulation requires {C}2 continuity in the approximation of contact surface geometry and displacement variables, which is difficult for the conventional {C}0 finite elements. In this work, we introduce a reproducing kernel approximation to achieve arbitrary degree of smoothness for contact surface representation and displacement field approximation. This approach allows the employment of continuum-based contact formulation, leading to a continuous contact force vector and a consistent tangent particularly advantageous in the Newton iteration of contact analysis. The proposed meshfree smooth contact formulation has been applied to the simulation of metal forming processes and is shown to improve the convergence significantly in comparison with the finite element-based {C}0 contact formulation.

Wang, Hui-Ping; Wu, Cheng-Tang; Chen, Jiun-Shyan

2014-04-01

8

"Car seat dermatitis": a newly described form of contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Over the last several years, our clinic has documented an increasing trend of contact dermatitis presenting in areas that are in direct contact with certain types of car seats composed of a shiny, nylon-like material. Our practice has encountered these cases in both atopic and nonatopic infants, with a seasonal predilection for the warmer months. This brief report highlights some of the key features of this condition and alerts the clinician to this newly described form of contact dermatitis. PMID:20738797

Ghali, Fred E

2011-01-01

9

Method of forming contacts for a back-contact solar cell  

DOEpatents

Methods of forming contacts for back-contact solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a method includes forming a thin dielectric layer on a substrate, forming a polysilicon layer on the thin dielectric layer, forming and patterning a solid-state p-type dopant source on the polysilicon layer, forming an n-type dopant source layer over exposed regions of the polysilicon layer and over a plurality of regions of the solid-state p-type dopant source, and heating the substrate to provide a plurality of n-type doped polysilicon regions among a plurality of p-type doped polysilicon regions.

Manning, Jane

2013-07-23

10

Quercetin, a potent and specific inhibitor of the human P-form phenosulfotransferase.  

PubMed

The natural product quercetin was a potent inhibitor of the human P-form phenolsulfo-transferase with an IC50 value of 0.10 +/- 0.03 microM (mean +/- SEM; N = 5), which was three to four orders of magnitude more potent than its inhibition of other human sulfotransferases. The inhibition was noncompetitive with a Ki value of 0.10 microM. The potency and mechanism of this inhibition appear similar to those of the current standard P-form inhibitor, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol. Among other flavonoids examined, kaempferol was found to have an IC50 value of 0.39 +/- 0.07 microM, naringenin 10.6 +/- 1.6 microM and naringin 265 +/- 90 microM (N = 3). These observations suggest the potential for clinically important pharmacologic and toxicologic interactions by flavonoid-containing foods and beverages. PMID:7669078

Walle, T; Eaton, E A; Walle, U K

1995-08-25

11

78 FR 23898 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection (Accredited Laboratory Contact Update Form)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Accredited Laboratory Contact Update Form) AGENCY: Food Safety and...collection regarding the compilation of updated contact information for Accredited Laboratories...through Friday. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Contact John O'Connell,...

2013-04-23

12

75 FR 61245 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request for the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form AGENCY: Internal...comments concerning the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form. DATES: Written...Washington, DC 20224. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional...

2010-10-04

13

78 FR 58608 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request for the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form AGENCY: Internal...comments concerning the EFTPS Primary Contact Information Change Form. DATES: Written...Washington, DC 20224. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional...

2013-09-24

14

Protonated Form: The Potent Form of Potassium-Competitive Acid Blockers  

PubMed Central

Potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs) are highly safe and active drugs targeting H+,K+-ATPase to cure acid-related gastric diseases. In this study, we for the first time investigate the interaction mechanism between the protonated form of P-CABs and human H+,K+-ATPase using homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculation methods. The results explain why P-CABs have higher activities with higher pKa values or at lower pH. With positive charge, the protonated forms of P-CABs have more competitive advantage to block potassium ion into luminal channel and to bind with H+,K+-ATPase via electrostatic interactions. The binding affinity of the protonated form is more favorable than that of the neutral P-CABs. In particular, Asp139 should be a very important binding site for the protonated form of P-CABs through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. These findings could promote the rational design of novel P-CABs.

Luo, Hua-Jun; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zou, Kun

2014-01-01

15

Methods of forming a low resistance silicon-metal contact  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of forming an ohmic contact on a substrate is described. The method includes depositing a set of silicon particles on the substrate surface. The method also includes heating the substrate in a baking ambient to a baking temperature and for a baking time period in order to create a densified film ink pattern. The method further includes exposing the substrate to a dopant source in a diffusion furnace with a deposition ambient, the deposition ambient comprising POCl.sub.3, a carrier N.sub.2 gas, a main N.sub.2 gas, and a reactive O.sub.2 gas at a deposition temperature and for a deposition time period, wherein a PSG layer is formed on the substrate surface. The method also includes heating the substrate in a drive-in ambient to a drive-in temperature and for a drive-in time period; and depositing a silicon nitride layer. The method further includes depositing a set of metal contacts on the set of silicon particles; and heating the substrate to a firing temperature and for a firing time period.

2013-01-29

16

Organic light-emitting diodes formed by soft contact lamination  

PubMed Central

Although tremendous progress has been made in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), with few exceptions they are fabricated in the standard way by sequentially depositing active layers and electrodes onto a substrate. Here we describe a different approach for building OLEDs, which is based on physical lamination of thin metal electrodes supported by an elastomeric layer against an electroluminescent organic. This method relies only on van der Waals interactions to establish spatially homogeneous, intimate contacts between the electrodes and the organic. We find that devices fabricated in this manner have better performance than those constructed with standard processing techniques. The lamination approach avoids forms of disruption that can be introduced at the electrode/organic interface by metal evaporation and has a reduced sensitivity to pinhole or partial pinhole defects. In addition, because this form of “soft” contact lamination is intrinsically compatible with the techniques of soft lithography, it is easy to build patterned OLEDs with feature sizes into the nanometer regime. This method provides a new route to OLEDs for applications ranging from high performance displays to storage and lithography systems that rely on subwavelength light sources.

Lee, Tae-Woo; Zaumseil, Jana; Bao, Zhenan; Hsu, Julia W. P.; Rogers, John A.

2004-01-01

17

Improving intergroup relations through direct, extended and other forms of indirect contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of direct, personal contact with members of another group are well established empirically. This Special Issue complements that body of work by demonstrating the effects of various forms of indirect contact on intergroup attitudes and relations. Indirect contact includes (a) extended contact: learning that an ingroup member is friends with an outgroup member, (b) vicarious contact: observing an

John F. Dovidio; Anja Eller; Miles Hewstone

2011-01-01

18

41 CFR 102-194.45 - Who should I contact about Standard and Optional forms?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Who should I contact about Standard and Optional forms? ...PROGRAM § 102-194.45 Who should I contact about Standard and Optional forms? For Standard and Optional forms, you should contact the: Standard and Optional Forms...

2013-07-01

19

Contact-spring forming machine for flat conductor cable receptacles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine tool produces beryllium-copper contact springs for FCC /flat conductor cable/ feed-through receptacles. The springs are heat-treated and plated to impart the required electrical contact properties.

Angele, W.; Martineck, H. G.

1968-01-01

20

Sulphur-containing derivatives structurally related to fenoxycarb are potent growth inhibitors against the intracellular form of Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphur-containing derivatives structurally related to the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb were shown to be extremely active antiproliferative agents against the amastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi in in vitro assays. All of these drugs had previously been proved to be remarkably potent growth inhibitors against the epimastigote form of the parasite.

Juan B. Rodriguez; Roberto Docampo; Eduardo G. Gros

2000-01-01

21

Sulphur-containing derivatives structurally related to fenoxycarb are potent growth inhibitors against the intracellular form of Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

Sulphur-containing derivatives structurally related to the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb were shown to be extremely active antiproliferative agents against the amastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi in in vitro assays. All of these drugs had previously been proved to be remarkably potent growth inhibitors against the epimastigote form of the parasite. PMID:10724027

Rodriguez, J B; Docampo, R; Gros, E G

2000-01-01

22

Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to

Dahl

1988-01-01

23

Advanced techniques and painless procedures for nonlinear contact analysis and forming simulation via implicit FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear contact analysis including forming simulation via finite element methods has a crucial and practical application in many engineering fields. However, because of high nonlinearity, nonlinear contact analysis still remains as an extremely challenging obstacle for many industrial applications. The implicit finite element scheme is generally more accurate than the explicit finite element scheme, but it has a known challenge of convergence because of complex geometries, large relative motion and rapid contact state change. It might be thought as a very painful process to diagnose the convergence issue of nonlinear contact. Most complicated contact models have a great many contact surfaces, and it is hard work to well define the contact pairs using the common contact definition methods, which either result in hundreds of contact pairs or are time-consuming. This paper presents the advanced techniques of nonlinear contact analysis and forming simulation via the implicit finite element scheme and the penalty method. The calculation of the default automatic contact stiffness is addressed. Furthermore, this paper presents the idea of selection groups to help easily and efficiently define contact pairs for complicated contact analysis, and the corresponding implementation and usage are discussed. Lastly, typical nonlinear contact models and forming models with nonlinear material models are shown in the paper to demonstrate the key presented method and technologies.

Zhuang, Shoubing

2013-05-01

24

Back contacted and small form factor GAAS solar cell.  

SciTech Connect

We present a newly developed microsystem enabled, back-contacted, shade-free GaAs solar cell. Using microsystem tools, we created sturdy 3 {micro}m thick devices with lateral dimensions of 250 {micro}m, 500 {micro}m, 1 mm, and 2 mm. The fabrication procedure and the results of characterization tests are discussed. The highest efficiency cell had a lateral size of 500 {micro}m and a conversion efficiency of 10%, open circuit voltage of 0.9 V and a current density of 14.9 mA/cm{sup 2} under one-sun illumination.

Clews, Peggy Jane; Wanlass, Mark W. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Sanchez, Carlos A.; Pluym, Tammy; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul James

2010-06-01

25

Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis  

SciTech Connect

Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age, sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.

Dahl, M.V. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (USA))

1988-01-01

26

Thermal Contact Resistance Estimation: Influence of the Pressure Contact and the Coating Layer during a Hot Forming Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of hot stamping in the automotive industry has experienced a fast growth due to the need for higher passive safety and weight reduction. Today, it is absolutely necessary to have reliable and accurate simulation predictions in order to assess the forming feasibility of a part as early as possible during the car design phase. In this paper, an original experimental procedure developed to estimate the thermal conductance at the Part-Tools interfaces during a hot stamping process, is presented. The tools set (punch and die) have been designed to form samples with an omega shape. Two types of material have been stamped: the Usibor 1500P® and the 22MnB5 galvanized steel. The object is to describe correctly the thermal boundary conditions at the Part-Tools interfaces; the adopted procedure consists in estimating accurately the thermal contact resistance TCR at different contact points for different contact pressure values.

Abdulhay, B.; Bourouga, B.; Dessain, C.

2011-05-01

27

Contact  

Cancer.gov

Skip navigation.. Extramural Glossary Advanced Search Quick Nav: Terms Terms (PDF Format) Acronyms Help About Contact Contact Extramural Glossary Contact Information Application Manager Todd Hardin 240-276-6418 hardint@mail.nih.gov Application Administration Peter

28

Thermal contact resistance estimation: influence of the pressure contact and the coating layer during a hot forming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermal Contact Resistance R\\u000a \\u000a C\\u000a Estimation constitutes an encountered problem to be resolved in any forming process. To fairly simulate a part cooling during\\u000a a hot stamping process, an experimental device was designed and developed by the Laboratoire de Thermocinétique de Nantes—France\\u000a in collaboration with ArcelorMittal R&D Montataire—France. The object is to estimate the thermal contact resistance at the

Bakri Abdulhay; B. Bourouga; C. Dessain

29

Gear sound levels with various tooth contact ratios and forms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The real noise reduction benefits which may be obtained through the use of one gear tooth form as compared to another is an important design parameter for any geared system, especially for helicopters in which both weight and reliability are very important factors. The design and testing of nine sets of gears which are as identical as possible except for their basic tooth geometry are described. Noise measurements were made at various combinations of load and speed for each gear set so that direct comparisons could be made. The resultant data was analyzed so that valid conclusions could be drawn and interpreted for design use.

Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.; Spencer, Robert H.; Drago, Raymond J.; Valco, Mark J.; Oswald, Fred B.

1993-01-01

30

Friction in Forming: An Experimental-Numerical Method to Quantify Contact Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phenomelological models for mechanical interactions: the friction model of Coulomb, the Von Mises model, and elastoplastic analogies were studied. A thermodynamical continuum framework for the contact behavior in forming processes is presented. The mechan...

F. J. M. Starmans

1989-01-01

31

Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.  

PubMed

Extrusion cooking processing followed by air-drying has been applied to obtain low-fat potato snacks. Optimal parameters were developed for a dough recipe. Dough contained apart from potato granules 7% of canola oil, 1% of salt, 1% of baking powder, 5% of maltodextrin, and 15% of wheat flour. After the extrusion process, snacks were dried at 85 degrees C for 15 min followed by 130 degrees C for 45 min. The potent odorants of extruded potato snacks were identified using aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the characteristic compounds, methional with boiled potato flavor, benzenemethanethiol with pepper-seed flavor, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline with popcorn flavor, benzacetaldehyde with strong flowery flavor, butanal with rancid flavor, and 2-acetylpyrazine with roasty flavor were considered to be the main contributors to the aroma of extruded potato snacks. Several compounds were concluded to be developed during extrusion cooking, such as ethanol, 3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one with geranium flavor, and unknown ones with the flavor of boiled potato, cumin, candy, or parsley root. Compounds such as methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, limonene, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 2-methyl-3,5-diethylpyrazine, 5-methyl-2,3-diethylpyrazine, and (E)-beta-damascenone were probably developed during air-drying of the potato extrudate. PMID:16076130

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Jele?, Henryk H

2005-08-10

32

Proteolytic activity of specialized surface protrusions formed at rosette contact sites of transformed cells.  

PubMed

Surface protrusions at the leading edge of a moving cell that make contact with the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) are its main motor for locomotion and invasion. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV-CEF) form specialized membrane rosette-shaped contact sites on planar substrata as shown by interference reflection microscopy (IRM). Such activity is lacking in normal cells. These rosette contacts are more labile than other adhesion sites, such as focal and close contacts. Ultrastructural studies demonstrate that rosettes are sites at which membrane protrusions from the ventral cell surface contact the substratum. These protrusions are filled with meshworks of microfilaments and contain the pp60src oncogene product, actin, vinculin, and alpha-actinin. However, unlike focal contacts, at the rosettes these proteins interact to extend a highly motile membrane. Rosettes have the biological activity of degrading ECM components, as demonstrated by (1) local degradation of fibronectin substrata at sites of rosette contacts, but not focal and close contacts; (2) localization of putative antiprotease antibody at sites of rosette contacts, but not at focal an close contacts; and (3) local disruption of fibronectin matrix at sites of protrusive activity seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, formation of the rosette contact is insensitive to the ionophore monensin, and to inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes, while local fibronectin degradation at rosette contacts is inhibited by inhibitors of metalloproteases, 1,10-phenanthroline and NP-20. I consider these membrane protrusions of the rosette contacts in RSV-transformed cells specialized structural entities--invadopodia--that are involved in the local degradation of the ECM. PMID:2549171

Chen, W T

1989-08-01

33

Microsoft Word - App 3-2 Participant Contact Form Specs .doc  

Cancer.gov

Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 3-2 Lung Screening Study Specifications for Completion of the Participant Contact Form (PCF) This form is self-administered. It is to be completed at time

34

Pore-forming bacterial toxins potently induce release of nitric oxide in porcine endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to play an important role in sepsis- related hypotension. We examined the effects of two pore-forming bacterial exotoxins, Escherichia coli hemolysin and Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin, on NO formation in cultured porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. NO was quantified using a difference- spectrophotometric method based on the rapid and stoichiometric reaction of NO with oxyhemoglobin. Endothelial cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels were also monitored. Both exotoxins increased NO synthesis in endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner to an extent exceeding that observed with the ionophore A23187 or thrombin. The capacity of exotoxins to induce NO formation may be relevant in patients with severe local or systemic bacterial infections.

1993-01-01

35

N,N'-Diacetyl-L-cystine-the disulfide dimer of N-acetylcysteine-is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity/delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in rodents.  

PubMed

Oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used clinically for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NAC is easily oxidized to its disulfide. We show here that N,N'-diacetyl-L-cystine (DiNAC) is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity (CS)/delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in rodents. Oral treatment of BALB/c mice with 0.003 to 30 micromol/kg DiNAC leads to enhancement of a CS reaction to oxazolone; DiNAC is 100 to 1000 times more potent than NAC in this respect, indicating that it does not act as a prodrug of NAC. Structure-activity studies suggest that a stereochemically-defined disulfide element is needed for activity. The DiNAC-induced enhancement of the CS reaction is counteracted by simultaneous NAC-treatment; in contrast, the CS reaction is even more enhanced in animals treated with DiNAC together with the glutathione-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine. These data suggest that DiNAC acts via redox processes. Immunohistochemically, ear specimens from oxazolone-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice treated with DiNAC display increased numbers of CD8(+) cells. DiNAC treatment augments the CS reaction also when fluorescein isothiocyanate is used as a sensitizer in BALB/c mice; this is a purported TH2 type of response. However, when dinitrofluorobenzene is used as a sensitizer, inducing a purported TH1 type of response, DiNAC treatment reduces the reaction. Treatment with DiNAC also reduces a DTH footpad-swelling reaction to methylated BSA. Collectively, these data indicate that DiNAC in vivo acts as a potent and effective immunomodulator that can either enhance or reduce the CS or DTH response depending on the experimental conditions. PMID:10027856

Särnstrand, B; Jansson, A H; Matuseviciene, G; Scheynius, A; Pierrou, S; Bergstrand, H

1999-03-01

36

Nondegenerate bilinear forms in characteristic 2, related contact forms, simple Lie algebras and superalgebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-degenerate bilinear forms over fields of characteristic 2, in particular, non-symmetric ones, are classified with respect to various equivalences, and the Lie algebras preserving them are described. Although it is known that there are two series of distinct finite simple Chevalley groups preserving the non-degenerate symmetric bilinear forms on the space of even dimension, the description of simple Lie algebras

Alexei Lebedev

2006-01-01

37

Disruption of Contact Lens-Associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Formed in the Presence of Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the capacity of neutrophils to enhance biofilm formation on contact lenses by an infectious Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) corneal isolate. Agents that target F-actin and DNA were tested as a therapeutic strategy for disrupting biofilms formed in the setting of neutrophils in vitro and for limiting the infectious bioburden in vivo. Methods. Biofilm formation by infectious PA strain 6294 was assessed in the presence of neutrophils on a static biofilm plate and on unworn etafilcon A soft contact lenses. A d-isomer of poly(aspartic acid) was used alone and with DNase to reduce biofilm formation on test contact lenses. The gentamicin survival assay was used to determine the effectiveness of the test compound in reducing subsequent intracellular bacterial load in the corneal epithelium in a contact lens infection model in the rabbit. Results. In a static reactor and on hydrogel lenses, PA biofilm density was enhanced 30-fold at 24 hours in the presence of neutrophils (P < 0.0001). The combination of DNase and anionic poly(aspartic acid) reduced the PA biofilms formed in the presence of activated neutrophils by 79.2% on hydrogel contact lenses (P < 0.001). An identical treatment resulted in a 41% reduction in internalized PA in the rabbit corneal epithelium after 24 hours (P = 0.03). Conclusions. These results demonstrate that PA can exploit the presence of neutrophils to form biofilm on contact lenses within a short time. Incorporation of F-actin and DNA represent a mechanism for neutrophil-induced biofilm enhancement and are targets for available agents to disrupt pathogenic biofilms formed on contact lenses and as a treatment for established corneal infections.

Parks, Quinn M.; Young, Robert L.; Kret, Jennifer; Poch, Katie R.; Malcolm, Kenneth C.; Nichols, David P.; Nichols, Michelle; Zhu, Meifang; Cavanagh, H. Dwight; Nick, Jerry A.

2011-01-01

38

Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Contacts Questions regarding responsiveness of the proposed studies to the BIQSFP should be directed to the one of the following NCI Program Staff: For CTEP:Margaret M. Mooney, M.D.ChiefClinical Investigations BranchNational Cancer Institute9609 Medical

39

Static friction in rubber-metal contacts with application to rubber pad forming processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A static friction model suitable for rubber-metal contact is presented in this dissertation.\\u000aIn introduction, the motivation and the aims of the research are introduced together with the background regarding the related industrial application, which is the rubber pad forming process.

Elena Loredana Deladi

2006-01-01

40

Front contact solar cell with formed electrically conducting layers on the front side and backside  

SciTech Connect

A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by a silicon substrate and a first doped layer of a first dopant type on the backside of the solar cell. A second doped layer of a second dopant type makes an electrical connection to the substrate from the front side of the solar cell. A first metal contact of a first electrical polarity electrically connects to the first doped layer on the backside of the solar cell, and a second metal contact of a second electrical polarity electrically connects to the second doped layer on the front side of the solar cell. An external electrical circuit may be electrically connected to the first and second metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell.

Cousins, Peter John

2012-06-26

41

Discrete Element method, a tool to investigate contacts in material forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the description of a numerical tool that allows the local study of contacts in material forming: Discrete Element Method (DEM). Discrete Element Methods allow the study of local properties (cohesion, thermal generation, fractures) on process behavior.\\u000a This tool is used as molecular dynamics but allows the simulation of much representative volumes. Discrete element method\\u000a is

I. Iordanoff; D. Richard; S. Tcherniaieff

2008-01-01

42

A new computational algorithm for 3D contact modeling of large plastic deformation in powder forming processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the three-dimensional large deformation frictional contact of powder forming process is modeled using a simple computational algorithm based on the augmented-Lagrange approach. The technique is applied by imposing the contact constraints and modifying the contact properties of frictional slip through the node-to-surface (NTS) contact algorithm. The Coulomb friction law is employed to simulate the friction between the

A. R. Khoei; S. O. R. Biabanaki; A. R. Vafa; S. M. Taheri-Mousavi

2009-01-01

43

Self-assembled nanoparticle deposits formed at the contact line of evaporating micrometer-size droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the formation of self-assembled rings of Co Pt3 nanoparticles (ring diameter ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 ?m , particle diameter 6 nm ) formed in an evaporating thin film. The latter was achieved on the surface of water by spreading a binary mixture composed of two solutions: nitrocellulose dissolved in amyl acetate and Co Pt3 particles stabilized by hexadecylamine dissolved in hexane. The self-assembly process of the nanometer-sized particles into micrometer-sized rings results from phase separation in a thin film of the mixed solutions, leading to a bilayer, and the subsequent decomposition during solvent evaporation of the top hexadecylamine-rich layer into droplets. Finally, the evaporation of the remaining solvent from these droplets gives rise to a retraction of their contact line. The Co Pt3 particles located at the contact line follow its motion and self-assemble along this line.

Govor, Leonid V.; Reiter, Günter; Parisi, Jürgen; Bauer, Gottfried H.

2004-06-01

44

Self-assembled nanoparticle deposits formed at the contact line of evaporating micrometer-size droplets.  

PubMed

We report on the formation of self-assembled rings of Co Pt3 nanoparticles (ring diameter ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 microm, particle diameter 6 nm ) formed in an evaporating thin film. The latter was achieved on the surface of water by spreading a binary mixture composed of two solutions: nitrocellulose dissolved in amyl acetate and Co Pt3 particles stabilized by hexadecylamine dissolved in hexane. The self-assembly process of the nanometer-sized particles into micrometer-sized rings results from phase separation in a thin film of the mixed solutions, leading to a bilayer, and the subsequent decomposition during solvent evaporation of the top hexadecylamine-rich layer into droplets. Finally, the evaporation of the remaining solvent from these droplets gives rise to a retraction of their contact line. The Co Pt3 particles located at the contact line follow its motion and self-assemble along this line. PMID:15244587

Govor, Leonid V; Reiter, Günter; Parisi, Jürgen; Bauer, Gottfried H

2004-06-01

45

Model of traveling wave formed by autonomous motion of contact line with oil/water interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the spontaneous traveling wave in oil/water system is proposed. The present model is to explain the traveling wave generated by chemical reactions between a cationic surfactant and oil-soluble anions. This is an extension of the previous model which describes the oscillatory motion of the contact line formed by the oil/water interface and a glass surface. The oscillations at different places are coupled to each other by an effect that diminishes the interfacial energy. The numerical calculations reveal that the traveling wave with a specified direction is reproduced under several assumptions for the noise term.

Shioi, Akihisa; Ban, Takahiko; Suzuki, Sho

2008-12-01

46

Non-contact automatic measurement of free-form surface profiles on CNC machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the work to develop a non-contact type automatic measurement system for any free-form surfaces on a CNC machine tool or a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and its CAD/CAM integration. A laser probe made by Keyence Co. model LC-2220 was integrated into the CNC machine as the non-contact sensor. A measurement software has been developed for automatic surface tracing of any free-form profile. Data transfer to any commercially available CAD/CAM system for reverse engineering is also available via proper DXF file. Extensive calibration work has been carried out on the systematic accuracy of the laser probe with respect to the color material surface slope and edge detection of the workpiece by the use of a HP5528 laser interferometer system. Having employed the surface painting technique the shape error of the copied object relative to its master piece was found within 30 micrometers which is deemed adequate enough to the mold industry.

Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wen, Kuang-Pu

1993-09-01

47

A nanocomposite material formed by benzofulvene polymer nanoparticles loaded with a potent 5HT 3 receptor antagonist (CR3124)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly-BF3a, a new hydrophobic polymer obtained by spontaneous polymerization of 1-methylene-3-phenyl-1H-indene, was found to give nanoparticles characterized by favorable shape and dimensions. Poly-BF3a nanoparticles were loaded with CR3124, a potent 5HT3 antagonist, as a drug model by desolvation methods either in the absence or in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG1000)\\u000a as a wetting agent. The SEM studies showed that

Andrea Cappelli; Simone Galeazzi; Iacopo Zanardi; Valter Travagli; Maurizio Anzini; Raniero Mendichi; Stefania Petralito; Adriana Memoli; Eugenio Paccagnini; Walter Peris; Antonio Giordani; Francesco Makovec; Massimo Fresta; Salvatore Vomero

2010-01-01

48

Specific adducts formed through a radical reaction between peptides and contact allergenic hydroperoxides.  

PubMed

The first step in the development of contact allergy (allergic contact dermatitis) includes the penetration of an allergy-causing chemical (hapten) into the skin, where it binds to macromolecules such as proteins. The protein-hapten adduct is then recognized by the immune system as foreign to the body. For hydroperoxides, no relevant hapten target proteins or protein-hapten adducts have so far been identified. In this work, bovine insulin and human angiotensin I were used as model peptides to investigate the haptenation mechanism of three hydroperoxide haptens: (5R)-5-isopropenyl-2-methyl-2-cyclohexene-1-hydroperoxide (Lim-2-OOH), cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH), and 1-(1-hydroperoxy-1-methylethyl) cyclohexene (CycHexOOH). These hydroperoxides are expected to react via a radical mechanism, for which 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride (Fe(III)TPPCl) was used as a radical initiator. The reactions were carried out in 1:1 ethanol/10 mM ammonium acetate buffer pH 7.4, for 3 h at 37 degrees C, and the reaction products were either enzymatically digested or analyzed directly by MALDI/TOF-MS, HPLC/MS/MS, and 2D gel electrophoresis. Both hydroperoxide-specific and unspecific reaction products were detected, but only in the presence of the iron catalyst. In the absence of catalyst, the hydroperoxides remained unreacted. This suggests that the hydroperoxides can enter into the skin and remain inert until activated. Through the detection of a Lim-2-OOH adduct bound at the first histidine (of two) of angiotensin I, it was confirmed that hydroperoxides have the potential to form specific antigens in contact allergy. PMID:19928803

Redeby, Theres; Nilsson, Ulrika; Altamore, Timothy M; Ilag, Leopold; Ambrosi, Annalisa; Broo, Kerstin; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

2010-01-01

49

Thermal Contact Resistance Estimation: Influence of the Pressure Contact and the Coating Layer during a Hot Forming Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of hot stamping in the automotive industry has experienced a fast growth due to the need for higher passive safety and weight reduction. Today, it is absolutely necessary to have reliable and accurate simulation predictions in order to assess the forming feasibility of a part as early as possible during the car design phase. In this paper, an

B. Abdulhay; B. Bourouga; C. Dessain

2011-01-01

50

A formulation for frictionless contact problems using a weak form introduced by Nitsche  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a finite element formulation for frictionless contact problems with non-matching meshes in the contact interface is presented. It is based on a non-standard variational formulation due to Nitsche and leads to a matrix formulation in the primary variables. The method modifies the unconstrained functional by adding extra terms and a stabilization which is related to the classical penalty method. These new terms are characterized by the presence of contact forces that are computed from the stresses in the continuum elements. They can be seen as a sort of Lagrangian-type contributions. Due to the computation of the contact forces from the continuum elements, some additional degrees-of-freedom are involved in the stiffness matrix parts related to contact. These degrees-of-freedom are associated with nodes not belonging to the contact surfaces.

Wriggers, P.; Zavarise, G.

2008-02-01

51

A nanorod polymer micro-array formed by micro-contact printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work, we demonstrate a simple approach to creating a plasmonic polymer. Reflecting upon the need for greater spot density while still maintaining the objective of low cost analysis, the next generation of device is described where density up to 24000 sensing spots is achievable. A localized surface plasmon micro-array is described formed by single or multiple deposition of a nanorod plasmonic polymer by micro-contact printing. The structure of the polymer can be made micro-porous and thickness can be controlled by a cyclical deposition and rapid heat cure protocol. The consistency of feature deposition is assessed. The resulting micro-structure provides a large surface area for immobilization of biomolecules for assay development. Dark-field analysis of the polymer demonstrates complex microstructure and intense Mie Scattering as expected from gold nanorods. Using fluorescence confocal analysis images of the polymer demonstrates two independent photo-luminescent emission spectra. The two independent emission spectra are linked to the positions of the localized surface plasmons of the nanorods, using a pump source of 543nm excites the transverse plasmon (peak at 550nm)and it's commensurate emission, but doesn't excite the longer emission around 700nm that is linked to the longitudinal Plasmon around 737nm. The different emissions are demonstrated in the illumination of different portions of the polymer matrix under each pump source excitation. The potential for multiple spectroscopic biosensor analysis is discussed.

Roche, Philip J. R.; Wang, Songzhe; Cheung, Maurice C. K.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Kirk, Andrew G.

2012-02-01

52

Dehydroascorbic acid, a blood-brain barrier transportable form of vitamin C, mediates potent cerebroprotection in experimental stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal injury in ischemic stroke is partly mediated by cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Although the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) or vitamin C does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), its oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), enters the brain by means of facilitative transport. We hypothesized that i.v. DHA would improve outcome after stroke because of its ability to cross the

Judy Huang; David B. Agus; Christopher J. Winfree; Szilard Kiss; William J. Mack; Ryan A. McTaggart; Tanvir F. Choudhri; Louis J. Kim; J. Mocco; David J. Pinsky; William D. Fox; Robert J. Israel; Thomas A. Boyd; David W. Golde; E. Sander Connolly Jr.

2001-01-01

53

Form, symmetry and packing of biomacromolecules. III. Antigenic, receptor and contact binding sites in picornaviruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of rhinoviruses is applied to the Picornaviridae family. The fingerprint diagrams, based on contact binding points between neighbouring molecules periodically packed in the crystal, are extended to antigenic and receptor binding sites.

Janner, A.

2011-03-01

54

High-Temperature Point-Contact Transistors and Schottky Diodes Formed on Synthetic Boron-Doped Diamond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Point-contact transistors and Schottky diodes have been formed on synthetic boron-doped diamond. This is the first report of diamond transistors that have power gain. Further, the transistors exhibited power gain at 510 C and the Schottky diodes were oper...

M. W. Geis D. D. Rathman D. J. Ehrlich R. A. Murphy W. T. Lindley

1987-01-01

55

High-temperature point-contact transistors and Schottky diodes formed on synthetic boron-doped diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Point-contact transistors and Schottky diodes have been formed on synthetic boron-doped diamond. This is the first report of diamond transistors that have power gain. Further, the transistors exhibited power gain at 510°C and the Schottky diodes were operational at 700°C.

M. W. Geis; D. D. Rathman; D. J. Ehrlich; R. A. Murphy; W. T. Lindley

1987-01-01

56

The long-term effects of contact and noncontact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term effects of child sexual abuse were examined in a sample of 284 university men. After controlling for the effects of dysfunctional parenting behaviors, a history of abuse involving physical contact was found to be associated with elevated scores on all subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. The comparison involving noncontact forms of abuse produced no significant abuse related

Steven J. Collings

1995-01-01

57

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE MECHANISM BEHIND THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF A FORMING GAS ANNEAL ON SOLAR CELLS WITH SILVER THICK FILM CONTACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution the beneficial effect of the forming gas anneal (FGA) on solar cells with silver thick film contacts is investigated regarding its application for contacting emitters with phosphorous surface concentrations below ND, surface = 1×10 20 cm-3. Measurements and simulations of silver - silicon contacts show that for emitters with ND, surface > 2×10 19 cm-3 the limiting

G. Schubert; J. Horzel; S. Ohl

58

Back-contacted and small form factor GaAs solar cell.  

SciTech Connect

We present a newly developed microsystem enabled, back-contacted, shade-free GaAs solar cell. Using microsystem tools, we created sturdy 3 {micro}m thick devices with lateral dimensions of 250 {micro}m, 500 {micro}m, 1 mm, and 2 mm. The fabrication procedure and the results of characterization tests are discussed. The highest efficiency cell had a lateral size of 500 {micro}m and a conversion efficiency of 10%, open circuit voltage of 0.9 V and a current density of 14.9 mA/cm{sup 2} under one-sun illumination.

Clews, Peggy Jane; Wanlass, Mark W. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); Sanchez, Carlos A.; Pluym, Tammy; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul James

2010-07-01

59

Auger analysis of films formed on metals in sliding contact with halogenated polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to search for transferred polymer must contend with the fact that there has been no published work on Auger analysis of polymers. Since this is a new area for AES, the Auger spectra of polymers and of halogenated polymers in particular is discussed. It is shown that the Auger spectra of halogenated polymers have certain characteristics that permit an assessment of whether a polymeric transfer film has been established by sliding contact. The discussion is general and the concepts should be useful in considering the Auger analysis of any polymer. The polymers chosen for this study are the halogenated polymers polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polychlorotrifluorethylene (PCTFE).

Pepper, S. V.

1974-01-01

60

Phase composition and electrical characteristics of nickel silicide Schottky contacts formed on 4H-SiC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4H-SiC Schottky diodes with nickel silicide contacts were formed by consecutive deposition of a titanium adhesion layer, 4 nm thick, and nickel, 100 nm thick, followed by annealing at temperatures between 600 and 750 °C. It was found that contacts with barrier heights of 1.45 eV which consist mainly of single nickel monosilicide (NiSi) phase were formed in the 600-660 °C temperature range, while annealing at around 750 °C led to the formation of Ni2Si Schottky contacts with barrier heights of 1.1 eV. Annealing at intermediate temperatures resulted in the nucleation of Ni2Si grains embedded in the NiSi film which were directly observed by micro-Raman mapping. It was shown that the thermodynamically unfavourable NiSi phase appeared in the 600-660 °C temperature range due to control of the Ni-SiC solid-state chemical reaction by nickel diffusion through the titanium diffusion barrier.

Nikitina, I.; Vassilevski, K.; Horsfall, A.; Wright, N.; O'Neill, A. G.; Ray, S. K.; Zekentes, K.; Johnson, C. M.

2009-05-01

61

Ion Channel-Forming Alamethicin Is a Potent Elicitor of Volatile Biosynthesis and Tendril Coiling. Cross Talk between Jasmonate and Salicylate Signaling in Lima Bean1  

PubMed Central

Alamethicin (ALA), a voltage-gated, ion channel-forming peptide mixture from Trichoderma viride, is a potent elicitor of the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Unlike elicitation with jasmonic acid or herbivore damage, the blend of substances emitted comprises only the two homoterpenes, 4,11-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, and methyl salicylate. Inhibition of octadecanoid signaling by aristolochic acid and phenidone as well as mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous jasmonate demonstrate that ALA induces the biosynthesis of volatile compounds principally via the octadecanoid-signaling pathway (20-fold increase of jasmonic acid). ALA also up-regulates salicylate biosynthesis, and the time course of the production of endogenous salicylate correlates well with the appearance of the methyl ester in the gas phase. The massive up-regulation of the SA-pathway (90-fold) interferes with steps in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of 12-oxophytodienoic acid and thereby reduces the pattern of emitted volatiles to compounds previously shown to be induced by early octadecanoids. ALA also induces tendril coiling in various species like Pisum, Lathyrus, and Bryonia, but the response appears to be independent from octadecanoid biosynthesis, because inhibitors of lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 do not prevent the coiling reaction.

Engelberth, Jurgen; Koch, Thomas; Schuler, Gode; Bachmann, Nadine; Rechtenbach, Jana; Boland, Wilhelm

2001-01-01

62

Structure of diffusion layers formed at liquid aluminum alloy-steel contact boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and composition of diffusion layers that arise upon the spread of the liquid aluminum alloys AL5, AL9, AL852, and A7075 over the St3 steel has been investigated using optical and electron microscopy. The thermophysical conditions of the interaction of the melt with the substrate under which at the boundary of the substrate the plastic transition layer of iron-based solid solution improving quality of the coating is formed have been determined.

Brodova, I. G.; Chikova, O. A.; Shirinkina, I. G.; Yablonskikh, T. I.; Astaf'ev, V. V.

2013-05-01

63

CORRIGENDUM: Template synthesis and forming electrical contacts to single Au nanowires by focused ion beam techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors regret that there is an error in the final published version of this article. The correct figures 4 and 5(a) are shown in this corrigendum. The authors wish to apologize to the readers for any confusion this error may have caused. Figure 4. SEM image of 200 nm in diameter of Au nanowires from completely filled pores after dissolving the membrane in dichloromethane (Cl2CH2) and collecting the wires on holey carbon grids. The wires have a length of 20 ± 3 nm with hemispherical caps which formed when the pores are filled up on the top of membrane surface Figure 5(a). Bright field TEM image of 200 nm Au nanowires.

Valizadeh, S.; Abid, M.; Hernández-Ramírez, F.; Romano Rodríguez, A.; Hjort, K.; Schweitz, J. Å.

2007-11-01

64

A technique to form a porous silicon layer with no backside contact by alternating current electrochemical process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the formation of porous silicon under alternating current conditions. Instead of applying the usual direct current electrochemical process, an alternating current was applied with a given frequency and peak voltage. The porous silicon layer properties are equivalent to the properties that would be achieved by the standard direct current formation technique (i.e., same porosity level). The main advantages of this process are: (a) The alternating current formed porous silicon exhibits higher mechanical stability during the drying step than layers formed using the standard direct current technique. (b) The alternating current process can be performed without a deposited backside contact. These simplify the process and permit its integration with high temperature processing steps and clean furnaces of a modern very large sale-integrated technology.

El-Bahar, A.; Nemirovsky, Y.

2000-07-01

65

Ultraviolet band-pass photodetectors formed by Ga-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films prepared by cosputtering were deposited onto n-GaN films with a low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer to form Schottky barrier photodetectors (PDs). The ultraviolet (UV) PDs exhibited a narrow band-pass spectral response ranging from 340 to 390 nm. The short-wavelength cutoff at around 340 nm can be attributed to the marked absorption of the GZO contact layer. With a zero-biased condition, the UV PDs exhibited a typical peak responsivity of around 0.10 A/W at 365 nm, which corresponds to the quantum efficiency of around 34%. When the reverse biases were below 10 V, the dark currents of the PDs were well below 30 pA.

Sheu, J. K.; Chang, K. H.; Lee, M. L.

2008-03-01

66

The parapatric distribution and contact zone of two forms showing different male-to-male aggressiveness in a social spider mite, Stigmaeopsis miscanthi (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Two forms showing different male-to-male aggressiveness, different male morphologies and different diapause attributes are known in Stigmaeopsis miscanthi (Saito), a social spider mite infesting Chinese silver grass (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss). Reproductive isolation exists between the forms, although it is not always complete, and the details of their distributional patterns are unknown, but expected to be parapatric. We searched for the contact zone at Mt. Unzen (Nagasaki Pref., Japan) where both forms are known to occur at different altitudes. We found the two forms together in several M. sinensis stands, suggesting there is frequent contact between the forms in their boundary area. We discuss the mechanism(s) that maintain the parapatry related to their frequent contact and the pattern of reproductive isolation between them. PMID:18392941

Sato, Yukie; Saito, Yutaka; Chittenden, Anthony R

2008-04-01

67

Trichomonas vaginalis haemolysis: pH regulates a contact-independent mechanism based on pore-forming proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a controversy in literature about involvement of secreted factors in the pathogenetic mechanisms ofTrichomonas vaginalis, described mostly as contact-dependent. We found that the protozoan, under triggering conditions, is able to release molecules that lead to lysis without direct contact between parasite and target cell as a prerequisite. In this paper we characterize contact-independent cytotoxicity using the red blood

Pier Luigi Fiori; Paola Rappelli; Maria Filippa Addis; Antonio Sechi; Piero Cappuccinelli

1996-01-01

68

Structural basis for potent inhibition of the Aurora kinases and a T315I multi-drug resistant mutant form of Abl kinase by VX-680.  

PubMed

The small molecule inhibitor of the Aurora-family of protein kinases VX-680 or MK-0457, demonstrates potent anti-cancer activity in multiple in vivo models and has recently entered phase II clinical trials. Although VX-680 shows a high degree of enzyme selectivity against multiple kinases, it unexpectedly inhibits both Flt-3 and Abl kinases at low nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore VX-680 potently inhibits Abl and the Imatinib resistant mutant (T315I) that is commonly expressed in refractory CML and ALL. We describe here the crystal structure of VX-680 bound to Aurora-A and show that this inhibitor exploits a centrally located hydrophobic pocket in the active site that is only present in an inactive or "closed" kinase conformation. A tight association of VX-680 with this hydrophobic pocket explains its high affinity for the Aurora kinases and also provides an explanation for its selectivity profile, including its ability to inhibit Abl and the Imatinib-resistant mutant (T315I). PMID:17240048

Cheetham, G M T; Charlton, P A; Golec, J M C; Pollard, J R

2007-06-28

69

Wetting and Contact Interaction in Systems Formed by Nitrides of Group IV Transition Metals with Chromium-Nickel Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetting and contact interaction have been examined for the nitrides TiN0.98 and ZrN0.87 in contact with chromium -nickel alloys of various compositions at 1500-1900°C in purified argon at an excess pressure of 0.35·105 Pa; the methods used have been sessile drop, microstructure, x-ray diffraction, electron-probe microanalysis, and hardness measurement. Wetting is accompanied by interaction of the liquid and substrate with

Vasilii E. Matsera; O. V. Pshenichnaya; V. P. Popov

2002-01-01

70

Oxidized eicosapentaenoic acids more potently reduce LXR?-induced cellular triacylglycerol via suppression of SREBP-1c, PGC-1? and GPA than its intact form  

PubMed Central

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), improve lipid metabolism and contribute to the prevention of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, EPA in the diet is easily oxidized at room temperature and several types of oxidized EPA (OEPA) derivatives are generated. To compare the efficiencies of OEPAs on lipid metabolism with EPA, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) was treated with EPA or OEPAs and their effects on lipid metabolism related genes were studied. OEPAs more potently suppressed the expression of sterol-responsive element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, a major transcription factor that activates the expression of lipogenic genes, and its downstream target genes than did EPA under conditions of lipid synthesis enhanced by T0901317, a synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. Furthermore, PGC-1?, a coactivator of both LXR? and SREBP-1, was markedly down-regulated by OEPAs compared with EPA. The treatment of OEPAs also significantly down-regulated the expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPA), the initiating enzyme in triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis, more than EPA. Therefore, the advantageous effects of OEPAs on cardiovascular diseases might be due to their SREBP-1c, PGC-1? and GPA mediated ameliorating effects.

2013-01-01

71

Oxidized eicosapentaenoic acids more potently reduce LXR?-induced cellular triacylglycerol via suppression of SREBP-1c, PGC-1? and GPA than its intact form.  

PubMed

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), improve lipid metabolism and contribute to the prevention of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, EPA in the diet is easily oxidized at room temperature and several types of oxidized EPA (OEPA) derivatives are generated. To compare the efficiencies of OEPAs on lipid metabolism with EPA, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) was treated with EPA or OEPAs and their effects on lipid metabolism related genes were studied. OEPAs more potently suppressed the expression of sterol-responsive element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, a major transcription factor that activates the expression of lipogenic genes, and its downstream target genes than did EPA under conditions of lipid synthesis enhanced by T0901317, a synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. Furthermore, PGC-1?, a coactivator of both LXR? and SREBP-1, was markedly down-regulated by OEPAs compared with EPA. The treatment of OEPAs also significantly down-regulated the expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPA), the initiating enzyme in triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis, more than EPA. Therefore, the advantageous effects of OEPAs on cardiovascular diseases might be due to their SREBP-1c, PGC-1? and GPA mediated ameliorating effects. PMID:23680128

Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

2013-01-01

72

Structural and electrical characterization of silicided Ni/Au contacts formed at low temperature (<300 °C) on p-type [001] silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicided Ni/Au contacts with very low contact resistance were realized on p-type [001] silicon at low temperature by ex-situ or, alternatively, by in situ annealing processes. During the ex-situ annealing, performed at 200 °C for 10 s, a uniformly thin (14 nm) Ni2Si layer was formed having an extremely flat interface with silicon thanks to the trans-rotational structure of the silicide. During the in situ annealing, promoted by a sputter etch processing (T < 300 °C), a 44 nm-thick silicide layer was formed as a mixture of trans-rotational NiSi and epitaxial NiSi2, domains. In both cases, using a low thermal budget has guaranteed a limited consumption of silicon during the reaction process and a good adhesion with the substrate avoiding gold contaminations. As a consequence of the presence of trans-rotational domains, wherein a pseudo-epitaxial relationship between the silicide and the silicon lattices is established, an ohmic behavior was observed in a wide range of substrate doping (3.5 × 1018 ÷ 3 × 1019 B/cm3) for both annealing processes (in situ and ex-situ). On the other hand, conventional TiNiAu and CrNiAu contacts showed, in the same range of B doping concentration, a rectifying behavior with systematically higher specific contact resistance values (Rc) compared to those of the Ni silicided contacts.

Alberti, A.; Badalà, P.; Pellegrino, G.; Santangelo, A.

2011-12-01

73

Potent cross-reactive immune response against the wild-type and drug-resistant forms of HIV reverse transcriptase after the chimeric gene immunization.  

PubMed

HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) can be considered as a target and an instrument of immunotherapy aimed at limiting the emergence and spread of drug-resistant HIV. The chimeric genes coding for the wild-type and multi-drug-resistant RT (RT1.14) fused to lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were injected intramuscularly into BALB/c mice. The immune response was assessed by ELISpot, cytokine ELISA intracellular IFN-gamma staining, and antibody ELISA. The genes for RT- and RT1.14-LAMP fusions (RT-LAMP and RT1.14-LAMP) were immunogenic generating a mixed Th1/Th2-profile of immune response, while the wild-type RT gene induced only weak immune response. Specific secretion of Th1-cytokines increased with increasing level of RT modification: RTPotent immune recognition of RT after immunization with chimeric RT genes indicates that this tolerance could be overcome. Immunization with mutant HIV genes may represent an immunotherapeutical supplement to antiretroviral treatment preventing the emergence of drug resistance. PMID:20188253

Starodubova, Elizaveta; Boberg, Andreas; Ivanov, Alexander; Latyshev, Oleg; Petrakova, Natalia; Kuzmenko, Yulia; Litvina, Marina; Chernousov, Alexander; Kochetkov, Sergey; Karpov, Vadim; Wahren, Britta; Isaguliants, Maria G

2010-02-23

74

Modification of 3'AMP Forming Enzyme Activity by a Potent Immunosuppressant, ISP-I\\/Myriocin, in Liver of Mice Treated with Carbon Tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ISP-I\\/myriocin on adenosine 3'- monophosphate (3'-AMP) forming enzyme activity in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatitis was ex- amined. The 3'-AMP forming enzyme activity in mouse liver was enhanced by the treatment of CCl4. The in- crease in the activity in cytosol may result from the leakage of the enzyme from mitochondria via the dam- age of mitochondrial membrane

Hiroyuki Fujimori; Tetsuro Fujita; Hidemitsu Pan-Hou

2001-01-01

75

Denatured state ensembles with the same radii of gyration can form significantly different long-range contacts.  

PubMed

Defining the structural, dynamic, and energetic properties of the unfolded state of proteins is critical for an in-depth understanding of protein folding, protein thermodynamics, and protein aggregation. Here we analyze long-range contacts and compactness in two apparently fully unfolded ensembles of the same protein: the acid unfolded state of the C-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L9 in the absence of high concentrations of urea as well as the urea unfolded state at low pH. Small angle X-ray scattering reveals that the two states are expanded with values of Rg differing by <7%. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) nuclear magnetic resonance studies, however, reveal that the acid unfolded state samples conformations that facilitate contacts between residues that are distant in sequence while the urea unfolded state ensemble does not. The experimental PRE profiles for the acid unfolded state differ significantly from these predicted using an excluded volume limit ensemble, but these long-range contacts are largely eliminated by the addition of 8 M urea. The work shows that expanded unfolded states can sample very different distributions of long-range contacts yet still have similar radii of gyration. The implications for protein folding and for the characterization of unfolded states are discussed. PMID:24280003

Luan, Bowu; Lyle, Nicholas; Pappu, Rohit V; Raleigh, Daniel P

2014-01-14

76

Rapid photo-assisted forming gas anneal (FGA) for high quality screen-printed contacts for silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of low-cost high-quality contacts is the key to cost-effective silicon solar cells. Screen-printing is widely used in industry because it is simple, low-cost and rapid. However, cost and throughput gains are attained at the expense of performance. Fill factors of most commercial cells are in the range of 0.68-75 for single crystalline material. This paper shows that a rapid

A. Ebong; M. Hillali; A. Rohatgi

2000-01-01

77

Trypanosoma brucei 14-3-3I and II proteins predominantly form a heterodimer structure that acts as a potent cell cycle regulator in vivo.  

PubMed

Hetero- and homodimerization of 14-3-3 proteins demonstrate distinctive functions in mammals and plants. Trypanosoma brucei 14-3-3I and II (Tb14-3-3I and II) play pivotal roles in motility, cytokinesis and the cell cycle; however, the significance and the mechanism of Tb14-3-3 dimerization are remained to be elucidated. We found that ectopically expressed epitope-tagged Tb14-3-3I and II proteins formed hetero- and homodimers with endogenous Tb14-3-3I and II proteins. However, we also found the ability to form hetero- or homodimers between Tb14-3-3I and II proteins was clearly affected by the sequence and location of the epitope tag used. We found a blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system followed by western blotting may distinguish monomer from dimer structure, and stable from unstable conformation of Tb14-3-3. Combined with co-immunoprecipitation results, we revealed that Tb14-3-3 proteins mainly existed as heterodimeric form. Furthermore, co-overexpression of Tb14-3-3I and II proteins in T. brucei induced aberrant numbers of organelles in cells, but overexpression of either isoform alone rarely produced such morphology. These results suggest that heterodimers play more significant roles than homodimers not only in the maintenance of steady-state levels of the 14-3-3 proteins but also in the regulation of cytokinesis. PMID:23457405

Inoue, Masahiro; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uemura, Haruki; Yasaka, Natsumi; Schnaufer, Achim; Yano, Mihiro; Kido, Hiroshi; Kohda, Daisuke; Doi, Hirofumi; Fukuma, Toshihide; Tsuji, Akihiko; Horikoshi, Nobuo

2013-05-01

78

New type of charged-particles detector based on point contacts formed in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure by split-gates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new principle for a low temperature semiconductor detector of charged particles with possibly submicron lateral resolution based on point contacts formed in the 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) of a GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure using split-gates. The detector operates up to liquid nitrogen temperatures. Impinging particles excite locally extra donors in the doping layer of the heterostructure. By measuring simultaneous

K. Baklanov; R. Taboryski; P. E. Lindelof

1993-01-01

79

gamma-Fluoromethotrexate: synthesis and biological activity of a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase with greatly diminished ability to form poly-gamma-glutamates.  

PubMed Central

A methotrexate (MTX) analog containing fluorine at the gamma-carbon of the glutamate moiety, gamma-fluoromethotrexate (FMTX), has been synthesized and evaluated for its biochemical and pharmacological properties. FMTX inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase from several sources is nearly equivalent to that shown by MTX. Most important, FMTX is an exceedingly poor substrate for folylpoly (gamma-glutamate) synthetase, the enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the highly-retained, cytotoxic MTX polyglutamates. Uptake experiments in H35 hepatoma cells show that FMTX accumulates to approximately the same extent as MTX at steady state. The rapid efflux of both derivatives is also very similar. The major difference detected in cells between the two compounds is the meager glutamylation of FMTX, due to the electronegative properties of the fluorine adjacent to the potential amide-forming carboxyl group. Exposure of dividing cells to 50 microM MTX for 2 and 6 hr results in the formation of 55 and 130 nmol, respectively, of the polyglutamates (more than two glutamate residues)/g of cell protein. With FMTX these values were reduced by 98% and 93%, respectively. Growth inhibition studies show that MTX is only 12-fold more toxic than FMTX when the cells are exposed to each derivative continuously for 72 hr. When the exposure time is reduced, a greater disparity between the inhibitory effects is observed; with a 2-hr pulse, MTX is 2300-fold more effective than FMTX. These data correlate with the effects of pulses of FMTX and MIX on de novo thymidylate biosynthesis in intact cells. The results indicate that of the parameters examined, the vastly reduced toxicity of FMTX after its removal from the culture medium is best correlated with impaired glutamylation. The data strongly suggest that prolonged toxicity of MTX is a result of metabolic conversion to MTX polyglutamates and that these effects are far more dramatic in short-term than in long-term exposure to the antifolates.

Galivan, J; Inglese, J; McGuire, J J; Nimec, Z; Coward, J K

1985-01-01

80

gamma-Fluoromethotrexate: synthesis and biological activity of a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase with greatly diminished ability to form poly-gamma-glutamates.  

PubMed

A methotrexate (MTX) analog containing fluorine at the gamma-carbon of the glutamate moiety, gamma-fluoromethotrexate (FMTX), has been synthesized and evaluated for its biochemical and pharmacological properties. FMTX inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase from several sources is nearly equivalent to that shown by MTX. Most important, FMTX is an exceedingly poor substrate for folylpoly (gamma-glutamate) synthetase, the enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the highly-retained, cytotoxic MTX polyglutamates. Uptake experiments in H35 hepatoma cells show that FMTX accumulates to approximately the same extent as MTX at steady state. The rapid efflux of both derivatives is also very similar. The major difference detected in cells between the two compounds is the meager glutamylation of FMTX, due to the electronegative properties of the fluorine adjacent to the potential amide-forming carboxyl group. Exposure of dividing cells to 50 microM MTX for 2 and 6 hr results in the formation of 55 and 130 nmol, respectively, of the polyglutamates (more than two glutamate residues)/g of cell protein. With FMTX these values were reduced by 98% and 93%, respectively. Growth inhibition studies show that MTX is only 12-fold more toxic than FMTX when the cells are exposed to each derivative continuously for 72 hr. When the exposure time is reduced, a greater disparity between the inhibitory effects is observed; with a 2-hr pulse, MTX is 2300-fold more effective than FMTX. These data correlate with the effects of pulses of FMTX and MIX on de novo thymidylate biosynthesis in intact cells. The results indicate that of the parameters examined, the vastly reduced toxicity of FMTX after its removal from the culture medium is best correlated with impaired glutamylation. The data strongly suggest that prolonged toxicity of MTX is a result of metabolic conversion to MTX polyglutamates and that these effects are far more dramatic in short-term than in long-term exposure to the antifolates. PMID:2581252

Galivan, J; Inglese, J; McGuire, J J; Nimec, Z; Coward, J K

1985-05-01

81

Staphylococcal alpha -toxin: Oligomerization of Hydrophilic Monomers to Form Amphiphilic Hexamers Induced through Contact with Deoxycholate Detergent Micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native staphylococcus aureus alpha -toxin is secreted as a hydrophilic polypeptide chain of Mr 34,000. The presence of deoxycholate above the critical micellar concentration induced the toxin monomers to self-associate, forming ring or cylindrical oligomers. The oligomers were amphiphilic and bound detergent. In deoxycholate solution, the protein-detergent complexes exhibited a sedimentation coefficient of 10.4 S. A Mr of 238,700 was

Sucharit Bhakdi; Roswitha Fussle; Jorgen Tranum-Jensen

1981-01-01

82

Ultraviolet band-pass photodetectors formed by Ga-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films prepared by cosputtering were deposited onto n-GaN films with a low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer to form Schottky barrier photodetectors (PDs). The ultraviolet (UV) PDs exhibited a narrow band-pass spectral response ranging from 340 to 390 nm. The short-wavelength cutoff at around 340 nm can be attributed to the marked absorption of the GZO

J. K. Sheu; K. H. Chang; M. L. Lee

2008-01-01

83

The relative noise levels of parallel axis gear sets with various contact ratios and gear tooth forms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The real noise reduction benefits which may be obtained through the use of one gear tooth form as compared to another is an important design parameter for any geared system, especially for helicopters in which both weight and reliability are very important factors. This paper describes the design and testing of nine sets of gears which are as identical as possible except for their basic tooth geometry. Noise measurements were made at various combinations of load and speed for each gear set so that direct comparisons could be made. The resultant data was analyzed so that valid conclusions could be drawn and interpreted for design use.

Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.; Spencer, Robert H.; Valco, Mark; Oswald, Fred B.

1993-01-01

84

ATBC Study - Contact Us  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Home Contact Us Links Study Details Questionnaires & Forms Current Projects ATBC Study Bibliography Study Investigators & Collaborators Proposal Review & Collaboration Research Consortium Projects Contact Us If you are seeking general

85

Contact Lenses  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients & Public > Caring for Your Vision > Contact Lenses Contact Lenses Eye See Tobacco Free Contact Lens Safety ... up visits over a specified time. Recommendations for Contact Lens Wearers from the American Optometric Association Always ...

86

NCI-Frederick PHL - Contact  

Cancer.gov

Services Price List Courier Services & Shipment Procedures Scheduling Contact Information Related Links Establishing an Account PHL Forms PHL Portal Contact Information Manager: Larry Sternberg, Ph.D., Department Contact Phone Number E-mail Address

87

Growth kinetics and morphology of self-assembled monolayers formed by contact printing 7-octenyltrichlorosilane and octadecyltrichlorosilane on Si(100) wafers.  

PubMed

The growth kinetics and morphologies of self-assembled monolayers deposited by contact printing 7-octenyltrichlorosilane (OCT) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) on Si(100) were studied by ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. We found that, for both OCT and OTS, full monolayers could be obtained at room temperature after printing times of 120-180 s; the printing-based monolayer assembly processes follow apparent Langmuir adsorption kinetics, with the measured film growth rates increasing both with the ambient humidity and with concentration of the ink used to load the stamp. At a dew point of 10 degrees C and an ink concentration (in toluene) of 50 mM, the observed film growth rate constant is 0.05 s(-)(1). When the printing was carried out at a lower ambient humidity (dew points of 1-3 degrees C), the measured rates of assembly were approximately a factor of 2 slower. Increasing the deposition temperature from 25 to 45 degrees C under these conditions increased the film growth rate only slightly. The morphology of the films depends on the identity of the ink. Uniform, high-coverage films could be obtained readily from the eight-carbon chain length adsorbate OCT, provided that the stamp was not overloaded with the ink; for high concentrations outside of the optimal range, the surface presented significant numbers of adsorbed particles ascribed, in part, to siloxane polymers formed by hydrolysis of the ink on the stamp before printing. In marked contrast, for the 18-carbon adsorbate OTS, the printed films always consisted of a mixture of a uniform monolayer plus adsorbed polysiloxane particles. The different film morphologies seen for OCT and OTS are proposed to result from the different transfer efficiencies of the organotrichlorosilane relative to polysiloxane hydrolysis products formed during the printing process. These transfer efficiencies exhibit sensitivities related to the permeation of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp by the silane reagents. Short-chain inks such as OCT evidently permeate the PDMS stamp more deeply than longer-chain inks such as OTS. This difference, and the different diffusion rates of ink vs oligomeric silane hydrolysis products, determines the film morphology obtained by contact printing. The mass transfer dynamics of the process thus yield surface layers derived from varying quantities of siloxane oligomers, which subsequently transfer to the substrate along with unhydrolyzed silane adsorbate during the printing step. The structural evolution of the contact-printed films so obtained is strikingly different from that of SAMs prepared by immersion. PMID:15568837

Harada, Yoshiko; Girolami, Gregory S; Nuzzo, Ralph G

2004-12-01

88

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava [Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit, Biological Sciences Division, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata, West Bengal-700108 (India); Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Gogoi, Robin [Plant Pathology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S. [Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India)

2010-10-04

89

Contact Dermatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... to irritated skin, the eczema is called irritant contact dermatitis . If an allergic reaction develops on the skin after exposure, the eczema is called allergic contact dermatitis . A case of irritant contact dermatitis caused ...

90

Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido--contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics--.  

PubMed

Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, "pseudo growth curves" of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the "density length" of volcanic bodies when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics. PMID:18941290

K M Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Izumi

2008-01-01

91

Muon radiography and deformation analysis of the lava dome formed by the 1944 eruption of Usu, Hokkaido --Contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics--  

PubMed Central

Lava domes are one of the conspicuous topographic features on volcanoes. The subsurface structure of the lava dome is important to discuss its formation mechanism. In the 1944 eruption of Volcano Usu, Hokkaido, a new lava dome was formed at its eastern foot. After the completion of the lava dome, various geophysical methods were applied to the dome to study its subsurface structure, but resulted in a rather ambiguous conclusion. Recently, from the results of the levelings, which were repeated during the eruption, “pseudo growth curves” of the lava dome were obtained. The curves suggest that the lava dome has a bulbous shape. In the present work, muon radiography, which previously proved effective in imaging the internal structure of Volcano Asama, has been applied to the Usu lava dome. The muon radiography measures the distribution of the “density length” of volcanic bodies when detectors are arranged properly. The result obtained is consistent with the model deduced from the pseudo growth curves. The measurement appears to afford useful method to clarify the subsurface structure of volcanoes and its temporal changes, and in its turn to discuss volcanic processes. This is a point of contact between high-energy physics and volcano physics.

TANAKA, Hiroyuki K. M.; YOKOYAMA, Izumi

2008-01-01

92

Catalytic activation of human glucokinase by substrate binding: residue contacts involved in the binding of D-glucose to the super-open form and conformational transitions.  

PubMed

alpha-D-Glucose activates glucokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) on its binding to the active site by inducing a global hysteretic conformational change. Using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence as a probe on the alpha-D-glucose induced conformational changes in the pancreatic isoform 1 of human glucokinase, key residues involved in the process were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Single-site W-->F mutations enabled the assignment of the fluorescence enhancement (DeltaF/F(0)) mainly to W99 and W167 in flexible loop structures, but the biphasic time course of DeltaF/F(0) is variably influenced by all tryptophan residues. The human glucokinase-alpha-D-glucose association (K(d) = 4.8 +/- 0.1 mm at 25 degrees C) is driven by a favourable entropy change (DeltaS = 150 +/- 10 J.mol(-1).K(-1)). Although X-ray crystallographic studies have revealed the alpha-d-glucose binding residues in the closed state, the contact residues that make essential contributions to its binding to the super-open conformation remain unidentified. In the present study, we combined functional mutagenesis with structural dynamic analyses to identify residue contacts involved in the initial binding of alpha-d-glucose and conformational transitions. The mutations N204A, D205A or E256A/K in the L-domain resulted in enzyme forms that did not bind alpha-D-glucose at 200 mm and were essentially catalytically inactive. Our data support a molecular dynamic model in which a concerted binding of alpha-D-glucose to N204, N231 and E256 in the super-open conformation induces local torsional stresses at N204/D205 propagating towards a closed conformation, involving structural changes in the highly flexible interdomain connecting region II (R192-N204), helix 5 (V181-R191), helix 6 (D205-Y215) and the C-terminal helix 17 (R447-K460). PMID:18397317

Molnes, Janne; Bjørkhaug, Lise; Søvik, Oddmund; Njølstad, Pål R; Flatmark, Torgeir

2008-05-01

93

Ribonuclease A variants with potent cytotoxic activity  

PubMed Central

Select members of the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) superfamily are potent cytotoxins. These cytotoxic ribonucleases enter the cytosol, where they degrade cellular RNA and cause cell death. Ribonuclease inhibitor (RI), a cytosolic protein, binds to members of the RNase A superfamily with inhibition constants that span 10 orders of magnitude. Here, we show that the affinity of a ribonuclease for RI plays an integral role in defining the potency of a cytotoxic ribonuclease. RNase A is not cytotoxic and binds RI with high affinity. Onconase, a cytotoxic RNase A homolog, binds RI with low affinity. To disrupt the RI-RNase A interaction, three RNase A residues (Asp-38, Gly-88, and Ala-109) that form multiple contacts with RI were replaced with arginine. Replacing Asp-38 and Ala-109 with an arginine residue has no effect on the RI–RNase interaction. In addition, these variants are not cytotoxic. In contrast, replacing Gly-88 with an arginine residue yields a ribonuclease (G88R RNase A) that retains catalytic activity in the presence of RI and is cytotoxic to a transformed cell line. Replacing Gly-88 with aspartate also yields a ribonuclease (G88D RNase A) with a decreased affinity for RI and cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic potency of onconase, G88R RNase A, and G88D RNase A correlate with RI evasion. We conclude that ribonucleases that retain catalytic activity in the presence of RI are cytotoxins. This finding portends the development of a class of chemotherapeutic agents based on pancreatic ribonucleases.

Leland, Peter A.; Schultz, L. Wayne; Kim, Byung-Moon; Raines, Ronald T.

1998-01-01

94

TCGA Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Home About TCGA People and Contacts TCGA Contacts TCGA Contacts For more information about The Cancer Genome Atlas Program, please contact: The Cancer Genome Atlas Program OfficeNational Cancer Institute at NIH31 Center DriveBldg. 31, Suite 3A20Bethesda,

95

Investigation of montmorillonite alteration and form of iron corrosion products in compacted bentonite in contact with carbon steel for ten years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In high-level radioactive waste disposal, the alteration of montmorillonite due to the corrosion of carbon steel possibly affects the swelling and self-healing capacity of compacted bentonite used as a buffer material. The nature of the corrosion products in compacted bentonite is also important to evaluate not only the diffusion and sorption behavior of radionuclides but also the chemical composition and redox potential of pore water. In this study, the alteration of montmorillonite in compacted bentonite due to the interaction with carbon steel was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The possibility of montmorillonite alteration was also investigated from the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of compacted bentonite and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The corrosion products distributed in the compacted bentonite were investigated by selective dissolution analysis, which can estimate the crystallinity of Fe-bearing compounds. The valence of Fe in the corrosion products was spectrophotometrically determined. From the XRD analysis, newly formed phyllosilicates resulting from the alteration of montmorillonite could not be identified in compacted bentonite. CEC of compacted bentonite adjacent to the carbon steel, in which high concentration of Fe was extracted, was hardly decreased. No significant differences of clay particles were observed with SEM. Thus, the alteration of montmorillonite was scarcely detected in compacted bentonite in contact with carbon steel for ten years. The selective dissolution and valence analyses suggest that most of the corrosion products of carbon steel existed in Kunipia F, which consists of over 95 wt% montmorillonite, was amorphous, non-crystalline or poorly ordered Fe(OH) 2. This means that Fe(OH) 2 distributed into compacted bentonite was scarcely crystallized within ten years at 80 oC. From the XRD analysis, small amount of green rust one containing Cl - at the interlayers (GR1(Cl -)) and lepidocrocite were also identified in Kunipia F. Therefore, under this experimental condition, Fe(OH) 2 formed in Kunipia F due to the corrosion of carbon steel was oxidized to GR1(Cl -) as intermediates, and then GR1(Cl -) was possibly oxidized to lepidocrocite. On the other hand, GR1(Cl -) was hardly detected in Kunigel V1, which contains 46-49 wt% montmorillonite, from the XRD analysis.

Ishidera, Takamitsu; Ueno, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Seiichi; Suyama, Tadahiro

96

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events Cancer Prevention and Control Investigators Meeting Tuesday, March 20, 2012 Contact Information For workshop logistical information, please contact: Fofie Witter Senior Conference Manager Cabezon Group, Inc. Suite 100 11821 Parklawn

97

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Contact Information For information regarding the agenda or meeting content, please contact: Beverly Meadows, PhD, RN, OCN Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health 6130 Executive Boulevard Bethesda, MD 20852 Phone:

98

Contact Us  

Cancer.gov

If you have any questions or need more information on federal legislation and congressional activity affecting cancer research, please contact us!  Be sure to include your e-mail address and office telephone number. Contact information National Cancer

99

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Contact Information For workshop logistical information, please contact: Fofie Witter Senior Conference Manager Cabezon Group, Inc., Suite 100 11821 Parklawn Drive Rockville, MD 20852 Phone: (301) 468-6087 or (240) 786-9130, ext. 32 Fax: (301)

100

RAPID Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Rapid Access to Preventive Intervention Development (RAPID) Program Contacts Program Contact RAPID ProgramAttn: Izet M. Kapetanovic, PhD, Program Director Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI Executive Plaza

101

DIMETHYLARSINE AND TRIMETHYLARSINE ARE POTENT GENOTOXINS IN VITRO.  

EPA Science Inventory

Dimethylarsine and Trimethylarsine are potent genotoxins in vitro Andrewes, P; Kitchin, KT; and Wallace, KA Abstract The mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis is unclear. A complicating factor receiving increasing attention is that arsenic is biomethylated to form vari...

102

NCI-Frederick FACILITY - Contact  

Cancer.gov

  FACILITY Data Management Home System Overview How to Get Started Training User Information Forms Contact Information LASP Online Access System Administration Contact Information If you have questions, concerns, or suggestions regarding your use of

103

Activation of non-sensitizing or low-sensitizing fragrance substances into potent sensitizers - prehaptens and prohaptens.  

PubMed

Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fragrance substances can act as prehaptens or prohaptens. They form allergens that are more potent than the parent substance by activation outside or in the skin via abiotic (chemical and physical factors) and/or biotic activation, thus, increasing the risk of sensitization. In the present review a series of fragrance substances with well documented abiotic and/or biotic activation are given as indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Commonly used fragrance substances, also found in essential oils, autoxidize on contact with air, forming potent sensitizers that can be an important source for contact allergy to fragrances and fragranced products. Some of them can act as prohaptens and be activated in the skin as well. The experimental findings are confirmed in large clinical studies. When substances with structural alerts for acting as prohaptens and/or prehaptens are identified, the possibility of generating new potent allergens should be considered. Predictive testing should include activation steps. Further experimental and clinical research regarding activation of fragrance substances is needed to increase consumer safety. PMID:24107147

Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Börje, Anna; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Lidén, Carola; Rastogi, Suresh; Roberts, David; Uter, Wolfgang; White, Ian R

2013-12-01

104

Electrical, chemical, and structural characterization of the interface formed between nickel/gold and palladium/gold ohmic contacts and cleaned p-type gallium nitride (0001) surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of pre-treated, Mg-doped, p-type GaN(0001) surfaces and Ni/Au and Pd/Au contact structures sequentially deposited on these surfaces has been conducted using X-ray and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopies, low energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and current-voltage measurements. The effects or several in-situ cleaning techniques, including vacuum annealing, high-temperature nitrogen plasma pre-treatment, and ammonia-based chemical vapor cleaning, on the chemical and electronic properties of the GaN surface have also been assessed. The last technique was the most effective. Stoichiometric surfaces without detectable carbon and an 87% reduction in the surface oxygen to 2 +/- 1 at% were achieved. The band bending and electron affinity at the cleaned surface were within the ranges of 0.7--1.5eV and 2.5--3.2eV, respectively. Ni/Au contact structures deposited on both vacuum annealed and chemical vapor cleaned p-type GaN surfaces and Pd/Au contacts deposited on a chemical vapor cleaned surface were significantly less rectifying than identical contact structures deposited on conventional HCl treated surfaces, as evidenced by larger currents at equivalent voltages in the former two structures. The room temperature specific contact resistivity of these contacts deposited on vacuum annealed surfaces increased from 0.14 +/- 0.04 O•cm 2 to 0.30 +/- 0.04 O•cm2 following annealing at 140°C--150°C for 40 +/- 2min. Identical contact structures on chemical vapor cleaned surfaces performed consistently with no degradation following operation within the same ranges of temperature and time. The formation of Au:Ga (90:10) and Au:Ni (90:10) solid solutions was indicated by the results of X-ray diffraction (o-2theta) studies for Ni/Au contacts on HCl-treated surfaces following a 450°C anneal. Similar studies showed no evidence of interfacial reactions between similarly annealed contacts and chemical vapor cleaned GaN surfaces. Pd/Au contact structures on chemical vapor cleaned surfaces demonstrated excellent high-temperature microstructural stability as evidenced by the absence of significant change in the surface roughness, which was measured to be 6.9 +/- 0.4 nm after successive annealing through 700°C. Identical contact structures on HCl-treated surfaces exhibited poor high temperature microstructural stability, as indicated by a significant increase in the surface roughness to 11.8 +/- 0.5 nm and 80.2 +/- 0.5 nm following successive anneals at 600 and 700°C, respectively.

Hartlieb, Philip John

2002-09-01

105

Platelets, complement, and contact activation: partners in inflammation and thrombosis.  

PubMed

Platelet activation during thrombotic events is closely associated with complement and contact system activation, which in turn leads to inflammation inflammation . Here we review the interactions between activated platelets platelets and the complement and contact activation contact activation systems in clotting blood. Chondroitin sulfate Chondroitin sulfate Chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A), released from alpha granules during platelet activation, is a potent mediator of crosstalk between platelets platelets and the complement system. CS-A activates complement in the fluid phase, generating anaphylatoxins that mediate leukocyte activation. No complement activation seems to occur on the activated platelet surface, but C3 in the form of C3(H(2)O) is bound to the surfaces of activated platelets platelets . This finding is consistent with the strong expression of membrane-bound complement regulators present at the platelet surface. CS-A exposed on the activated platelets platelets is to a certain amount responsible for recruiting soluble regulators to the surface. Platelet-bound C3(H(2)O) acts as a ligand for leukocyte CR1 (CD35), potentially enabling platelet-leukocyte interactions. In addition, platelet activation leads to the activation of contact system enzymes, which are specifically inhibited by antithrombin, rather than by C1INH, as is the case when contact activation contact activation is induced by material surfaces. Thus, in addition to their traditional role as initiators of secondary hemostasis, platelets platelets also act as mediators and regulators of inflammation inflammation in thrombotic events. PMID:21948369

Hamad, Osama A; Bäck, Jennie; Nilsson, Per H; Nilsson, Bo; Ekdahl, Kristina N

2012-01-01

106

Highly potent silver-organoalkoxysilane antimicrobial porous nanomembrane  

PubMed Central

We used a simple electrospinning technique to fabricate a highly potent silver-organoalkoxysilane antimicrobial composite from AgNO3-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)/tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution. Spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of the composite showed that the fibers contain an organoalkoxysilane ‘skeleton,’ 0.18 molecules/nm2 surface amino groups, and highly dispersed and uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles (5 nm in size). Incorporation of organoalkoxysilanes is highly beneficial to the antimicrobial mat as (1) amino groups of APTMS are adhesive and biocidal to microorganisms, (2) polycondensation of APTMS and TEOS increases the membrane’s surface area by forming silicon bonds that stabilize fibers and form a composite mat with membranous structure and high porosity, and (3) the organoalkoxysilanes are also instrumental to the synthesis of the very small-sized and highly dispersed silver metal particles in the fiber mat. Antimicrobial property of the composite was evaluated by disk diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC), kinetic, and extended use assays on bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Brucella suis), a fungus (Aspergillus niger), and the Newcastle disease virus. The membrane shows quick and sustained broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Only 0.3 mg of fibers is required to achieve MIC against all the test organisms. Bacteria are inhibited within 30 min of contact, and the fibers can be used repeatedly. The composite is silver efficient and environment friendly, and its membranous structure is suitable for many practical applications as in air filters, antimicrobial linen, coatings, bioadhesives, and biofilms.

2013-01-01

107

Trace element distribution among rock-forming minerals from metamorphosed to partially molten basic igneous rocks in a contact aureole (Fuerteventura, Canaries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low pressure partial melting of basanitic and ankaramitic dykes gave rise to unusual, zebra-like migmatites, in the contact aureole of a layered pyroxenite–gabbro intrusion, in the root zone of an ocean island (Basal Complex, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands). These migmatites are characterised by a dense network of closely spaced, millimetre-wide leucocratic segregations. Their mineralogy consists of plagioclase (An32–36), diopside, biotite, oxides

M. I. Holloway; F. Bussy

2008-01-01

108

RAPlD PHOTO-ASSISTED FORMING GAS ANNEAL (FGA) FOR HIGH QUALITY SCREEN-PRINTED CONTACTS FOR SILICON SOLAR CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of low-cost high-quality contacts is the key to cost-effective silicon solar cells. Screen-printing is widely used in Industry because it is simple, low-cost and rapid. However, cost and throughput gains are attained at the expense of performance. IFill factors of most commercial cells are in the range of 0.68-75 for single crystalline material. This paper shows that a rapid

A. Ebong; M. Hillali; A. Rohatgi

2000-01-01

109

EBSD investigation of the crack initiation and TEM\\/FIB analyses of the microstructural changes around the cracks formed under Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) is very high-cycle fatigue process, leading to the formation of so-called butterfly cracks around non-metallic inclusions. The purpose of this study is to describe the crack initiation and microstructural changes around butterfly cracks in the hardened and tempered bearing steel with artificially introduced Al2O3 inclusions. This paper presents results from investigations using state-of-art electron imaging techniques

A. Grabulov; R. Petrov; H. W. Zandbergen

2010-01-01

110

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Contact Information For logistical information, please contact Fofie Witter Senior Conference Manager Capital Consulting Corporation Suite 100 11821 Parklawn Drive Rockville, MD 20852 Phone: (301) 468-6087 or (240) 786-9130, ext. 32 Fax: (301) 770-1726 E-mail:

111

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Contact Information For logistical information, please contact: Fofie Witter Senior Conference Manager Cabezon Group, Inc. Suite 100 11821 Parklawn Drive Rockville, MD 20852 Phone: (301) 468-6087 or 240-786-9130, ext. 32 Fax: (301) 770-1726 E-mail:

112

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Contact Information For Logistical Information, please contact: Fofie Witter Conference Manager Cabezon Group, Inc. 11821 Parklawn Drive Suite 100 Rockville, MD 20852 Phone: (301) 468-6008, ext. 503 or (240) 786-9130, ext. 32 Fax: (301) 468-0338 Email:

113

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

CONTACT INFORMATION For information about MECC, please contact: Middle East Cancer Consortium Dr. Michael Silbermann, Executive Director P.O. Box 7495 Haifa 31074, Israel Tel: 972-4-8501821 or 972-4-8244794 Fax: 972-4-8524151 or 972-4-8346338 E-mail:

114

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Contact Information For logistical information, please contact: Fofie Witter Senior Conference Manager Cabezon Group, Inc. 11821 Parklawn Drive Suite 100 Rockville, MD 20852 Phone: (301) 468-6087 or (240) 786-9130, ext. 32 Fax: (301) 770-1726 E-mail:

115

Electrical, chemical, and structural characterization of the interface formed between nickel\\/gold and palladium\\/gold ohmic contacts and cleaned p-type gallium nitride (0001) surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of pre-treated, Mg-doped, p-type GaN(0001) surfaces and Ni\\/Au and Pd\\/Au contact structures sequentially deposited on these surfaces has been conducted using X-ray and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopies, low energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and current-voltage measurements. The effects or several in-situ cleaning techniques, including vacuum annealing, high-temperature nitrogen plasma pre-treatment, and ammonia-based chemical vapor

Philip John Hartlieb

2002-01-01

116

Making Contact. Generating Interethnic Contact for Multicultural Integration and Tolerance in Amsterdam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interethnic contact is considered a potent tool for the generation of interethnic understanding and tolerance. This faith has engendered countless social projects that seek to stimulate contact between members of different ethnic groups under "optimal conditions". However, the academic literature does not stipulate how, if at all, these optimal…

Muller, Floris

2012-01-01

117

Contact LSS  

Cancer.gov

Key Programs Lung Screening Feasibility Study (LSS) Contact Information Dorothy Sullivan, Assistant Project Officer Director of Communications and Public Affairs for the PLCO Early Detection Research Group Phone: (301) 496-7459 ds255j@nih.gov

118

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Contact Information Capital Consulting Corporation is providing logistical support for this meeting. If you have questions or need assistance, please call Jennifer Adona at (301) 468-6073, or e-mail her at jenniferk@capconcorp.com.

119

Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Contact Information If you have questions concerning the Sallie Rosen Kaplan Fellowship, please send an email to kaplanfellowship@mail.nih.gov. You may also write to the following address: Center for Cancer TrainingNational Cancer Institute9609 Medical

120

Trace element distribution among rock-forming minerals from metamorphosed to partially molten basic igneous rocks in a contact aureole (Fuerteventura, Canaries)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low pressure partial melting of basanitic and ankaramitic dykes gave rise to unusual, zebra-like migmatites, in the contact aureole of a layered pyroxenite-gabbro intrusion, in the root zone of an ocean island (Basal Complex, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands). These migmatites are characterised by a dense network of closely spaced, millimetre-wide leucocratic segregations. Their mineralogy consists of plagioclase (An 32-36), diopside, biotite, oxides (magnetite, ilmenite), +/- amphibole, dominated by plagioclase in the leucosome and diopside in the melanosome. The melanosome is almost completely recrystallised, with the preservation of large, relict igneous diopside phenocrysts in dyke centres. Comparison of whole-rock and mineral major- and trace-element data allowed us to assess the redistribution of elements between different mineral phases and generations during contact metamorphism and partial melting. Dykes within and outside the thermal aureole behaved like closed chemical systems. Nevertheless, Zr, Hf, Y and REEs were internally redistributed, as deduced by comparing the trace element contents of the various diopside generations. Neocrystallised diopside - in the melanosome, leucosome and as epitaxial phenocryst rims - from the migmatite zone, are all enriched in Zr, Hf, Y and REEs compared to relict phenocrysts. This has been assigned to the liberation of trace elements on the breakdown of enriched primary minerals, kaersutite and sphene, on entering the thermal aureole. Major and trace element compositions of minerals in migmatite melanosomes and leucosomes are almost identical, pointing to a syn- or post-solidus reequilibration on the cooling of the migmatite terrain i.e. mineral-melt equilibria were reset to mineral-mineral equilibria.

Holloway, M. I.; Bussy, F.

2008-05-01

121

Cross-contact chain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on normal probability chart enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

Lieneweg, U. (inventor)

1986-01-01

122

Cross-contact chain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on a normal probability chart, enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

Lieneweg, Udo (Inventor)

1988-01-01

123

Low- and high-frequency C- V characteristics of the contacts formed by adding a solution of the nonpolymeric organic compound on p-type Si substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al/quercetin/p-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have been fabricated by adding a solution of the nonpolymeric organic compound quercetin in ethanol on top of p-Si substrate, and then evaporating the solvent. The quercetin/p-Si contact shows rectifying behaviour and the reverse curve exhibit a weak bias voltage dependence. Barrier height and ideality factor value of 0.86 and 1.06 eV, respectively, for the device have been determined from the forward bias current-voltage ( I-V) characteristics. The energy distribution of the interface state density located in the semiconductor band gap at quercetin/p-Si interface ranges from 2.12×10 12 cm -2 eV -1 in (0.680- Ev) eV to 4.68×10 11 cm -2 eV -1 in (0.813- Ev) eV have been determined from the I-V and the capacitance-voltage ( C-V) characteristics (high- and low frequency). The interface state density has an exponential rise with bias from the midgap towards the top of the valence band.

Ebeo?lu, M. A.; K?l?ço?lu, T.; Ayd?n, M. E.

2007-05-01

124

Contact Us  

Cancer.gov

For more information, please contact: Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics ResearchCenter for Strategic Scientific InitiativesOffice of the DirectorNational Cancer Institute31 Center Drive, MS 2580Bethesda, MD 20892-2580 Telephone: (301) 451-8883Email:

125

Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation  

SciTech Connect

The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

2012-12-04

126

Contacts to Nitride Semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation focuses on the stability of contacts to the group III nitride semiconductors through the discussion of three examples. We initially describe the degradation of low resistance Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contacts formed by annealing in air. These contacts provide high transparency and low resistance; however, we have observed that they exhibit serious degradation upon storage for days in air at room temperature, testing under bias in air for hours, or annealing at 200 degrees C in nitrogen gas or vacuum. Several explanations for the low resistance of the contacts prior to aging have been offered, and some researchers believe that the formation of p-type NiO upon annealing is critical for achieving a low contact resistance. We have found that the same environments that lead to degradation of the contacts also cause an increase in resistance of separately fabricated NiO layers. A point defect model for the effect of the environment on the resistance of thin p-NiO layers is described, as is the consistency of our findings with the different explanations for the low resistance of these contacts prior to aging. In the second example, we describe a dramatic improvement in Au/n-AlGaN Schottky barrier contacts stored in a laboratory drawer for a couple of days after deposition. Although the diodes initially exhibit poor rectification and sometimes nearly ohmic behavior immediately upon deposition, the reverse currents drop by as many as four orders of magnitude after storage. Our investigation of the mechanism for this change is discussed. Finally, we address the stability of the popular Ti/Al ohmic contact to n-GaN. We observe no changes in these contacts when stored at room temperature, but we have found that the resistance of the contacts (as originally formulated) increases when held at high temperatures. Through an examination of the Ti-Al phase diagram, we were able to greatly improve the thermal stability of the contacts by selecting a new ratio of Ti to Al for the metallization. A discussion of the applicability of this approach for designing other thermally stable contacts will conclude the presentation.

Mohney, Suzanne

2002-03-01

127

Types of Contact Lenses  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Lenses Links Report a Problem Types of Contact Lenses There are two general categories of contact ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

128

Compact contacting device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus comprising a rotatable mass of structured packing for mass or heat transfer between two contacting fluids of different densities wherein the packing mass is made up of corrugated sheets of involute shape relative to the axis of the packing mass and form a logarithmic spiral curved counter to the direction of rotation.

Acharya, Arun (Inventor); Gottzmann, Christian F. (Inventor); Lockett, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneider, James S. (Inventor); Victor, Richard A. (Inventor); Zawierucha, Robert (Inventor)

1994-01-01

129

Direct Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early fictional depictions of direct contact with extraterrestrials, like those by Lasswitz and Wells, assumed that spacecraft\\u000a could carry living beings across interplanetary distances. Now we know that such journeys are possible for a civilization\\u000a at our level of technological development. We already have landed men on Earth’s moon and are planning to transport humans\\u000a to Mars. We also know

Michael A. G. Michaud

130

Medicare: Helpful Contacts  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: Home . Contacts Home Share Medicare Helpful Contacts Find Helpful Contacts for Organizations This Helpful Contacts tool will provide ... and learn more about related websites Download Helpful Contacts Database You have the option of downloading the ...

131

Contact dermatitis in children  

PubMed Central

Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities.

2010-01-01

132

Contact Lens Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... List of Contact Lenses Links Report a Problem Contact Lens Risks Wearing contact lenses puts you at ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

133

CRCHD - PNP Contact  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - PNP Contact  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research PNP Contact PNP Contact For questions about the Patient Navigation Programs contact: Roland Garcia, Ph.D.| PNP Project Leader Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities National Cancer Institute 6116

134

CRCHD - Contact CNP  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - Contact CNP  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research Contact CNP Contact CNP For questions about the Community Networks Program contact: Kenneth Chu, Ph.D.| Chief, Disparities Research Branch, CNP Project Leader 6116 Executive Boulevard Room 602,

135

Design and synthesis of potent, selective inhibitors of matriptase.  

PubMed

Matriptase is a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease family. Several studies have reported deregulated matriptase expression in several types of epithelial cancers, suggesting that matriptase constitutes a potential target for cancer therapy. We report herein a new series of slow, tight-binding inhibitors of matriptase, which mimic the P1-P4 substrate recognition sequence of the enzyme. Preliminary structure-activity relationships indicate that this benzothiazole-containing RQAR-peptidomimetic is a very potent inhibitor and possesses a good selectivity for matriptase versus other serine proteases. A molecular model was generated to elucidate the key contacts between inhibitor 1 and matriptase. PMID:24900505

Colombo, Eloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Duchêne, Dominic; Chagnon, Félix; Najmanovich, Rafael; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Eric

2012-07-12

136

Design and Synthesis of Potent, Selective Inhibitors of Matriptase  

PubMed Central

Matriptase is a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease family. Several studies have reported deregulated matriptase expression in several types of epithelial cancers, suggesting that matriptase constitutes a potential target for cancer therapy. We report herein a new series of slow, tight-binding inhibitors of matriptase, which mimic the P1–P4 substrate recognition sequence of the enzyme. Preliminary structure–activity relationships indicate that this benzothiazole-containing RQAR-peptidomimetic is a very potent inhibitor and possesses a good selectivity for matriptase versus other serine proteases. A molecular model was generated to elucidate the key contacts between inhibitor 1 and matriptase.

2012-01-01

137

EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative means to produce nanoscale device elements, such as carbon nanotube transistors [5] and high-density memory crossbar circuits [6]. Recently, the use of scanning tunnelling microscopes has broached a new field of research, which is currently attracting enormous interest—single molecule detection. In issue 25 of Nanotechnology researchers in Houston reported unprecedented sensitivities using localized surface plasmon resonance shifts of gold bipyramids to detect concentrations of substances down to the single molecule level [7]. In issue 26 a collaboration of researchers from the US and Czech Republic describe a different approach, namely tunnelling recognition. In their topical review they describe hydrogen-bond mediated tunnelling and the associated experimental methods that facilitate the detection of single molecules in a tunnel junction using chemically functionalized electrodes [8]. The nanoworld depicted by scanning probe microgaphs over 20 years ago may have looked as extraterrestrial as any science fiction generated alien terrain, but though study and analysis these nano-landscapes have become significantly less alien territory. The work so far to unveil the intricacies of electronic contact has been a story of progress in investigating this new territory and manipulating the mechanisms that govern it to formulate new devices and delve deeper into phenomena at the nanoscale. References [1] Binning G, Rohrer H, Gerber Ch and Weibel E 1982 Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 57-61 [2] X D Cui, X Zarate, J Tomfohr, O F Sankey, A Primak, A L Moore, T A Moore, D Gust, G~Harris and S M Lindsay 2002 Nanotechnology 13 5-14 [3] Martin C A, van Ruitenbeek J M and van der Zant S J H 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265201 [4] Davis J J and Hanyu Y 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265302 [5] Tans S J, Verschueren A R M and Dekker C 1998 Nature 393 49-52 [6] Chen Y, Jung G-Y, Ohlberg D A A, Li X, Stewart D R, Jeppesen J O, Nielsen K A, Stoddart J F and Williams R S 2003 Nanotechnology 14 462-8 [7] Mayer K M, Hao F, Lee S, Nordlander P and Hafner J H 2010 Nanotechnology 21 255503 [8] Lindsay S, He J, Sank

Demming, Anna

2010-07-01

138

Formation Of Ohmic Gold Contacts On Epitaxial GaAs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New low-temperature procedure used to deposit ohmic gold contacts on gallium arsenide epitaxial films, forming ohmic electrical contacts. Keeping wafer in vacuum until metallization prevents formation of rectifying contacts.

Hecht, Michael H.; Bell, L. Doug; Kaiser, William J.

1991-01-01

139

Simulating Contact Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About one in every 150 stars is a contact binary system of WUMa type and it was thought for a long time that such a binary would naturally proceed towards merger, forming a single star. In September 2008 such a merger was observed in the eruption of a “red nova", V1309 Sco. We are developing a hydrodynamics simulation for contact binaries using Self Consistent Field (SCF) techniques, so that their formation, structural, and merger properties could be studied. This model can also be used to probe the stability criteria such as the large-scale equatorial circulations and the minimum mass ratio. We also plan to generate light curves from the simulation data in order to compare with the observed case of V1309 Sco. A comparison between observations and simulations will help us better understand the nova-like phenomena of stellar mergers.

Kadam, Kundan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Frank, Juhan; Tohline, Joel E.; Staff, Jan E.; Motl, Patrick M.; Marcello, Dominic

2014-06-01

140

Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

1995-01-01

141

Azaindoles as potent CRTH2 receptor antagonists.  

PubMed

A new class of 7-azaindole analogs of MK-7246 as potent and selective CRTH2 antagonists is reported. The SAR leading to the identification of the optimal azaindole regioisomer as well as the pharmacokinetics and off-target activities of the most potent antagonists are disclosed. PMID:21185722

Simard, Daniel; Leblanc, Yves; Berthelette, Carl; Zaghdane, M Helmi; Molinaro, Carmela; Wang, Zhaoyin; Gallant, Michel; Lau, Stephen; Thao, Trinh; Hamel, Martine; Stocco, Rino; Sawyer, Nicole; Sillaots, Susan; Gervais, Francois; Houle, Robert; Lévesque, Jean-François

2011-01-15

142

[Allergic contact eczema].  

PubMed

Allergic contact eczema due to type IV reactions are more frequent than irritative eczema in facial skin, particularly in the sensitive periorbital region. Concomitant eczema of different locations is pathognomonic and allows a distinction from seborrhoic dermatitis. Avoidance of allergen exposure is mandatory for an effective treatment; therefore allergological examinations have a very high significance. Patch tests with a wide spectrum of potential allergens have to be included in these tests. Therapeutic regimes include a restrictive use of topical steroids. Substances like calcineurin inhibitors are the first-line therapy in facial atopic dermatitis, in spite of therapeutic effects, they have not yet been approved for other forms of periorbital dermatitis. PMID:24799172

Brehler, R; Grundmann, S

2014-05-01

143

Potent Anti-Cancer Toxin  

Cancer.gov

SKIP ALL NAVIGATION SKIP TO SUB MENU Search Site Technology Transfer Center of the National Cancer Institute Standard Forms & Agreements Co-Development & Resources Careers & Training Intellectual Property & Inventions About TTC Overview Biomarkers Available

144

Contact Lens Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Lenses Improper Use of Decorative Contacts (video) LASIK Contact Lens Care Print and Share (PDF 182KB) En ... unless your doctor says it is ok. Decoratve Contacts You need an eye exam and prescription for ...

145

Solution-Assisted Optical Contacting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified version of a conventional optical-contact procedure has been found to facilitate alignment of optical components. The optical-contact procedure (called simply optical contacting in the art) is a standard means of bonding two highly polished and cleaned glass optical components without using epoxies or other adhesives. In its unmodified form, the procedure does not involve the use of any foreign substances at all: components to be optically contacted are dry. The main disadvantage of conventional optical contacting is that it is difficult or impossible to adjust the alignment of the components once they have become bonded. In the modified version of the procedure, a drop of an alcohol-based optical cleaning solution (isopropyl alcohol or similar) is placed at the interface between two components immediately before putting the components together. The solution forms a weak bond that gradually strengthens during a time interval of the order of tens of seconds as the alcohol evaporates. While the solution is present, the components can be slid, without loss of contact, to perform fine adjustments of their relative positions. After about a minute, most of the alcohol has evaporated and the optical components are rigidly attached to each other. If necessary, more solution can be added to enable resumption or repetition of the adjustment until the components are aligned to the required precision.

Shaddock, Daniel; Abramovici, Alexander

2004-01-01

146

Graded contact manifolds and contact Courant algebroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a systematic approach to contact and Jacobi structures on graded supermanifolds. In this framework, contact structures are interpreted as symplectic principal R×-bundles. Gradings compatible with the R×-action lead to the concept of a graded contact manifold, in particular a linear (more generally, n-linear) contact structure. Linear contact structures are proven to be exactly the canonical contact structures on first jets of line bundles. They provide linear Kirillov (or Jacobi) brackets and give rise to the concept of a Kirillov algebroid, an analog of a Lie algebroid, for which the corresponding cohomology operator is represented not by a vector field (de Rham derivative) but by a first-order differential operator. It is shown that one can view Kirillov or Jacobi brackets as homological Hamiltonians on linear contact manifolds. Contact manifolds of degree 2, as well as contact analogs of Courant algebroids are studied. We define lifting procedures that provide us with constructions of canonical examples of the structures in question.

Grabowski, Janusz

2013-06-01

147

The Parasocial Contact Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a communication analogue to Allport's (1954) Contact Hypothesis called the Parasocial Contact Hypothesis (PCH). If people process mass-mediated parasocial interaction in a manner similar to interpersonal interaction, then the socially beneficial functions of intergroup contact may result from parasocial contact. We describe and test the PCH with respect to majority group members' level of prejudice in three studies,

Edward Schiappa; Peter B. Gregg; Dean E. Hewes

2005-01-01

148

Avoiding Cross-Contact  

MedlinePLUS

Avoiding Cross-Contact Cross-contact happens when one food comes into contact with another food and their proteins mix. As a ... Understanding the difference between Cross-Contamination vs. Cross-Contact When dining at a restaurant, you will need ...

149

Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban).  

PubMed Central

Canadian farmers are using increasing amounts of herbicides. Often they do not use adequate skin protection. Two cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis due to the herbicide barban are described. Patch testing with various substances, including barban, confirmed the diagnosis. Sensitization studies in guinea pigs and in one of the authors showed that barban is a potent sensitizer. It is recommended that if skin contact with barban occurs the skin be washed immediately with soap and water. Images Fig. 1

Hogan, D J; Lane, P R

1985-01-01

150

Improvement of graphene-metal contact resistance by introducing edge contacts at graphene under metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an alternative approach to lower contact resistance and extend charge transfer length by forming graphene antidot arrays under metal electrode to introduce edge contact of graphene. The edge contact resistivity of ˜2.2 × 10-9 ?.cm2 is experimentally estimated, based on the experiment and one-dimensional equivalent circuit model, and the result agrees well with the previous theoretical report. The proposed contact module structure can open alternative ways to overcome the poor contact performance and the current crowding effect at the metal-graphene contact.

Min Song, Seung; Yong Kim, Taek; Jae Sul, One; Cheol Shin, Woo; Jin Cho, Byung

2014-05-01

151

Determining the mechanism of membrane permeabilizing peptides: Identification of potent, equilibrium pore-formers  

PubMed Central

To enable selection and characterization of highly potent pore-forming peptides, we developed a set of novel assays to probe 1) the potency of peptide pores at very low peptide concentration; 2) the presence or absence of pores in membranes after equilibration; 3) the interbilayer exchangeability of pore-forming peptides; and 4) the degree to which pore-forming peptides disrupt the bilayer organization at equilibrium. Here, we use these assays to characterize, in parallel, six membrane-permeabilizing peptides belonging to multiple classes. We tested the antimicrobial peptides LL37 and dermaseptin S1, the well-known natural lytic peptides melittin and alamethicin, and the very potent lentivirus lytic peptides LLP1 and LLP2 from the cytoplasmic domain of HIV GP41. The assays verified that that the antimicrobial peptides are not potent pore formers, and form only transient permeabilization pathways in bilayers which are not detectable at equilibrium. The other peptides are far more potent and form pores that are still detectable in vesicles after many hours. Among the peptides studies, alamethicin is unique in that it is very potent, readily exchanges between vesicles and disturbs the local bilayer structure even at very low concentration. The equally potent LLP peptides do not exchange readily and do not perturb the bilayer at equilibrium. Comparison of these classes of pore forming peptides in parallel using the set of assays we developed demonstrates our ability to detect differences in their mechanism of action. Importantly, these assays will be very useful in high-throughput screening where highly potent pore-forming peptides can be selected based on their mechanism of action.

Krauson, Aram J.; He, Jing

2012-01-01

152

Contact recording review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various contact recording technologies for hard disk drives are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach\\u000a to contact recording are analyzed. Experimental detection methods and simulation models for the contact force are introduced.\\u000a Some important technologies related to contact recording are addressed. The effects of lubricant and the short range forces\\u000a on contact recording are discussed, and the dynamic

Wei HuaBo; Bo Liu; Shengkai Yu; Weidong Zhou

2010-01-01

153

Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability and closure of the

J. Greensite; F. R. Klinkhamer

1988-01-01

154

Metal–nanocarbon contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To realize nanocarbons in general and carbon nanotube (CNT) in particular as on-chip interconnect materials, the contact resistance stemming from the metal–CNT interface must be well understood and minimized. Understanding the complex mechanisms at the interface can lead to effective contact resistance reduction. In this study, we compile existing published results and understanding for two metal–CNT contact geometries, sidewall or side contact and end contact, and address key performance characteristics which lead to low contact resistance. Side contacts typically result in contact resistances >1 k?, whereas end contacts, such as that for as-grown vertically aligned CNTs on a metal underlayer, can be substantially lower. The lower contact resistance for the latter is due largely to strong bonding between edge carbon atoms with atoms on the metal surface, while carrier transport across a side-contacted interface via tunneling is generally associated with high contact resistance. Analyses of high-resolution images of interface nanostructures for various metal–CNT structures, along with their measured electrical characteristics, provide the necessary knowledge for continuous improvements of techniques to reduce contact resistance. Such contact engineering approach is described for both side and end-contacted structures.

Wilhite, Patrick; Vyas, Anshul A.; Tan, Jason; Tan, Jasper; Yamada, Toshishige; Wang, Phillip; Park, Jeongwon; Yang, Cary Y.

2014-05-01

155

?-Methylated simplified resiniferatoxin (sRTX) thiourea analogues as potent and stereospecific TRPV1 antagonists.  

PubMed

A series of ?-methylated analogues of the potent sRTX thiourea antagonists were investigated as rTRPV1 ligands in order to examine the effect of ?-methylation on receptor activity. The SAR analysis indicated that activity was stereospecific with the (R)-configuration of the newly formed chiral center providing high binding affinity and potent antagonism while the configuration of the C-region was not significant. PMID:24794110

Kim, Ho Shin; Jin, Mi-Kyoung; Kang, Sang-Uk; Lim, Ju-Ok; Tran, Phuong-Thao; Hoang, Van-Hai; Ann, Jihyae; Ha, Tae-Hwan; Pearce, Larry V; Pavlyukovets, Vladimir A; Blumberg, Peter M; Lee, Jeewoo

2014-06-15

156

Structures and mechanism for the design of highly potent glucocorticoids.  

PubMed

The evolution of glucocorticoid drugs was driven by the demand of lowering the unwanted side effects, while keeping the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. Potency is an important aspect of this evolution as many undesirable side effects are associated with use of high-dose glucocorticoids. The side effects can be minimized by highly potent glucocorticoids that achieve the same treatment effects at lower doses. This demand propelled the continuous development of synthetic glucocorticoids with increased potencies, but the structural basis of their potencies is poorly understood. To determine the mechanisms underlying potency, we solved the X-ray structures of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound to its endogenous ligand, cortisol, which has relatively low potency, and a highly potent synthetic glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate (MF). The cortisol-bound GR LBD revealed that the flexibility of the C1-C2 single bond in the steroid A ring is primarily responsible for the low affinity of cortisol to GR. In contrast, we demonstrate that the very high potency of MF is achieved by its C-17? furoate group completely filling the ligand-binding pocket, thus providing additional anchor contacts for high-affinity binding. A single amino acid in the ligand-binding pocket, Q642, plays a discriminating role in ligand potency between MF and cortisol. Structure-based design led to synthesis of several novel glucocorticoids with much improved potency and efficacy. Together, these results reveal key structural mechanisms of glucocorticoid potency and provide a rational basis for developing novel highly potent glucocorticoids. PMID:24763108

He, Yuanzheng; Yi, Wei; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X Edward; Tolbert, W David; Tang, Xiaobo; Yang, Jing; Yang, Huaiyu; Shi, Jingjing; Hou, Li; Jiang, Hualiang; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

2014-06-01

157

Yttrium hole-barrier contacts for germanium semiconductor detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sputtered yttrium metal forms a thin hole-barrier contact on both p- and n-type germanium semiconductor detectors. Yttrium contacts can provide a sufficiently high hole barrier to prevent measurable contact leakage current below ˜120 K. Detectors having yttrium contacts produce good gamma-ray spectroscopy data.

Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Suttle, Bruce E.

2011-01-01

158

Yttrium hole-barrier contacts for germanium semiconductor detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sputtered yttrium metal forms a thin hole-barrier contact on both p- and n-type germanium semiconductor detectors. Yttrium contacts can provide a sufficiently high hole barrier to prevent measurable contact leakage current below ?120K. Detectors having yttrium contacts produce good gamma-ray spectroscopy data.

Ethan L. Hull; Richard H. Pehl; James R. Lathrop; Bruce E. Suttle

2011-01-01

159

Chord diagrams, contact-topological quantum field theory, and contact categories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we study some interesting mathematics arising at the intersection of the studies of contact topology and sutured Floer homology. Although this work was originally motivated by the study of contact elements in sutured Floer homology, we also obtain results in pure contact topology. We consider contact elements in the sutured Floer homology of solid tori, as part of the (1+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theory defined by Honda-Kazez-Matic. We find that the Z2 sutured Floer homology of solid tori with longitudinal sutures forms a "categorification of Pascal's triangle", a triangle of vector spaces. Contact structures on solid tori with longitudinal sutures correspond bijectively to chord diagrams, which are sets of disjoint properly embedded arcs in the disc; these may in turn be identified with contact elements. The contact elements form distinguished subsets of the vector spaces in the categorified Pascal's triangle, of order given by the Narayana numbers. We find natural "creation and annihilation operators" which allow us to define a QFT-type basis of each SFH vector space, consisting of contact elements. We show that sutured Floer homology in this case reduces to the combinatorics of chord diagrams. We prove that contact elements are in bijective correspondence with comparable pairs of basis elements with respect to a certain partial order, and in a natural and explicit way. We also prove numerous results about the structure of contact elements and investigate various algebraic structures which arise. Our main theorem, describing how contact elements lie in sutured Floer homology, has a purely combinatorial interpretation, as a statement about chords on discs subject to a certain surgery and a single addition relation. The algebraic and combinatorial structures which naturally arise in this description have intrinsic contact-topological meaning. In particular, the QFT-type basis of sutured Floer homology, and its partial order, have a natural interpretation in pure contact topology, related to the contact category of a disc: the partial order enables us to tell when the sutured solid cylinder obtained by "stacking" two chord diagrams has a tight contact structure. This leads us to extend Honda's notion of contact category to a "bounded" contact category, containing chord diagrams and contact structures which occur within a given contact solid cylinder. We compute this bounded contact category in certain cases. Moreover, the decomposition of a contact element into basis elements naturally gives a triple of contact structures on solid cylinders which we regard as a type of "distinguished triangle" in the contact category. We also use the algebraic structures arising among contact elements to extend the notion of contact category to a 2-category.

Mathews, Daniel

160

Insurance agent contact system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An online insurance information system comprises an insurance quoting system, an agent contact system, agent systems, and customer systems. The agent contact system comprises a customer interfacing subsystem, a create contact engine, an agent interfacing subsystem, and a process contact engine. The customer interfacing subsystem is coupled to the quoting system and to a given one of the customer systems for receiving an online indication by a given customer of a desire to pursue a policy with a given agent. The given customer comprises a given contact. The create contact engine identifies the given agent system and saves in a database local to the agent contact system a personal insurance profile and contact information corresponding to the given customer. The agent interfacing subsystem coupled to the given agent system receives an online indication by the given agent of a desire to view, print, or modify the contact information. The process contact engine contacts the given agent system with information regarding the given contact, and accesses and modifies the contact information in accordance with online indications made by the agent.

2009-12-29

161

Colored Contact Lens Dangers  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Colored Contact Lens Dangers Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Colored Contact Lenses Without a Prescription It started as an ...

162

Glasses and Contact Lenses  

MedlinePLUS

... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ... trouble, it's often a refractive problem. Glasses or contact lenses work so well because they can correct ...

163

Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T. (inventors)

1984-01-01

164

Contact solution algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two algorithms for obtaining static contact solutions are described in this presentation. Although they were derived for contact problems involving specific structures (a tire and a solid rubber cylinder), they are sufficiently general to be applied to other shell-of-revolution and solid-body contact problems. The shell-of-revolution contact algorithm is a method of obtaining a point load influence coefficient matrix for the portion of shell surface that is expected to carry a contact load. If the shell is sufficiently linear with respect to contact loading, a single influence coefficient matrix can be used to obtain a good approximation of the contact pressure distribution. Otherwise, the matrix will be updated to reflect nonlinear load-deflection behavior. The solid-body contact algorithm utilizes a Lagrange multiplier to include the contact constraint in a potential energy functional. The solution is found by applying the principle of minimum potential energy. The Lagrange multiplier is identified as the contact load resultant for a specific deflection. At present, only frictionless contact solutions have been obtained with these algorithms. A sliding tread element has been developed to calculate friction shear force in the contact region of the rolling shell-of-revolution tire model.

Tielking, John T.

1989-01-01

165

Contact lens in keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

2013-01-01

166

Potent, selective MCH1 receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the lead optimization of a new series of potent, selective, orally bioavailable, brain-penetrant MCH-1 receptor antagonists. A major focus of the work was to achieve a selectivity profile appropriate for in vivo efficacy studies and safety.

Shawn D. Erickson; Bruce Banner; Steven Berthel; Karin Conde-Knape; Fiorenza Falcioni; Irina Hakimi; Bernard Hennessy; Robert F. Kester; Kyungjin Kim; Chun Ma; Warren McComas; Francis Mennona; Steven Mischke; Lucy Orzechowski; Yimin Qian; Hamid Salari; John Tengi; Kshitij Thakkar; Rebecca Taub; Jefferson W. Tilley; Hong Wang

2008-01-01

167

Multi-potent progenitors in freshly isolated and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells: a comparison between adipose and dermal tissue.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human adult adipose tissue (A-MSCs) have a better differentiative ability than MSCs derived from the derma (D-MSCs). To test whether this difference is associated with differences in the content of multi-potent progenitors in A-MSCs, the number and the differentiative properties of multi-potent progenitors have been analyzed in various preparations of A-MSCs and D-MSCs. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation performed on colony-forming units have revealed that adipogenic and osteogenic progenitors are similar in the two populations, with only a slighty better performance of A-MSCs over D-MSCs from passages p0 to p15. An analysis of the presence of tri-, bi-, uni- and nulli-potent progenitors isolated immediately after isolation from tissues (p0) has shown comparable numbers of tri-potent and bi-potent progenitors in MSCs from the two tissues, whereas a higher content in uni-potent cells committed to adipocytes and a lower content in nulli-potent cells has been observed in A-MSCs. Furthermore, we have characterized the progenitors present in A-MSCs after six passages in vitro to verify the way in which in vitro culture can affect content in progenitor cells. We have observed that the percentage of tri-potent cells in A-MSCs at p6 remains similar to that observed at p0, although bi-potent and uni-potent progenitors committed to osteogenic differentiation increase at p6, whereas nulli-potent cells decrease at p6. These data indicate that the greater differentiative ability of A-MSC populations does not correlate directly with the number of multi-potent progenitors, suggesting that other factors influence the differentiation of bulk populations of A-MSCs. PMID:21336533

Manini, Ivana; Gulino, Letizia; Gava, Barbara; Pierantozzi, Enrico; Curina, Carlo; Rossi, Daniela; Brafa, Anna; D'Aniello, Carlo; Sorrentino, Vincenzo

2011-04-01

168

A Mutant with Aberrant Extracellular LcrV-YscF Interactions Fails To Form Pores and Translocate Yop Effector Proteins but Retains the Ability To Trigger Yop Secretion in Response to Host Cell Contact  

PubMed Central

The plasmid-encoded type three secretion system (TTSS) of Yersinia spp. is responsible for the delivery of effector proteins into cells of the innate immune system, where these effectors disrupt the target cells' activity. Successful translocation of effectors into mammalian cells requires Yersinia to both insert a translocon into the host cell membrane and sense contact with host cells. To probe the events necessary for translocation, we investigated protein-protein interactions among TTSS components of the needle-translocon complex using a chemical cross-linking-based approach. We detected extracellular protein complexes containing YscF, LcrV, and YopD that were dependent upon needle formation. The formation of these complexes was evaluated in a secretion-competent but translocation-defective mutant, the YscFD28AD46A strain (expressing YscF with the mutations D28A and D46A). We found that one of the YscF and most of the LcrV and YopD cross-linked complexes were nearly absent in this mutant. Furthermore, the YscFD28AD46A strain did not support YopB insertion into mammalian membranes, supporting the idea that the LcrV tip complex is required for YopB insertion and translocon formation. However, the YscFD28AD46A strain did secrete Yops in the presence of host cells, indicating that a translocation-competent tip complex is not required to sense contact with host cells to trigger Yop secretion. In conclusion, in the absence of cross-linkable LcrV-YscF interactions, translocon insertion is abolished, but Yersinia still retains the ability to sense cell contact.

Harmon, Dana E.; Murphy, Julia L.; Davis, Alison J.

2013-01-01

169

Occupational Contact Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases.

2008-01-01

170

Simplified silvestrol analogues with potent cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

The complex natural products silvestrol (1) and episilvestrol (2) are inhibitors of translation initiation through binding to the DEAD-box helicase eukaryotic initiation factor?4A (eIF4A). Both compounds are potently cytotoxic to cancer cells in vitro, and 1 has demonstrated efficacy in vivo in several xenograft cancer models. Here we show that 2 has limited plasma membrane permeability and is metabolized in liver microsomes in a manner consistent with that reported for 1. In addition, we have prepared a series of analogues of these compounds where the complex pseudo-sugar at C6 has been replaced with chemically simpler moieties to improve drug-likeness. Selected compounds from this work possess excellent activity in biochemical and cellular translation assays with potent activity against leukemia cell lines. PMID:24677741

Hawkins, Bill C; Lindqvist, Lisa M; Nhu, Duong; Sharp, Phillip P; Segal, David; Powell, Andrew K; Campbell, Michael; Ryan, Eileen; Chambers, Jennifer M; White, Jonathan M; Rizzacasa, Mark A; Lessene, Guillaume; Huang, David C S; Burns, Christopher J

2014-07-01

171

Potent P1? biphenylmethyl substituted aggrecanase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of cis-1(S)2(R)-amino-2-indanol based compounds with a biphenylmethyl group at the P1? position was found to be potent aggrecanase inhibitors. Both compounds 2j and 2n possessed very high aggrecanase affinity (IC50=1.5nM), and showed excellent selectivity over MMP-1 and MMP-9, with moderate selectivity against MMP-2.

Wenqing Yao; Michael Chao; Zelda R. Wasserman; Rui-Qin Liu; Maryanne B. Covington; Robert Newton; David Christ; Ruth R. Wexler; Carl P. Decicco

2002-01-01

172

Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

173

ATBC Study - Questionnaires and Forms  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Home Contact Us Links Study Details Questionnaires & Forms Current Projects ATBC Study Bibliography Study Investigators & Collaborators Proposal Review & Collaboration Research Consortium Projects Questionnaires & Forms Baseline

174

Requirement of Cell–Cell Contact in the Induction of Jurkat T Cell Apoptosis: The Membrane-Anchored but Not Soluble Form of FasL Can Trigger Anti-CD3Induced Apoptosis in Jurkat T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fas ligand (FasL) has been shown to be processed by the action of certain metalloproteinase and released from the cell surface. However, it is unclear whether death of Fas-sensitive target cells is mediated by a membrane-bound form of FasL (mFasL) or by a soluble form of FasL (sFasL). In the present study, we demonstrated that JCaM, a p56lck-deficient mutant of

Naoki Oyaizu; Nobuhiko Kayagaki; Hideo Yagita; Savita Pahwa; Yoji Ikawa

1997-01-01

175

Language Contact: An Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book surveys situations in which language contact arises and focuses on what happens to the languages themselves: sometimes nothing, sometimes the incorporation of new words, sometimes the spread of new sounds and sentence structures across many languages and wide swathes of territory. It outlines the origins and results of contact-induced…

Thomason, Sarah G.

176

Thermal contact correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical relationships for determining contact, gap, and joint conductances are developed for conforming rough surfaces for first loading. The dimensionless conductances are functions of the relative contact pressure, surface parameters, conductivity ratio, and a fluid parameter which depends upon several gas and surface characteristics. The proposed conductance correlations are supported quantitatively by some previous experimental results.

Yovanovich, M. M.

177

Gold in electrical contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the characteristics of gold and gold alloys that make them suitable for electrical contacts in many\\u000a types of circuits. Current practices in the use of gold-based materials for relay, slip ring, and connector applications are\\u000a summarised, and possible trends in the future development of gold for contacts are considered.

Morton Antler

1971-01-01

178

Cosmic Contact Censorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Till date we have not made Contact with any Extraterrestrial civilizations. The Fermi Paradox remains a paradox - the Great Silence prevails. In the light of the Rare Earth hypothesis, it seems that advanced life is exceedingly rare in the universe. Also, if there does exist some Extraterrestrial civilizations then still achieving Contact is extremely difficult as the very nature

Pushkar Ganesh Vaidya

2007-01-01

179

Non-contact AFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue is focussed on high resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact atomic force microscopy was established approximately 15 years ago as a tool to image conducting and insulating surfaces with atomic resolution. Since 1998, an annual international conference has taken place, and although the proceedings of these conferences are a useful source of information, several key developments

Franz J Giessibl; Seizo Morita

2012-01-01

180

Contacts for superconducting ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting ceramics with transition temperatures over 77 K were tested with different types of contacts. The contacts were prepared by a number of methods from different metals and from conductive paint. The measurements indicate that it is possible to measure the height of the potential barrier at the junction point by measuring the ohmic nonlinearity with alternating current. This measurement

V. Rysanek

1989-01-01

181

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K12 Award, contact: Dr. Mark DamicoProgram DirectorE-mail: damicomw@mail.nih.gov Branch Telephone:

182

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application, contact: Dr. Michael SchmidtProgram DirectorE-mail: mschmidt@mail.nih.gov Dr. Mark DamicoProgram DirectorE-mail:

183

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K23 Award, contact: Dr. Susan LimProgram DirectorE-mail: lims@mail.nih.gov Branch Phone:  (240)276-5630 For

184

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K22 Award, contact: Dr. Sonia B. JakowlewProgram DirectorE-mail: jakowles@mail.nih.gov Branch

185

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application, contact: Dr. Sonia B. JakowlewProgram DirectorTelephone: (240) 276-5630Fax: (240) 276-5659E-mail: jakowles@mail.nih.gov For information regarding

186

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application, contact: Dr. Sonia B. JakowlewProgram DirectorE-mail: jakowles@mail.nih.gov Branch Telephone: (240)

187

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K18 Award, contact: Dr. Sonia B. JakowlewProgram DirectorTelephone: (301) 496-8580Fax: (301) 480-1744E-mail: jakowles@mail.nih.gov For

188

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K08 Award, contact: Dr. Susan PerkinsProgram DirectorE-mail: perkinsu@mail.nih.gov Dr. Sonia

189

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K25 Award, contact: Dr. Sonia B. JakowlewProgram DirectorTelephone: (301) 496-8580Fax: (301) 480-1744E-mail: jakowles@mail.nih.gov For

190

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K05 Award, contact: Dr. Susan N. PerkinsProgram DirectorE-mail: perkinsu@mail.nih.gov Branch

191

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application, contact: Dr. Mark DamicoProgram DirectorE-mail: damicomw@mail.nih.gov Branch Telephone: (240) 276-5630Fax:

192

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K01 Award, contact: Ms. Nancy C. Lohrey, M.S., MT-ASCPProgram DirectorTelephone: (301) 496-8580Fax: (301) 480-1744E-mail: Lohreyn@mail.nih.gov For

193

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the T32 Award, contact: Dr. Mark DamicoProgram DirectorE-mail: damicomw@mail.nih.gov Dr. Susan

194

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the R25T Award, contact: Dr. Susan N. PerkinsProgram DirectorE-mail: perkinsu@mail.nih.gov Branch

195

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K07 Award, contact: Dr. Susan N. PerkinsProgram DirectorE-mail: perkinsu@mail.nih.gov Branch

196

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K99/R00 Award, contact: Dr. Michael SchmidtProgram DirectorE-mail: mschmidt@mail.nih.gov Branch

197

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the R25E Award, contact: Dr. Jeannette KorczakProgram directorE-mail: korczakj@mail.nih.gov Branch

198

NCI Staff Contacts  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 05/28/2013 Updated: 05/28/2013 NCI Staff Contacts For additional information regarding policies and/or guidance in preparing an application for the K24 Award, contact: Dr. Susan LimProgram DirectorE-mail: lims@mail.nih.gov Branch Phone:  (240)

199

Theory of superconducting contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic contacts between superconducting and normal films are known to have a pair-breaking effect on the electron pairs. By limiting our considerations to the gapless regime and to contacts between superconducting and paramagnetic metals the features of this pair-breaking mechanism are investigated. We compute the normalization of the order parameter and with it such quantities as the tunneling conductance, electrical

Peter Fulde; Kazumi Maki

1966-01-01

200

76 FR 33031 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Contact Information) Activity Under OMB Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection (Request for Contact Information) Activity Under OMB Review...correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Request for Contact Information, VA Form 21-30. OMB...

2011-06-07

201

Extended wear contact lenses.  

PubMed

Practitioners and patients have been hesitant to use extended-wear contact lenses because of their history of complications; however, there is strong scientific evidence that the hypoxia problems associated with these lenses have been solved. Similarly, clinical evidence shows that the new generation of contact lenses is safe and can be worn without complications for up to 30 days. Patients are now able to wear contact lenses that meet their desire of continuous vision. Both practitioner and patient, however, must be instructed about the signs and symptoms of contact lens complications. Practitioners need to learn about the diagnosis and management of these problems, and patients must be educated about proper eye care, contact lens care, and appropriate follow-up. PMID:12683250

Donshik, Peter C

2003-03-01

202

Identification of a Potent Endothelium-Derived Angiogenic Factor  

PubMed Central

The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U) from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelial secretome was partially reduced after incubation with alkaline phosphatase and abolished in the presence of suramin. In one fraction, purified to homogeneity by reversed phase and affinity chromatography, Up4U was identified by MALDI-LIFT-fragment-mass-spectrometry, enzymatic cleavage analysis and retention-time comparison. Beside a strong angiogenic effect on the yolk sac membrane and the developing rat embryo itself, Up4U increased the proliferation rate of endothelial cells and, in the presence of PDGF, of vascular smooth muscle cells. Up4U stimulated the migration rate of endothelial cells via P2Y2-receptors, increased the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like tubes and acts as a potent inducer of sprouting angiogenesis originating from gel-embedded EC spheroids. Endothelial cells released Up4U after stimulation with shear stress. Mean total plasma Up4U concentrations of healthy subjects (N?=?6) were sufficient to induce angiogenic and proliferative effects (1.34±0.26 nmol L-1). In conclusion, Up4U is a novel strong human endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

Jankowski, Vera; Tolle, Markus; Tran, Thi Nguyet Anh; van der Giet, Markus; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Lehmann, Kerstin; Janke, Doreen; Flick, Burkhard; Ortiz, Alberto Arduan; Sanchez, Nino Maria Dolores; Tepel, Martin; Zidek, Walter; Jankowski, Joachim

2013-01-01

203

Potent D-Peptide Inhibitors of HIV-1 Entry  

SciTech Connect

During HIV-1 entry, the highly conserved gp41 N-trimer pocket region becomes transiently exposed and vulnerable to inhibition. Using mirror-image phage display and structure-assisted design, we have discovered protease-resistant D-amino acid peptides (D-peptides) that bind the N-trimer pocket with high affinity and potently inhibit viral entry. We also report high-resolution crystal structures of two of these D-peptides in complex with a pocket mimic that suggest sources of their high potency. A trimeric version of one of these peptides is the most potent pocket-specific entry inhibitor yet reported by three orders of magnitude (IC50 = 250 pM). These results are the first demonstration that D-peptides can form specific and high-affinity interactions with natural protein targets and strengthen their promise as therapeutic agents. The D-peptides described here address limitations associated with current L-peptide entry inhibitors and are promising leads for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

Welch,B.; VanDemark, A.; Heroux, A.; Hill, C.; Kay, M.

2007-01-01

204

Potent inhibition of tau fibrillization with a multivalent ligand  

SciTech Connect

Small-molecule inhibitors of tau fibrillization are under investigation as tools for interrogating the tau aggregation pathway and as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease. Established inhibitors include thiacarbocyanine dyes, which can inhibit recombinant tau fibrillization in the presence of anionic surfactant aggregation inducers. In an effort to increase inhibitory potency, a cyclic bis-thiacarbocyanine molecule containing two thiacarbocyanine moieties was synthesized and characterized with respect to tau fibrillization inhibitory activity by electron microscopy and ligand aggregation state by absorbance spectroscopy. Results showed that the inhibitory activity of the bis-thiacarbocyanine was qualitatively similar to a monomeric cyanine dye, but was more potent with 50% inhibition achieved at {approx}80 nM concentration. At all concentrations tested in aqueous solution, the bis-thiacarbocyanine collapsed to form a closed clamshell structure. However, the presence of tau protein selectively stabilized the open conformation. These results suggest that the inhibitory activity of bis-thiacarbocyanine results from multivalency, and reveal a route to more potent tau aggregation inhibitors.

Honson, Nicolette S.; Jensen, Jordan R. [Center for Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Darby, Michael V. [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kuret, Jeff [Center for Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: kuret.3@osu.edu

2007-11-09

205

Coatings tribology—contact mechanisms and surface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals of coating tribology are presented by using a generalised holistic approach to the friction and wear mechanisms of coated surfaces in dry sliding contacts. It is based on a classification of the tribological contact process into macromechanical, micromechanical, nanomechanical and tribochemical contact mechanisms, and material transfer. The important influence of thin tribo- and transfer layers formed during the

Kenneth Holmberg; Allan Matthews; Helena Ronkainen

1998-01-01

206

Telescopic vision contact lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

2011-02-01

207

Contact urticaria from curcumin.  

PubMed

Turmeric, a spice derived from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, contains the chemical curcumin, which is responsible for turmeric's taste, color, and biologic properties. Curcumin is used as a spice in foods, as a treatment in traditional medicine, as a dye for fur, and as a component in nutritional supplements. A few cases of allergic contact dermatitis from curcumin have been reported. We report two cases of contact urticaria from curcumin. These cases are mediated by two different mechanisms of contact urticaria: nonimmunologic and immunologic (immunoglobulin-E mediated). PMID:17150169

Liddle, Melinda; Hull, Christopher; Liu, Clive; Powell, Douglas

2006-12-01

208

Better Ohmic Contacts For InP Semiconductor Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four design modifications enable fabrication of improved ohmic contacts on InP-based semiconductor devices. First modification consists of insertion of layer of gold phosphide between n-doped InP and metal or other overlayer of contact material. Second, includes first modification plus use of particular metal overlayer to achieve very low contact resistivities. Third, also involves deposition of Au(2)P(3) interlayer; in addition, refractory metal (W or Ta) deposited to form contact overlayer. In fourth, contact layer of Auln alloy deposited directly on InP. Improved contacts exhibit low electrical resistances and fabricated without exposing devices to destructive predeposition or postdeposition treatments.

Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

1995-01-01

209

Oligochlorophens Are Potent Inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial cytoskeletal proteins are an emerging set of targets for antibiotic development. This paper describes oligochlorophen analogs based on the monomer 4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenol as antimicrobial agents against Bacillus anthracis. The most potent analogs have a MIC of 160 to 320 nM against B. anthracis and may target the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. B. anthracis develops resistance to the oligochlorophens at a rate of 4.34 × 10?10 per generation, which is ?10-fold lower than that of commercial antibiotics used to treat this human pathogen.

Foss, Marie H.; Weibel, Douglas B.

2010-01-01

210

Serendipitous oxidation product of BIBN4096BS: A potent CGRP receptor antagonist.  

PubMed

An oxidation product (5) formed during the synthesis of BIBN-4096BS (1) was found to be a potent CGRP antagonist (IC50=0.11nM). While 5 was found to be ten-fold less potent than 1, another analog 8 with lower molecular weight containing the oxidized fragment demonstrated twenty-fold higher activity than its parent 7. Alternative conditions which preclude the formation of the oxidation product are described. The activities of 1, 5, 7 and 8 in functional cAMP assay are also discussed. PMID:24794104

Dasgupta, Bireshwar; Kozlowski, Edward; Schroeder, Daniel R; Torrente, John R; Xu, Cen; Pin, Sokhom; Conway, Charlie M; Dubowchik, Gene M; Macor, John E; Vrudhula, Vivekananda M

2014-06-15

211

Mixed complexes formed by lithioacetonitrile and chiral lithium amides: observation of (6)li,(15)N and (6)Li,(13)C couplings due to both C-Li and N-Li contacts.  

PubMed

NMR spectroscopic studies have been performed on the mixed complexes formed by the lithium salt of acetonitrile (LiCH(2)CN) and the chiral lithium amides Li-(S)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1-amino-1-phenyl-2-ethoxyethane (Li-1) and Li-(S)-N-isopropyl-2-amino-1-phenyl-3-methoxypropane (Li-2) in diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran solvent. In diethyl ether Li-1 and LiCH(2)CN form a mixed dimeric (1:1) complex, while Li-2 and LiCH(2)CN form a mixed trimeric (2:1) complex. The dimer undergoes fast exchange between ketenimine and bridged structures. Both (1)J((15)N,(6)Li) and (1)J((13)C,(6)Li) couplings were observed for the respectively isotopically labeled compounds. In the trimeric complex the CH(2)CN anion also undergoes fast degenerate exchange between ketenimine and bridged structures, and the complex appears C(2)-symmetric on the NMR spectroscopy time scale. Both the dimer and trimer complexes have the bridged acetonitrile anion in common, as indicated by the highly shielded alpha-carbon (13)C NMR shifts (delta -6.1 and -7.4, respectively). In tetrahydrofuran only N-metalated mixed LiCH(2)CN dimers were observed for both Li-1 and Li-2 with the less shielded (13)C NMR shifts of delta -2.5 and -2.2 for the alpha-carbon of LiCH(2)CN of the complexes. PMID:15161308

Sott, Richard; Granander, Johan; Hilmersson, Göran

2004-06-01

212

?-Synuclein Tertiary Contact Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Tertiary contact formation rates in ?-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered polypeptide implicated in Parkinson's disease, have been determined from measurements of diffusion-limited electron transfer kinetics between triplet excited tryptophan:3-nitrotyrosine pairs separated by 10, 12, 55, and 90 residues. Calculations based on a Markovian lattice model developed to describe intrachain diffusion dynamics for a disordered polypeptide give contact quenching rates for various loop sizes ranging from 6 to 48 that are in reasonable agreement with experimentally determined values for small loops (10?20 residues). Contrary to expectations, measured contact rates in ?-synuclein do not continue to decrease as the loop size increases (?35 residues), and substantial deviations from calculated rates are found for the pairs W4-Y94, Y39-W94, and W4-Y136. The contact rates for these large loops indicate much shorter average donor-acceptor separations than expected for a random polymer.

Lee, Jennifer C.; Lai, Bert T.; Kozak, John J.; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

2008-01-01

213

Ohmic Contacts on Semiconductors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from the Indian Institute of Technology, hosted by YouTube, contains a lecture which demonstrates ohmic contacts on semiconductors. The lecture includes slides with equations illustrating related concepts. Running time: 57:48.

2010-06-23

214

Contact alternatives to nickel.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel is a continued health concern internationally. Nickel has been found to be the most prevalent and relevant allergen in tested populations for the last 3 decades. Furthermore, recent data from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group demonstrate positive patch-test reactions to nickel at approximately 19.5% of their tested population and a significant increase in the positivity rates for the last decade (Dermatitis. 2013;24:10-21. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:911-918). Because of the rise in allergic contact dermatitis rates to nickel, the American Contact Dermatitis Society recognized nickel to be the 2008 Allergen of the Year (J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:1067-1069; Dermatitis. 2008;19:3-8). This article recognizes the importance of nickel avoidance and highlights potential alternatives. PMID:24030370

Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Jacob, Sharon E

2013-01-01

215

About CTEP — Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site About CTEP Mission Personnel Organization

216

Contacting My Donor Family  

MedlinePLUS

... My Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at ... down to write a note to your donor family can feeling overwhelming. The good news is that ...

217

Extended wear contact lenses.  

PubMed

The experience with the complications associated with extended wear contact lenses has made practitioners and patients fearful of this modality. Today, strong scientific evidence suggest that the hypoxia problems associated with extended wear lenses have been solved. Good clinical evidence suggests that the new high-Dk silicone lenses are safe and can be worn successfully for up to 30 days. Patients can now be offered contact lenses that meet their desire of continuous vision; however, practitioners and patients must be instructed regarding the signs and symptoms of contact lens complications. Practitioners need to be educated in the diagnosis and management of the complications. Patients need to be educated about the need for proper eye care, contact lens care regimens, and appropriate follow-up visits. PMID:14564754

Donshik, Peter C

2003-09-01

218

Cosmic Contact Censorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Till date we have not made Contact with any Extraterrestrial civilizations.\\u000aThe Fermi Paradox remains a paradox - the Great Silence prevails. In the light\\u000aof the Rare Earth hypothesis, it seems that advanced life is exceedingly rare\\u000ain the universe. Also, if there does exist some Extraterrestrial civilizations\\u000athen still achieving Contact is extremely difficult as the very nature

Pushkar Ganesh Vaidya

2007-01-01

219

Standardizing Contact Investigation Protocols  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY SETTING: The State of Alabama Department of Public Health Division of Tuberculosis Control. OBJECTIVE: To standardize contact investigation protocols and implement an intervention to increase TB field worker adherence to the protocols with the goal of promoting efficiency and effectiveness in contact investigations. DESIGN: A process evaluation of existing data collection and management systems and protocols was performed. Standardized protocols and an intervention to increase TB field worker adherence to the protocols were created and pilot tested. These were then implemented and formative evaluation data were collected. RESULTS: The process evaluation revealed considerable variance among field workers with regard to protocols and definitions of variables related to contact investigations. Protocols were standardized and an intervention targeted at TB field workers was developed. The intervention consisted of a training workshop and the development of a computer-based contact investigation module. This was successfully implemented throughout the state. CONCLUSIONS: To perform effective contact investigations and conduct studies to improve the effectiveness of these investigations, TB control programs must pay careful attention to precisely defining variables and concepts related to the contact investigation. Furthermore, protocols must be standardized and resources devoted to training of TB field workers to ensure adherence to protocols.

Gerald, L. B.; Bruce, F.; Brooks, C. M.; Brook, N.; Kimerling, M. E.; Windsor, R. A.; Bailey, W. C.

2006-01-01

220

[Contact dermatitis from hexamidine].  

PubMed

Twenty patients with contact dermatitis to hexamidine, a commonly used antiseptic solution are reported. They have been collected during a 7 months period, thus suggesting that this contact allergy is not infrequent. Hydroalcoholic solution applied on epidermless skin is most frequently responsible for the contact dermatitis. Clinical features are very peculiar with papular semi-spheric and papulo-vesicular lesions being more frequently seen than classical vesicular eczema lesions. Due to this peculiar aspect, contact dermatitis to hexamidine is frequently misdiagnosed. The delay between onset and diagnosis has been sometimes longer than one year. It is four months as a mean. Pathologic aspect of these lesions is unusual too: dermal vasculitis either lymphocytic or with pycnotic polymorphonuclear is the most frequent aspect (14 out of 23 histological sections). Epidermal spongiosis is infrequent (5 cases). Contact dermatitis has usually a long standing evolution despite removal of the allergen and topical cortico-steroid treatment. Patch-test to hexamidine are frequently followed by a worsening of cutaneous lesions. One case of anaphylaxis following patch-testing has been reported. Clinical and pathological features of this contact dermatitis, suggests that humoral immune mechanisms play a key-role in its pathogenesis. PMID:6517448

Revuz, J; Poli, F; Wechsler, J; Dubertret, L

1984-01-01

221

Independent contacting to electron layers in a double quantum well system using Pd-Ge shallow ohmic contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel recess technique is used to produce reliable Pd-Ge ohmic contacts to GaAs\\/AlGaAs high mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems, operating down to cryogenic temperatures. By altering the depth of the recess the diffusion length of the contacts is found to be less than 20 nm. Pd-Ge shallow ohmic contacts were also used for forming independent contacts to two

N. K. Patel; J. H. Burroughes; M. J. Tribble; E. H. Linfield; A. C. Churchill; D. A. Ritchie; G. A. C. Jones

1994-01-01

222

Fabrication of High-Quality Co2FeSi/SiO x N y /Si(100) Tunnel Contacts Using Radical-Oxynitridation-Formed SiO x N y Barrier for Si-Based Spin Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-quality Co2FeSi (CFS)/SiO x N y /Si tunnel junction was fabricated, in which the SiO x N y barrier layer was formed by radical oxynitridation of an Si(100) substrate and the CFS electrode was formed by silicidation of an Fe/Co/amorphous-Si multilayer deposited on the barrier layer. The ultrathin SiO x N y barrier layer completely blocked diffusion of Co and Fe atoms into the Si substrate during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for the silicidation. X-ray diffraction investigations clarified that the CFS film on the ultrathin SiO x N y barrier layer exhibited a highly (110)-oriented texture structure and that the film had the L21 structure with a high degree of L21 order. High resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the CFS/SiO x N y interface was atomically flat and that the crystal lattice of the CFS film was directly grown on the SiO x N y surface without degradation of the crystallinity at the interface.

Takamura, Yota; Hayashi, Kengo; Shuto, Yusuke; Sugahara, Satoshi

2012-05-01

223

Joint Contact Stress  

PubMed Central

A joint's normal mechanical history contributes to the maintenance of articular cartilage and underlying bone. Loading facilitates the flow of nutrients into cartilage and waste products away, and additionally provides the mechanical signals essential for normal cell and tissue maintenance. Deleteriously low or high contact stresses have been presumed to result in joint deterioration, and particular aspects of the mechanical environment may facilitate repair of damaged cartilage. For decades, investigators have explored static joint contact stresses (under some more or less arbitrary condition) as a surrogate of the relevant mechanical history. Contact stresses have been estimated in vitro in many joints and in a number of species, although only rarely in vivo. Despite a number of widely varying techniques (and spatial resolutions) to measure these contact stresses, reported ranges of static peak normal stresses are relatively similar from joint to joint across species, and in the range of 0.5 to 5.0 MPa. This suggests vertebrate diarthrodial joints have evolved to achieve similar mechanical design criteria. Available evidence also suggests some disorders of cartilage deterioration are associated with somewhat higher peak pressures ranging from 1-20 MPa, but overlapping the range of normal pressures. Some evidence and considerable logic suggests static contact stresses per se do not predict cartilage responses, but rather temporal aspects of the contact stress history. Static contact stresses may therefore not be a reasonable surrogate for biomechanical studies. Rather, temporal and spatial aspects of the loading history undoubtedly induce beneficial and deleterious biological responses. Finally, since all articular cartilage experiences similar stresses, the concept of a "weight-bearing" versus a "non-weight-bearing" joint seems flawed, and should be abandoned.

Brand, Richard A

2005-01-01

224

Direct-Contact Heat Exchanger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The working principle of direct contact heat exchanger, where heat transfer takes place between two immiscible fluids coming into direct contact, is described. Typical direct contact devices are outlined. A better understanding of the principles involved ...

A. Bricard

1991-01-01

225

Contact Lenses for Vision Correction  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

226

Contact problem for a transversely isotropic half-space with an unknown contact region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional contact problem with an unknown contact region for a transversely isotropic half-space, when the isotropy planes are perpendicular to the half-space boundary, is investigated. The method described makes it possible to evaluate effectively the Brinell and Vickers hardness and the contact strength of materials, the near-surface properties of which can substantially depend on the direction (titanium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, aluminum and zinc oxides, graphite, wood, temoral bone, sapphire, etc; five elastic constants). We use the fact that the kernel of the integral equation of a contact problem can be represented in a form free of quadratures. Such a form of the kernel, in view of the simplicity of its regularization in singular points, makes it possible to apply the method of nonlinear boundary integral equations developed by Galanov to solve the contact problem with an unknown contact region. To debug the computer program, an exact solution of the contact problem for a stamp shaped like an elliptic paraboloid is used. Calculations are made for various materials with the incorporation of the stamp shaped as a rectangular pyramid. The contact regions, pressures, and the values of the impressing force with the specified stamp immersion are determined.

Pozharskii, D. A.

2014-03-01

227

Novel nucleosides as potent influenza viral inhibitors.  

PubMed

Influenza virus infection constitutes a significant health problem in need of more effective therapies. We have recently identified ((2R,3S,4R,5R)-3-acetoxy-5-(4-benzamido-2-oxopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-4-fluoro-3,4-dimethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methyl benzoate (18c) as a potent influenza virus inhibitor. We now here report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of C-3' modified ribose nucleosides. These novel compounds were prepared, primarily by taking known ((2R,3R,4R)-3-benzoyloxy-4-fluoro-4-methyl-5-oxo-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl benzoate (1) and converting it in to C-3 keto sugar (7), reacting C-3 keto group with methyl magnesium bromide, followed by coupling these sugars with purine and pyrimidine bases. Anti influenza viral activity was determined by screening against both A and B viral strains. PMID:20674371

Vedula, Manohar Sharma; Jennepalli, Sreenu; Aryasomayajula, Ratnakar; Rondla, Subhash Reddy; Musku, Madanmohan Reddy; Kura, Rathnakar Reddy; Bandi, Parthasaradhi Reddy

2010-09-01

228

Venison contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old meat inspector presented with a 5-month history of forearm eczema. His symptoms improved at weekends and over holidays but flared within a day of work. Scratch patch tests were strongly positive to fresh venison diaphragm and venison liver and weakly positive to venison hide and blood, and lamb blood. They were negative to other venison and lamb components. Type IV allergy tests with Standard European and fragrance batteries were negative. The eczema cleared with a change in work role, clobetasol-17-propionate cream, flucloxacillin and aqueous cream. He was then able to return to meat inspecting. Provided he was diligent about applying 'Dermashield' barrier foam and minimizing contact with irritants, his eczema has remained well controlled over the last 4 years. Attention to irritant contact dermatitis is important in the management of protein contact urticaria. PMID:11869215

Reiche, Louise

2002-02-01

229

Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

2014-01-01

230

Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 1: Basic Contact  

SciTech Connect

A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems address the basic functionality of the contact algorithms, including the behavior of various kinematic, penalty, and Lagrangian enforcement formulations. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to verify the contact behavior. This work was performed as part of the Verification and Validation efforts of LLNL W Program within the NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. DYNA3D models the transient dynamic response of solids and structures including the interactions between disjoint bodies (parts). A wide variety of contact surfaces are available to represent the diverse interactions possible during an analysis, including relative motion (sliding), separation and gap closure (voids), and fixed relative position (tied). The problem geometry may be defined using a combination of element formulations, including one-dimensional beam and truss elements, two-dimensional shell elements, and three-dimensional solid elements. Consequently, it is necessary to consider various element interactions for each contact algorithm being verified. Most of the contact algorithms currently available in DYNA3D are examined; the exceptions are the Type 4--Single Surface Contact and Type 11--SAND algorithms. It is likely that these algorithms will be removed since their functionality is embodied in other, more robust, contact algorithms. The automatic contact algorithm is evaluated using the Type 12 interface. Two other variations of automatic contact, Type 13 and Type 14, offer additional means to adapt the interface domain, but share the same search and restoration algorithms as Type 12. The contact algorithms are summarized in Table 1. This report and associated test problems examine the scenario where one contact surface exists between two disjoint bodies. These test problems focus on whether a particular contact algorithm properly represents the interactions along the interface. A companion report (McMichael, 2006) and test problems address the multi-contact scenario in which multiple bodies interact with each other via multiple interfaces. The multi-contact test problems examine whether any ordering issues exist in the contact logic. The test problems are analyzed using version 5.2 (compiled on 12/22/2005) of DYNA3D. The analytical results are used to form baseline solutions for subsequent regression testing.

McMichael, L D

2006-05-10

231

Kallistatin is a potent new vasodilator.  

PubMed Central

Kallistatin is a serine proteinase inhibitor which binds to tissue kallikrein and inhibits its activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate if kallistatin has a direct effect on the vasculature and on blood pressure homeostasis. We found that an intravenous bolus injection of human kallistatin caused a rapid, potent, and transient reduction of mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. Infusion of purified kallistatin (0.07-1.42 nmol/kg) into cannulated rat jugular vein produced a 20-85 mmHg reduction of blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Hoe 140, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, had no effect on the hypotensive effect of kallistatin yet it abolished the blood pressure-lowering effect of kinin and kallikrein. Relaxation of isolated aortic rings by kallistatin was observed in the presence (ED50 of 3.4 x 10(-9) M) and in the absence of endothelium (ED50 of 10(-9) M). Rat kallikrein-binding protein, but not kinin or kallikrein, induced vascular relaxation of aortic rings. Neither Hoe 140 nor Nomega-nitro--arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, affected vasorelaxation induced by kallistatin. Kallistatin also caused dose-dependent vasodilation of the renal vasculature in the isolated, perfused rat kidney. Specific kallistatin-binding sites were identified in rat aorta by Scatchard plot analysis with a Kd of 0.25+/-0.07 nM and maximal binding capacity of 47.9+/-10.4 fmol/mg protein (mean+/-SEM, n = 3). These results indicate that kallistatin is a potent vasodilator which may function directly through a vascular smooth muscle mechanism independent of an endothelial bradykinin receptor. This study introduces the potential significance of kallistatin in directly regulating blood pressure to reduce hypertension.

Chao, J; Stallone, J N; Liang, Y M; Chen, L M; Wang, D Z; Chao, L

1997-01-01

232

Radio-frequency point-contact electrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricate and characterize a radio-frequency semiconductor point-contact (rf-PC) electrometer analogous to radio-frequency single-electron transistors (rf-SETs) [see Schoelkopf et al., Science 280, 1238 (1998)]. The point contact is formed by surface Schottky gates in a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. In the present setup, the PC is operating as a simple voltage-controlled resistor rather than a quantum point contact and demonstrates a charge sensitivity of about 2×10-1e/Hz at a bandwidth of 30 kHz without the use of a cryogenic rf preamplifier. Since the impedance of a typical point-contact device is much lower than the impedance of the typical SET, a semiconductor-based rf-PC, equipped with practical cryogenic rf preamplifiers, could realize an ultrafast and ultrasensitive electrometer.

Qin, Hua; Williams, David A.

2006-05-01

233

Low resistance, nonalloyed Ohmic contacts to InGaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report extremely low specific contact resistivity (?c) nonalloyed Ohmic contacts to n-type In0.53Ga0.47As, lattice matched to InP. Contacts were formed by oxidizing the semiconductor surface through exposure to ultraviolet-generated ozone, subsequently immersing the wafer in ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH, 14.8 normality), and finally depositing either Ti/Pd/Au contact metal by electron-beam evaporation or TiW contact metal by vacuum sputtering. Ti/Pd/Au contacts exhibited ?c of (0.73+/-0.44) ? ?m2-i.e., (7.3+/-4.4)×10-9 ? cm2-while TiW contacts exhibited ?c of (0.84+/-0.48) ? ?m2. The TiW contacts are thermally stable, showing no observable degradation in resistivity after a 500 °C annealing of 1 min duration.

Crook, Adam M.; Lind, Erik; Griffith, Zach; Rodwell, Mark J. W.; Zimmerman, Jeremy D.; Gossard, Arthur C.; Bank, Seth R.

2007-11-01

234

Superconductive Pressure Contacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Superconducting relays with a high critical current (100-200A) capability have been shown to be practical. A study of weakly coupled pressure contacts was also made using an adaptation of the relay. Materials thought most likely to be effective as high cr...

G. K. Gaule J. J. Winter J. T. Breslin

1971-01-01

235

[Current contact allergens].  

PubMed

Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products. PMID:21901563

Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

2011-10-01

236

Multigrid contact detection method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

2007-03-01

237

Genital contact allergy.  

PubMed

Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis is commonly seen in patients complaining of itching, burning and irritation in the genital area. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis patients with genital complaints. We followed 33 patients with persistent or recurrent genital redness, itching and burning sensation. Diagnosis was made by history, clinical examination and patch testing. Patch tests were carried out according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group with a standard series of allergens. We also tested topical pharmaceutical products that individual patients used for treating genital symptoms and patients self intimate hygiene products. There were 11 male and 22 female patients, mean age 38 years. Thirteen (39%) patients had one or more positive allergic reactions, mainly to nickel-sulfate, thimerosal, balsam of Peru, formaldehyde and neomycin sulfate. In seven of 13 patients with positive patch test results, these reactions were considered to be relevant to their clinical condition. Three patients had positive patch test reactions to their intimate hygiene products. One patient had positive patch test reaction to latex condom. Patients with genital symptoms are at a risk of developing contact sensitivity. Patch testing is useful in the management of these patients and many can be helped by allergen avoidance. PMID:20021983

Ljubojevi?, Suzana; Lipozenci?, Jasna; Celi?, Diana; Turci?, Petra

2009-01-01

238

Have Confidence in Contact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

2010-01-01

239

Contact - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

The Team Science Toolkit was developed, and is maintained, by the Science of Team Science (SciTS) team at the National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Science, Behavioral Research Program. To contact us, please email Dr. Kara L.

240

Contact: Releasing the news  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

Pinotti, Roberto

241

The Language Contact Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to gather data of various sorts--demographics, language-learning history, contact with native speakers, use of the language in the field--as they relate to participants in SLA research studies are inherent to understanding more about language acquisition and use. Scholars frequently develop questionnaires of their own, which are rarely…

Freed, Barbara F.; Dewey, Dan P.; Segalowitz, Norman; Halter, Randall

2004-01-01

242

CCR - Invalid Form Data  

Cancer.gov

CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Form Validation Error The data that you are trying to submit to the server is invalid. If you believe that the data you have submitted is valid, please contact the webmaster by clicking here or by sending an e-mail

243

Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

2012-12-01

244

Amorphous Ge bipolar blocking contacts on Ge detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on electrical contacts formed using sputtered amorphous Ge (a-Ge) films on high-purity Ge crystals, both n- and p-type, were found to exhibit good blocking behavior with low leakage currents, with the contact biased under either voltage polarity. The a-Ge contacts have thin dead layers associated with them and can be used in place of lithium-diffused, ion-implanted or Schottky barrier contacts on Ge radiation detectors. The use of such contacts allows fabrication of multielectrode detectors by means of simple processing steps.

Luke, P.N.; Cork, C.P.; Madden, N.W.; Rossington, C.S.; Wesela, M.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-08-01

245

Direct-contact heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The working principle of direct contact heat exchanger, where heat transfer takes place between two immiscible fluids coming into direct contact, is described. Typical direct contact devices are outlined. A better understanding of the principles involved and the development of computational models for multiphase subsytems are concluded as stimulus for direct contact heat and mass transfer applications.

Bricard, A.

246

Direct-contact heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The working principle of direct contact heat exchanger, where heat transfer takes place between two immiscible fluids coming into direct contact, is described. Typical direct contact devices are outlined. A better understanding of the principles involved and the development of computational models for multiphase subsytems are concluded as stimulus for direct contact heat and mass transfer applications.

A. Bricard

1991-01-01

247

CTEP — Forms, Templates and Documents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Forms, Templates and Documents CTEP

248

Contact Graph Routing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic. The information carried by CGR contact plan messages is useful not only for dynamic route computation, but also for the implementation of rate control, congestion forecasting, transmission episode initiation and termination, timeout interval computation, and retransmission timer suspension and resumption.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

249

A Microwave Atomic Point Contact Displacement Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental goal of nanomechanics is position detection at the Heisenberg limit. Recent experiments have employed single-electron transistor based position readout [1,2]. In contrast we use an atomic point contact (APC) as a displacement detector. In our measurements we probe the conductance of an APC formed between a nanomechanical beam and a fixed metal point to measure the harmonic motion

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs

2005-01-01

250

76 FR 29243 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Outcome Reporting, (2) Optional Measles, Mumps, or Rubella Air/Land Contact Investigation...Reporting Form, (5) Optional Measles, Mumps or Rubella Maritime Contact Investigation...investigation; Tuberculosis (TB), Measles, Mumps, and Rubella or the General forms...

2011-05-20

251

Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 1: Basic Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems address the basic functionality of the contact algorithms, including the behavior of various kinematic, penalty, and Lagrangian enforcement formulations. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to

McMichael

2006-01-01

252

Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 2: Multi-Surface Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems use multiple interfaces and a combination of enforcement methods to assess the basic functionality of the contact algorithms. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to verify

McMichael

2006-01-01

253

Potent interaction of flavopiridol with MRP1  

PubMed Central

The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) is an ATP-dependent transport protein for organic anions, as well as neutral or positively charged anticancer agents. In this study we show that flavopiridol, a synthetic flavonoid currently studied in phase 1 trials for its anti-proliferative characteristics, interacts with MRP1 in a potent way. Flavopiridol, as well as other (iso)flavonoids stimulate the ATPase activity of MRP1 in a dose-dependent way at low micromolar concentrations. A new specific monoclonal antibody against MRP1 (MIB6) inhibits the (iso)flavonoid-induced ATPase activity of plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the MRP1 overexpressing cell line GLC4/ADR. The accumulation of daunorubicin in GLC4/ADR cells is increased by flavopiridol and by other non-glycosylated (iso)flavonoids that interact with MRP1 ATPase activity. However, flavopiridol is the only tested compound that affects the daunorubicin accumulation when present at concentrations below 1 ?M. Glycosylated (iso)flavonoids do not affect MRP1-mediated transport or ATPase activity. Finally, MRP1 overexpressing and transfected cells are resistant to flavopiridol, but not to other (iso)flavonoids tested. These findings may be of relevance for the development of anticancer therapies with flavopiridol. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Hooijberg, J H; Broxterman, H J; Scheffer, G L; Vrasdonk, C; Heijn, M; Jong, M C de; Scheper, R J; Lankelma, J; Pinedo, HM

1999-01-01

254

Friction, wear and electrical contact resistance of precious metal alloys  

SciTech Connect

The preferred selection of precious metal electrical contact materials depends on the contact geometry, contact stress, test ambient values of electrical contact resistance and whether friction and/or wear must be controlled. Wiper-type contact couples that operate in dry hydrocarbon-free atmospheres, particularly if low and steady friction coefficients and minimal wear are required, are typically that of a palladium alloy pin (ASTM B540) sliding on a gold alloy plate (ASTM B541). These materials have a contact resistance of approximately ten milliohms and a friction coefficient less than 0.5 for the most common operational environments. Segregation of sulfur up to a few atomic percent to wear tracks formed on the gold alloy is not detrimental. The accumulation of larger concentrations of sulfur can form surface films of cuprous sulfide which increases the contact resistance to a few tens of milliohms. Large electrical contact resistances (greater than one ohm) are measured only when rider wear becomes dominant and ridges of Pd-containing material are formed in wear tracks. Ion implantation of carbon into the Au alloy decreases the friction coefficient without increasing the electrical contact resistance. In contrast, the implantation of nitrogen into the Au alloy increases the friction coefficient, but does not change the electrical contact resistance. In ambients containing hydrocarbons, the implantation of carbon is not recommended because it promotes friction polymer formation. 19 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Pope, L.E.; Peebles, D.E.; Barton, B.M.

1988-01-01

255

Contact dynamics math model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

1986-01-01

256

Particle contact on flat plates in flow: A model for initial larval contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns and rates of particle contact onto flat plates in steady unidirectional flows were investigated in a laboratory flume. Plates with three leading edge configurations (faired, bluff and split) were used to generate boundary-layer flows that differed in downstream patterns of plate-ward advection, turbulence and shear stress. Particle contact onto the leading edges of all plates was consistently low in 2,5, and 10 cm/s along-stream flow speeds. Contact was enhanced under separation eddies that formed over bluff and split plates, but was reduced at reattachment points. High contact rates appeared to correspond to a combination of local plate-ward advection, a thick boundary layer, and reduced shear stress. Surprisingly, particle contact rates in the 'non-varying' flow region further downstream on the plates varied only slightly between plate types and between flow speeds. Contact rates did, however, vary strongly with particle abundance in the flume. These results were used to develop a predictive model of passive larval contact rate onto settlement plates in known larval concentrations and free-stream flows. The contact model, when combined with Larval behavioral observations, provides the basis for a more objective, quantitative method of interpreting Larval settlement plates.

Garland, Elizabeth D.; Mullineaux, Lauren S.

1992-06-01

257

Contact stress sensor  

SciTech Connect

A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA)

2012-02-07

258

Surface nanobubble contact angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous AFM experiments on surface nanobubbles have suggested an anomalously large contact angle theta of the bubbles (typically ˜160,o measured through the water) and a possible size dependence theta(R). Here we determine theta(R) for nanobubbles on smooth highly orientated pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) with a variety of different cantilevers. It is found that theta(R) is constant within the experimental error, down

Bram Borkent; Sissi de Beer; Frieder Mugele; Detlef Lohse

2009-01-01

259

Immediate Contact Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Immediate contact reactions comprise a diverse spectrum of inflammatory skin reactions of both immune and nonimmune origin\\u000a and involving several often poorly characterized mechanisms and which can be caused by an enormous variety of chemicals and\\u000a proteins. Reactions range from sensory effects through local weal and flare to a more generalized response, but all generally\\u000a characterized by a rapid onset

David Basketter; Arto Lahti

260

PVDF contact probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of contact probes are discussed. A focussing angle beam probe, a normal incidence probe and an acoustic emission probe are investigated. Characteristics of PVDF foils for probe design are dealt with. A probe design program is used to calculate two types of probes in order to determine the properties and behavior of the PVDF foils. Calculated and measured pulses and frequency spectra are compared. The results agree well with the theoretical estimates. Deviations from the theoretical calculations and measurements are discussed.

Pitkaenen, Jorma

1989-06-01

261

Potent, easily synthesized huperzine A-tacrine hybrid acetylcholinesterase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid acetylcholinesterase inhibitors composed of a key fragment of huperzine A and an intact tacrine unit were prepared. The syntheses are quite direct, proceeding in a maximum of 4 linear steps from commercially available starting materials. The optimum hybrid inhibitor (±)-9g is 13-fold more potent than (?)-hyperzine A, and 25-fold more potent than tacrine.

Paul R. Carlier; Da-Ming Du; Yifan Han; Jing Liu; Yuan-Ping Pang

1999-01-01

262

Diversity against adversity: How adaptive immunity evolves potent antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does immune system evolve functional proteins - potent antibodies - in such a short time? We address this question using a microscopic, protein-level, sequence-based model of humoral immune response with explicitly defined interactions between Immunoglobulins, host and pathogen proteins. Potent Immunoglobulins are discovered in this model via clonal selection and affinity maturation. Possible outcomes of an infection (extinction of

Muyoung Heo; Konstantin B. Zeldovich; Eugene I. Shakhnovich

2008-01-01

263

Time domain contact model for tyre/road interaction including nonlinear contact stiffness due to small-scale roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rolling resistance, traction, wear, excitation of vibrations, and noise generation are all attributes to consider in optimisation of the interaction between automotive tyres and wearing courses of roads. The key to understand and describe the interaction is to include a wide range of length scales in the description of the contact geometry. This means including scales on the order of micrometres that have been neglected in previous tyre/road interaction models. A time domain contact model for the tyre/road interaction that includes interfacial details is presented. The contact geometry is discretised into multiple elements forming pairs of matching points. The dynamic response of the tyre is calculated by convolving the contact forces with pre-calculated Green's functions. The smaller-length scales are included by using constitutive interfacial relations, i.e. by using nonlinear contact springs, for each pair of contact elements. The method is presented for normal (out-of-plane) contact and a method for assessing the stiffness of the nonlinear springs based on detailed geometry and elastic data of the tread is suggested. The governing equations of the nonlinear contact problem are solved with the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Relations between force, indentation, and contact stiffness are calculated for a single tread block in contact with a road surface. The calculated results have the same character as results from measurements found in literature. Comparison to traditional contact formulations shows that the effect of the small-scale roughness is large; the contact stiffness is only up to half of the stiffness that would result if contact is made over the whole element directly to the bulk of the tread. It is concluded that the suggested contact formulation is a suitable model to include more details of the contact interface. Further, the presented result for the tread block in contact with the road is a suitable input for a global tyre/road interaction model that is also based on the presented contact formulation.

Andersson, P. B. U.; Kropp, W.

2008-11-01

264

Statistical properties of contact vectors.  

PubMed

We study the statistical properties of contact vectors, a construct to characterize a protein's structure. The contact vector of an N-residue protein is a list of N integers n(i), representing the number of residues in contact with residue i. We study analytically (at mean-field level) and numerically the amount of structural information contained in a contact vector. Analytical calculations reveal that a large variance in the contact numbers reduces the degeneracy of the mapping between contact vectors and structures. Exact enumeration for lengths up to N=16 on the three-dimensional cubic lattice indicates that the growth rate of number of contact vectors as a function of N is only 3% less than that for contact maps. In particular, for compact structures we present numerical evidence that, practically, each contact vector corresponds to only a handful of structures. We discuss how this information can be used for better structure prediction. PMID:12005870

Kabakçioglu, A; Kanter, I; Vendruscolo, M; Domany, E

2002-04-01

265

Antibiotic sensitization using biphenyl tetrazoles as potent inhibitors of Bacteroides fragilis metallo-?-lactamase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: High level resistance to carbapenem antibiotics in gram negative bacteria such as Bacteroides fragilis is caused, in part, by expression of a wide-spectrum metallo-?-lactamase that hydrolyzes the drug to an inactive form. Co-administration of metallo-?-lactamase inhibitors to resistant bacteria is expected to restore the antibacterial activity of carbapenems.Results: Biphenyl tetrazoles (BPTs) are a structural class of potent competitive inhibitors

Jeffrey H. Toney; Paula M. D. Fitzgerald; Nandini Grover-Sharma; Steven H. Olson; Walter J. May; Jon G. Sundelof; Dana E. Vanderwall; Kelly A. Cleary; Stephan K. Grant; Joseph K. Wu; John W. Kozarich; David L. Pompliano; Gail G. Hammond

1998-01-01

266

A silver nanocomposite biomaterial for blood-contacting implants.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular implants must resist infection and thrombosis. A nanocomposite polymeric material [polyhedral-oligomeric-silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane; POSS-PCU] demonstrates ideal properties for cardiovascular applications. Silver nanoparticles or nanosilver (NS) are recognized for efficient antibacterial properties. This study aims to determine the influence of NS integrated POSS-PCU on thrombogenicity. Silver nitrate was reduced with dimethylformamide and stabilized by the inclusion of fumed silica nanoparticles to prevent aggregation of NS and were incorporated into POSS-PCU to form a range of POSS-PCU-NS concentrations (by weight); 0.20% (NS16), 0.40% (NS32), 0.75% (NS64), and 1.50% (NS128). Surface wettability was determined with sessile-drop water contact angles. Platelets were introduced onto test samples and Alamar Blue (AB), mitochondrial-activity assay, quantified the degree of platelet adhesion whilst platelet-factor-4 (PF4) ELISA quantified the degree of platelet activation. Thromboelastography (TEG) determined the profiles of whole blood kinetics while hemolysis assay demonstrated the degree of blood compatibility. Increasing levels of NS induced greater hydrophilicity. A concentration dependant decrease in platelet adhesion and activation was observed with AB and PF4 readings, respectively. TEG demonstrated that the antithrombogenic properties of POSS-PCU were retained with POSS-PCU-NS16, and enhanced with POSS-PCU-NS32, but was reduced with POSS-PCU-NS64 and POSS-PCU-NS128. POSS-PCU-NS64 and POSS-PCU-NS128 demonstrated a hemolytic tendency, but no hemolysis was observed with POSS-PCU-NS16 and POSS-PCU-NS32. Overall, POSS-PCU-NS32 rendered potent antithrombogenic properties. PMID:22528182

de Mel, Achala; Chaloupka, Karla; Malam, Yogeshkumar; Darbyshire, Arnold; Cousins, Brian; Seifalian, Alexander M

2012-09-01

267

Can Imagined Interactions Produce Positive Perceptions?: Reducing Prejudice through Simulated Social Contact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contact hypothesis states that, under the right conditions, contact between members of different groups leads to more positive intergroup relations. The authors track recent trends in contact theory to the emergence of extended, or indirect, forms of contact. These advances lead to an intriguing proposition: that simply imagining intergroup…

Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

2009-01-01

268

Electrical contacts for a thin-film semiconductor device  

DOEpatents

A method of fabricating spaced-apart back contacts on a thin film of semiconductor material by forming strips of buffer material on top of the semiconductor material in locations corresponding to the desired dividing lines between back contacts, forming a film of metal substantially covering the semiconductor material and buffer strips, and scribing portions of the metal film overlying the buffer strips with a laser without contacting the underlying semiconductor material to separate the metal layer into a plurality of back contacts. The buffer material serves to protect the underlying semiconductor material from being damaged during the laser scribing. Back contacts and multi-cell photovoltaic modules incorporating such back contacts also are disclosed.

Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA); Dickson, Charles R. (Pennington, NJ); D'Aiello, Robert V. (East Brunswick, NJ)

1989-08-08

269

Sifuvirtide, a potent HIV fusion inhibitor peptide  

SciTech Connect

Enfuvirtide (ENF) is currently the only FDA approved HIV fusion inhibitor in clinical use. Searching for more drugs in this category with higher efficacy and lower toxicity seems to be a logical next step. In line with this objective, a synthetic peptide with 36 amino acid residues, called Sifuvirtide (SFT), was designed based on the crystal structure of gp41. In this study, we show that SFT is a potent anti-HIV agent with relatively low cytotoxicity. SFT was found to inhibit replication of all tested HIV strains. The effective concentrations that inhibited 50% viral replication (EC{sub 50}), as determined in all tested strains, were either comparable or lower than benchmark values derived from well-known anti-HIV drugs like ENF or AZT, while the cytotoxic concentrations causing 50% cell death (CC{sub 50}) were relatively high, rendering it an ideal anti-HIV agent. A GST-pull down assay was performed to confirm that SFT is a fusion inhibitor. Furthermore, the activity of SFT on other targets in the HIV life cycle was also investigated, and all assays showed negative results. To further understand the mechanism of action of HIV peptide inhibitors, resistant variants of HIV-1{sub IIIB} were derived by serial virus passage in the presence of increasing doses of SFT or ENF. The results showed that there was cross-resistance between SFT and ENF. In conclusion, SFT is an ideal anti-HIV agent with high potency and low cytotoxicity, but may exhibit a certain extent of cross-resistance with ENF.

Wang, Rui-Rui; Yang, Liu-Meng; Wang, Yun-Hua [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); Pang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China) [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China); Department of Molecular Virology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Tam, Siu-Cheung [Department of Physiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Physiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Tien, Po [Department of Molecular Virology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)] [Department of Molecular Virology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zheng, Yong-Tang, E-mail: zhengyt@mail.kiz.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)

2009-05-08

270

Afferent and efferent phases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) can be induced after a single skin contact with haptens: evidence using a mouse model of primary ACD.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis is a T cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity reaction that occurs upon hapten challenge in sensitized individuals. The inflammatory response in classical allergic contact dermatitis requires both a sensitization phase and an elicitation phase responsible for the recruitment and activation of specific T cells at the site of hapten skin challenge. Conversely, previously unsensitized patients may develop a "primary allergic contact dermatitis" after the first skin contact with potent contact sensitizers leading to a skin inflammation with all the features of classical allergic contact dermatitis. In this study we used an experimental murine model, referred to as contact hypersensitivity, to study the pathophysiology of primary allergic contact dermatitis and its relationship to classical allergic contact dermatitis. We show that one epicutaneous application of a nonirritant dose of hapten (2,4-dini-trofluorobenzene, fluorescein isothiocyanate) was sufficient to induce an optimal allergic contact dermatitis reaction at the site of primary contact with the hapten without subsequent challenge. As in classical allergic contact dermatitis, the skin inflammation in primary allergic contact dermatitis was mediated by interferon-gamma producing, CD8+ effector T cells that were induced in the draining lymph nodes at day 5 postsensitization and downregulated by CD4+ T cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the primary allergic contact dermatitis reaction was mediated by a recruitment of CD8+ T cells at the sensitization skin site at day 6 postsensitization. Analysis of the fate of the hapten fluorescein isothiocyanate applied once on the skin revealed its persistence in the epidermis for up to 14 d after skin painting. These results suggest that the development of primary allergic contact dermatitis (i.e., without secondary challenge) is associated with persistence of the hapten in the skin, which allows the recruitment and activation of CD8+ T cells at the site of the single hapten application. PMID:12648229

Saint-Mezard, P; Krasteva, M; Chavagnac, C; Bosset, S; Akiba, H; Kehren, J; Kanitakis, J; Kaiserlian, D; Nicolas, J F; Berard, F

2003-04-01

271

Contact mechanics of rough surfaces in tribology: multiple asperity contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact modeling of two rough surfaces under normal approach and with relative motion is carried out to predict real area\\u000a of contact and surface and subsurface stresses affecting friction and wear of an interface. When two macroscopically flat\\u000a bodies with microroughness come in contact, the contact occurs at multiple asperities of arbitrary shapes, and varying sizes\\u000a and heights. Deformation at

Bharat Bhushan

1998-01-01

272

Contact nuclei formation in aqueous dextrose solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser Raman microprobe was used in situ to observe the growth of alpha dextrose monohydrate on alpha anhydrous dextrose crystals. The Raman spectra indicate growth of the monohydrate below 28.1°C, but the presence of only the anhydrous form above 40.5°C. Contact nucleation experiments with parent anhydrous crystals yielded only monohydrate nuclei below 28.1°C, while contacts in solutions between 34.5 and 41.0°C produced both crystalline forms, and contacts in solutions above 43.5°C produced only anhydrous nuclei. The inability of the monohydrate to grow on anhydrous crystals in the same solution that forms the two crystalline phases with a single contact precludes a simple attrition mechanism of nuclei formation. For the same reason, the hypothetical mechanism involving parent crystal stabilization of pre-crystalline clusters, allowing the clusters to grow into nuclei, is also contradicted. A third, mechanism, which may be a combination of the two, is believed to apply.

Cerreta, Michael K.; Berglund, Kris A.

1990-06-01

273

Identification of Contact Parameters from Stiff Multipoint Contact Robotic Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulations play an important role in the design and validation of constrained robotic operations. The fidelity of these simulations, however, depends on the specification of contact dynamics parameters, which often need to be determined experimentally. In this paper we investigate the identification of contact parameters from complex stiff multi-point contact scenarios encountered in typical robotic operations using a recently

Diederik Verscheure; Inna Sharf; Herman Bruyninckx; Jan Swevers; Joris De Schutter

2010-01-01

274

Electrical Contact Injuries  

PubMed Central

Electrical contact injuries result in death and irreparable damage in electrical system workers. The pattern of injury is different from other burns, and younger employees are the most at risk. Two factors cause most injuries: unsafe work practice or defective equipment. Primary prevention lies beyond the scope of the medical practitioner, but secondary and tertiary prevention provide some opportunity to modify the devastation of these injuries. Secondary prevention involves education of the work force to act promptly in aiding an injured fellow worker; tertiary prevention usually involves rehabilitation of an amputee. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4

Wills, Michael C.; Henville, C. Michael

1982-01-01

275

Adhesive Contact Sweeper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

Patterson, Jonathan D.

1993-01-01

276

A Potent Lead Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is considered a lethal and treatment-refractory disease. To obtain a potent anticancer drug, the cytotoxic effect of 2-(benzo[d]oxazol-3(2H)-ylmethyl)- 5-((cyclohexylamino)methyl)benzene-1,4-diol, dihydrochloride (NSC48693) on human pancreatic cancer cells CFPAC-1, MiaPaCa-2, and BxPC-3 was assessed in vitro. The proliferation of CFPAC-1, MiaPaCa-2, and BxPC-3 is inhibited with IC50 value of 12.9±0.2, 20.6±0.3, and 6.2±0.6 µM at 48 h, respectively. This discovery is followed with additional analysis to demonstrate that NSC48693 inhibition is due to induction of apoptosis, including Annexin V staining, chromatins staining, and colony forming assays. It is further revealed that NSC48693 induces the release of cytochrome c, reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, generates reactive oxygen species, and activates caspase. These results collectively indicate that NSC48693 mainly induces apoptosis of CFPAC-1, MiaPaCa-2, and BxPC-3 cells by the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway. Excitingly, the study highlights an encouraging inhibition effect that human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver (HL-7702) cells are more resistant to the antigrowth effect of NSC48693 compared to the three cancer cell lines. From this perspective, NSC48693 should help to open up a new opportunity for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer.

Zhao, Wenjing; Zheng, Xiliang; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

2012-01-01

277

Method of Obtaining Contact Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of obtaining contact composition on basis of epoxy resin and ferromagnetic metallic filler are noted for hardening metal-filled epoxy composition in magnetic field. However, the obtained contact composition does not make it possible to carry out a...

V. Y. Gul M. G. Golubyeva N.I. Siprikova L. Z. Shenfil F. A. Tarakanovskiy

1990-01-01

278

Contact Us (Affordable Care Act)  

MedlinePLUS

... Site Search Site Search Search Beginning of content Contact Us Email Print Email Print Individuals & Families Call ... subscriber? Manage Your Subscriptions | Privacy Policy Sitemap | Glossary | Contact Us | Archive Nondiscrimination / Accessibility | Privacy | Using This Site | ...

279

Focusing on Contact Lens Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Focusing on Contact Lens Safety Search the Consumer Updates Section Print & ... Updates RSS Feed On this page Types of Contact Lenses Getting a Prescription Tips for Buying Proper ...

280

Formation of contact in massive close binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present evolutionary calculations for 74 close binaries systems with initial primary masses in the range 12...25Msun, and initial secondary masses between 6 and 24Msun. The initial periods were chosen such that mass overflow starts during the core hydrogen burning phase of the primary (Case A), or shortly thereafter (Case B). We use a newly developed binary code with up-to-date physics input. Of particular relevance is the use of OPAL opacities, and the time-dependent treatment of semiconvective and thermohaline mixing. We assume conservative evolution for contact-free systems, i.e., no mass or angular momentum loss from those system except due to stellar winds. We investigate the borderline between contact-free evolution and contact, as a function of the initial system parameters. The fraction of the parameter space where binaries may evolve while avoiding contact - which we found already small for the least massive systems considered - becomes even smaller for larger initial primary masses. At the upper end of the considered mass range, no contact-free Case B systems exist. While for primary masses of 16Msun and higher the Case A systems dominate the contact-free range, at primary masses of 12Msun contact-free systems are more frequent for Case B. We identify the drop of the exponent x in the main sequence mass-luminosity relation of the form L~ Mx as the main cause for this behaviour. For systems which evolve into contact, we find that this can occur for distinctively different reasons. While Case A systems are prone to contact due to reverse mass transfer during or after the primary's main sequence phase, all systems obtain contact for initial mass ratios below ~ 0.65, with a merger as the likely outcome. We also investigate the effect of the treatment of convection, and found it relevant for contact and supernova order in Case A systems, particularly for the highest considered masses. For Case B systems we find contact for initial periods above ~ 10 d. However, in that case (and for not too large periods) contact occurs only after the mass ratio has been reversed, due to the increased fraction of the donor's convective envelope. As most of the mass transfer occurs conservatively before contact is established, this delayed contact is estimated to yield to the ejection of only a fraction of the donor star's envelope. Our models yield the value of beta , i.e., the fraction of the primaries envelope which is accreted by the secondary. We derive the observable properties of our systems after the major mass transfer event, where the mass gainer is a main sequence or supergiant O or early B type star, and the mass loser is a helium star. We point out that the assumption of conservative evolution for contact-free systems could be tested by finding helium star companions to O stars. Those are also predicted by non-conservative models, but with different periods and mass ratios. We describe strategies for increasing the probability to find helium star companions in observational search programs.

Wellstein, S.; Langer, N.; Braun, H.

2001-04-01

281

[Genetics of contact allergy].  

PubMed

The genetics of contact allergy (CA) is still only partly understood, despite decades of research. This might be due to inadequately defined phenotypes used in the past. Therefore we suggested studying an extreme phenotype, namely, polysensitization (sensitization to 3 or more unrelated allergens). Another approach to unravel the genetics of CA has been the study of candidate genes. In this review, we summarize studies on the associations between genetic variation (e.g. SNPs) in certain candidate genes and CA. The following polymorphisms and mutations were studied: (1) filaggrin, (2) N-acetyltransferase (NAT1 and 2), (3) glutathione-S-transferase (GST M and T), (4) manganese superoxide dismutase, (5) angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), (6) tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and (7) interleukin-16 (IL16). The polymorphisms of NAT1/2, GST M/T, ACE, TNF, and IL16 were shown to be associated with an increased risk of CA. In one of our studies, the increased risk conferred by the TNF and IL16 polymorphisms was confined to polysensitized individuals. Other relevant candidate genes may be identified by studying diseases related to CA in terms of clinical symptoms, a more general pathology (inflammation) and possibly an overlapping genetic background, such as irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:21904893

Schnuch, A

2011-10-01

282

Oscillating viscoelastic JKR contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesion of micron-scale probes with model elastomers was studied with a depth-sensing nanoindenter under oscillatory loading conditions. Force-displacement curves were highly reversible, consistent with Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) behavior. However, experiments revealed striking differences between the measured tip-sample interaction stiffness and the theoretical prediction from the JKR relationship. Measured stiffness was always greater than zero, and varying probe radius or polymer modulus resulted in stiffness curve shapes remarkably similar to Maugis’ JKR/DMT transition curves. These apparent paradoxes are resolved by considering viscoelasticity of an oscillating crack tip. Under well described conditions determined by oscillation frequency, sample viscoelasticity, and Tabor’s parameter, an oscillating crack tip will neither advance nor recede. Thus, contact size is fixed at any given instant, and experimentally measured stiffness is equal to the punch stiffness. For fixed oscillation frequency, transition between JKR and punch stiffness can be brought about by increasing probe radius, decreasing sample modulus, or varying frequency. Comparisons of experiments and theory will be presented. Storage modulus and surface energy measured from nanoscale JKR results were compared to calculated and measured with conventional nanoindentation and JKR force-displacement analyses. With this method it is possible to make localized mechanical property measurements for contacts with diameters smaller than the optical limit. Collaborators: S.A. Syed Asif (Hysitron, Inc.); K.L., Johnson, J.A. Greenwood (Cambridge Univ., UK)

Wahl, Kathryn J.

2005-03-01

283

Things to Know about Cosmetic Contacts  

MedlinePLUS

... they decided to reclassify cosmetic lenses as cosmetics. Contacts are not Cosmetics Classifying cosmetic contact lenses in ... and soaking solutions. Things to Know About Cosmetic Contacts Things to Know About Cosmetic Contacts— Continued Contact ...

284

Metal Silicides: Active elements of ULSI contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As device dimensions scale to the 0.1 urn regime, the self-aligned suicide (SALICIDE) contact technology increasingly becomes an integral part of both the ultra-shallow junction and the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor device itself. This paper will discuss the effect of suicide materials and formation processes on suicide stability, junction consumption, the ability to accurately profile shallow junctions, and contact resistance in series with the channel. The use of suicides as diffusion sources (SADS) provides an important pathway toward optimization of suicide technology. Diffusion of boron and arsenic from nearly epitaxial layers of CoSi2, formed from bilayers of Ti and Co, offer good suicide stability, ultra-shallow, low-leakage junctions, and low contact resistance.

Osburn, C. M.; Tsai, J. Y.; Sun, J.

1996-11-01

285

Electrodeposition of Ni/SiC contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication and characterization of n-type 4H-SiC/Ni contacts formed by electrodeposition from nickel sulfate solutions. We show that the nickel ion states overlap the conduction band of n-type 4H-SiC so that electrodeposition occurs by electron injection from the conduction band into the nickel ion acceptor states. Nickel deposition on n-type 4H-SiC is characterized by nucleation followed by diffusion-limited growth of three-dimensional clusters. As-deposited n-type 4H-SiC/Ni contacts are rectifying with ideality factors of 1.5-2. After annealing, the contacts are Ohmic due to the formation of Ni2Si.

Oskam, Gerko; Patel, Parimal J.; Long, John G.; Searson, Peter C.

2003-06-01

286

Effect of contact material on vibration-induced insulin aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The tendency of insulin to form insoluble aggregates is a major obstacle to the development of implantable insulin infusion systems for treatment of insulin-deficient diabetic patients. A test system was developed to examine the kinetics of insulin aggregation under controlled conditions of temperature, vibration and contact material in an effort to provide design criteria for minimising aggregation. The contact materials

V. Feingold; A. B. Jenkins; E. W. Kraegen

1984-01-01

287

Modeling of large deformation frictional contact in powder compaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the computational aspects of large deformation frictional contact are presented in powder forming processes. The influence of powder–tool friction on the mechanical properties of the final product is investigated in pressing metal powders. A general formulation of continuum model is developed for frictional contact and the computational algorithm is presented for analyzing the phenomena. It is particularly

A. R. Khoei; Sh. Keshavarz; A. R. Khaloo

2008-01-01

288

Silicone Oils on Electrical Contacts-Effects, Sources, and Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulating deposits are formed on operating relay and switch contacts when silicone oils are present on them. The characteristics of these tenaceous black films are discussed. Potential sources of silicone contamination are discussed and precautions which should be taken to avoid contact failures from the use of silicone materials are outlined

N. Kitchen; C. Russell

1976-01-01

289

Direct contact as a moderator of extended contact effects: cross-sectional and longitudinal impact on outgroup attitudes, behavioral intentions, and attitude certainty.  

PubMed

Cross-group friendships (the most effective form of direct contact) and extended contact (i.e., knowing ingroup members who have outgroup friends) constitute two of the most important means of improving outgroup attitudes. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal samples from different intergroup contexts, this research demonstrates that extended contact is most effective when individuals live in segregated neighborhoods having only few, or no, direct friendships with outgroup members. Moreover, by including measures of attitudes and behavioral intentions the authors showed the broader impact of these forms of contact, and, by assessing attitude certainty as one dimension of attitude strength, they tested whether extended contact can lead not only to more positive but also to stronger outgroup orientations. Cross-sectional data showed that direct contact was more strongly related to attitude certainty than was extended contact, but longitudinal data showed both forms of contact affected attitude certainty in the long run. PMID:20966179

Christ, Oliver; Hewstone, Miles; Tausch, Nicole; Wagner, Ulrich; Voci, Alberto; Hughes, Joanne; Cairns, Ed

2010-12-01

290

Correlation of contact deformation with contact electrification of identical materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental study on the contact electrification produced by two chemically identical glass plates under different contact forces. For the given plate sizes, the mean value of the surface charge density is independent of the contact force, but the standard deviation of the surface charge density increases with increasing contact force, which indicates that the magnitude of charge transfer is enhanced with increasing contact force. The contact between plates of different sizes leads to the systematic transfer of charge in one direction. To understand this effect, finite element modelling was carried out, which shows that the contact between plates of different sizes leads to different in-plane strains developing in the two plates. The surface charge density from contact electrification correlates with the difference in the in-plane strain between the contacted plates. The results suggest that the in-plane strain difference between contact surfaces plays an essential role in contact electrification and may be a key driving force for the charge transfer between chemically identical surfaces.

Xie, L.; He, P. F.; Zhou, J.; Lacks, D. J.

2014-05-01

291

Hertzian contact Lamb wave sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation describes the development of ultrasonic Hertzian contact Lamb wave transducer and its applications in semiconductor process monitoring and non- destructive testing. The Hertzian contact transducer excites the lowest order Lamb wave modes selectively with high signal to noise ratio. It couples energy to the sample plates through a dry, solid-to-solid contact enabling novel ultrasonic applications. Lamb wave propagation

Fahrettin Levent Degertekin

1997-01-01

292

Ohmic contacts for laser diodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for ohmic contacts to laser diodes are discussed, and properties of Schottky barrier tunneling contacts are reviewed. A procedure is described for measuring contact resistance on fabricated laser material without the need for specially constructed samples and contact configurations. Measurements of contact resistance and estimates of specific contact resistance are given for Ti/Pt/Au contacts to surfaces with three different doping levels. It was found that below a p-type carrier concentration of 1 x 10 to the 19th per cu cm the contact resistance is likely to be too high for good device performance. At higher doping levels, a specific contact resistance as low as 2 x 10 to the -6th ohm sq cm was obtained. Oxide stripe lasers provided with the type of contact discussed in this paper have been operated without failures for periods up to 7 years at a current density at the contact of 6-8 kA/sq cm. It appears therefore that these contacts satisfy the need for low resistance and durability and that, at the same time, they do not cause any obvious material degradation.

Ladany, I.; Marinelli, D. P.

1983-01-01

293

Contact position sensor using constant contact force control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A force control system (50) and method are provided for controlling a position contact sensor (10) so as to produce a constant controlled contact force therewith. The system (50) includes a contact position sensor (10) which has a contact probe (12) for contacting the surface of a target to be measured and an output signal (V.sub.o) for providing a position indication thereof. An actuator (30) is provided for controllably driving the contact position sensor (10) in response to an actuation control signal (I). A controller (52) receives the position indication signal (V.sub.o) and generates in response thereto the actuation control signal (I) so as to provide a substantially constant selective force (F) exerted by the contact probe (12). The actuation drive signal (I) is generated further in response to substantially linear approximation curves based on predetermined force and position data attained from the sensor (10) and the actuator (30).

Sturdevant, Jay (Inventor)

1995-01-01

294

Structures of Potent Selective Peptide Mimetics Bound to Carboxypeptidase B  

SciTech Connect

This article reports the crystal structures of inhibitors of the functional form of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa). In vivo experiments indicate that selective inhibitors of TAFIa would be useful in the treatment of heart attacks. Since TAFIa rapidly degrades in solution, the homologous protein porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (pp-CpB) was used in these crystallography studies. Both TAFIa and pp-CpB are zinc-based exopeptidases that are specific for basic residues. The final development candidate, BX 528, is a potent inhibitor of TAFIa (2 nM) and has almost no measurable effect on the major selectivity target, carboxypeptidase N. BX 528 was designed to mimic the tripeptide Phe-Val-Lys. A sulfonamide replaces the Phe-Val amide bond and a phosphinate connects the Val and Lys groups. The phosphinate also chelates the active-site zinc. The electrostatic interactions with the protein mimic those of the natural substrate. The primary amine in BX 528 forms a salt bridge to Asp255 at the base of the S1 pocket. The carboxylic acid interacts with Arg145 and the sulfonamide is hydrogen bonded to Arg71. Isopropyl and phenyl groups replace the side chains of Val and Phe, respectively. A series of structures are presented here that illustrate the evolution of BX 528 from thiol-based inhibitors that mimic a free C-terminal arginine. The first step in development was the replacement of the thiol with a phosphinate. This caused a precipitous drop in binding affinity. Potency was reclaimed by extending the inhibitors into the downstream binding sites for the natural substrate.

Adler, M.; Buckman, B.; Bryant, J.; Chang, Z.; Chu, K.; Emayan, K.; Hrvatin, P.; Islam, I.; Morser, J.; Sukovich, D.; West, C.; Yuan, S.; Whitlow, M.

2009-05-11

295

Contact angles of electrolytes on charged substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalization of the Young-Dupré (Y-D) equation is derived which takes into account electrostatic forces and their effects on the contact angle of electrolytes (0 and 1) wetting an ionizable substrate S. By functionally minimizing the total free energy, including electrostatic terms, an additional term in the Y-D equation is found: ?_01\\cos? = ?_0s-?_1s + (?_0-?_1)\\varphi(0?), where ? are the respective surface tensions sans electrostatic effects, ?_0,1 are the surface charges of the part of the ionizable substrate in contact with fluid 0,1, and \\varphi(0?) is the electrostatic potential at the contact line. This angle-dependent potential must be found from the solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation in a wedge geometry. Asymptotic forms of \\varphi(0?) are found in the two limits of nearly identical and very different screening lengths ?_0-1 and ?_1-1. Thus, implicit formulae are found for the equilibrium contact angle ?. A hierarchy of contact angles that depend on measurement resolution is discussed.

Chou, Tom

2001-03-01

296

Transfer form  

Cancer.gov

10/02 Transfer Investigational Agent Form This form is to be used for an intra-institutional transfer, one transfer/form. Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health TRANSFER FROM: Investigator transferring agent:

297

Method for forming materials  

DOEpatents

A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Karen S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-10-06

298

Clinical contact preceding suicide.  

PubMed Central

Of the 400 consecutive completed suicides investigated over a 5-year period, 114 (28.5%) who had consulted a doctor in the week preceding death were specifically reviewed and compared with those who did not. The study comprised an analysis of the medical history, the scene of death and a complete autopsy with histological and toxicological examination and the identification of features which occurred more frequently in this group when compared with other suicides not contacting their doctors. Suicide-associated factors include psychiatric illness (58.8%), deteriorating health (16.7%), and a loss of spouse (7.0%); all these features were manifested by this group of suicides more frequently than by those who made no clinical contact (P < 0.001). A pre-indication of suicidal intention was made by 45% of these patients. This feature, as with previous attempts, occurred more commonly in patients who consulted a doctor (P < 0.001). Drug overdose was the most common suicidal method chosen (50.9%) and anti-depressants predominated (35%); 78% of those who overdosed ingested prescribed drugs. Poisoning was more common in this group (P < 0.001). Half of the victims committed suicide within 24 hours following consultation; of these, 51% overdosed on drugs with 61% of them ingesting their prescribed drugs. Of these 114 cases, the final consultation in 43% was to collect more drugs. All suicidal threats should be taken seriously, and particular care should be taken in prescribing and dispensing medication which may be fatal in overdose.

Obafunwa, J. O.; Busuttil, A.

1994-01-01

299

Adaptive contact elements for three-dimensional explicit transient analysis  

SciTech Connect

A finite element method was developed for treating the mechanics of contact between deformable bodies. The method uses a family of adaptive interface elements, which were based on the penalty method, to handle the changing contact configurations that can occur between discretized contacting bodies. The nodal connectivity of these interface elements was allowed to change during the computations in order to accommodate finite sliding. The infusion of these elements in the interface satisfies the stress equilibrium condition during contact. Explicit forms for the nodal internal forces are presented. The methodology has been coded and several sample problems are presented. 23 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

Kulak, R.F.

1989-01-01

300

Potent and selective inhibitors of the proteasome: Dipeptidyl boronic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potent and selective dipeptidyl boronic acid proteasome inhibitors are described. As compared to peptidyl aldehyde compounds, boronic acids in this series display dramatically enhanced potency. Compounds such as 15 are promising new therapeutics for treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

Julian Adams; Mark Behnke; Shaowu Chen; Amy A. Cruickshank; Lawrence R. Dick; Louis Grenier; Janice M. Klunder; Yu-Ting Ma; Louis Plamondon; Ross L. Stein

1998-01-01

301

Synthesis of aryl-substituted naphthalenoids as potent topoisomerase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Twelve new aryl-substituted naphthalenoids (1-7, 9, 10, and 13-16) together with four known ones (8, and 11- 13) have been designed and synthesized. Their antitumor activities were evaluated by sulforhodamine B assay on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, human lung cancer A549 and human cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. Four compounds (2, 4, 10 and 12) showed potent inhibitory activities against the growth of the three cell lines with IC50 between 0.34-3.49 µM, and were more potent than the reference etoposide (IC50 3.67-13.78 µM). DNA relaxation assay revealed that compound 2 showed potent inhibitory activity against Topo II? in vitro. The structure-activity relationships of these compounds were discussed, suggesting that further structural optimizations of aryl-substituted naphthalenoids could lead to the discovery of potent antitumor agents targeting topoisomerases. PMID:24047216

Shen, Yan; Chen, Wang; Li, Zhenyu; Shen, Yuemao

2014-01-01

302

Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?  

PubMed

It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. PMID:24140073

Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

2014-04-01

303

[News on occupational contact dermatitis].  

PubMed

Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens. PMID:24851370

Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda

2014-03-01

304

A Prototype Antifungal Contact Lens  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To design a contact lens to treat and prevent fungal ocular infections. Methods. Curved contact lenses were created by encapsulating econazole-impregnated poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films in poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) by ultraviolet photopolymerization. Release studies were conducted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C with continuous shaking. The contact lenses and their release media were tested in an antifungal assay against Candida albicans. Cross sections of the pre- and postrelease contact lenses were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy. Results. Econazole-eluting contact lenses provided extended antifungal activity against Candida albicans fungi. Fungicidal activity varied in duration and effectiveness depending on the mass of the econazole-PLGA film encapsulated in the contact lens. Conclusions. An econazole-eluting contact lens could be used as a treatment for fungal ocular infections.

Ciolino, Joseph B.; Hudson, Sarah P.; Mobbs, Ashley N.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Fink, Gerald R.

2011-01-01

305

Manganese(III) Complexes of Bis-Hydroxyphenyldipyrromethenes are Potent Orally Active Peroxynitrite Scavengers  

PubMed Central

We report a new series of bis-cyclohexano-fused Mn(III) complexes of bis-hydroxyphenyl-dipyrromethenes (DIPYs) 4a–c as potent and orally active peroxynitrite scavengers. Complexes 4a–c have been shown to reduce peroxynitrite through a 2-electron mechanism thereby forming the corresponding Mn(V)O species, which have been characterized by UV, NMR, and LCMS methods. Mn(III) complex 4b and its strained BODIPY analogue 9b have been analyzed by x-ray crystallography. Finally, complex 4a has been shown to be an orally active and potent analgesic in a model carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia known to be driven by the overproduction of peroxynitrite.

Rausaria, Smita; Kamadulski, Andrew; Rath, Nigam P.; Bryant, Leesa; Chen, Zhoumou; Salvemini, Daniela; Neumann, William L.

2011-01-01

306

HL 752: a potent and long-acting antispasmodic agent.  

PubMed

Ester analogues of methyl-2-(4-(2-piperidinoethoxy)benzoyl)-benzoate hydrochloride (pitofenone) (2) were prepared with an aim to find a more potent and metabolically stable antispasmodic compound. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo antispasmodic activity, and stability to in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis. Of the compounds synthesised, HL 752 (21) showed the most potent and long-lasting antispasmodic activity and was selected as the candidate for clinical development. PMID:9377098

Bal-Tembe, S; Bhedi, D N; Mishra, A K; Rajagopalan, R; Ghate, A V; Subbarayan, P; Punekar, N S; Kulkarni, A V

1997-07-01

307

Effect of sildenafil on nocturnal erections of potent men  

Microsoft Academic Search

We try to evaluate the effect of sildenafil on nocturnal penile erections of potent men. We recruited 22 potent men (eight medical students and 14 urology residents) 23–29 years old into the study. A disorder-free medical and sexual history and normal erectile functions were the only inclusion criteria. All subjects completed three sessions of consecutive nights using the RigiScan Plus

Ö Yaman; Z Tokath; T Inal; K Anafarta

2003-01-01

308

Discovery of a Potent And Selective Aurora Kinase Inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

This communication describes the discovery of a novel series of Aurora kinase inhibitors. Key SAR and critical binding elements are discussed. Some of the more advanced analogues potently inhibit cellular proliferation and induce phenotypes consistent with Aurora kinase inhibition. In particular, compound 21 (SNS-314) is a potent and selective Aurora kinase inhibitor that exhibits significant activity in pre-clinical in vivo tumor models.

Oslob, J.D.; Romanowski, M.J.; Allen, D.A.; Baskaran, S.; Bui, M.; Elling, R.A.; Flanagan, W.M.; Fung, A.D.; Hanan, E.J.; Harris, S.; Heumann, S.A.; Hoch, U.; Jacobs, J.W.; Lam, J.; Lawrence, C.E.; McDowell, R.S.; Nannini, M.A.; Shen, W.; Silverman, J.A.; Sopko, M.M.; Tangonan, B.T.

2009-05-21

309

Wireless Measurement of Contact and Motion Between Contact Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This method uses a magnetic-field- response contact sensor that is designed to identify surface contact and motion between contact locations. The sensor has three components: (1) a capacitor-inductor circuit with two sets of electrical contact pads, (2) a capacitor with a set of electrical contact pads, and (3) an inductor with a set of electrical contact pads. A unique feature of this sensor is that it is inherently multifunctional. Information can be derived from analyzing such sensor response attributes as amplitude, frequency, and bandwidth. A change in one attribute can be due to a change in a physical property of a system. A change in another attribute can be due to another physical property, which has no relationship to the first one.

Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

2007-01-01

310

A Series of Potent CREBBP Bromodomain Ligands Reveals an Induced-Fit Pocket Stabilized by a Cation-? Interaction.  

PubMed

The benzoxazinone and dihydroquinoxalinone fragments were employed as novel acetyl lysine mimics in the development of CREBBP bromodomain ligands. While the benzoxazinone series showed low affinity for the CREBBP bromodomain, expansion of the dihydroquinoxalinone series resulted in the first potent inhibitors of a bromodomain outside the BET family. Structural and computational studies reveal that an internal hydrogen bond stabilizes the protein-bound conformation of the dihydroquinoxalinone series. The side chain of this series binds in an induced-fit pocket forming a cation-? interaction with R1173 of CREBBP. The most potent compound inhibits binding of CREBBP to chromatin in U2OS cells. PMID:24821300

Rooney, Timothy P C; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Fedorov, Oleg; Picaud, Sarah; Cortopassi, Wilian A; Hay, Duncan A; Martin, Sarah; Tumber, Anthony; Rogers, Catherine M; Philpott, Martin; Wang, Minghua; Thompson, Amber L; Heightman, Tom D; Pryde, David C; Cook, Andrew; Paton, Robert S; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan; Brennan, Paul E; Conway, Stuart J

2014-06-10

311

Transparent indium zinc oxide ohmic contact to phosphor-doped n-type zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent indium zinc oxide (IZO) ohmic contacts to phosphor-doped n-type ZnO have been formed. The resistance, transmittance, and phase reliability of the contacts were investigated. As deposited, an ohmic contact was formed with a specific contact resistance of about 1.1×10-4 Omega cm2 and the transmittance of the ZnO\\/IZO (520\\/350 nm) film was more than 75% in the 450-1100 nm wavelength

Guangxia Hu; Bhupendra Kumar; Hao Gong; E. F. Chor; Ping Wu

2006-01-01

312

Contact Dermatitis: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  

MedlinePLUS

... A - D Contact dermatitis Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome Contact dermatitis: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome How dermatologists diagnose contact dermatitis To diagnose this common skin condition, dermatologists: ...

313

The role of the contact pathway in thrombus propagation.  

PubMed

The continued search for the ideal antithrombotic agent that would prevent or reduce thrombus growth inside blood vessels without an effect on the essential hemostatic functions of blood, including extraluminal thrombin generation and platelet activation, has been going in new directions in the past decade. These directions include studies suggesting that activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade through contact activation of factor XII, and the resultant thrombin generation is a pathologic event that leads to undesirable consequences. Recent animal studies of contact pathway inhibitors in experimental thrombogenesis suggest that the contact activation pathway of blood coagulation may play a pathogenic role in thrombosis, and pharmacologic inhibition of contact activation may have antithrombotic effects. Development of reasonably potent selective inhibitors of contact activation pathway components or activities now allow for the conduct of studies in various animal species, including primates. These studies have generated interesting data that now support the hypothesis that thrombogenesis in humans may also involve the pathological activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade. Moreover, baboons, mice, and rabbits, pretreated with antibodies that selectively inhibit factor XII activation, procoagulant factor XIIa activity, or all enzymatic activities of factor XIIa show significantly reduced propensity for occlusive thrombus propagation in various models of acute thrombogenesis on vascular grafts, membrane oxygenators, and even on injured arteries. Since contact activation of blood does not play a demonstrable role in normal hemostasis, and there has been no evidence generated to date suggesting that activation of factor XII has a physiologic function, current research now supports the original concept, developed over 2 decades ago, that temporal pharmacologic inhibition of thrombin generation through the contact pathway may have therapeutic potential and could produce beneficial antithrombotic activities without hemostasis impairment. PMID:24759142

Gruber, Andras

2014-05-01

314

PROSPR Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

315

Graphite-Graphene Contact Resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploiting the exceptional electronic properties of graphene has been attempted in several applications. However, graphene based applications still lag behind conventional electronics due, in part, to the highly resistive metal-graphene junction. For example, graphene based RF transistors suffer a diminished (fmax) due to highly resistive source-drain contacts (>200 ?- ?m). Reducing this paracistic resistance can yield substantial improvement in device performance for transistors and many other applications. To achieve this, we create an electrical contact to graphene using mesoscopic, exfoliated graphite (10 - 20 nm thick). We fabricate graphite-graphene contacts by transferring pre-defined graphite contacts to graphene on silicon dioxide. Experimental measurement has shown the contact resistance to be <50 ?- ?m, a four-fold improvement over conventional contacts to graphene.

Chari, Tarun; Dean, Cory; Meric, Inanc; Wang, Lei; Shepard, Ken

2013-03-01

316

Oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor: a fairly potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor.  

PubMed Central

N-chlorosuccinimide oxidizes one of the methionine residues of mucus proteinase inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 M-1.s-1. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and NH2-terminal sequencing show that the modified residue is methionine-73, the P'1 component of the inhibitor's active centre. Oxidation of the inhibitor decreases its neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity but does not fully abolish it. The kinetic parameters describing the elastase-oxidized inhibitor interaction are: association rate constant kass. = 2.6 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, dissociation rate constant kdiss. = 2.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and equilibrium dissociation constant Ki = 1.1 x 10(-8) M. Comparison with the native inhibitor indicates that oxidation decreases kass. by a factor of 18.8 and increases kdiss. by a factor of 6.4, and therefore leads to a 120-fold increase in Ki. Yet, the oxidized inhibitor may still act as a potent elastase inhibitor in the upper respiratory tract where its concentration is 500-fold higher than Ki, i.e. where the elastase inhibition is pseudo-irreversible. Experiments in vitro with fibrous human lung elastin, the most important natural substrate of elastase, support this view: 1.35 microM elastase is fully inhibited by 5-6 microM oxidized inhibitor whether the enzyme-inhibitor complex is formed in the presence or absence of elastin and whether elastase is pre-adsorbed on elastin or not.

Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

1994-01-01

317

Potent Inhibitors of a Shikimate Pathway Enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains a serious global health threat, with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains highlighting the urgent need for novel antituberculosis drugs. The enzyme 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) catalyzes the first step of the shikimate pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. This pathway has been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen responsible for tuberculosis. DAH7PS catalyzes a condensation reaction between P-enolpyruvate and erythrose 4-phosphate to give 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate. The enzyme reaction mechanism is proposed to include a tetrahedral intermediate, which is formed by attack of an active site water on the central carbon of P-enolpyruvate during the course of the reaction. Molecular modeling of this intermediate into the active site reported in this study shows a configurational preference consistent with water attack from the re face of P-enolpyruvate. Based on this model, we designed and synthesized an inhibitor of DAH7PS that mimics this reaction intermediate. Both enantiomers of this intermediate mimic were potent inhibitors of M. tuberculosis DAH7PS, with inhibitory constants in the nanomolar range. The crystal structure of the DAH7PS-inhibitor complex was solved to 2.35 Å. Both the position of the inhibitor and the conformational changes of active site residues observed in this structure correspond closely to the predictions from the intermediate modeling. This structure also identifies a water molecule that is located in the appropriate position to attack the re face of P-enolpyruvate during the course of the reaction, allowing the catalytic mechanism for this enzyme to be clearly defined.

Reichau, Sebastian; Jiao, Wanting; Walker, Scott R.; Hutton, Richard D.; Baker, Edward N.; Parker, Emily J.

2011-01-01

318

Witnessing Violence Toward Siblings: An Understudied but Potent Form of Early Adversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the consequences of witnessing domestic violence has focused on inter-adult violence and most specifically on violence toward mothers. The potential consequences of witnessing violence to siblings have been almost entirely overlooked. Based on clinical experience we sought to test the hypothesis that witnessing violence toward siblings would be as consequential as witnessing violence toward mothers. The community sample

Martin H. Teicher; Gordana D. Vitaliano

2011-01-01

319

Point contact silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of silicon solar cell has been developed. It is called the point-contact cell because the metal semiconductor contacts are restricted to an array of small points on the back of the cell. The point contact cell has recently demonstrated 22 percent conversion efficiency at one sun and 27.5 percent at 100 suns under an AM1.5 spectrum.

Swanson, Richard M.

1987-01-01

320

Occupational contact allergy to glyoxal.  

PubMed

Glyoxal is a dialdehyde that is used as a disinfectant in health care and dentistry work. Allergic contact dermatitis from glyoxal has been described in these occupations. We analysed our patient data from 1998 to 2004 for allergic reactions to glyoxal. 20 patients had allergic reactions to glyoxal on patch testing. 5 of these patients worked in dentistry and 4 of them had present exposure to glyoxal. 9 patients were machinists without obvious exposure to glyoxal. A grinder with work-related facial dermatitis is described in detail. The chemical analysis of air samples from his workplace revealed 9.4-21 microg/m3 glyoxal. Glyoxal was also present in the used metal-working fluid, and apparently it had been formed during grinding. The remaining 6 patients worked in miscellaneous occupations and had no present exposure to glyoxal. Glyoxal is irritant on patch testing. Especially, solitary reactions to glyoxal 10% in aq. may be false-positive irritant reactions. 9 (45%) of our patients reacted to formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde. Glyoxal is an important allergen in dentistry and medical care, and we recommend it to be added to the antimicrobial patch test series. It also seems to be a 'hidden' allergen in the metal industry. PMID:15899002

Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Erja A; Huttunen, Maria; Suuronen, Katri; Jolanki, Riitta

2005-05-01

321

Forms & Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

2003 Step 1: Developing a Cancer Prevention Clinical Trial Forms & Guidelines General Guidelines for Consortia Lead Organization to add Participating to Consortium (doc, 63kb) NCI Request for Proposals, Current DCP Letter of Intent Submission Form

322

Potent inhibitors of human matriptase-1 based on the scaffold of sunflower trypsin inhibitor.  

PubMed

Sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1), a bicyclic tetradecapeptide, has become a versatile tool as a scaffold for the development of the inhibitors of therapeutically relevant serine proteases, among them matriptase and kallikreins. Herein, we report the rational design of potent monocyclic and bicyclic inhibitors of human matriptase-1. We found that the presence of positive charge and lack of bulky residues at the peptide N-terminus is required for the maintenance of inhibitory activity. Replacement of the N-terminal glycine residue by lysine allowed for the chemical conjugation with a fluorophor via the ?-amino group without significant loss of inhibitory activity. Head-to-tail and side-chain-to-tail cyclization resulted in potent inhibitors with comparable activities against matriptase-1. The most potent synthetic bicyclic inhibitor found in this study (Ki ?=?2.6?nM at pH 7.6) is a truncated version of SFTI-1 (cyclo-KRCTKSIPPRCH) lacking a C-terminal proline and aspartate residue. It combines an internal disulfide bond with a peptide macrocycle that is formed through side-chain-to-tail cyclization of the ?-amino group of an N-terminal lysine and a C-terminal proline. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24723440

Fittler, Heiko; Avrutina, Olga; Empting, Martin; Kolmar, Harald

2014-06-01

323

Spray forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray forming is a relatively new manufacturing process for near net shape preforms in a wide variety of alloys. Spray formed materials have a characteristic equiaxed microstructure with small grain sizes, low levels of solute partitioning, and inhibited coarsening of secondary phases. After consolidation to full density, spray formed materials have consistently shown properties superior to conventionally cast materials, and

P. S. Grant

1995-01-01

324

A direct-contact-charged direct-contact-discharged cool storage system using gas hydrate  

SciTech Connect

A cool storage system using a refrigerant gas hydrate as the storage medium and being direct-contact charged, direct-contact discharged is under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A test facility has been built and was operated without any problem during either the charging or the discharging process. Some of the tests performed are described. At present, only refrigerant-12 has been used. Future plans include the use of other low-pressure refrigerants or mixtures of refrigerants that also form hydrates in order to reduce the total pressure in the system. A full-scale cool storage system is under design.

Carbajo, J.J.

1985-01-01

325

Discovery of 3,3?-diindolylmethanes as potent antileishmanial agents  

PubMed Central

An efficient protocol for synthesis of 3,3?-diindolyl methanes using recyclable Fe – pillared interlayered clay (Fe-PILC) catalyst under aqueous medium have been developed. All synthesized 3,3?-diindolylmethanes showed promising antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes as well as axenic amastigotes. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that nitroaryl substituted diindolylmethanes showed potent antileishmanial activity. The 4-nitrophenyl linked 3,3?-diindolylmethane 8g was found to be the most potent antileishmanial analog showing IC50 values of 7.88 and 8.37 ?M against both L. donovani promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively. Further, a pharmacophore based QSAR model was established to understand the crucial molecular features of 3,3?-diindolylmethanes essential for potent antileishmanial activity. These compounds also exhibited promising antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, wherein fluorophenyl substituted 3,3?-diindolylmethanes were found to be most potent antifungal agents. Developed synthetic protocol will be useful for economical and eco-friendly synthesis of potent antileishmanial and antifungal 3,3?-diindolylmethane class of compounds.

Bharate, Sandip B.; Bharate, Jaideep B.; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Mudududdla, Ramesh; Yadav, Rammohan R.; Singh, Baljinder; Sharma, P. R.; Maity, Sudip; Singh, Baldev; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.

2013-01-01

326

Measurement and Extraction of Specific Contact Resistivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a unified approach for the accurate extraction of specific contact resistivity rho(c) for ohmic contacts from measured contact resistance using the Cross Bridge Kelvin Resistor, the Contact End Resistor. Conventional 1-D models overest...

K. C., Saraswat W. M. Loh T. A. Schreyer S. E. Swirhun

1986-01-01

327

Predictive models for moving contact line flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling flows with moving contact lines poses the formidable challenge that the usual assumptions of Newtonian fluid and no-slip condition give rise to a well-known singularity. This singularity prevents one from satisfying the contact angle condition to compute the shape of the fluid-fluid interface, a crucial calculation without which design parameters such as the pressure drop needed to move an immiscible 2-fluid system through a solid matrix cannot be evaluated. Some progress has been made for low Capillary number spreading flows. Combining experimental measurements of fluid-fluid interfaces very near the moving contact line with an analytical expression for the interface shape, we can determine a parameter that forms a boundary condition for the macroscopic interface shape when Ca much les than l. This parameter, which plays the role of an "apparent" or macroscopic dynamic contact angle, is shown by the theory to depend on the system geometry through the macroscopic length scale. This theoretically established dependence on geometry allows this parameter to be "transferable" from the geometry of the measurement to any other geometry involving the same material system. Unfortunately this prediction of the theory cannot be tested on Earth.

Rame, Enrique; Garoff, Stephen

2003-01-01

328

Potent inhibition of arterial smooth muscle tonic contractions by the selective myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin.  

PubMed

Blebbistatin is reported to be a selective and specific small molecule inhibitor of the myosin II isoforms expressed by striated muscles and nonmuscle (IC(50) = 0.5-5 microM) but is a poor inhibitor of purified turkey smooth muscle myosin II (IC(50) approximately 80 microM). We found that blebbistatin potently (IC(50) approximately 3 microM) inhibited the actomyosin ATPase activities of expressed "slow" [smooth muscle myosin IIA (SMA)] and "fast" [smooth muscle myosin IIB (SMB)] smooth muscle myosin II heavy-chain isoforms. Blebbistatin also inhibited the KCl-induced tonic contractions produced by rabbit femoral and renal arteries that express primarily SMA and the weaker tonic contraction produced by the saphenous artery that expresses primarily SMB, with an equivalent potency comparable with that identified for nonmuscle myosin IIA (IC(50) approximately 5 microM). In femoral and saphenous arteries, blebbistatin had no effect on unloaded shortening velocity or the tonic increase in myosin light-chain phosphorylation produced by KCl but potently inhibited beta-escin permeabilized artery contracted with calcium at pCa 5, suggesting that cell signaling events upstream from KCl-induced activation of cross-bridges were unaffected by blebbistatin. It is noteworthy that KCl-induced contractions of chicken gizzard were less potently inhibited (IC(50) approximately 20 microM). Adult femoral, renal, and saphenous arteries did not express significant levels of nonmuscle myosin. These data together indicate that blebbistatin is a potent inhibitor of smooth muscle myosin II, supporting the hypothesis that the force-bearing structure responsible for tonic force maintenance in adult mammalian vascular smooth muscle is the cross-bridge formed from the blebbistatin-dependent interaction between actin and smooth muscle myosin II. PMID:17132816

Eddinger, Thomas J; Meer, Daniel P; Miner, Amy S; Meehl, Joel; Rovner, Arthur S; Ratz, Paul H

2007-02-01

329

Peroxynitrite: a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO*) reacts with superoxide (O2-*) forming peroxynitrite (PXN) (ONOO-), a strong oxidant which reacts with several biomolecules leading to enormous implications in biological process, holds enormous implications for the understanding of free radicals. The ONOO- formation in vivo has significant implications in free radical biology. It exerts a defensive role in large number of pathophysiological reactions and also acts as signaling molecule in activation of several protooncogenes. It decomposes rapidly to an intermediate and reacts with several biomolecules. Evidence for PXN formation in vivo has been obtained immunohistochemically through detection of a characteristic reaction product with protein tyrosine residues and 3-nitrotyrosine. This "biomarker" of PXN formation has now been identified in various pathologies such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, atherosclerosis as well as in biological aging. 3-nitrotyrosine formation has been documented in various tissues, e.g. even in non-diseased embryonic heart during normal development. Therefore, there is a great opportunity in the postgenomic period to understand the interplay of these molecular interactions with biological events such as apoptosis, gene regulation etc. This review deals with biological significance of peroxynitrite, its precursors, reactions with large range of biomolecules, including aminoacids, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, antioxidants as well as cytotoxic aspects. PMID:16784114

Kamat, J P

2006-06-01

330

Form classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of form classification is to assign a single-page form image to one of a set of predefined form types or classes. We classify the form images using low level pixel density information from the binary images of the documents. In this paper, we solve the form classification problem with a classifier based on the k-means algorithm, supported by adaptive boosting. Our classification method is tested on the NIST scanned tax forms data bases (special forms databases 2 and 6) which include machine-typed and handwritten documents. Our method improves the performance over published results on the same databases, while still using a simple set of image features.

Reddy, K. V. Umamaheswara; Govindaraju, Venu

2008-01-01

331

Increased resistance of contact lens related bacterial biofilms to antimicrobial activity of soft contact lens care solutions  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To determine if clinical and reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus form biofilms on silicone hydrogel contact lenses, and ascertain antimicrobial activities of contact lens care solutions. METHODS Clinical and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated with lotrafilcon A lenses under conditions that facilitate biofilm formation. Biofilms were quantified by quantitative culturing (colony forming units, CFUs), and gross morphology and architecture were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. Susceptibilities of the planktonic and biofilm growth phases of the bacteria to five common multipurpose contact lens care solutions and one hydrogen peroxide care solution were assessed. RESULTS P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and S. aureus reference and clinical strains formed biofilms on lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses, as dense networks of cells arranged in multiple layers with visible extracellular matrix. The biofilms were resistant to commonly used biguanide preserved multipurpose care solutions. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms were susceptible to a hydrogen peroxide and a polyquaternium preserved care solution, whereas S. marcescens biofilm was resistant to a polyquaternium preserved care solution but susceptible to hydrogen peroxide disinfection. In contrast, the planktonic forms were always susceptible. CONCLUSIONS P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and S. aureus form biofilms on lotrafilcon A contact lenses, which in contrast to planktonic cells, are resistant to the antimicrobial activity of several soft contact lens care products.

Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B.; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Chandra, Jyotsna; Yu, Changping; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

2014-01-01

332

CHARACTERIZING HUMAN CONTACT WITH SEDIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

People contact sediment during a variety of activities such as fishing, wading and boating. A number of default assumptions are used today to characterize dermal contact with sediments in terms of magnitude, frequency and duration. The accuracy of these default values are widel...

333

Creativity, Culture Contact, and Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in the understanding of culture contact, with concepts such as hybridization, cosmopolitanism, and cultural innovation, open up the possibility of a new understanding of human interaction. While the social imaginary is rich with images of conflict resulting from culture contact, images of creativity are far rarer. We propose the creation of an extensive research project to document cultural

Alfonso Montuori; Hillary Stephenson

2010-01-01

334

Contact sensitization in the elderly.  

PubMed

Contact dermatitis from irritant and allergic sources is the reason for 6% to 10% of all dermatologic visits with considerable morbidity and economic impact. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction and develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposure to allergens. Aging is correlated with the rate and type of contact sensitization because of "immunosenescence." The number of old people is growing around the world. This contribution reviews the main findings from published epidemiologic studies on contact allergy in elderly populations. In all examined studies, patch testing was performed in patients with cutaneous manifestations possibly related to contact dermatitis; the prevalence of contact dermatitis in the elderly was from 33% to 64%. Establishing the most frequent allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly is a hard task. The commonest allergens reported were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, diamino diphenylmethane, lanolin alcohols, paraben mix, Euxyl K400, quinoline mix, and balsam of Peru. We emphasize that allergens surveillance is needed to realize an "elderly series" for having a useful adjunct to contact allergy that may help the treatment of each patient. PMID:21146728

Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio

2011-01-01

335

Contact modeling for robotics applications  

SciTech Connect

At Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the authors are developing the ability to accurately predict motions for arbitrary numbers of bodies of arbitrary shapes experiencing multiple applied forces and intermittent contacts. In particular, the authors are concerned with the simulation of systems such as part feeders or mobile robots operating in realistic environments. Preliminary investigation of commercial dynamics software packages led them to the conclusion that they could use commercial software to provide everything they needed except for the contact model. They found that ADAMS best fit their needs for a simulation package. To simulate intermittent contacts, they need collision detection software that can efficiently compute the distances between non-convex objects and return the associated witness features. They also require a computationally efficient contact model for rapid simulation of impact, sustained contact under load, and transition to and from contact conditions. This paper provides a technical review of a custom hierarchical distance computation engine developed at Sandia, called the C-Space Toolkit (CSTk). In addition, they describe an efficient contact model using a non-linear damping term developed by SNL and Ohio State. Both the CSTk and the non-linear damper have been incorporated in a simplified two-body testbed code, which is used to investigate how to correctly model the contact using these two utilities. They have incorporated this model into the ADAMS software using the callable function interface. An example that illustrates the capabilities of the 9.02 release of ADAMS with their extensions is provided.

Lafarge, R.A.; Lewis, C.

1998-08-01

336

All-atom contact potential approach to protein thermostability analysis.  

PubMed

In this paper we use all-atom potential energy to define and analyze the inter-residue contacts in mesophilic and thermophilic proteins. Fifteen families of proteins are selected and each family has two representative proteins with greatly different preferred environmental temperatures. We find that both the number and energy of the contacts defined in this way show stronger correlations with the preferred temperatures of proteins than other factors used before. We also find that the charged-polar and charged-nonpolar residue contacts not only have larger contact numbers but also have lower single contact energies. Furthermore, the most important is that most of the thermophilic proteins have more charged-polar and charged-nonpolar residue contacts than their mesophilic counterparts. This suggests that they may play an important role in the thermostability of proteins, except usual charged-charged and nonpolar-nonpolar residue contacts. Charged residues may exert their profound influence by forming contacts not only with other charged residues but also with polar or nonpolar residues, thus further increasing the strength of contact network and then the thermostability of proteins. PMID:16964601

Chen, Changjun; Li, Lin; Xiao, Yi

2007-01-01

337

Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 2: Multi-Surface Contact  

SciTech Connect

A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems use multiple interfaces and a combination of enforcement methods to assess the basic functionality of the contact algorithms. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to verify the contact behavior. This work was performed as part of the Verification and Validation efforts of LLNL W Program within the NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. DYNA3D models the transient dynamic response of solids and structures including the interactions between disjoint bodies (parts). A wide variety of contact surfaces are available to represent the diverse interactions possible during an analysis, including relative motion (sliding), separation and gap closure (voids), and fixed relative position (tied). The problem geometry may be defined using a combination of element formulations, including one-dimensional beam and truss elements, two-dimensional shell elements, and three-dimensional solid elements. Consequently, it is necessary to consider various element interactions during contact. This report and associated test problems examine the scenario where multiple bodies interact with each other via multiple interfaces. The test problems focus on whether any ordering issues exist in the contact logic by using a combination of interface types, contact enforcement options (i.e., penalty, Lagrange, and kinematic), and element interactions within each problem. The influence of rigid materials on interface behavior is also examined. The companion report (McMichael, 2006) and associated test problems address the basic contact scenario where one contact surface exists between two disjoint bodies. The test problems are analyzed using version 5.2 (compiled on 12/22/2005) of DYNA3D. The analytical results are used to form baseline solutions for subsequent regression testing. In section 2, the test problems are presented, and the static solution is developed for two idealized systems. Section 3 describes the finite element representation of the generic problem, including the interface combinations considered. The verification criteria and expected results are presented next in section 4. Section 5 discusses the numerical results obtained from each test problem. Finally, section 6 summarizes the observed interface behavior.

McMichael, L D

2006-05-10

338

Value of the Cutaneous Basophil Hypersensitivity (CBH) Response for Distinguishing Weak Contact Sensitization from Irritation Reactions in the Guinea Pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies of the histology of allergic contact dermatitis reactions to potent allergens in guinea pigs and humans have indicated that there is significant tissue infiltration with basophilic leukocytes. In this study we determined whether this histologic finding could be of value in distinguishing weak sensitization reactions from primary irritation, thereby aiding in the predictive identification of weak or moderate

Michael K. Robinson; E. Robert Fletcher; Gary R. Johnson; William E. Wyder; James K. Maurer

1990-01-01

339

beta-endorphin is a potent analgesic agent.  

PubMed Central

beta-Endorphin, an opiate-like peptide, has potent antinociceptive properties when it is administered directly into the brain and assayed in the the tail-flick, hot-plate, and writhing tests in mice and in the wet shake test in rats. On a molar basis, beta-endorphin is 18 to 33 times more potent than morphine and its actions are blocked by the specific opiate antagonist, naloxone hydrochloride. The activity of beta-endorphin in vivo is also compared to other peptides that show opiate-like activity in assays in vitro.

Loh, H H; Tseng, L F; Wei, E; Li, C H

1976-01-01

340

A convergent approach to the synthesis of aprepitant: a potent human NK1 receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and convergent approach to enantiomerically pure 5-[[2-[1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethoxy-3-(4-fluorophenyl)morpholin-4-yl]methyl]-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazol-3-one 1, a potent orally active antagonist of the human neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, is described. The synthetic procedure starts from p-fluorobenzaldehyde to access the racemic morpholinone 2 via a modified Strecker synthesis and utilizes a diastereomeric salt resolution technique to accomplish the synthesis of 1 in enantiomerically pure form and good yield.

Chandrashekar R. Elati; Naveenkumar Kolla; Srinivas Gangula; Anitha Naredla; Pravinchandra J. Vankawala; Muttu L. Avinigiri; Subrahmanyeswararao Chalamala; Venkatraman Sundaram; Vijayavitthal T. Mathad; Apurba Bhattacharya; Rakeshwar Bandichhor

2007-01-01

341

'Contact' in Space Leads to New Lenses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While gravity has its advantages in keeping us balanced and grounded here on Earth, scientists often find that they are at a disadvantage when trying to conduct research under its powerful, pulling influence. In these instances, the scientists prefer performing their studies in the weightless atmosphere of microgravity, where gravity is greatly reduced and solids, liquids, and gases behave differently. In 1993, Paragon Vision Sciences, Inc., of Mesa, Arizona, participated in a research project with NASA's Langley Research Center to perfect a process for developing contact lenses. The project called for three experiments that would fly onboard the Space Shuttle over the course of three separate missions, from 1993 to 1996. By unleashing contact lens materials to the microgravity settings of space, scientists from NASA and Paragon hoped to better understand how polymers - large molecules that make up plastics - are formed.

2004-01-01

342

Contact material optimization and contact physics in metal-contact microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-contact MEMS switches hold great promise for implementing agile radio frequency (RF) systems because of their small size, low fabrication cost, low power consumption, wide operational band, excellent isolation and exceptionally low signal insertion loss. Gold is often utilized as a contact material for metal-contact MEMS switches due to its excellent electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance. However contact wear and stiction are the two major failure modes for these switches due to its material softness and high surface adhesion energy. To strengthen the contact material, pure gold was alloyed with other metal elements. We designed and constructed a new micro-contacting test facility that closely mimic the typical MEMS operation and utilized this facility to efficiently evaluate optimized contact materials. Au-Ni binary alloy system as the candidate contact material for MEMS switches was systematically investigated. A correlation between contact material properties (etc. microstructure, micro-hardness, electrical resistivity, topology, surface structures and composition) and micro-contacting performance was established. It was demonstrated nano-scale graded two-phase Au-Ni film could possibly yield an improved device performance. Gold micro-contact degradation mechanisms were also systematically investigated by running the MEMS switching tests under a wide range of test conditions. According to our quantitative failure analysis, field evaporation could be the dominant failure mode for highfield (> critical threshold field) hot switching; transient thermal-assisted wear could be the dominant failure mode for low-field hot switching; on the other hand, pure mechanical wear and steady current heating (1 mA) caused much less contact degradation in cold switching tests. Results from low-force (50 muN/micro-contact), low current (0.1 mA) tests on real MEMS switches indicated that continuous adsorbed films from ambient air could degrade the switch contact resistance. Our work also contributes to the field of general nano-science and technology by resolving the transfer directionality of field evaporation of gold in atomic force microscope (AFM)/scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

Yang, Zhenyin

343

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the minimum film thickness within contact is considered for both fully flooded and starved conditions. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. The fully flooded results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. These results are applied to materials of high elastic modulus (hard EHL), such as metal, and to materials of low elastic modulus(soft EHL), such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, contour plots of pressure and film thickness are given which show the essential features of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions. The crescent shaped region of minimum film thickness, with its side lobes in which the separation between the solids is a minimum, clearly emerges in the numerical solutions. In addition to the 3 presented for the fully flooded results, 15 more cases are used for hard EHL contacts and 18 cases are used for soft EHL contacts in a theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure. From the starved results for both hard and soft EHL contacts, a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for conditions.

Hamrock, B. J.

1981-01-01

344

Single Wire Electrode Contacts ABD their Effects on Energy Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. When single wires are driven with short, high-current pulses the energy deposited is terminated by a voltage collapse that occurs when coronal plasma forms along the wire. It has been shown that the formation of this plasma and the amount of energy deposited can be affected by the way electrical contact is established between a wire

C. Myers; P. Schrafel; D. Chalenski; B. Kusse

2007-01-01

345

Thermal contact conductance of pressed contacts at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of variations of interface temperature in the range 50-300 K on the thermal contact conductance between aluminium and stainless steel joints was determined. Predictions were done by modeling the deformation at the interface for different values of surface finish and contact pressure over the range of interface temperatures. Both elastic and plastic deformation was considered. Experiments were carried out in a closed loop cryostat and the results were shown to compare well with the predictions. A reduction of the interface temperature resulted in a smaller value of thermal contact conductance. Interfacial pressure variation had much lower influence at the smaller value of temperatures. The role of surface roughness at the contact was also seen to be less significant at lower interface temperatures and the zone of hysteresis was smaller. A correlation was developed for estimating thermal contact conductance at joints over this temperature range. An explicit dependence of contact conductance on temperature was not seen to be necessary as long as the changes in the hardness and thermal conductivity of the material with temperature are incorporated in the correlation.

Sunil Kumar, S.; Ramamurthi, K.

2004-10-01

346

Metal contacts in semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of modern surface science experimental techniques to probe free semiconductor surfaces and their interfaces with gases and meals has enabled a much greater understanding of the role that imperfections, defects, etc., play in the formation of Schottky barriers and related devices. In section 1 of this report we detail the interactions between various metals and vacuum cleaved and air cleaved (110) surfaces of CdTe. For metal vacuum cleaved CdTe interfaces we show that the interfaces formed are very non abrupt with interface widths in some cases exceeding twenty five angstroms. Also, provided one eliminates the systems where cadmium outdiffusion into high work function metals occurs then good agreement between the linear interface model in the Schottky limit and the data occurs. Where cadmium outdiffusion into high work function metals does occur it is postulated that Fermi level pinning in the band gap occurs due to the formation of doubly charged cadmium vacancies. The presence of an interfacial layer, due to oxidation or due to deposition of very thin (< 2 Angstroms) aluminum layers, between the vacuum cleaved CdTe surface and the metal overlayer drastically effects the Schottky barrier height. Oxidation of the surface prior to metal deposition always leads to an increase in Schottky barrier height.

Williams, R. H.; Patterson, M. H.

1983-11-01

347

A gauge theory of nucleonic interactions by contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gauge theory of contact is presented, based on the general idea that the local deformation of the nucleon surface at contact should be gauged by the variation of curvature. A contact force is then defined so as to cope with both the variation of curvature and the deformation. This force generalizes the classical definition of surface tension, in that it depends on the mean curvature, but also depends on the variance of the second fundamental form of surface, considered as a statistical variable over the ensemble of contact spots. It turns out that the variance of the second fundamental form does not depend but on the metric of the space of curvature parameters, organized as Riemann space. This result compels us to review the definition of physical surface of a nucleon.

Mazilu, Nicolae; Ioannou, Pavlos D.; Agop, Maricel

2014-04-01

348

Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadly neutralizing antibodies against highly variable viral pathogens are much sought after to treat or protect against global circulating viruses. Here we probed the neutralizing antibody repertoires of four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donors with remarkably broad and potent neutralizing responses and rescued 17 new monoclonal antibodies that neutralize broadly across clades. Many of the new monoclonal antibodies are almost

Laura M. Walker; Michael Huber; Katie J. Doores; Emilia Falkowska; Robert Pejchal; Jean-Philippe Julien; Sheng-Kai Wang; Alejandra Ramos; Po-Ying Chan-Hui; Matthew Moyle; Jennifer L. Mitcham; Phillip W. Hammond; Ole A. Olsen; Pham Phung; Steven Fling; Chi-Huey Wong; Sanjay Phogat; Terri Wrin; Melissa D. Simek; Wayne C. Koff; Ian A. Wilson; Dennis R. Burton; Pascal Poignard

2011-01-01

349

Power as Pedagogy: The Potent Possibilities in Drama Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that drama education is a potent and emotional way of learning that connects to other areas of the curriculum. Describes ways in which drama and story-telling inspire students from elementary grades to pre-service teacher training. (PM)

Norman, Renee

2002-01-01

350

NK cells from malignant pleural effusions are potent antitumor effectors  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells exert potent antitumor activity. However, NK cells infiltrating solid tumors are severely impaired in their function. Remarkably, NK cells isolated from malignant pleural effusions kill very efficiently tumor cells upon exposure to interleukin-2, offering an important clue for the development of novel approaches for tumor immunotherapy.

Vacca, Paola; Martini, Stefania; Mingari, Maria C.; Moretta, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

351

Indole amide hydroxamic acids as potent inhibitors of histone deacetylases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hydroxamic acid-based HDAC inhibitors with an indole amide residue at the terminus have been synthesized and evaluated. Compounds with a 2-indole amide moiety have been found as the most active inhibitors among the different regioisomers. Introduction of substituents on the indole ring further improved the potency and generated a series of very potent inhibitors with significant antiproliferative

Yujia Dai; Yan Guo; Jun Guo; Lori J Pease; Junling Li; Patrick A Marcotte; Keith B Glaser; Paul Tapang; Daniel H Albert; Paul L Richardson; Steven K Davidsen; Michael R Michaelides

2003-01-01

352

FPL 63012AR: a potent D1-receptor agonist.  

PubMed Central

1. FPL 63012AR is a D1-receptor agonist in the dog kidney, 10 times as potent as dopamine, reducing renal vascular resistance by 20% with an intra-arterial dose of 0.42 nmol kg-1. 2. No prejunctional inhibitory D2-receptor agonist activity was detected in either the isolated ear artery of the rabbit or in the conscious dog as D2-receptor-mediated emesis. 3. Unlike dopamine, FPL 63012AR had no significant agonist activity at alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta 1- or beta 2-adrenoceptors. 4. FPL 63012AR is a potent inhibitor of [3H]-noradrenaline uptake (Uptake1) into brain synaptosomes, with an IC50 of 29.5 nM, i.e. 9.2 times more potent than dopamine. 5. The ability to block Uptake1, in the anaesthetised dog was confirmed by inhibition of the tyramine-induced pressor and inotropic responses. 6. Intravenous infusion of FPL 63012AR in anaesthetized and conscious dogs (0.3 to 3 nmol kg-1 min-1) reduced vascular resistance and increased blood flow to the kidney which was accompanied by hypotension and tachycardia. 7. It is concluded that FPL 63012AR is an example of a novel class of potent agonists at the D-receptor. Such compounds may have the potential for use clinically in improving renal perfusion and reducing afterload.

Smith, G. W.; Farmer, J. B.; Ince, F.; Matu, K.; Mitchell, P. D.; Naya, I.; Springthorpe, B.

1990-01-01

353

Design and optimisation of potent gp120-CD4 inhibitors.  

PubMed

The synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a series of novel gp120-CD4 inhibitors are described. Pharmacokinetic studies and antiviral spectrum assessment of lead compounds led to the identification of compound 36, a potent gp120-CD4 inhibitor which exhibited antiviral potency across a spectrum of 25 clade B isolates. PMID:19632839

Tran, Thien-Duc; Adam, Fiona M; Calo, Frederick; Fenwick, David R; Fok-Seang, Juin; Gardner, Iain; Hay, Duncan A; Perros, Manos; Rawal, Jaiessh; Middleton, Donald S; Parkinson, Tanya; Pickford, Christopher; Platts, Michelle; Randall, Amy; Stephenson, Peter T; Vuong, Hannah; Williams, David H

2009-09-01

354

Potent antioxidant dendrimers lacking pro-oxidant activity.  

PubMed

It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants, including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities, may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical-scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens, and electron-donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical-quenching properties. To minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal-chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical-scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme, and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity toward Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:20977937

Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A; Upadhaya, Samik K; Nelson, Julie L

2011-04-15

355

Reboxetine: a pharmacologically potent, selective, and specific norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reboxetine is a potent antidepressant, with efficacy comparable to that of imipramine, desipramine, and fluoxetine, and has improved side-effect profile. The basis of its efficacy and improved tolerability is sought through studies of reboxetine in a number of pharmacological models of depression.Methods: Pharmacological selectivity for uptake systems was defined by uptake and binding assays for the three monoamine uptake

Erik H. F. Wong; Mark S. Sonders; Susan G. Amara; Paula M. Tinholt; Montford F. P. Piercey; William P. Hoffmann; Deborah K. Hyslop; Stanley Franklin; Roger D. Porsolt; Alberto Bonsignori; Nicola Carfagna; Robert A. McArthur

2000-01-01

356

Biaryl analogues of teriflunomide as potent DHODH inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure–activity relationships of a novel series of biaryl dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors related to teriflunomide are disclosed. These biaryl derivatives were the result of structure-based design and proved to be potent DHODH inhibitors which in addition showed good antiproliferative activities on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and good efficacies in vivo in the rat adjuvant-induced-arthritis model.

Montse Erra; Imma Moreno; Jordi Sanahuja; Miriam Andrés; Raquel F. Reinoso; Estrella Lozoya; Pilar Pizcueta; Núria Godessart; Julio Cesar Castro-Palomino

357

Potent antioxidant role of Pirfenidone in experimental cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three important features must be considered when proposing therapeutic strategies in liver cirrhosis: inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrogenesis. Pirfenidone is a synthetic molecule which oxidative action has not been tested in cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced in rats by ligation of the common bile duct or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) chronic intoxication and treated with Pirfenidone or Diphenyleneiodonium (a potent known antioxidant)

Adriana Salazar-Montes; Luis Ruiz-Corro; Alberto López-Reyes; Eugenio Castrejón-Gómez; Juan Armendáriz-Borunda

2008-01-01

358

Identification of the first potent, selective and bioavailable PPAR? antagonist.  

PubMed

The discovery and SAR of a novel series of potent and selective PPAR? antagonists are herein described. Exploration of replacements for the labile acyl sulfonamide linker led to a biaryl sulfonamide series of which compound 33 proved to be suitable for further profiling in vivo. Compound 33 demonstrated excellent potency, selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors, and good pharmacokinetics in mouse. PMID:24745969

Bravo, Yalda; Baccei, Christopher S; Broadhead, Alex; Bundey, Richard; Chen, Austin; Clark, Ryan; Correa, Lucia; Jacintho, Jason D; Lorrain, Daniel S; Messmer, Davorka; Stebbins, Karin; Prasit, Peppi; Stock, Nicholas

2014-05-15

359

Superconductor-normal-superconductor with distributed Sharvin point contacts  

DOEpatents

A non-linear superconducting junction device comprising a layer of high transient temperature superconducting material which is superconducting at an operating temperature, a layer of metal in contact with the layer of high temperature superconducting material and which remains non-superconducting at the operating temperature, and a metal material which is superconducting at the operating temperature and which forms distributed Sharvin point contacts with the metal layer.

Holcomb, Matthew J. (San Mateo County, CA); Little, William A. (Santa Clara County, CA)

1994-01-01

360

Direct measurement of friction of a fluctuating contact line.  

PubMed

We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating (and slipping) contact line using a thin vertical glass fiber of diameter d with one end glued onto a cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity ?, we find the friction coefficient of the contact line has a universal form, ?(c)?0.8?d?, independent of the liquid-solid contact angle. The obtained scaling law is further supported by the numerical simulation based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions. PMID:23889421

Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

2013-07-12

361

Fabrication of optically reflecting ohmic contacts for semiconductor devices  

DOEpatents

A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy layer between the semiconductor substrate and the metal layer when a crystalline substrate is used. The alloy layer provides both a low-resistivity ohmic contact and high optical reflectance. 5 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1995-07-04

362

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Contact Us  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Sign Up for Updates | Follow us on Twitter | Connect with us on LinkedIn | Contact Us | Site Map Search About Program Information Program Structure Goals Eligibility Criteria Employment Opportunities Meet the Team Funding Opportunities Find

363

Research on Optical Contact Bonding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adhesion of optically polished surfaces-'optical contact'-was investigated both under room conditions and ultrahigh vacuum with the twofold objective of determining the adhesion mechanism and its characteristics and extending the technological applica...

R. B. Holt H. I. Smith M. S. Gussenhoven

1966-01-01

364

Racial Disparity in Police Contacts  

PubMed Central

Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline.

Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

2013-01-01

365

Model of contact transitioning with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arcing transition of metal-to-metal contacts is a key technical challenge in the development of railgun launchers. Theoretical understanding of the process remains poor and controversial. Several authors have explained transitioning by a velocity skin effect driven \\

John P. Barber; Yuri A. Dreizin

1995-01-01

366

Electrical Characteristics of Metal Contacts to Boron-Doped Diamond Epitaxial Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current-voltage characteristics have been obtained for various metal contacts formed on boron-doped diamond epitaxial film prepared on synthesized Ib diamond by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. Ti contacts and W contacts have exhibited good ohmic and Schottky properties, respectively. For the first time, we have fabricated Schottky diodes on boron-doped diamond epitaxial films using these contacts and investigated

Hiromu Shiomi; Hideaki Nakahata; Takahiro Imai; Yoshiki Nishibayashi; Naoji Fujimori

1989-01-01

367

Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) Oocytes' Contact Plate Structure and Development  

PubMed Central

One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the “contact plate”. Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high Mr bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides Mr corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' Mr is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.

Adonin, Leonid S.; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G.; Podgornaya, Olga

2012-01-01

368

Pose and motion from contact  

SciTech Connect

In the absence of vision, grasping an object often relies on tactile feedback from the fingertips. As the finger pushes the object, the fingertip can feel the contact point move. If the object is known in advance, from this motion the finger may infer the location of the contact point on the object, and thereby, the object pose. This paper primarily investigates the problem of determining the pose (orientation and position) and motion (velocity and angular velocity) of a planar object with known geometry from such contact motion generated by pushing. A dynamic analysis of pushing yields a nonlinear system that relates through contact the object pose and motion to the finger motion. The contact motion on the fingertip thus encodes certain information about the object pose. Nonlinear observability theory is employed to show that such information is sufficient for the finger to observe not only the pose, but also the motion of the object. Therefore, a sensing strategy can be realized as an observer of the nonlinear dynamic system. Two observers are subsequently introduced. The first observer, based on the work of Gautheir, Hammouri, and Othman (1992), has its gain determined by the solution of a Lyapunov-like equation; it can be activated at any time instant during a push. The second observer, based on Newton`s method, solves for the initial (motionless) object pose from three intermediate contact points during a push. Under the Coulomb-friction model, the paper deals with support friction in the plane and/or contact friction between the finger and the object. Extensive simulations have been done to demonstrate the feasibility of the two observers. Preliminary experiments (with an Adept robot) have also been conducted. A contact sensor has been implemented using strain gauges.

Jia, Y.B.; Erdmann, M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.

1999-05-01

369

Discrete-contact nanowire photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of finite-element simulations have been performed to assess the operational characteristics of a new semiconductor nanowire solar cell design operating under high-level injection conditions. Specifically, the steady-state current-voltage behavior of a cylindrical silicon (Si) nanowire with a series of discrete, ohmic-selective contacts under intense sunlight illumination was investigated. The scope of the analysis was limited to only the factors that impact the net internal quantum yield for solar to electricity conversion. No evaluations were performed with regards to optical light trapping in the modeled structures. Several aspects in a discrete-contact nanowire device that could impact operation were explored, including the size and density of ohmic-selective contacts, the size of the nanowire, the electronic quality and conductivity of the nanowire, the surface defect density of the nanowire, and the type of ohmic selectivity employed at each contact. The analysis showed that there were ranges of values for each parameter that supported good to excellent photoresponses, with certain combinations of experimentally attainable material properties yielding internal energy conversion efficiencies at the thermodynamic limit for a single junction cell. The merits of the discrete-contact nanowire cell were contrasted with "conventional" nanowire photovoltaic cells featuring a uniform conformal contact and also with planar point-contact solar cells. The unique capacity of the discrete-contact nanowire solar cell design to operate at useful energy conversion efficiencies with low quality semiconductor nanowires (i.e., possessing short charge-carrier lifetimes) with only light doping is discussed. This work thus defines the impetus for future experimental work aimed at developing this photovoltaic architecture.

Chitambar, Michelle J.; Wen, Wen; Maldonado, Stephen

2013-11-01

370

Assessment Forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains printable, downloadable forms for teachers to use in the classroom. It includes a daily point sheet, group self-evaluation, portfolio assessment chart, student progress report, student progress self-evaluation, and others.

371

Form approved:  

Cancer.gov

RETURNED AGENTS LIST Use one form for each Agent and Protocol NCI Protocol Number: Return. No.: Institution Address: Date Received: Principal Investigator (PI) for Study (Please type or print): Signature of Authorizing Official: Date of Return Shipment: Signature

372

Mechanisms of rolling contact spalling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study aimed at analyzing the mechanical material interactions responsible for rolling contact spalling of the 440 C steel, high pressure oxygen turbopump bearings are presented. A coupled temperature displacement finite element analysis of the effects of friction heating under the contact is presented. The contact is modelled as a stationary, heat generating, 2 dimensional indent in an elastic perfectly plastic half-space with heat fluxes up to 8.6 x 10000 KW/m sq comparable to those generated in the bearing. Local temperatures in excess of 1000 C are treated. The calculations reveal high levels of residual tension after the contact is unloaded and cools. Efforts to promote Mode 2/Mode 3 fatigue crack growth under cyclic torsion in hardened 440 C steel are described. Spalls produced on 440 C steel by a 3 ball/rod rolling contact testing machine were studied with scanning microscopy. The shapes of the cyclic, stress strain hysteresis loops displayed by hardened 440 C steel in cyclic torsion at room temperature are defined for the plastic strain amplitudes encountered in rolling/sliding contact. Results of these analyses are discussed in detail.

Kumar, A. M.; Kulkarni, S. M.; Bhargava, V.; Hahn, G. T.; Rubin, C. A.

1987-01-01

373

Crane-Load Contact Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact impedance between the pins and the load. The instrument includes a signal generator and voltage-measuring circuitry, and is connected to the load and the base as shown in Figure 2. The output of the signal generator (typically having amplitude of the order of a volt) is applied to the load via a 50-resistor, and the voltage between the load and the pins is measured. When the load and the pins are not in contact, the impedance between them is relatively high, causing the measured voltage to exceed a threshold value. When the load and the pins are in contact, the impedance between them falls to a much lower value, causing the voltage to fall below the threshold value. The voltage-measuring circuitry turns on a red light-emitting diode (LED) to indicate the lower-voltage/ contact condition. Whenever the contact has been broken and the non-contact/higher-voltage condition has lasted for more than 2 ms, the voltage-measuring circuitry indicates this condition by blinking a green LED.

Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

2005-01-01

374

Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition.  

PubMed

Bacteria cooperate to form multicellular communities and compete against one another for environmental resources. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of bacterial competition mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems. Different CDI+ bacteria deploy a variety of toxins to inhibit neighboring cells and protect themselves from autoinhibition by producing specific immunity proteins. The genes encoding CDI toxin-immunity protein pairs appear to be exchanged between cdi loci and are often associated with other toxin-delivery systems in diverse bacterial species. CDI also appears to facilitate cooperative behavior between kin, suggesting that these systems may have other roles beyond competition. PMID:23473845

Ruhe, Zachary C; Low, David A; Hayes, Christopher S

2013-05-01

375

Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI)  

PubMed Central

Bacteria cooperate to form multicellular communities and compete against one another for environmental resources. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of bacterial competition mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems. Different CDI+ bacteria deploy a variety of toxins to inhibit neighboring cells and protect themselves from autoinhibition by producing specific immunity proteins. The genes encoding CDI toxin–immunity pairs appear to be exchanged between cdi loci and are often associated with other toxin-delivery systems in diverse bacteria. CDI also appears to facilitate cooperative behavior between kin, suggesting that these systems may have other roles beyond competition.

Ruhe, Zachary C.; Low, David A.; Hayes, Christopher S.

2013-01-01

376

The Kinematics of Contact and Grasp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinematics of contact describe the motion of a point of contact over the surfaces of two contacting objects in response to a relative motion of these objects. Using concepts from differential geometry, I derive a set of equations, called the contact equations, that embody this relationship. I employ the contact equations to design the following applications to be executed

David J. Montana

1988-01-01

377

Solar cell with back side contacts  

DOEpatents

A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

2013-12-24

378

Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

Burger, D. R.

1985-01-01

379

RF Sputtering of Gold Contacts On Niobium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable gold contacts are deposited on niobium by combination of RF sputtering and photolithography. Process results in structures having gold only where desired for electrical contact. Contacts are stable under repeated cycling from room temperature to 4.2 K and show room-temperature contact resistance as much as 40 percent below indium contacts made by thermalcompression bonding.

Barr, D. W.

1983-01-01

380

Schottky contacts to In2O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

n-type binary compound semiconductors such as InN, InAs, or In2O3 are especial because the branch-point energy or charge neutrality level lies within the conduction band. Their tendency to form a surface electron accumulation layer prevents the formation of rectifying Schottky contacts. Utilizing a reactive sputtering process in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, we demonstrate Schottky barrier diodes on indium oxide thin films with rectifying properties being sufficient for space charge layer spectroscopy. Conventional non-reactive sputtering resulted in ohmic contacts. We compare the rectification of Pt, Pd, and Au Schottky contacts on In2O3 and discuss temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of Pt/In2O3 in detail. The results substantiate the picture of oxygen vacancies being the source of electrons accumulating at the surface, however, the position of the charge neutrality level and/or the prediction of Schottky barrier heights from it are questioned.

von Wenckstern, H.; Splith, D.; Schmidt, F.; Grundmann, M.; Bierwagen, O.; Speck, J. S.

2014-04-01

381

Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions an...

J. Wei A. Erdemir G. Fenske

1999-01-01

382

National Cancer Institute - CPFP Intranet - Forms  

Cancer.gov

Skip navigation. CPFP Intranet Responsibilities Advisory Board Outside Activities Manuscripts, Abstracts and Presentations Ethics and Ethical Issues Forms and Schedules Travel Training Reports General Information Employment Resources Home Page Contact

383

Submacular Surgery Trials (SST). Forms Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: General Information; Initial Exam IV; Treatment SG; Follow-up Exam FV; Telephone Contact TL; Special Events; Photographic Materials; Reading Center; Masked Exam; Certification; Knowledge Assessment and Certification Request Forms; General Opthal...

1998-01-01

384

On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

1976-01-01

385

The nature of electrical interaction of Schottky contacts  

SciTech Connect

Electrical interaction between metal-semiconductor contacts combined in a diode matrix with a Schottky barrier manifests itself in an appreciable variation in their surface potentials and static current-volt-characteristics. The necessary condition for appearance of electrical interaction between such contacts consists in the presence of a peripheral electric field (a halo) around them; this field propagates to a fairly large distances (<30 {mu}m). The sufficient condition is the presence of regions where the above halos overlap. It has been shown that variation in the surface potential and the current-voltage characteristics of contacts occurs under the effect of the intrinsic electric field of the contact's periphery and also under the effect of an electric field at matrix periphery; the latter field is formed as a result of superposition of electric fields of halos which form its contacts. The degree of the corresponding effect is governed by the distance between contacts and by the total charge of the space charge regions for all contacts of the matrix: their number, sizes (diameter D{sub i,j}), concentration of doping impurities in the semiconductor N{sub D}, and physical nature of a metal-semiconductor system with a Schottky barrier (with the barrier height {phi}{sub b}). It is established that bringing the contacts closer leads to a relative decrease in the threshold value of the 'dead' zone in the forward current-voltage characteristics, an increase in the effective height of the barrier, and an insignificant increase in the nonideality factor. An increase in the total area of contacts (a total electric charge in the space charge region) in the matrix brings about an increase in the threshold value of the 'dead' zone, a relative decrease in the effective barrier height, and an insignificant increase in the ideality factor.

Torkhov, N. A., E-mail: trkf@mail.ru [Research Institute of Semiconductor Devices (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15

386

Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

387

Contact Information - Trans-NIH Angiogenesis Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events Home Agenda Speaker Biosketches Abstracts Logistics Contact Contact Information POINT OF CONTACT Capital Consulting Corporation is providing logistical support for this meeting. If you have questions or need assistance,

388

Mom, Can I Get Contact Lenses, Please?  

MedlinePLUS

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol Mom, Can I Get Contact Lenses, Please? Search the Consumer Updates Section Get ... back to top What About Young Kids and Contacts? "Eye care professionals typically don't recommend contacts ...

389

[Safety of food contact materials].  

PubMed

For materials and articles intended to come in contact with food - particularly for substances from plastics (e.g., monomers, additives) - there are comprehensive European regulations based on toxicological evaluations. Other food contact materials, e.g., paper and rubber, are covered by resolutions established by the European Council without additional evaluations, while in Germany substances from these materials are toxicologically evaluated by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) and are included in the "BfR recommendations". Some further areas of food contact materials are not regulated by European or by national regulations (e.g., substances from printing inks). Recently, new European regulations for recycled plastics intended for food contact and for active and intelligent materials and articles have been released. Future challenges are the risk assessment of contaminants and reaction products from the production of food contact substances, which may migrate into the food in only tiny amounts, and of complex mixtures of substances, e.g., of hormone-like substances (endocrine disruptors). PMID:20449553

Wölfle, D; Pfaff, K

2010-06-01

390

An analytical method for computing atomic contact areas in biomolecules.  

PubMed

We propose a new analytical method for detecting and computing contacts between atoms in biomolecules. It is based on the alpha shape theory and proceeds in three steps. First, we compute the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the union of spheres representing the molecule. In the second step, the Delaunay complex is filtered to derive the dual complex. Finally, contacts between spheres are collected. In this approach, two atoms i and j are defined to be in contact if their centers are connected by an edge in the dual complex. The contact areas between atom i and its neighbors are computed based on the caps formed by these neighbors on the surface of i; the total area of all these caps is partitioned according to their spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram on the surface of i. This method is analytical and its implementation in a new program BallContact is fast and robust. We have used BallContact to study contacts in a database of 1551 high resolution protein structures. We show that with this new definition of atomic contacts, we generate realistic representations of the environments of atoms and residues within a protein. In particular, we establish the importance of nonpolar contact areas that complement the information represented by the accessible surface areas. This new method bears similarity to the tessellation methods used to quantify atomic volumes and contacts, with the advantage that it does not require the presence of explicit solvent molecules if the surface of the protein is to be considered. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22965816

Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

2013-01-15

391

Oxytocin is a precursor of potent behaviourally active neuropeptides.  

PubMed

An oxytocin fragment which accumulated during the incubation of oxytocin with brain synaptic membranes was chemically characterized as the hexapeptide pGlu-Asn-Cys(Cys)-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 [( pGlu4, Cyt6]OXT-(4-9]. This peptide was approximately a hundred times more potent than oxytocin in attenuating memory consolidation as tested in a passive avoidance test situation; the dose-response relationship was bell-shaped. The des-glycinamide derivative [pGlu4, Cyt6]OXT-(4-8) was nearly as active, but showed a linear dose-response relationship. The data indicate that oxytoxin can act as precursor for potent behaviourally active neuropeptides. PMID:6653655

Burbach, J P; Bohus, B; Kovács, G L; Van Nispen, J W; Greven, H M; De Wied, D

1983-10-14

392

Potent Urea and Carbamate Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of inflammation mediators as well as xenobiotic transformations. Herein, we report the discovery of substituted ureas and carbamates as potent inhibitors of sEH. Some of these selective, competitive tightbinding inhibitors with nanomolar Ki values interacted stoichiometrically with the homogenous recombinant murine and human sEHs. These inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity of trans-stilbene oxide, which is active as the epoxide, but reduce cytotoxicity of leukotoxin, which is activated by epoxide hydrolase to its toxic diol. They also reduce toxicity of leukotoxin in vivo in mice and prevent symptoms suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome. These potent inhibitors may be valuable tools for testing hypotheses of involvement of diol and epoxide lipids in chemical mediation in vitro or in vivo systems.

Morisseau, Christophe; Goodrow, Marvin H.; Dowdy, Deanna; Zheng, Jiang; Greene, Jessica F.; Sanborn, James R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

1999-08-01

393

Potent, selective pyrimidinetrione-based inhibitors of MMP-13.  

PubMed

Using SAR from two related series of pyrimidinetrione-based inhibitors, compounds with potent MMP-13 inhibition and >100-fold selectivity against other MMPs have been identified. Despite high molecular weights, clogPs, and polar surface areas, the compounds are generally well absorbed and have excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) properties when dosed as sodium salts. In a rat fibrosis model, a compound from the series displayed no fibrosis at exposures many fold greater than its MMP-13 IC50. PMID:16942871

Reiter, Lawrence A; Freeman-Cook, Kevin D; Jones, Christopher S; Martinelli, Gary J; Antipas, Amy S; Berliner, Martin A; Datta, Kaushik; Downs, James T; Eskra, James D; Forman, Michael D; Greer, Elaine M; Guzman, Roberto; Hardink, Joel R; Janat, Fouad; Keene, Nandell F; Laird, Ellen R; Liras, Jennifer L; Lopresti-Morrow, Lori L; Mitchell, Peter G; Pandit, Jayvardhan; Robertson, Donald; Sperger, Diana; Vaughn-Bowser, Marcie L; Waller, Darra M; Yocum, Sue A

2006-11-15

394

Biaryl analogues of teriflunomide as potent DHODH inhibitors.  

PubMed

The structure-activity relationships of a novel series of biaryl dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors related to teriflunomide are disclosed. These biaryl derivatives were the result of structure-based design and proved to be potent DHODH inhibitors which in addition showed good antiproliferative activities on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and good efficacies in vivo in the rat adjuvant-induced-arthritis model. PMID:22078215

Erra, Montse; Moreno, Imma; Sanahuja, Jordi; Andrés, Miriam; Reinoso, Raquel F; Lozoya, Estrella; Pizcueta, Pilar; Godessart, Núria; Castro-Palomino, Julio Cesar

2011-12-15

395

Potent Urea and Carbamate Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of inflammation mediators as well as xenobiotic transformations. Herein, we report the discovery of substituted ureas and carbamates as potent inhibitors of sEH. Some of these selective, competitive tightbinding inhibitors with nanomolar Ki values interacted stoichiometrically with the homogenous recombinant murine and human sEHs. These inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity

Christophe Morisseau; Marvin H. Goodrow; Deanna Dowdy; Jiang Zheng; Jessica F. Greene; James R. Sanborn; Bruce D. Hammock

1999-01-01

396

Potent Protein Glycation Inhibition of Plantagoside in Plantago major Seeds  

PubMed Central

Plantagoside (5,7,4?,5?-tetrahydroxyflavanone-3?-O-glucoside) and its aglycone (5,7,3?,4?,5?-pentahydroxyflavanone), isolated from a 50% ethanol extract of Plantago major seeds (Plantaginaceae), were established to be potent inhibitors of the Maillard reaction. These compounds also inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products in proteins in physiological conditions and inhibited protein cross-linking glycation. These results indicate that P. major seeds have potential therapeutic applications in the prevention of diabetic complications.

Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Aradate, Tadashi; Kurosaka, Chihiro; Ubukata, Makoto; Kittaka, Shiho; Nakaminami, Yuri; Gamo, Kanae; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Mitsuharu

2014-01-01

397

In Search of Potent 5-HT6 Receptor Inverse Agonists.  

PubMed

A series of non-sulfonamide/non-sulfone derived potent 5-HT6 receptor inverse agonists has been disclosed. Representative compound 9 (Ki  = 14 nm) displayed selectivity against a set of family members as well as brain permeability 6 h post-oral administration. In addition, the separated enantiomers of compound 9 displayed difference in activity indicating the influence of chirality on potency. PMID:24406060

Hostetler, Greg; Dunn, Derek; McKenna, Beth Ann; Kopec, Karla; Chatterjee, Sankar

2014-06-01

398

A novel artemisinin-quinine hybrid with potent antimalarial activity.  

PubMed

Artemisinin was reduced to dihydroartemisinin and coupled to a carboxylic acid derivative of quinine via an ester linkage. This novel hybrid molecule had potent activity against the 3D7 and (drug-resistant) FcB1 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture. The activity was superior to that of artemisinin alone, quinine alone, or a 1:1 mixture of artemisinin and quinine. PMID:17482816

Walsh, John J; Coughlan, David; Heneghan, Nicola; Gaynor, Caroline; Bell, Angus

2007-07-01

399

Emergence of Recombinant Forms of HIV: Dynamics and Scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to accelerate the accumulation of favorable combinations of mutations renders recombination a potent force underlying the emergence of forms of HIV that escape multi-drug therapy and specific host immune responses. We present a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of the emergence of recombinant forms of HIV following infection with diverse viral genomes. Mimicking recent in vitro experiments,

Gajendra W. Suryavanshi; Narendra M. Dixit

2007-01-01

400

Contact technique for electrical circuitry  

SciTech Connect

In electrical circuitry, and particularly superconducting circuitry including Josephson tunnelling devices, it is often necessary to provide solder contacts to electrical lines, where the electical lines would be destroyed if there were interdiffusion between the lines and the solder. To avoid this problem, a laterally extending metallic layer is used as a diffusion barrier between the solder land and the electrical line which can be a superconducting line. The diffusion barrier is comprised of a refractory metal which has a first portion electrically contacting the solder land and a second, laterally displaced portion, electrically contacting the electrical line. An insulating protective layer on the diffusion barrier layer separates the solder land and the electrical line. In a specific embodiment, the superconducting electrical line is comprised of an alloy of lead while the diffusion barrier is comprised of niobium, and the solder alloy is a low melting point alloy, typically comprised of indium, bismuth, and tin.

Ames, I.; Anacker, W.; Grebe, K.R.; Kircher, C.J.

1982-02-16

401

Fitting contact lenses after keratoplasty.  

PubMed Central

Even when a clear corneal graft results from keratoplasty spectacles or contact lenses may still be needed for reasonable vision. In a series of patients treated at the contact lens department, Moorfields Eye Hospital, a transparent graft and functional improvement resulted in about 90 per cent of cases. One hundred of these successful cases are reviewed and the problems of achieving a reasonable visual acuity for the patients discussed. Of those who are needed a visual aid 41 preferred a corneal contact lens. The particular difficulties of fitting these are reviewed and the need for a flexible procedure to meet the varying circumstances emphasized. The methods adopted in the cases under review are described. In the 100 eyes visual acuities of 6/6 were attained in 29, 6/9 in 36, and 6/12 in 17.

Daniel, R.

1976-01-01

402

A naturally occurring naringenin derivative exerts potent bone anabolic effects by mimicking oestrogen action on osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Naringenin and its derivatives have been assessed in bone health for their oestrogen-‘like’ effects but low bioavailability impedes clinical potential. This study was aimed at finding a potent form of naringenin with osteogenic action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Osteoblast cultures were harvested from mouse calvaria to study differentiation by naringenin, isosakuranetin, poncirin, phloretin and naringenin-6-C-glucoside (NCG). Balb/cByJ ovariectomized (OVx) mice without or with osteopenia were given naringenin, NCG, 17?-oestradiol (E2) or parathyroid hormone (PTH). Efficacy was evaluated by bone microarchitecture using microcomputed tomography and determination of new bone formation by fluorescent labelling of bone. Plasma levels of NCG and naringenin were determined by HPLC. KEY RESULTS NCG stimulated osteoblast differentiation more potently than naringenin, while isosakuranetin, poncirin or phloretin had no effect. NCG had better oral bioavailability than naringenin. NCG increased the mRNA levels of oestrogen receptors (ERs) and bone morphogenetic protein (an ER responsive gene) in vivo, more than naringenin. In OVx mice, NCG treatment in a preventive protocol increased bone formation rate (BFR) and improved trabecular microarchitecture more than naringenin or E2. In osteopenic mice, NCG but not naringenin, in a therapeutic protocol, increased BFR and improved trabecular microarchitecture, comparable with effects of PTH treatment. Stimulatory effects of NCG on osteoblasts were abolished by an ER antagonist. NCG transactivated ER? but not ER?. NCG exhibited no uterine oestrogenicity unlike naringenin. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS NCG is a potent derivative of naringenin that has bone anabolic action through the activation of osteoblast ERs and exhibited substantial oral bioavailability.

Swarnkar, Gaurav; Sharan, Kunal; Siddiqui, Jawed A; Mishra, Jay Sharan; Khan, Kainat; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Gupta, Varsha; Rawat, Preeti; Maurya, Rakesh; Dwivedi, Anil K; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

2012-01-01

403

Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies.  

PubMed

Broadly neutralizing antibodies against highly variable viral pathogens are much sought after to treat or protect against global circulating viruses. Here we probed the neutralizing antibody repertoires of four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donors with remarkably broad and potent neutralizing responses and rescued 17 new monoclonal antibodies that neutralize broadly across clades. Many of the new monoclonal antibodies are almost tenfold more potent than the recently described PG9, PG16 and VRC01 broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and 100-fold more potent than the original prototype HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies largely recapitulate the neutralization breadth found in the corresponding donor serum and many recognize novel epitopes on envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120, illuminating new targets for vaccine design. Analysis of neutralization by the full complement of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies now available reveals that certain combinations of antibodies should offer markedly more favourable coverage of the enormous diversity of global circulating viruses than others and these combinations might be sought in active or passive immunization regimes. Overall, the isolation of multiple HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from several donors that, in aggregate, provide broad coverage at low concentrations is a highly positive indicator for the eventual design of an effective antibody-based HIV vaccine. PMID:21849977

Walker, Laura M; Huber, Michael; Doores, Katie J; Falkowska, Emilia; Pejchal, Robert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Ramos, Alejandra; Chan-Hui, Po-Ying; Moyle, Matthew; Mitcham, Jennifer L; Hammond, Phillip W; Olsen, Ole A; Phung, Pham; Fling, Steven; Wong, Chi-Huey; Phogat, Sanjay; Wrin, Terri; Simek, Melissa D; Koff, Wayne C; Wilson, Ian A; Burton, Dennis R; Poignard, Pascal

2011-09-22

404

Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

405

Direct-Write Contacts: Metallization and Contact Formation; Preprint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using direct-write approaches in photovoltaics for metallization and contact formation can significantly reduce the cost per watt of producing photovoltaic devices. Inks have been developed for various materials, such as Ag, Cu, Ni and Al, which can be us...

A. Miedaner C. J. Curtis M. F. A. M. van Hest R. Pasquarelli T. Kaydonova

2008-01-01

406

Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent Gajo); "Le crepuscule…

Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

1997-01-01

407

Rolling Contact Force Energy Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the forces at the wheel-rail contact is fundamental to estimate the consequences in terms of noise and vibration. The traditional use of strain gauges mounted on the wheel web and axle is not capable of determining the high-frequency content of the contact force. Measurements made on the rail are characterized by the spatial variability of input-output transfer functions which makes it difficult to estimate the contact force by simple inversion of the point frequency response function. In this study the problem of rolling contact force reconstruction has been approached through the following steps: (i) the track has been characterized precisely for a finite length by the analysis of the time series of several impacts supplied with an instrumented hammer by using an ARMAX model that proved to be capable of modelling the vertical dynamics of the rail up to 5 kHz; (ii) the response of the rail has been simulated with a random force acting on the system, and the variability of the transfer function has been taken into account by distributing the force on adjacent elements; (iii) the simulated response has been compared with the rail acceleration measured for the passage of several trains; (iv) the wheel-rail contact force has been estimated with a closed-loop algorithm. It has thus been possible to reconstruct the13octave power spectrum of contact forces with a simple and stable iterative procedure. Forces reconstructed from different sensors were found to be practically the same for a given wheel; forces from nominally similar wheels are statistically examined and partial results of comparisons made on different rolling stock are shown.

BRACCIALI, A.; CASCINI, G.

2000-09-01

408

Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review.  

PubMed

In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and, in 2005, it was permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up until then MI had been used only in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI, e.g. in painters, are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products, and analysed the concentration of MI by high-performance-liquid-chromatography the ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection. The use concentration ranged between 2 and 100 ppm. Repeated exposure to MI showed that many patients allergic to MI reacted to 50 ppm which is half the maximum permitted concentration of MI in cosmetics. The recent cases and prevalence studies on MI contact allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000 ppm. PMID:21777214

Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L; Johansen, J D

2011-12-01

409

Point contact silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction of a 22.2% efficient single-crystal silicon solar cell fabricated at Stanford University is described. The cell dimensions were 3 x 5 mm and 100 microns thick with a base lifetime of 500 microseconds. The cell featured light trapping between a texturized top surface and a reflective bottom surface, small point contact diffusions, alternating between n-type and p-type in a polka-dot pattern on the bottom surface, and a surface passivation on all surfaces between contact regions.

Swanson, R. M.

1986-01-01

410

Contacts of space--times  

SciTech Connect

The concept of contact between manifolds is applied to space--times of general relativity. For a given background space--time a contact approximation of second order is defined and interpreted both from the point of view of a metric pertubation and of a higher order tangent manifold. In the first case, an application to the high frequency gravitational wave hypothesis is suggested. In the second case, a constant curvature tangent bundle is constructed and suggested as a means to define a ten parameter local space--time symmetry.

Maia, M.D.

1981-03-01

411

Morphology and the Strength of Intermolecular Contact in Protein Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strengths of intermolecular contacts (macrobonds) in four lysozyme crystals were estimated based on the strengths of individual intermolecular interatomic interaction pairs. The periodic bond chain of these macrobonds accounts for the morphology of protein crystals as shown previously. Further in this paper, the surface area of contact, polar coordinate representation of contact site, Coulombic contribution on the macrobond strength, and the surface energy of the crystal have been evaluated. Comparing location of intermolecular contacts in different polymorphic crystal modifications, we show that these contacts can form a wide variety of patches on the molecular surface. The patches are located practically everywhere on this surface except for the concave active site. The contacts frequently include water molecules, with specific intermolecular hydrogen-bonds on the background of non-specific attractive interactions. The strengths of macrobonds are also compared to those of other protein complex systems. Making use of the contact strengths and taking into account bond hydration we also estimated crystal-water interfacial energies for different crystal faces.

Matsuura, Yoshiki; Chernov, Alexander A.

2002-01-01

412

Caterpillar dermatitis revisited: lepidopterism after contact with oak processionary caterpillar  

PubMed Central

Caterpillar dermatitis (lepidopterism) is a disease that is caused by butterflies, moths and their caterpillars. Clinical signs and symptoms vary from itchy skin lesions to conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, malaise and anaphylactic reactions. We present the case of two brothers with typical skin lesions of leptidopterism. The older boy showed skin lesions after playing with caterpillars in the garden, whereas his younger brother was affected without direct contact to the caterpillars but only by playing with his brother. As the mother could show two caterpillars, lepidopterism could easily be diagnosed. Under a local therapy with a medium potent corticosteroid cream and a non-sedating orally administered antihistamine, all skin lesions as well as itching disappeared within 1 week.

Muller, Cornelia S L; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Pfohler, Claudia

2011-01-01

413

Effects of Pressure-Dependent Contact Resistivity on Contact Interfacial Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate contact pressure needs to be applied at electrical contacts to overcome contact separation force due to current constriction effects. In the railgun operation, the initial contact pressure is provided by the interference pressure between the armature and the rail. As the magnetic field is established in the bore, the electromagnetic force provides the contact pressure, as the initial contact

K.-T. Hsieh; S. Satapathy; M.-T. Hsieh

2009-01-01

414

Contact Geometry of Hyperbolic Equations of Generic Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the contact geometry of scalar second order hyperbolic equations in the plane of generic type. Following a derivation of parametrized contact-invariants to distinguish Monge-Ampère (class 6-6), Goursat (class 6-7) and generic (class 7-7) hyperbolic equations, we use Cartan's equivalence method to study the generic case. An intriguing feature of this class of equations is that every generic hyperbolic equation admits at most a nine-dimensional contact symmetry algebra. The nine-dimensional bound is sharp: normal forms for the contact-equivalence classes of these maximally symmetric generic hyperbolic equations are derived and explicit symmetry algebras are presented. Moreover, these maximally symmetric equations are Darboux integrable. An enumeration of several submaximally symmetric (eight and seven-dimensional) generic hyperbolic structures is also given.

The, Dennis

2008-08-01

415

Contact pattern-induced pair potentials for protein fold recognition.  

PubMed

The protein structure prediction problem is considered as a problem of fitting a sequence into a folding motif. We focus on finding an approximative structure representation providing the best preferences or contact energies. A 2-D structure description in the form of specific contact matrices is used. The main features of our approach are (i) only contacts involved in characteristic interaction patterns are considered, (ii) amino acid pair preferences or contact energies related to these interaction patterns are derived from the structural database and (iii) from the evaluation of individual structure elements, hypotheses on the alignment of a new sequence to a given structure may be derived. Results are demonstrated in particular to examples of the blue copper proteins. PMID:7567919

Selbig, J

1995-04-01

416

Crack face contact for a hexahedral-based XFEM formulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking into account arbitrary crack geometries, crack closure generally occurs independently of the load case. As the standard eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) does not prevent unphysical crack face penetration in this case, a formulation allowing for crack face contact is proposed in terms of a penalty formulation for normal contact. The discretization is developed for non-planar cracks intersecting hexahedral elements in an arbitrary manner. Typical problems of many crack face contact implementations within the XFEM, like locking or the introduction of additional degrees of freedom, are avoided by projecting the contact contribution onto the hexahedral element nodes. The method is tested by means of suitable numerical examples, finally presenting an application in form of a multiscale setup with arbitrarily arranged micro cracks in the vicinity of a macro crack front.

Mueller-Hoeppe, D. S.; Wriggers, P.; Loehnert, S.

2012-06-01

417

Ball bearing lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of ball bearings is examined, taking into account rollers and the wheel in the early civilizations, the development of early forms of rolling-element bearings in the classical civilizations, the Middle Ages, the Industrial Revolution, the emergence of the precision ball bearing, scientific studies of contact mechanics and rolling friction, and the past fifty years. An introduction to ball bearings is presented, and aspects of ball bearing mechanics are explored. Basic characteristics of lubrication are considered along with lubrication equations, the lubrication of rigid ellipsoidal solids, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. Attention is given to the theoretical results for fully flooded elliptical hydrodynamic contacts, the theoretical results for starved elliptical contacts, experimental investigations, the elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts for materials of low elastic modulus, the film thickness for different regimes of fluid-film lubrication, and applications.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

418

Thermal and electrical contact conductance studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prediction of electrical and thermal contact resistance for pressed, nominally flat contacts is complicated by the large number of variables which influence contact formation. This is reflected in experimental results as a wide variation in contact resistances, spanning up to six orders of magnitude. A series of experiments were performed to observe the effects of oxidation and surface roughness on contact resistance. Electrical contact resistance and thermal contact conductance from 4 to 290 K on OFHC Cu contacts are reported. Electrical contact resistance was measured with a 4-wire DC technique. Thermal contact conductance was determined by steady-state longitudinal heat flow. Corrections for the bulk contribution ot the overall measured resistance were made, with the remaining resistance due solely to the presence of the contact.

Vansciver, S. W.; Nilles, M.

1985-01-01

419

Discovery of a Potent and Orally Bioavailable CCR2 and CCR5 Dual Antagonist  

PubMed Central

This report describes the discovery of a potent, orally bioavailable CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist which, while optimized for CCR2 potency, also had potent CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) activity.

2009-01-01

420

Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

Dieterich, J. H.; Kilgore, B. D.

1996-01-01

421

Discovery of INCB9471, a Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable CCR5 Antagonist with Potent Anti-HIV-1 Activity  

PubMed Central

To identify a CCR5 antagonist as an HIV-1 entry inhibitor, we designed a novel series of indane derivatives based on conformational considerations. Modification on the indane ring led to the discovery of compound 22a (INCB9471) that exhibited high affinity for CCR5, potent anti-HIV-1 activity, high receptor selectivity, excellent oral bioavailability, and a tolerated safety profile. INCB9471 has entered human clinical trials.

2010-01-01

422

Contact Levelmeter for Cryogenic Liquid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The operating principle and design of a contact levelmeter for cryogenic liquid are described. The basis of the levelmeter if a 500 omega metallized resistor. A superconductive wire with the 20 mu m diameter and 200 mm length, wound on the resi;tor, is us...

V. N. Pavlov Y. Konichek

1977-01-01

423

Cosmic Commons: Contact and Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we Homo sapiens on planet Earth prepare for possible contact with extraterrestrial life (ET)—especially extraterrestrial intelligent (ETI) life—we need to consider ethics. What will be the ethical posture we adopt as Earth meets space? This article advocates an ethic of praxis based upon the concept of a Cosmic Commons. Intelligent extraterrestrial beings, from their experiences in biotic and abiotic

John Hart

2010-01-01

424

Contact technique for electrical circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In electrical circuitry, and particularly superconducting circuitry including Josephson tunnelling devices, it is often necessary to provide solder contacts to electrical lines, where the electical lines would be destroyed if there were interdiffusion between the lines and the solder. To avoid this problem, a laterally extending metallic layer is used as a diffusion barrier between the solder land and the

I. Ames; W. Anacker; K. R. Grebe; C. J. Kircher

1982-01-01

425

Interdigitated back contact solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interdigitated back contact solar cell (IBC cell) was shown to possess a number of advantages for silicon solar cells, which operate at high concentration. A detailed discussion of the factors which need to be considered in the analysis of semiconducting devices which utilize heavily doped regions such as those which are found in solar cells in both the emitter

M. S. Lundstrom; R. J. Schwartz

1980-01-01

426

Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management. PMID:24267417

Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

2014-01-01

427

NASA Space Grant Contacts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication provides an overview of two NASA funding programs, the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program (Space Grant) and the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCOR). A listing of contacts for these programs in all 50 states (20 states for EPSCOR), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico is provided, as well as a link to the Space Grant homepage.

428

NCI at Frederick: Contact Information  

Cancer.gov

The BDP is developing clinical and non-clinical supplies of rhIL-15 and rhIL-7. If you would like more information about obtaining supplies or manufacturing and testing documentation (such as a certificate of analysis) please contact Dr.

429

Ultraviolet disinfection of contact lenses.  

PubMed

To evaluate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a method of disinfecting contact lenses and their storage solutions, we contaminated soft lenses (Bausch & Lomb Optima 38), rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses (Oxyflow F-30), and their storage solutions with three common bacteria. Escherichia coli (E.c.), Staphylococcus epidermis (S.e.), and Serratia marcescens (S.m.). The storage solutions used were saline solution and RGP conditioning solution. We determined the exposure times to 253.7-nm wavelength UV radiation necessary to disinfect the contact lenses and solutions. The decimal reduction values (D values) found for UV radiation were 10 to 200 hundred times shorter than reported for currently available disinfection systems. For E.c., sterilization was attained after 100 s of exposure. For S.e. and S.m., sterilization occurred after 300 s of exposure. Different contact lens solutions transmit UV radiation to various degrees, with saline solution passing more than 90% of the UV radiation. Thus, our results indicate that UV radiation is an effective and rapid method of disinfecting contact lenses and their storage solutions. PMID:8247487

Harris, M G; Fluss, L; Lem, A; Leong, H

1993-10-01

430

Discovery of the Highly Potent Fluoroquinolone-Based Benzothiazolyl-4-thiazolidinone Hybrids as Antibacterials.  

PubMed

A new series of fluoroquinolone-based benzothiazolyl-4-thiazolidinone hybrids has been yielded via sulfated tungstate-promoted highly accelerated N-formylation at a piperazine residue of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin entities. The formylated fluoroquinolone moieties were then coupled with substituted 2-aminobenzothiazoles, which were generated from their respective para-substituted amines to form corresponding Schiff base intermediates. The Schiff bases were then treated with thioglycolic acid to equip a new class of 4-thiazolidinones to be analyzed for their antibacterial effects against two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial strains and were found highly potent with lowest Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 1-2 ?g/mL, that is, more potent than control drugs ciprofloxacin (3.12-6.25 ?g/mL). Initial outcomes provided for these novel molecular systems will aid researchers to design and develop new antibacterial drugs. The structural assignments of the new products were done on the basis of FT-IR, (1) H NMR and (13) C NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. PMID:24524270

Patel, Rahul V; Park, Se Won

2014-07-01

431

Structural Permutation of Potent Cytotoxin, Polytheonamide B: Discovery of Cytotoxic Peptide with Altered Activity  

PubMed Central

Polytheonamide B (1) is an ion-channel forming natural peptide with a d,l-alternating 48 amino acid sequence, which is an exceedingly potent cytotoxin. We recently designed and synthesized a simplified dansylated polytheonamide mimic 2, in which six amino acid residues were modified from 1, and demonstrated that 2 emulated the functions of 1. Here we report a comprehensive structure–activity relationship study of substructures of 2. A unified synthetic strategy was developed for highly automated syntheses of 13 peptide sequences of 27 to 39 amino acid residues, and the artificial 37-mer peptide 6 was discovered to be significantly more toxic than the other 12 compounds toward P388 mouse leukemia cells (IC50 = 3.7 nM). Ion exchange activity experiments of 6 using the liposome and P388 cells both demonstrated that 6 did not possess ion-channel activity, strongly suggesting that 6 exerted its potent cytoxicity through a distinct mode of action from 1 and 2.

2012-01-01

432

Virtual screening and structure-based discovery of indole acylguanidines as potent ?-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors.  

PubMed

Proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by ?-secretase (BACE1) is a key step in generating the N-terminal of ?-amyloid (A?), which further forms into amyloid plaques that are considered as the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Inhibitors of BACE1 can reduce the levels of A? and thus have a therapeutic potential for treating the disease. We report here the identification of a series of small molecules bearing an indole acylguanidine core structure as potent BACE1 inhibitors. The initial weak fragment was discovered by virtual screening, and followed with a hit-to-lead optimization. With the aid of co-crystal structures of two discovered inhibitors (compounds 19 and 25) with BACE1, we explored the SAR around the indole and aryl groups, and obtained several BACE1 inhibitors about 1,000-fold more potent than the initial fragment hit. Accompanying the lead optimization, a previously under-explored sub-site opposite the flap loop was redefined as a potential binding site for later BACE1 inhibitor design. PMID:23681056

Zou, Yiquan; Li, Li; Chen, Wuyan; Chen, Tiantian; Ma, Lanping; Wang, Xin; Xiong, Bing; Xu, Yechun; Shen, Jingkang

2013-01-01

433

Ohmic contacts for wide bandgap semiconductors: Processing, properties and mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable Ohmic contacts are essential for reliable operation of wide bandgap semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Such contacts have been made to molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown n-type and p-type ZnSe on (100) semi-insulating GaAs substrates and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown p-type GaN on (0001) sapphire substrates. Various metals have been deposited by thermal evaporation and annealing techniques at different temperatures. Chemical etching and cleaning, plasma treatment using reactive ion etching (RIE), and cryogenic treatment in liquid nitrogen have been studied. Ion implantation was also performed to obtain highly doped materials. The electrical characteristics for the contacts were examined by the current versus voltage data and the specific contact resistance was determined by use of the transmission line method (TLM) for II-VI n-type and p-type ZnSe and the circular transmission line method (c-TLM) for III-V p-type GaN, respectively. Contacts formed by In/Au to n-type ZnSe and Cu/Au to p-type ZnSe showed the lowest specific contact resistance values of 1.04 x 10--2 Ocm2 and 1.67 x 10--1 Ocm 2, respectively. A nitrogen plasma treatment of the ZnSe surface prior to metallization was proven to lower the contact resistance to p-type ZnSe. Two different current flow mechanisms involving thermionic emission and thermionic field emission were shown for the Cu/Au contact to low doped p-ZnSe (1 x 1017 cm--3) and three involving thermionic emission, thermionic field emission, and tunneling for the Mg/Au contact to highly doped n-ZnSe (1.15 x 1019 cm--3). MOCVD grown p-type Mg-doped GaN with hole concentration of 1.41 x 1017 cm--3 was used to study Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN. The effects of the cryogenic process on improving Ohmic behavior (I-V linearity) and reducing the specific contact resistance were investigated and may result from a combination of the improved surface morphology and the recrystallizing of new compounds such as NiO and Au:Pd solid solution. The I-V-T measurement for both contacts had similar behavior and closely fit thermionic field emission current mechanisms with little deviation but dominant transport mechanisms were not clear since the contacts were practically Ohmic. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Park, Mi-Ran

434

Contact Eczema Caused by True Teak (Tectona Grandis)  

PubMed Central

An epidemiological study of occupational contact eczema in a furniture factory is presented. The localization, distribution, and clinical features of the skin lesions were characteristic of contact eczema caused by a sensitizing or irritating dust. True teak—Tectona grandis—was the cause of the skin condition. That teak is a fairly potent sensitizer and also contains primary irritants is fully confirmed by the present study. About half the employees who were heavily exposed to teak dust suffered from eczema and/or severe itching. Only 8% of those with slight exposure to teak dust experienced skin symptoms. Patch tests with native teak dust moistened with water were applied on 10 “controls” and 112 workers who were exposed to teak in various working procedures. Moistened teak dust produced toxic reactions in 20·5%, while native teak dust did not have primary irritant effects and was, therefore, considered to be the substance of choice for patch testing; 18·7% of the workers showed an allergic skin reaction to native teak dust. The diagnosis of allergic contact eczema was made in 12·5%, and 6·2% were considered to have latent allergy. Primary irritant (contact) eczema was considered to be present in four individuals who had experienced acute, transitory, eczematous eruptions during the hot part of the summer when they perspired freely. In these cases the patch test to native teak dust was negative. Desensitization or “hardening” was observed in four workers. In most cases the skin lesions were not severe enough to cause sickness absence. The cause of the relatively high percentage of sensitization to teak among the workers in the factory is discussed. The importance of suitable prophylactic measures is stressed.

Krogh, H. K.

1962-01-01

435

Mevinolin: A Highly Potent Competitive Inhibitor of Hydroxymethylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase and a Cholesterol-Lowering Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mevinolin, a fungal metabolite, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The structure and absolute configuration of mevinolin and its open acid form, mevinolinic acid, were determined by a combination of physical techniques. Mevinolin was shown to be 1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-beta , delta -dihydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-8-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-1-naphthaleneheptanoic acid delta -lactone. Mevinolin in the hydroxy acid form, mevinolinic acid, is a potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme

A. W. Alberts; J. Chen; G. Kuron; V. Hunt; J. Huff; C. Hoffman; J. Rothrock; M. Lopez; H. Joshua; E. Harris; A. Patchett; R. Monaghan; S. Currie; E. Stapley; G. Albers-Schonberg; O. Hensens; J. Hirshfield; K. Hoogsteen; J. Liesch; J. Springer

1980-01-01

436

Applying a multitarget rational drug design strategy: the first set of modulators with potent and balanced activity toward dopamine D3 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase.  

PubMed

Combining computer-assisted drug design and synthetic efforts, we generated compounds with potent and balanced activities toward both D3 dopamine receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme. By concurrently modulating these targets, our compounds hold great potential toward exerting a disease-modifying effect on nicotine addiction and other forms of compulsive behavior. PMID:24691497

De Simone, Alessio; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Albani, Clara; Tarozzo, Glauco; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele; Cavalli, Andrea; Bottegoni, Giovanni

2014-05-18

437

Increased formation of the potent oxidant peroxynitrite in the airways of asthmatic patients is associated with induction of nitric oxide synthase: effect of inhaled glucocorticoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxynitrite is a potent oxidant formed by the rapid reaction of the free radicals ni- tric oxide (NO) and superoxide. It causes airway hy- perresponsiveness and airway epithelial damage, en- hances inflammatory cell recruitment, and inhibits pulmonary surfactant. Asthma is characterized by in- creased airway hyperresponsiveness, airway epithelial shedding, and inflammation. We examined the pro- duction of peroxynitrite and the

DINA SALEH; PIERRE ERNST; SAM LIM; PETER J. BARNES; ADEL GIAID

438

Computing Contact Stresses In Gear Teeth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved method of computing contact stresses in gear teeth accounts for complicating effects like those of static and sliding friction. Provides iterative procedure for determination of contact region and nodal contact forces along with contact stresses. Method based on equations and computational procedure incorporating these effects routinely.

Oswald, Fred B.; Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.

1995-01-01

439

Cytokines and Chemokines in Irritant Contact Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Irritant contact dermatitis is a result of activated innate immune response to various external stimuli and consists of complex interplay which involves skin barrier disruption, cellular changes, and release of proinflammatory mediators. In this review, we will focus on key cytokines and chemokines involved in the pathogenesis of irritant contact dermatitis and also contrast the differences between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.

Lee, Haur Yueh; Stieger, Marco; Yawalkar, Nikhil

2013-01-01

440

Annealing nano-to-micro contacts for improved contact resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-to-micro electrical contact resistance between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and larger-scale silicon systems are investigated using both low-and high-power annealing techniques. Carbon nanotubes locally synthesized and suspended between two silicon microbridges are used as the test platform. The annealing technique involves Joule heating of either the CNT\\/silicon system or the secondary silicon bridge only at low or high input power for

Heather Chiamori; Xiaoming Wu; Xishan Guo; Bao Quoc Ta; Liwei Lin

2010-01-01

441

Phenomena resulting from hypergolic contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding hypergolic ignition is critical for the safe and successful operation of hypergolic engines. The complex coupling of physical and chemical processes during hypergolic ignition complicates analysis of the event. Presently, hypergolic ignition models cannot simulate liquid contact and mixing or liquid-phase chemical reactions, and rely on experimental results for validation. In some cases, chemical kinetics of hypergolic propellants and fluid dynamics of droplet collisions couple to produce unexpected phenomena. This research investigates contact between droplets and pools of liquid hypergolic propellants under various conditions in order to investigate these liquid-phase reactions and categorize the resulting interaction. During this experiment, 142 drop tests were performed to investigate phenomena associated with hypergolic contact of various propellants. A drop of fuel impacted a semi-ellipsoidal pool of oxidizer at varying impact velocities and impact geometries. The temperature, pressure, ambient atmosphere, and propellant quality were all controlled during the experiment, as these factors have been shown to influence hypergolic ignition delay. Three distinct types of impacts were identified: explosions, bounces, and splashes. The impact type was found to depend on the impact Weber number and impact angle. Splashes occurred above a critical Weber number of 250, regardless of impact angle. Explosions occurred for Weber numbers less than 250, and for impact angles less than seven degrees. If the impact angle was greater than seven degrees then the test resulted in a bounce. Literature related to explosions induced by hypergolic contact was reviewed. Explosions were observed to occur inconsistently, a feature that has never been addressed. Literature related to non-reactive splashing, bouncing, and coalescence was reviewed for insight into the explosion phenomenon. I propose that the dependence of impact angle on the transition between explosion and bounce impacts is partially responsible for the explosion inconsistency in literature. No explosions were observed for the alternative hypergolic propellants tested, which could be due to lower gas production rates or the absence of reactive intermediate species present in certain propellant chemistry. In either case, the fluid dynamics of the impact was consistent, but the chemical kinetics of the propellants were different, and presumably, the two did not couple as strongly. Based on the results, explosions appear to be a mixing driven process caused by the coupling between the fluid dynamics of the impact and the chemical kinetics of the propellants. Upon contact, the fuel drop merges with the oxidizer pool. Liquid-phase neutralization reactions produce enough heat to vaporize propellants, which then accumulate within a gas pocket inside the pool. Exothermic gas-phase reactions result in an explosion originating from within the propellant pool. In addition to investigation of the explosion phenomenon, high-speed videos were taken of the first microseconds of hypergolic contact to observe the liquid-phase chemical reactions in detail. The delay between contact and first gas production was measured to be between 20 and 200 microseconds for monomethylhydrazine and red fuming nitric acid. This delay provides insight into the speed of the liquid-phase chemical reactions, and has helped to calibrate liquid-based ignition models. This research has categorized different interactions resulting from hypergolic contact, and found that the impact Weber number and impact angle were the controlling parameters. I propose that slight changes in the impact angle went unobserved by previous researchers and were partially responsible for the explosion inconsistency in literature. Microsecond scale time delays were measured between contact and gas production and have been used to calibrate previously unknown rate constants of liquid-phase chemical reactions.

Forness, Jordan M.

442

Improved Electrical Contact For Dowhhole Drilling Networks  

DOEpatents

An electrical contact system for transmitting information across tool joints while minimizing signal reflections that occur at the tool joints includes a first electrical contact comprising an annular resilient material. An annular conductor is embedded within the annular resilient material and has a surface exposed from the annular resilient material. A second electrical contact is provided that is substantially equal to the first electrical contact. Likewise, the second electrical contact has an annular resilient material and an annular conductor. The two electrical contacts configured to contact one another such that the annular conductors of each come into physical contact. The annular resilient materials of each electrical contact each have dielectric characteristics and dimensions that are adjusted to provide desired impedance to the electrical contacts.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT)

2005-08-16

443

Design of potent substrate-analogue inhibitors of canine renin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a systematic study of structure-activity relationships, we designed potent renin inhibitors for use in dog models. In assays against dog plasma renin at neutral pH, we found that, as in previous studies of rat renin inhibitors, the structure at the P2 position appears to be important for potency. The substitution of Val for His at this position increases potency by one order of magnitude. At the P3 position, potency appears to depend on a hydrophobic side chain that does not necessarily have to be aromatic. Our results also support the approach of optimizing potency in a renin inhibitor by introducing a moiety that promotes aqueous solubility (an amino group) at the C-terminus of the substrate analogue. In the design of potent dog plasma renin inhibitors, the influence of the transition-state residue 4(S)-amino-3(S)-hydroxy-5-cyclohexylpentanoic acid (ACHPA)-commonly used as a substitute for the scissile-bond dipeptide to boost potency-is not obvious, and appears to be sequence dependent. The canine renin inhibitor Ac-paF-Pro-Phe-Val-statine-Leu-Phe-paF-NH2 (compound 15; IC50 of 1.7 nM against dog plasma renin at pH 7.4; statine, 4(S)-amino-3(S)-hydroxy-6-methylheptanoic acid; paF, para-aminophenylalanine) had a potent hypotensive effect when infused intravenously into conscious, sodium-depleted, normotensive dogs. Also, compound 15 concurrently inhibited plasma renin activity and had a profound diuretic effect.

Hui, K. Y.; Siragy, H. M.; Haber, E.

1992-01-01

444

Issues of contact etching and pre-treatment in Schottky contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the process dependence of contact resistance of silicide\\/n+ Si and silicide\\/p+ Si contact. Three processes such as contact etching, Si treatment and pre-treatment are investigated with contact resistance point of view. Only silicide\\/p+ Si contact resistance has been changed as etching time of contact increases while silicide\\/n+ Si contact resistance has been regularly maintained. We have

Haksun Lee; Kyoungsub Shin; Nammyun Cho; Gyungjin Min; Changjin Kang; Woosung Han; Jootae Moon

2009-01-01

445

16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. 1500.133 Section... Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when...

2010-01-01

446

16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. 1500.133 Section... Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling. (a) Extremely flammable contact adhesives, also known as contact bonding cements, when...

2009-01-01

447

78 FR 32710 - Proposed Collection of Information: Assignment Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the form(s) and instructions should be directed to Alberta A. Holloway, Acting Manager, Judgment Fund Branch, 3700 East West Highway, Room 6E15, Hyattsville, MD 20782, (202)...

2013-05-31

448

Method and apparatus for producing co-current fluid contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved packing system and method are disclosed wherein a packing section includes a liquid distributor and a separator placed above the distributor so that gas rising through the liquid distributor contacts liquid in the distributor, forming a gas-liquid combination which rises in co-current flow to the separator. Liquid is collected in the separator, from which gas rises. 13 figs.

Trutna

1997-01-01

449

Interdigitated rear contact solar cells with amorphous silicon heterojunction emitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin layers of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon have been used as the emitter in a processing scheme to form heterojunction interdigitated back contact (HJ-IBC) solar cells. Such processing involved depositing the emitter across the wafer, and subsequent patterning to define the base and emitter regions. Average cell efficiencies of 14.6% have been achieved (with a best cell efficiency of

B. J. O'Sullivan; T. Bearda; Y. Qiu; J. Robbelein; C. Gong; N. E. Posthuma; I. Gordon; J. Poortmans

2010-01-01

450

Method and apparatus for producing co-current fluid contact  

DOEpatents

An improved packing system and method are disclosed wherein a packing section includes a liquid distributor and a separator placed above the distributor so that gas rising through the liquid distributor contacts liquid in the distributor, forming a gas-liquid combination which rises in co-current flow to the separator. Liquid is collected in the separator, from which gas rises. 13 figs.

Trutna, W.R.

1997-12-09

451

Method and apparatus for producing co-current fluid contact  

DOEpatents

An improved packing system and method are disclosed wherein a packing section includes a liquid distributor and a separator placed above the distributor so that gas rising through the liquid distributor contacts liquid in the distributor, forming a gas-liquid combination which rises in co-current flow to the separator. Liquid is collected in the separator, from which gas rises.

Trutna, William R. (6 Postwood, Austin, TX 78738-1503)

1997-01-01

452

Back contacts for silicon-on-ceramic solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grooved substrate exposes back surface of photovoltaic cells, allowing dopant diffusion into surface and electrical contact. When substrate is coated successively with carbon and molten silicon, polycrystalline-silicon bridges form over grooves, but leave channels open. Best adhesion results when substrate grooves run perpendicular to direction of liquid-silicon layer and are closely spaced.

Schuller, T. L.; Marquardt, S.

1981-01-01

453

BASOPHILIC LEUKOCYTES IN ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS  

PubMed Central

A variety of cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in experimental animals include a prominent infiltrate of basophilic leukocytes. This form of reactivity has been designated cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity and is favored when sensitization to several types of antigen is accomplished without the use of complete Freund's adjuvant. A similar type of hypersensitivity response was sought in man using morphologic techniques which permit identification of basophilic leukocytes. Eight individuals with allergic contact dermatitis to a variety of allergens were studied and six of these developed typical contact reactions with erythema, edema, and epidermal vesicles. The microscopic findings in 3-day biopsies from these individuals differed significantly from classic descriptions of tuberculin hypersensitivity and showed, in addition to mononuclear cells and the characteristic epidermal changes, a substantial infiltrate of basophilic leukocytes and evidence of altered vascular permeability with vascular compaction, dermal edema, and fibrin deposition. Serial biopsies from one individual permitted analysis of the microscopic pathology as it unfolded at successive intervals after patch test. The initial lesion consisted of perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes; this was followed by an influx of basophils and, subsequently, of eosinophils. These findings associate contact allergy in man with the parallel reactions of cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity in animals and provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of the cellular immune response. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that interaction between sensitized lymphocytes and antigen, at a local test site, is responsible for the attraction of basophils. They also directly implicate the clotting system in delayed-type reactions and suggest the possibility of a synergistic relationship between cellular immunity and reactions mediated by basophil-bound, homocytotrophic antibody.

Dvorak, Harold F.; Mihm, Martin C.

1972-01-01

454

Discovery of a highly potent series of TLR7 agonists.  

PubMed

The discovery of a series of highly potent and novel TLR7 agonist interferon inducers is described. Structure-activity relationships are presented, along with pharmacokinetic studies of a lead molecule from this series of N9-pyridylmethyl-8-oxo-3-deazapurine analogues. A rationale for the very high potency observed is offered. An investigation of the clearance mechanism of this class of compounds in rat was carried out, resulting in aldehyde oxidase mediated oxidation being identified as a key component of the high clearance observed. A possible solution to this problem is discussed. PMID:21885277

Jones, Peter; Pryde, David C; Tran, Thien-Duc; Adam, Fiona M; Bish, Gerwyn; Calo, Frederick; Ciaramella, Guiseppe; Dixon, Rachel; Duckworth, Jonathan; Fox, David N A; Hay, Duncan A; Hitchin, James; Horscroft, Nigel; Howard, Martin; Laxton, Carl; Parkinson, Tanya; Parsons, Gemma; Proctor, Katie; Smith, Mya C; Smith, Nicholas; Thomas, Amy

2011-10-01

455

Trovafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone with potent activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

An in vitro study of the activity of 15 antibacterial agents against 202 recent pediatric isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from urban and rural Nebraska and rural Kentucky identified trovafloxacin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin as the most active agents and equally active against both penicillin-susceptible and--resistant strains. In contrast, six beta-lactams, three macrolides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were less active overall, especially against penicillin-intermediate and--resistant strains. Trovafloxacin inhibited all strains at a concentration of < or = 0.25 micrograms/ml and was 8- to 16-fold more potent than ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin.

Thomson, K S; Chartrand, S A; Sanders, C C; Block, S L

1997-01-01

456

Synthesis of novel compounds as new potent tyrosinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

In the present paper, we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a new series of azo compounds with different groups (1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, and N,N-dimethylaniline) and trifluoromethoxy and fluoro substituents in the scaffold. All synthesized compounds (5a-5f) showed the most potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibition (IC?? values in the range of 4.39 ± 0.76-1.71 ± 0.49?µM), comparable to the kojic acid, as reference standard inhibitor. All the novel compounds were characterized by FT-IR, ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, and elemental analysis. PMID:24260737

Hamidian, Hooshang

2013-01-01

457

Trigocherrierin A, a potent inhibitor of chikungunya virus replication.  

PubMed

Trigocherrierin A (1) and trigocherriolide E (2), two new daphnane diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs), and six chlorinated analogues, trigocherrins A, B, F and trigocherriolides A-C, were isolated from the leaves of Trigonostemon cherrieri. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry, extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. These compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication. Among the DDOs isolated, compound 1 exhibited the strongest anti-CHIKV activity (EC?? = 0.6 ± 0.1 µM, SI = 71.7). PMID:24662077

Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan; Dumontet, Vincent; Litaudon, Marc

2014-01-01

458

Discovery of Potent Dual PPAR? Agonists/CB1 Ligands  

PubMed Central

This letter describes the synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of dual ligands targeting the cannabinoid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). These compounds were obtained from fusing the pharmacophores of fibrates and the diarylpyrazole rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor antagonist. They are the first examples of dual compounds with nanomolar affinity for both PPAR? and cannabinoid receptors. Besides, lead compound 2 proved to be CB1 selective. Unexpectedly, the phenol intermediates tested were equipotent (compound 1 as compared to 2) or even more potent (compound 3 as compared with 4). This discovery opens the way to design new dual ligands.

2011-01-01

459

Bakuchiol derivatives as novel and potent cytotoxic agents: a report.  

PubMed

A library of 28 compounds comprising of acyl, amino, halo, nitro, styryl and cyclized derivatives of bakuchiol have been evaluated against a panel of eight human cancer cell lines. Bioevaluation studies have resulted in the identification of potent cytotoxic molecules exhibiting concentration dependent growth inhibition against leukemia cancer cells with best results observed for compounds 17 and 22 exhibiting IC(50) 1.8 and 2.0 ?M respectively. As evident from various biological end-points, inhibition of cell proliferation by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane disruption followed by DNA fragmentation and apoptosis is demonstrated. PMID:22245048

Majeed, Rabiya; Reddy, Mallepally V; Chinthakindi, Praveen K; Sangwan, Payare L; Hamid, Abid; Chashoo, Gousia; Saxena, Ajit K; Koul, Surrinder

2012-03-01

460

Fluoxetine Is a Potent Inhibitor of Coxsackievirus Replication  

PubMed Central

No antiviral drugs currently exist for the treatment of enterovirus infections, which are often severe and potentially life threatening. Molecular screening of small molecule libraries identified fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, as a potent inhibitor of coxsackievirus replication. Fluoxetine did not interfere with either viral entry or translation of the viral genome. Instead, fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine markedly reduced the synthesis of viral RNA and protein. In view of its favorable pharmacokinetics and safety profile, fluoxetine warrants additional study as a potential antiviral agent for enterovirus infections.

Zuo, Jun; Quinn, Kevin K.; Kye, Steve; Cooper, Paige; Damoiseaux, Robert

2012-01-01

461

PREFACE: Non-contact AFM Non-contact AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue is focussed on high resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact atomic force microscopy was established approximately 15 years ago as a tool to image conducting and insulating surfaces with atomic resolution. Since 1998, an annual international conference has taken place, and although the proceedings of these conferences are a useful source of information, several key developments warrant devoting a special issue to this subject. In the theoretic field, the possibility of supplementing established techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Kelvin probe microscopy with atomically resolved force micrsoscopy poses many challenges in the calculation of contrast and contrast reversal. The surface science of insulators, self-assembled monolayers and adsorbates on insulators is a fruitful field for the application of non-contact AFM: several articles in this issue are devoted to these subjects. Atomic imaging and manipulation have been pioneered using STM, but because AFM allows the measurement of forces, AFM has had a profound impact in this field as well. Three-dimensional force spectroscopy has allowed many important insights into surface science. In this issue a combined 3D tunneling and force microscopy is introduced. Non-contact AFM typically uses frequency modulation to measure force gradients and was initially used mainly in a vacuum. As can be seen in this issue, frequency modulation is now also used in ambient conditions, allowing better spatial and force resolution. We thank all of the contributors for their time and efforts in making this special issue possible. We are also very grateful to the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative aspects and for steering the refereeing process. Non-contact AFM contents Relation between the chemical force and the tunnelling current in atomic point contacts: a simple model Pavel Jelínek, Martin Ondrácek and Fernando Flores Theoretical simulation of Kelvin probe force microscopy for Si surfaces by taking account of chemical forces Masaru Tsukada, Akira Masago and Mamoru Shimizu Reversal of atomic contrast in scanning probe microscopy on (111) metal surfaces M Ondrácek, C González and P Jelínek Mechanical properties of H2Pc self-assembled monolayers at the single molecule level by noncontact atomic force microscopy Han-Qing Mao, Na Li, Xi Chen and Qi-Kun Xue High-resolution imaging of C60 molecules using tuning-fork-based non-contact atomic force microscopy R Pawlak, S Kawai, S Fremy, T Glatzel and E Meyer NC-AFM contrast formation on the calcite (101¯4) surface Philipp Rahe, Jens Schütte and Angelika Kühnle Imaging and manipulation of adatoms on an alumina surface by noncontact atomic force microscopy G H Simon, M Heyde and H-J Freund Three-dimensional scanning force/tunneling spectroscopy at room temperature Yoshiaki Sugimoto, Keiichi Ueda, Masayuki Abe and Seizo Morita Imaging and manipulation of the Si(100) surface by small-amplitude NC-AFM at zero and very low applied biasA Sweetman, R Danza, S Gangopadhyay and P Moriarty Manipulation of individual water molecules on CeO2(111) S Torbrügge, O Custance, S Morita and M Reichling FM-AFM imaging of a commercial polyethylene film immersed in n-dodecaneTakumi Hiasa, Tomoki Sugihara, Kenjiro Kimura and Hiroshi Onishi

Giessibl, Franz J.; Morita, Seizo

2012-02-01

462

Sensing with superconducting point contacts.  

PubMed

Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors. PMID:22778630

Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

2012-01-01

463

Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts  

PubMed Central

Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

2012-01-01

464

Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.  

PubMed

The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements