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Sample records for fortified settlement central

  1. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  2. Landslides and fortified settlements as valuable geoheritage sites in the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural phenomena that shape the earth surface. As such, they are part of the environment where people live, playing an important role as natural hazard, but also making a place peculiar for its specific morphology. Nowadays, like in the past, people living in hilly to mountainous areas have always had to face landslides. In the Eastern Carpathians lowlands, landslides have carved a landscape with inaccessible escarpments tens of meters high, providing old populations with panoramic and naturally defensive places to build their settlements. This interaction produced an association of landslide morphologies and archaeological remains that is unique in Romaina. In this study, we present the case of chalcolitic and thraco-getic (6.5 ka BP to 500 BP) fortified settlements, for which landslides provided a favorable place for their construction on one hand, and acted as a natural hazard on the other hand. In the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania, more than 50 sites were identified on structural plateaus bounded by wide scarps of Pleistocene landslides, on cuesta ridges bounded by scarps of Holocene landslides, or situated on hillslopes, on erosional remnants of landslide bodies. For nine out of the 50 sites, we produced accurate geomorphological landslide inventories, mapping more than 500 landslides starting from high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images. Such inventories provide information on landslide type and relative ages (very old, old, recent landslides) based on the morphological appearance of each slope failure. Analysis of the relations between the sites hosting the fortified settlements, their archaeological remains and very old landslides distribution, provides evidences that landslide scarps and their deposits were used by these populations as defensive sites. In particular, the scarps were used as natural walls, allowing to save material and manpower required to erect walls on the gentle and open parts of the sites. Besides

  3. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea. PMID:24765573

  4. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Voolstra, Christian R.; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea. PMID:24765573

  5. History of settlement of villages from Central Tunisia by studying families sharing a common founder Glycogenosis type III mutation.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Faten Ben; Messai, Habib; Hsouna, Sana; Halim, Nizar Ben; Cherif, Wafa; Fadhel, Sihem Ben; Tiar, Afaf; Nagara, Majdi; Azzouz, Hatem; Sfar, Mohamed-Tahar; Dridi, Marie-Françoise Ben; Tebib, Neji; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; Cori disease; Forbes disease) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficient glycogen debrancher enzyme activity in liver and muscle. In this study, we focused on a single AGL gene mutation p.W1327X in 16 Tunisian patients from rural area surrounding the region of Mahdia in Central Tunisia. This constitutes the largest pool of patients with this mutation ever described. This study was performed to trace the history of the patients' ancestries in a single region. After extraction of genomic DNA, exon 31 of AGL gene was sequenced. The patients were investigated for the hypervariable segment 1 of mitochondrial DNA and 17 Y-STR markers. We found that the p.W1327X mutation was a founder mutation in Tunisia Analysis of maternal lineages shows an admixture of autochthonous North African, sub-Saharan and a predominance of Eurasian haplogroups. Heterogeneity of maternal haplogroups indicates an ancient settlement. However, paternal gene flow was highly homogeneous and originates from the Near East. We hypothesize that the p.W1327X mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population probably by a recent migration event; then the mutation was fixed in a small region due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages and genetic drift. The screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for GSD III molecular diagnosis, for patients from the region of Mahdia and those from regions sharing the same settlement history. PMID:26704523

  6. 26 CFR 1.895-1 - Income derived by a foreign central bank of issue, or by Bank for International Settlements, from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Charter Act (12 U.S.C. 1717). See 24 CFR part 1600 et seq. (b) Foreign central bank of issue. (1) A... January 1, 1967, see 26 CFR 1.85-1 (Revised as of January 1, 1972). ... issue, or by Bank for International Settlements, from obligations of the United States or from...

  7. Human Settlements in the South-Central U.S., Viewed at Night from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa; Evans, Cynthia; Stefanov, William; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Willis, Kimberly; Runco, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A recent innovation of astronauts observing Earth from the International Space Station (ISS) is documenting human footprints by photographing city lights at night time. One of the earliest night-time images from the ISS was the US-Mexico border at El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. The colors, patterns and density of city lights document the differences in the cultural settlement patterns across the border region, as well as within the urban areas themselves. City lights help outline the most populated areas in settlements around the world, and can be used to explore relative population densities, changing patterns of urban/suburban development, transportation networks, spatial relationship to geographic features, and more. The data also provides insight into parameters such as surface roughness for input into local and regional climate modeling and studies of light pollution. The ground resolution of night-time astronaut photography from the ISS is typically an order of magnitude greater than current Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data, and therefore can serve as a "zoom lens" for selected urban areas. Current handheld digital cameras in use on the ISS, optimized for greater light sensitivity, provide opportunities to obtain new detailed imagery of atmospheric phenomena such as airglow, aurora, and noctilucent clouds in addition to documenting urban patterns. ISS astronauts have taken advantage of increasingly sensitive digital cameras to document the world at night in unprecedented detail. In addition, the capability to obtain time-lapse imagery from fixed cameras has been exploited to produce dynamic videos of both changing surface patterns around the world and atmospheric phenomena. We will profile some spectacular images of human settlements over the South-Central U.S., and contrast with other images from around the world. More data can be viewed at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/Videos/CrewEarthObservationsVideos/. US-Mexico border is obvious by the different

  8. Evidences of Paleoearthquakes in Palaeolithic settlements within fluvial sequences of the Tagus Basin (Madrid, Central Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pablo G.; Rodríguez Pascua, M. A.; Pérez López, R.; Giner Robles, J. L.; Roquero, E.; Tapias, F.; López Recio, M.; Rus, I.; Morin, J.

    2010-05-01

    Multiple evidences of soft-sediment to brittle deformation within the Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Tagus, Jarama, Tajuña and Manzanares river valleys have been described since the middle 20th Century. Cryoturbation, hydroplastic deformations due to underlying karstic collapses or halokinesis on the substratum of neogene gypsums, and seismic shaking have been proposed to interpret these structures. These deformations are typically concentrated in the +18-20 m terrace levels, and closely linked to well-known Palaeolithic sites, in some cases overlaying and/or affecting true prehistoric settlements (i.e. Arganda, Arriaga and Tafesa sites) within the Jarama and Manzanares valleys. The affected settlements typically display acheulian lithic industry linked to the scavenging of large Pleistocene mammals (i.e. Elephas antiquus). Commonly, deformational structures are concentrated in relatively thin horizons (10-50 cm thick) bracketed by undeformed fluvial sands and gravels. The soft-sediment deformations usually consist on medium to fine sized sands injected and protruded in overlaying flood-plain clayey silts, showing a wide variety of convolutes, injections, sand-dikes, dish and pillar structures, mud volcanoes, faults and folds, some times it is possible to undertake their 3D geometrical analysis due to the exceptional conservation of the structures (Tafesa). Recent geo-archaeological prospecting on the for the Palaeolithic Site of Arriaga (South Madrid City) conducted during the year 2009, let to find out an exceptional horizon of deformation of about 1.20 m thick. It consisted on highly disturbed and pervasively liquefacted sands, which hardly can be attributed to no-seismic processes. The acheulian lithic industry of the Madrid Region have been classically attributed the Late Middle Pleistocene (< 350 kyr BP), but recent OSL dating indicate that the basal horizons of the +18-20 m fluvial terraces hold ages younger than c.a. 120-100 kyr BP in this zone. All

  9. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. PMID:17825358

  10. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    have facilitated the adaption of human societies, further developing agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern central Europe.

  11. Settlement patterns, GIS, remote sensing, and the late prehistory of the Black Prairie in east central Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jay K.

    1991-01-01

    Data recovered as the result of a recent field project designed to test a model of the distribution of protohistoric settlement in an unusual physiographic zone in eastern Mississippi are examined using GIS based techniques to manipulate soil and stream distance information. Significant patterning is derived. The generally thin soils and uniform substratum of the Black Prairie in combination with a distinctive settlement pattern offer a promising opportunity for the search for site specific characteristics within airborne imagery. Landsat TM data provide information on modern ground cover which is used as a mask to select areas in which a multivariate search for archaeological site signatures within a TIMS image is most likely to prove fruitful.

  12. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  13. Sodium pyrophosphate enhances iron bioavailability from bouillon cubes fortified with ferric pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Harika, Rajwinder K; van den Berg, Robin; Murray, Peter; Koppenol, Wieneke P; Zeder, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Fe fortification of centrally manufactured and frequently consumed condiments such as bouillon cubes could help prevent Fe deficiency in developing countries. However, Fe compounds that do not cause sensory changes in the fortified product, such as ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), exhibit low absorption in humans. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate (NaPP) can form soluble complexes with Fe, which could increase Fe bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate Fe bioavailability from bouillon cubes fortified with either FePP only, FePP+NaPP, ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) only, or FeSO4+NaPP. We first conducted in vitro studies using a protocol of simulated digestion to assess the dialysable and ionic Fe, and the cellular ferritin response in a Caco-2 cell model. Second, Fe absorption from bouillon prepared from intrinsically labelled cubes (2·5 mg stable Fe isotopes/cube) was assessed in twenty-four Fe-deficient women, by measuring Fe incorporation into erythrocytes 2 weeks after consumption. Fe bioavailability in humans increased by 46 % (P<0·005) when comparing bouillons fortified with FePP only (4·4 %) and bouillons fortified with FePP+NaPP (6·4 %). Fe absorption from bouillons fortified with FeSO4 only and with FeSO4+NaPP was 33·8 and 27·8 %, respectively (NS). The outcome from the human study is in agreement with the dialysable Fe from the in vitro experiments. Our findings suggest that the addition of NaPP could be a promising strategy to increase Fe absorption from FePP-fortified bouillon cubes, and if confirmed by further research, for other fortified foods with complex food matrices as well. PMID:27267429

  14. A multi-proxy record of hydroclimate, vegetation, fire, and post-settlement impacts for a subalpine plateau, Central Rocky Mountains U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Brunelle, Andrea; Thompson, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Apparent changes in vegetation distribution, fire, and other disturbance regimes throughout western North America have prompted investigations of the relative importance of human activities and climate change as potential causal mechanisms. Assessing the effects of Euro-American settlement is difficult because climate changes occur on multi-decadal to centennial time scales and require longer time perspectives than historic observations can provide. Here, we report vegetation and environmental changes over the past ~13,000 years as recorded in a sediment record from Bison Lake, a subalpine lake on a high plateau in northwestern Colorado. Results are based on multiple independent proxies, which include pollen, charcoal, and elemental geochemistry, and are compared with previously reported interpretations of hydroclimatic changes from oxygen isotope ratios. The pollen data indicate a slowly changing vegetation sequence from sagebrush steppe during the late glacial to coniferous forest through the late Holocene. The most dramatic vegetation changes of the Holocene occurred during the ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (MCA) and ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) with rapid replacement of conifer forest by grassland followed by an equally rapid return to conifer forest. Late Holocene vegetation responses are mirrored by changes in fire, lake biological productivity, and watershed erosion. These combined records indicate that subsequent disturbance related to Euro-American settlement, although perhaps significant, had acted upon a landscape that was already responding to MCA-LIA hydroclimatic change. Results document both rapid and long-term subalpine grassland ecosystem dynamics driven by agents of change that can be anticipated in the future and simulated by ecosystem models.

  15. The Risdon Settlement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    One of the key episodes in the history of the region of Australia called Tasmania is an incident known as the Risdon Massacre. In 1804 near the Risdon Settlement, a large number of aborigines were killed by settlement officials. This document invites students to investigate what really happened on the day of the Risdon massacre and in so doing,…

  16. Fortified juice drink improved iron and zinc status of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Magsadia, Clarita R; Capanzana, Mario V

    2011-01-01

    Energy and micronutrient deficiency remain prevalent among Filipino children. Juice drinks are commonly consumed and could be a viable vehicle for fortification to supplement the nutrient gap. This study determined the effects of a newly developed non-carbonated fortified juice drink on the iron, zinc and nutritional status of schoolchildren. One hundred randomly selected anemic children were randomly allocated into two groups in a doubly-masked placebo controlled manner: Group 1 received the fortified juice, Group 2 received the non-fortified juice for 100 days, five days a week under strict supervision. The juice drink was fortified with vitamin A, zinc, iron, vitamin C and lysine. The non-fortified juice was fortified only with vitamin C. All children were dewormed prior to the intervention. Hemoglobin, plasma ferritin and plasma zinc, weight and height were assessed using standard methods before and after intervention. A two-day 24-hour food recall was also collected. The basal prevalence of anemia was significantly reduced in both the fortified group (100% to 13%) and the non-fortified group (100% to 40%) at endline. The mean plasma ferritin levels were similar in both groups at baseline and endline. At endline, mean plasma zinc in the fortified group has significantly increased by 20 μg/dL from a baseline value of 83.9 μg/dL to 103.9 μg/dL, while the non-fortified group remained at similar levels with baseline. Basal weight and height significantly increased among all children at endline. The fortified juice drink was effective in reducing the prevalence of anemia and improved the zinc status of children. PMID:22094838

  17. The bioavailability of iron fortified in whole grain parboiled rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was to evaluate the bioavailability of iron (Fe) fortified in parboiled rice grain, expressed as Fe uptake by Caco-2 cells after in vitro digestion. The bioavailability of Fe-fortified in the rice grain was closely and positively correlated with increasing concentrations of Fe in t...

  18. Bioavailability to rats of iron from fortified grain amaranth.

    PubMed

    Ologunde, M O; Morris, J B; Shepard, R L; Afolabi, A O; Oke, O L

    1994-04-01

    In this study, fortified and unfortified grain amaranth seed flour diets and a FeSO4-fortified casein diet (used as a control) were evaluated for their iron (Fe) bioavailability. NaFeEDTA, ferrous fumarate, and FeSO4-fortified grain amaranth were fed to growing Sprague-Dawley weaning male rats. Iron intake, hemoglobin iron (HbFe) gain, Fe availability, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum iron, non-haem liver iron and red bloodcell volume (RBV) were determined, and the values were compared with those of the FeSO4-fortified casein diet control. Ferrous fumarate fortified diets gave consistently high values for all these parameters, compared with consistently low values for the amaranth diet without iron fortification. Relative biological values (RBVs) were 0.40, 1.55, 1.75, 1.67 and 1.00 for animals fed on an unfortified amaranth diet, and diets fortified with NaFeEDTA, ferrous fumarate, FeSO4 and casein fortified with FeSO4, respectively. Using FeSO4-fortified casein as control, ferrous fumarate gave a superior RBVs (1.75 vs. 1.00). The RBVs, of the unfortified cereal diets were 40% that of the control, perhaps suggesting low iron absorption from the amaranth cereal. Based on the results of this study, amaranth cereal can be considered an idea food vehicle for iron fortification. The iron fortification of choice is ferrous fumarate. PMID:8052576

  19. Stability of oryzanol fortified biscuits on storage.

    PubMed

    Prasanth Kumar, P K; Sai Manohar, R; Indiramma, A R; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2014-10-01

    Biscuit can be used as a functional food to deliver nutraceuticals to consumers. One such natural nutraceutical oryzanol is present in rice bran oil. Oryzanol possesses a variety of health benefits which include reduction of cholesterol in blood, improvement of capillary action of blood vessels, anti-aging effect and others. Biscuit is a well known cereal based processed food and the fortification of oryzanol into the biscuits will go a long way to provide antioxidant rich, highly stable and acceptable functional food to the consumers. Biscuits were prepared with commercially available fat (CF) and oryzanol fortified fat (OFF). The control biscuits (CB) and oryzanol fortified biscuits (OFB) were packed in 200 gauge polypropylene pouches, stored at 27 °C with different relative humidity (RH 11 %, 22 %, 32 %, 44 % and 56 %) and analysed for its stability during storage of 120 days. Critical moisture content of OFB (4.8 %) was slightly less than that of CB (5.3 %). The fat content of the CB (12.2 %) and OFB (12.5 %) did not change during storage while free fatty acid content (0.36 % and 0.60 %) and peroxide value (0.08 and 0.17 meq. O2/100 g biscuit) respectively for CB and OFFB was showed small but significant changes during storage. Oryzanol content (292 mg) and radical scavenging activity (81.1 %) of OFB did not change during storage. The biscuits had a shelf life of minimum 3 months at 27 °C. Oryzanol in OFB showed good stability during baking and storage of biscuits. PMID:25328195

  20. Model for mapping settlements

    DOEpatents

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  1. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  2. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  3. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  4. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  5. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  6. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  7. Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Brian E; Mallory, J P

    2004-07-01

    Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Täklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical appearance of the population, raised questions as to where these people came from. Two hypotheses have been offered by archaeologists to account for the origins of Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. These are the "steppe hypothesis" and the "Bactrian oasis hypothesis." Eight craniometric variables from 25 Aeneolithic and Bronze Age samples, comprising 1,353 adults from the Tarim Basin, the Russo-Kazakh steppe, southern China, Central Asia, Iran, and the Indus Valley, are compared to test which, if either, of these hypotheses are supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (the weighted pair average linkage method and the neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis. Rather, the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age. After 1200 B.C., this population experienced significant gene flow from highland populations of the Pamirs and Ferghana Valley. These highland populations may include those who later became known as the Saka and who may have served as "middlemen" facilitating contacts between East (Tarim Basin, China) and West (Bactria, Uzbekistan) along what later became known as the Great Silk Road. PMID

  8. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets. PMID:1765836

  9. Processing and characteristics of soybean-fortified gari.

    PubMed

    Sanni, M O; Sobamiwa, A O

    1994-05-01

    Two cassava cultivars were fermented for 3 days with the incorporation of soybean residue or full-fat flour at 25% (w/w) to produce gari. Unfortified gari was superior in taste (P<0.05) to the soybean-fortified gari, though consumers still accepted the latter. Fortified samples from two of the three procedures used, in which soybean was added at different stages of the fermentation, were rated similarly (P>0.05). The water activity of soybean-fortified gari was <0.7, the swelling capacity was 2.5 to 3.3, pH was 5.1±0.2 and total cyanide was 0.8 to 1.3 mg/100 g. The crude protein content of soybean-fortified gari was 8 to 12% (w/w), much higher than the 1 to 2% (w/w) of the unfortified gari. Soybean-fortified gari is recommended for use in areas where cassava is consumed and protein intake is inadequate. PMID:24421008

  10. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  11. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  12. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  13. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  14. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  15. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  16. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  17. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  18. Fractional calcium absorption is similar in premature infants fed human milk fortified with a human milk or bovine milk-based fortifier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) to provide adequate calcium for bone mineralization. A HM-based fortifier has recently been introduced. However, the bioavailability of the calcium in this product and the ability of a HM-based fortifier to meet preterm infants mineral needs a...

  19. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the...

  20. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the...

  1. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement judge. 180.445 Section 180.445 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... negotiations. (c) Termination of settlement negotiations. Settlement negotiations shall terminate upon...

  2. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... settlement judge. 180.445 Section 180.445 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... negotiations. (c) Termination of settlement negotiations. Settlement negotiations shall terminate upon...

  3. Sensory acceptability of iron-fortified millet products.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Ravi, R; Prakash, Maya; Platel, Kalpana

    2011-09-01

    Fortification of millet flours with iron might be beneficial in combating iron deficiency. In this investigation, two products prepared from finger millet and sorghum flours fortified with iron and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and stored for up to 60 days were evaluated for sensory quality attributes using quantitative descriptive analysis, and their texture was measured using a texture analyzer. Fortification did not cause any significant change in the hardness of dumpling or the shearing effect of the roti prepared from either of the millet flours. There was no significant effect of the fortificant on the texture and aroma of the products prepared from the fortified flours up to a period of 60 days. However, a discoloration was perceived in the dumplings prepared from the same flours. The overall quality of the roti prepared was acceptable to the sensory panelists. Finger millet and sorghum flours seem to be suitable as vehicles for fortification with iron. PMID:21568824

  4. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  5. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate. PMID:25944550

  6. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-08

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  7. Stability of microencapsulated L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate in fortified noodles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yazheng; Green, Timothy J; Kitts, David D

    2015-03-15

    Here we report on the comparative stability of free and microencapsulated L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (L-5-MTHF) with free folic acid (FA) when exposed to thermal cooking conditions that are common to noodle making. Fortifying noodle flour with free L-5-MTHF produced the greatest loss of the vitamin when noodles were cooked. In contrast, the percentage recovery of microencapsulated L-5-MTHF in both fresh and cooked noodles was not significantly different to noodles that were similarly processed with fortified FA. The addition of sodium ascorbate along with L-5-MTHF enabled a sustained stability of the folate after boiling, and also after frying. The dispersal of microencapsulated folate in flour showed better homogeneity compared to similar practices used with free form L-5-MTHF and FA, respectively. We conclude that microencapsulating L-5-MTHF along with sodium ascorbate is effective to produce a stable folate in fortified noodles, a staple food for Asian populations that may require improved dietary folate intake. PMID:25308661

  8. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (P<0.05) texture and colour although some decline occurred with 8 g/100g of fiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. PMID:24262528

  9. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    PubMed

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions. PMID:22363717

  10. Vitamin A-fortified milk increases total body vitamin A stores in Mexican preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E; Green, Michael H; Tang, Guangwen; Pacheco-Moreno, Bertha I; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) continues to be a major nutritional problem in developing countries, including Central America. In Mexico, milk is a well-accepted vehicle for the administration of micronutrients, including VA, to preschoolers. Thus, we conducted a randomized, controlled, clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of daily consumption of 250 mL of VA-fortified milk (which provided 196 retinol equivalents/d) for 3 mo on VA stores in mildly to moderately VAD (serum retinol concentration 0.35-0.7 μmol/L) preschoolers who were not enrolled in a food assistance program. Twenty-seven mildly to moderately VAD children were randomly assigned based on screening measurements to either the intervention (n = 14) or control group (n = 13) (children in the control group did not receive placebo). All children in the control group and 79% (n = 11) of the children in the intervention group completed the study. The total body VA (TBVA) pool size was estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after the intervention. After 3 mo, median changes in the serum retinol concentration for the intervention and control groups were 0.13 and -0.21 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.009). Median changes in the TBVA stores were 0.06 and 0.01 mmol, respectively (P = 0.006) and estimated median changes in the liver VA concentration were 0.09 and 0.01 μmol/g, respectively (P = 0.002). The VA-fortified milk was well accepted among preschoolers and significantly increased TBVA stores, liver VA stores, and serum retinol concentration, indicating that it may be an effective means to ameliorate VAD in young Mexican children. PMID:23256139

  11. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  12. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  13. 48 CFR 49.303-5 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....303-5 Final settlement. (a) The TCO shall proceed with the settlement and execution of a settlement... vouchered costs. (b) The TCO shall adjust the fee as provided in 49.305. (c) The final settlement...

  14. 48 CFR 49.303-5 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....303-5 Final settlement. (a) The TCO shall proceed with the settlement and execution of a settlement... vouchered costs. (b) The TCO shall adjust the fee as provided in 49.305. (c) The final settlement...

  15. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  16. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  17. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  18. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  19. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1...) and 139.138(a), and other ingredients to enable the finished food to meet the protein requirements...

  20. Release and bioaccessibility of ß-carotene from fortified almond butter preparations during in vitro digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of ß-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: ß-carotene oil (non-encapsulated) and alginate-chitosan capsules containing ß-carotene oil (encapsulat...

  1. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... CCC and CCC shall have no obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey...

  2. 48 CFR 49.109-6 - Joint settlement of two or more settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint settlement of two or... settlement of two or more settlement proposals. (a) With the consent of the contractor, the TCO or TCO's concerned may negotiate jointly two or more termination settlement proposals of the same contractor...

  3. 48 CFR 1449.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. 1449.107 Section 1449.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. Requests for...

  4. 48 CFR 1449.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. 1449.107 Section 1449.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. Requests for...

  5. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. 18.9 Section 18.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.9 Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. (a)...

  6. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations...

  7. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations...

  8. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations....

  9. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  10. 39 CFR 3001.29 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability § 3001.29 Settlement conferences. Any participant in a proceeding may submit offers of settlement or proposals of adjustment at any time and may request a conference between the participants to... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement conferences. 3001.29 Section...

  11. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of...

  12. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of...

  13. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of...

  14. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of...

  15. 49 CFR 511.67 - Settlement order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement order. 511.67 Section 511.67... of Average Fuel Economy Standards § 511.67 Settlement order. If, in accordance with this subpart, the Administrator allows a settlement of a case of violation of an average fuel economy standard, an order...

  16. 49 CFR 511.67 - Settlement order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement order. 511.67 Section 511.67... of Average Fuel Economy Standards § 511.67 Settlement order. If, in accordance with this subpart, the Administrator allows a settlement of a case of violation of an average fuel economy standard, an order...

  17. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement offers. 8.16... offers. (a) The rules of an exchange may permit a respondent to submit a written offer of settlement to... committee may accept the offer of settlement, but may not alter its terms unless the respondent agrees....

  18. Guidance on premium payments in CERCLA settlements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The directive provides guidance on the use of premium payments in CERCLA settlements. It describes the key features of a premium payment settlement, considerations regarding timing of the settlement, and the factors to be considered in deciding if a premium should be accepted.

  19. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality and quantity of the cotton delivered to CCC by the producer or acquired by CCC subject to the producer... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality and quantity of the cotton delivered to CCC by the producer or acquired by CCC subject to the producer... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements...

  1. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlements. 20.502 Section 20.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Conferences and Settlements § 20.502 Settlements. (a)...

  2. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlements. 20.502 Section 20.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Conferences and Settlements § 20.502 Settlements. (a)...

  3. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  4. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  5. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  6. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  7. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  8. 78 FR 23786 - Settlement Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... noticing a recent order convening a settlement conference between GameFly, Inc. and the Postal Service.... Introduction II. Background III. GameFly Motion, Postal Service Reply, and GameFly Response IV. Analysis V... Court's mandate, on March 7, 2013, GameFly, Inc. (GameFly) filed a motion requesting the Commission...

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    PubMed Central

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions. PMID:26904633

  10. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre. PMID:26433294

  11. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). The daily total Zn intake was not significantly different among the three groups. There were no significant differences in fractional Zn absorption (FZA) (P = 0.3895), dysprosium recovery (P = 0.7498) and Zn absorption (P = 0.5940) among the three groups. Therefore, NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children. PMID:25582850

  12. 75 FR 4607 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Rosters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Settlement Rosters for the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement (``FTA''), the Dominican Republic-Central America.... These agreements include the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement, the Dominican Republic-Central... (202) 395-7305 (for the U.S.-Chile FTA and U.S.-Peru TPA), Leigh Bacon, Associate General Counsel,...

  13. A multimicronutrient-fortified seasoning powder enhances the hemoglobin, zinc, and iodine status of primary school children in North East Thailand: a randomized controlled trial of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Winichagoon, Pattanee; McKenzie, Joanne E; Chavasit, Visith; Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Manger, Mari S; Bailey, Karl B; Wasantwisut, Emorn; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2006-06-01

    Anemia and co-existing deficiencies of zinc, iron, iodine, and vitamin A occur among children in many developing countries including NE Thailand, probably contributing to impairments in growth, immune competence, and cognition. Sustainable strategies are urgently required to combat these deficiencies. We assessed the efficacy of a micronutrient-fortified seasoning powder served with a school lunch on reducing anemia and improving the micronutrient status of rural NE Thai children. Children (n = 569) aged 5.5-13.4y from 10 schools were randomly assigned to receive a seasoning powder either unfortified or fortified with zinc (5 mg), iron (5 mg), vitamin A (270 microg), and iodine (50 microg) (per serving) and incorporated into a school lunch prepared centrally and delivered 5 d/wk for 31 wk. Teachers monitored school lunch consumption. Baseline and final micronutrient status, hemoglobinopathies, and infection or inflammation were assessed from blood and urine samples. For the primary outcome, anemia (based on hemoglobin), no intervention effect was apparent (odds ratio: 1.02 95% CI: 0.69, 1.51) after adjustment for design strata. The odds of zinc (based on serum zinc) and urinary iodine deficiency in the fortified group were 0.63 (0.42, 0.94) and 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) times those in the unfortified group, respectively. Fortification had no effect on serum retinol (0.61: 0.25,1.51), ferritin (1.12: 0.43, 2.96), or mean red cell volume (1.16: 0.82, 1.64). Therefore, a micronutrient-fortified seasoning powder is a promising vehicle for improving zinc, iodine, and hemoglobin status, and its potential for incorporation into lunch programs in day care centers and schools in NE Thailand warrants investigation. PMID:16702330

  14. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  15. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Corey L; Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-09-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  16. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  17. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in content of milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P < 0.01). These results imply that conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein. PMID:27386352

  18. Evaluation of food products fortified with oyster shell for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S A; Gibriel, Abdullah A Y; Abdellatif, A K; Ebied, H M

    2015-10-01

    Production and evaluation of different diet formulas fortified with oyster shell for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Eighty-eight female albino rats were recruited and divided into 11 groups (8 rats each). Group 1 represented negative control while the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 acted as positive control. Groups 3-5 were fed on basal diet. Groups 6-8 were fed on lentil soup while groups 9-11 were fed on vegetable soup. Group 4, 7, 10 were fed on diets fortified with oyster shell. Groups 5, 8 and 11 were fed on diet formulas fortified with calcium citrate. All calcium fortified diet formulas, especially lentil soup, have minimized risk factors associated with osteoporosis as indicated from the significant increase in tibial weight, total protein, total calcium and phosphorus with noticeable reduction in ALP activity compared to positive group. Maximum recovery was observed for diet fortified with oyster shell. These data suggest that food products fortified with oyster shell as natural and inexpensive source could be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26396435

  19. Release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Burri, Betty J; Singh, R Paul

    2012-09-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: β-carotene oil (oil) and whey protein isolate (WPI)-alginate-chitosan capsules containing β-carotene oil (capsule). Shaking water bath and Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) digestion models assessed the impact of gastric peristalsis on the release of β-carotene. Bioaccessibility of β-carotene was measured as percent recovered from the micelle fraction. There was greater release of β-carotene from oil fortified almond butter in the HGS model (87.1%) due to peristalsis than the shaking water bath model (51.0%). More β-carotene was released from capsule fortified almond butter during intestinal digestion. However, more β-carotene was recovered from the micelle fraction of oil fortified almond butter. These results suggest that a WPI-alginate-chitosan capsule coating may inhibit the bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter. PMID:22958182

  20. 48 CFR 49.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. (a) The TCO shall refer... review and recommendations. The TCO may submit settlement proposals of less than $100,000 to the audit agency. Referrals shall indicate any specific information or data that the TCO desires and shall...

  1. 48 CFR 49.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. (a) The TCO shall refer... review and recommendations. The TCO may submit settlement proposals of less than $100,000 to the audit agency. Referrals shall indicate any specific information or data that the TCO desires and shall...

  2. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.

    PubMed

    Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

    2011-12-01

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with

  3. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  4. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  5. Iron-fortified flour: can it induce lipid peroxidation?

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Mitra; Neyestani, Tirang Reza; Pouraram, Hamed; Siassi, Fereydoun; Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Doustmohammadian, Aazam

    2014-08-01

    This community-based study was conducted to evaluate the effects of iron-fortified bread consumption on certain biomarkers of oxidative stress in an apparently healthy population. Evaluation of food intake, anthropometric and laboratory variables was performed in the beginning and after the 8-month intervention for all participants. There was no significant change in oxidative stress biomarkers in women following 8 months intervention. However, in men, final values of total antioxidant capacity, compared to the initial ones, showed a significant decrease in (p = 0.01) which was accompanied by a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (p = 0.002). It could be concluded that although the short-term period (8 months) of extra iron intake did not show severe effects of lipid per oxidation, significant changes of serum iron and some oxidative stress indices suggested that fortification of flour with iron among non-anemic adults in the long term was not without adverse effects. PMID:24655144

  6. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and advances; Resource Conservation and Development loans; and 306 (c) Water and Waste Facility loans....

  7. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  8. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  9. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  10. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  11. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  12. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Enforcement § 280.219 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be... action will be required by the administrative law judge. (b) Cases may also be settled after service of...

  13. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 43, 63 and 64 International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission eliminates the International Settlements... on all U.S.-international routes giving U.S. consumers competitive pricing when they...

  14. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.956 Settlement conferences. Parties...) To consider other matters that may aid in the resolution of the contested proceeding. (b) Conferences... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement conferences. 1.956 Section...

  15. 12 CFR 625.20 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 625.20 Section 625.20 Banks and... UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.20 Settlement. A... decision pursuant to § 625.26 of this part. If it has not been previously filed, the application must...

  16. 12 CFR 625.20 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement. 625.20 Section 625.20 Banks and... UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.20 Settlement. A... decision pursuant to § 625.26 of this part. If it has not been previously filed, the application must...

  17. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has...

  18. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has...

  19. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has...

  20. Physiological parameters in space settlement design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1977-01-01

    One of the major goals of space settlement design is the provision of an environment which will allow full health and effective performance for all members of the population. Attention is given to questions concerning an alternation of 1 G-0 G environment, the physiology of weightlessness, the transit between earth and settlement, research on physiological parameters, and the need for a sensitivity analysis.

  1. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues...

  2. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues...

  3. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... States that has been delinquent for a period of 180 days shall be turned over to the Secretary of the... for debt settlement will consist of Form RD 1956-1 “Application For Settlement of Indebtedness... discharged in bankruptcy shall be cancelled by the use of Form RD 1956-1. A copy of the Bankruptcy...

  4. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... States that has been delinquent for a period of 180 days shall be turned over to the Secretary of the... for debt settlement will consist of Form RD 1956-1 “Application For Settlement of Indebtedness... discharged in bankruptcy shall be cancelled by the use of Form RD 1956-1. A copy of the Bankruptcy...

  5. 49 CFR 511.67 - Settlement order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement order. 511.67 Section 511.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Settlement Procedure in Cases of Violation of Average Fuel Economy Standards §...

  6. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies...

  7. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies...

  8. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement conferences. 1.956 Section 1.956 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.956 Settlement conferences....

  9. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  10. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements....

  11. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  12. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  13. 24 CFR 1720.180 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlements. 1720.180 Section 1720.180 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Proceedings General Provisions § 1720.180 Settlements. Parties may propose in writing, at any time during...

  14. Breaking down barriers to electronic claims settlement.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Lynn

    2007-03-01

    Past attempts to transition payer and provider environments to electronic claims settlements have faced several obstacles. However, technological advances, the development of more secure databases, bank-independent approaches to electronic funds transfer and electronic remittance advice, and the availability of secure archives are now making electronic settlement increasingly practical, cost-effective, and attainable. PMID:19097620

  15. Principals' Perceptions of the "Gaskin" Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silla-Zaleski, Vanessa A.; Bauman, Dona C.; Stufft, Derry L.

    2007-01-01

    The "Gaskin" settlement resulted from a class action lawsuit brought on the behalf of students with significant disabilities in Pennsylvania. With the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 and the "Gaskin" settlement, schools in Pennsylvania are mandated to increase the placement of students with…

  16. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement. 511.26 Section 511.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Prehearing Procedures; Motions; Interlocutory Appeals; Summary Judgment; Settlement §...

  17. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1434.19 Section 1434.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value...

  18. 39 CFR 3030.40 - Policy on settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... settlement. It shall be the general policy and practice of the Commission to encourage alternative dispute resolution and settlement of complaints by informal procedures, such as correspondence, conferences...

  19. 39 CFR 3030.40 - Policy on settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... settlement. It shall be the general policy and practice of the Commission to encourage alternative dispute resolution and settlement of complaints by informal procedures, such as correspondence, conferences...

  20. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Haas, W. Randall; Klink, Cynthia J.; Maggard, Greg J.; Aldenderfer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare—behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  1. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    PubMed

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  2. Sustainable settlement in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, A.L.O.; Campari, J.S.

    1996-02-01

    Presents and analyzes the largest and most complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. This landmark study presents the largest and most analytically complete data set ever produced on the economic variables that influence deforestation by small farmers in the Amazon. The authors examine the changing character of the Amazon frontier based on field surveys conducted during twenty years of settlement experience. By observing the economic behavior of small farmers from colonization during the 1970s until the chaotic aftermath of the early 1990s, the authors are able to pinpoint a central paradox: unsuccessful farmers tend to be unstable, moving on to new frontiers where they will again destroy forests. Successful farmers tend to increase deforestation in the places where they remain. The findings reveal that much of the Amazonian frontier land cleared by pioneers in the 1970s is becoming agriculturally unproductive. Small farmers should be rewarded for staying where they are and for pursuing sustainable farming. Good farming methods must be promoted, and deforestation must be penalized. The authors recommend the implementation of innovative economic policies and new forms of cooperation between environmental and economic agencies, including the World Bank, at both local and international levels. The aim of these policies should be to raise agricultural incomes and reduce environmental aggression.

  3. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  4. Migration and mobility in the early medieval settlement in Thunau/Kamp using 87Sr/86Sr Isotope ratio measurements by MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangl, Sophie; Irrgeher, Johanna; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The use of Sr isotope ratios has been applied systematically for clarifying questions about migration patterns of humans and animals. In consequence of geologically induced differences in the isotopic composition, 87Sr/86Sr ratios are characteristic for a specific region. Humans and animals take up strontium primarily via drinking water and diet. Since strontium has similar chemical properties to calcium, it is mainly stored in teeth and bones. Tooth enamel is formed in the early childhood and is not subject to significant changes in later life. Therefore, the enclosed strontium has the same isotopic composition as the environment in which the individual was living during his early years, provided that the food came from the close proximity. Issue of this study was the early medieval (9th to 10th century AD) settlement in Thunau/Kamp. In order to assess the biogenic Sr isotopic signature of the Thunau settlement area, environmental samples including soil, rocks, water and plants were taken at the excavation site and in the immediate vicinity. They represent the local strontium signal to which the isotopic compositions of historic human tooth samples (enamel and dentine) were compared. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in tooth enamel and dentine give insight about residential characteristics of the settlement of Thunau/Kamp in comparison to the fortified hilltop settlement located in close proximity.

  5. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. PMID:25982048

  6. Beyond Survival: Tracing Individual Empowerment Processes in a Poor Chilean Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turro, Claudia; Krause, Mariane

    2009-01-01

    Based on the life histories of residents from La Victoria, a poor settlement in Santiago, Chile, this study reconstructed the central biographic elements in individual empowerment processes, linking them with the sociocultural context in which they occurred. Results show the following main characteristics related to individual empowerment:…

  7. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  8. Development of flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ganorkar, P M; Jain, R K

    2015-08-01

    Flaxseed imparted the evidence of health benefits in human being. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product using twin screw extruder. The effect of roasted flaxseed flour (RFF) fortification (15-25 %), moisture content of feed (12-16 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (120-140 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), bulk density (BD) and overall acceptability (OAA) score of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Increased RFF level decreased the ER and OAA score significantly while increased BS and BD of extrudates (p < 0.01). Moisture content of extruder feed was positively related to ER (p < 0.01) and OAA (p < 0.05) and negatively related to BD (p < 0.01). Extruder barrel temperature was found to be negatively related to ER and OAA (p < 0.05) and positively related to BD (p < 0.1). Quadratic effect of screw speed was significantly positively related to ER (p < 0.01), BS (p < 0.05) and negatively related to BD (p < 0.01). 15 % RFF fortification with rice flour, 16 % moisture content (wb) of extruder feed, 120 °C extruder barrel temperature and 330 RPM of screw speed gave an optimized product of high desirability with corresponding responses as 3.08 ER, 0.53 kgf BS, 0.106 g.cm(-3) BD and 7.86 OAA. PMID:26243928

  9. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. PMID:27386114

  10. Dry mixing technique for the large scale production of iodine fortified salt in India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S; Sundaresan, S; Raghavendra, I; Kalyani, S

    1997-06-01

    Dry mixing technique was used successfully in three factories in India for the manufacture of iodine fortified salt. Permitted food additives, calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, were used with potassium iodate. The technology was smooth and free from any problem. Since the formerly conventional, but now superceded on analytical performance criteria, spray-mixing system was not used in the study, plants of the economics either batch mixing or continuous processes were more in evidence, and could be compared with avoidable spray mixing production performance data. The iodine fortified salt was free-flowing and retained the colour of the common salt. The iodine distribution was uniform (about 30 ppm). Long distance road transportation did not affect the iodine stability and its consistency. Storage studies showed satisfactory stability and the fortified salt had prolonged shelf-life beyond one year. PMID:24394707

  11. 5 CFR 2423.25 - Post complaint, prehearing settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post complaint, prehearing settlements... Post Complaint, Prehearing Procedures § 2423.25 Post complaint, prehearing settlements. (a) Informal and formal settlements. Post complaint settlements may be either informal or formal. (1)...

  12. 5 CFR 2423.25 - Post complaint, prehearing settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Post complaint, prehearing settlements... Post Complaint, Prehearing Procedures § 2423.25 Post complaint, prehearing settlements. (a) Informal and formal settlements. Post complaint settlements may be either informal or formal. (1)...

  13. Complementary feeding with fortified spread and incidence of severe stunting in 6- to 18-month-old rural Malawians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare growth and incidence of malnutrition in infants receiving long-term dietary supplementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (likuni phala [LP]). A total of 182 6-month-old infants in rural Malawi were rando...

  14. Multinutrient-fortified juices improve vitamin D and vitamin E status in children: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient and palatable method to maintain and increase blood fat soluble vitamins. We sought to determine if children consuming orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and combinations of vitamins D, E and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  15. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Chamnan, Chhoun; de Boer, Michiel R.; Parker, Megan E.; Burja, Kurt; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Berger, Jacques; Polman, Katja; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation. Objective To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. Methods A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506). Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330), fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation. Results Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%), and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of

  16. 37 CFR 42.409 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation After Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.409 Settlement agreements. An agreement or understanding under 35 U.S.C. 135(e)...

  17. 37 CFR 42.409 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation After Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.409 Settlement agreements. An agreement or understanding under 35 U.S.C. 135(e)...

  18. 32 CFR 536.55 - Structured settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...'s life expectancy cannot be reasonably determined or is likely to be shortened. (b) Under subpart D... Department of Justice never to discuss the tax-free nature of a structured settlement. Note to § 536.55:...

  19. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  20. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  1. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  2. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  3. 77 FR 37397 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP). Under the terms of the proposed settlement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP), 75 FR 51570 (Aug. 20, 2010). Petitioners filed petitions for judicial review regarding...

  4. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  5. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  7. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  11. Molecular Nanotechnology and Space Settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomically precise manipulation of matter is becoming increasingly common in laboratories around the world. As this control moves into aerospace systems, huge improvements in computers, high-strength materials, and other systems are expected. For example, studies suggest that it may be possible to build: 10(exp 18) MIPS computers, 10(exp 15) bytes/sq cm write once memory, $153-412/kg-of-cargo single- stage-to-orbit launch vehicles and active materials which sense their environment and react intelligently. All of NASA's enterprises should benefit significantly from molecular nanotechnology. Although the time may be measured in decades and the precise path to molecular nanotechnology is unclear, all paths (diamondoid, fullerene, self-assembly, biomolecular, etc.) will require very substantial computation. This talk will discuss fullerene nanotechnology and early work on hypothetical active materials consisting of large numbers of identical machines. The speaker will also discuss aerospace applications, particularly missions leading to widespread space settlement (e.g., small near-Earth - object retrieval). It is interesting to note that control of the tiny - individual atoms and molecules - may lead to colonization of the huge -first the solar system, then the galaxy.

  12. Pelagic larval duration and settlement size of a reef fish are spatially consistent, but post-settlement growth varies at the reef scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Susannah M.; Russ, Garry R.; Abesamis, Rene A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that, despite a pelagic larval stage, many coral reef fishes disperse over relatively small distances, leading to well-connected populations on scales of 0-30 km. Although variation in key biological characteristics has been explored on the scale of 100-1000 s of km, it has rarely been explored at the scale relevant to actual larval dispersal and population connectivity on ecological timescales. In this study, we surveyed the habitat and collected specimens ( n = 447) of juvenile butterflyfish, Chaetodon vagabundus, at nine sites along an 80-km stretch of coastline in the central Philippines to identify variation in key life history parameters at a spatial scale relevant to population connectivity. Mean pelagic larval duration (PLD) was 24.03 d (SE = 0.16 d), and settlement size was estimated to be 20.54 mm total length (TL; SE = 0.61 mm). Both traits were spatially consistent, although this PLD is considerably shorter than that reported elsewhere. In contrast, post-settlement daily growth rates, calculated from otolith increment widths from 1 to 50 d post-settlement, varied strongly across the study region. Elevated growth rates were associated with rocky habitats that this species is known to recruit to, but were strongly negatively correlated with macroalgal cover and exhibited negative density dependence with conspecific juveniles. Larger animals had lower early (first 50 d post-settlement) growth rates than smaller animals, even after accounting for seasonal variation in growth rates. Both VBGF and Gompertz models provided good fits to post-settlement size-at-age data ( n = 447 fish), but the VBGF's estimate of asymptotic length ( L ∞ = 168 mm) was more consistent with field observations of maximum fish length. Our findings indicate that larval characteristics are consistent at the spatial scale at which populations are likely well connected, but that site-level biological differences develop post-settlement, most likely as a

  13. Do Cues Matter? Highly Inductive Settlement Cues Don't Ensure High Post-Settlement Survival in Sea Urchin Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L.; Nielsen, Shaun J.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24–28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (∼25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies

  14. Whole gut microbiome composition of damselfish and cardinalfish before and after reef settlement

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Darren J.; Brooker, Rohan M.; Morgan, Michael A.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pomacentridae (damselfish) and Apogonidae (cardinalfish) are among the most common fish families on coral reefs and in the aquarium trade. Members of both families undergo a pelagic larvae phase prior to settlement on the reef, where adults play key roles in benthic habitat structuring and trophic interactions. Fish-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) significantly influence fish health and ecology, yet little is known of how microbiomes change with life stage. We quantified the taxonomic (16S rRNA gene) composition of whole gut microbiomes from ten species of damselfish and two species of cardinalfish from Lizard Island, Australia, focusing specifically on comparisons between pelagic larvae prior to settlement on the reef versus post-settlement juvenile and adult individuals. On average, microbiome phylogenetic diversity increased from pre- to post-settlement, and was unrelated to the microbial composition in the surrounding water column. However, this trend varied among species, suggesting stochasticity in fish microbiome assembly. Pre-settlement fish were enriched with bacteria of the Endozoicomonaceae, Shewanellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, whereas settled fish harbored higher abundances of Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae. Several individual operational taxonomic units, including ones related to Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella sp., and uncultured Endozoicomonas bacteria, were shared between both pre and post-settlement stages and may be of central importance in the intestinal niche across development. Richness of the core microbiome shared among pre-settlement fish was comparable to that of settled individuals, suggesting that changes in diversity with adulthood are due to the acquisition or loss of host-specific microbes. These results identify a key transition in microbiome structure across host life stage, suggesting changes in the functional contribution of microbiomes over development in two ecologically dominant reef fish families.

  15. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... render a formal judgment or decision in the case; his or her role is solely to facilitate fair and... agreement by issuing a decision based upon the agreed findings. (e)(1) Settlement judge procedure; purpose. This paragraph establishes a voluntary process whereby the parties may use a settlement judge...

  16. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... render a formal judgment or decision in the case; his or her role is solely to facilitate fair and... agreement by issuing a decision based upon the agreed findings. (e)(1) Settlement judge procedure; purpose. This paragraph establishes a voluntary process whereby the parties may use a settlement judge...

  17. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... render a formal judgment or decision in the case; his or her role is solely to facilitate fair and... agreement by issuing a decision based upon the agreed findings. (e)(1) Settlement judge procedure; purpose. This paragraph establishes a voluntary process whereby the parties may use a settlement judge...

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Water Soluble Vitamins in Dietary Supplements and Fortified Foods by LC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work in our laboratory has focused on development of LC methods with diode array and/or mass spectrometry (ms) detection for the simultaneous determination in supplement tablets and fortified foods of several water-soluble vitamins (WSV) including: thiamin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic ac...

  19. Fortifying Chapathis, an Asian Whole Wheat Unleavened Bread, using Corn Distillers Dried Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chapathi, an unleavened whole wheat flat bread, is widely consumed in Southern Asia. To improve the nutritional qualities of this product, we have investigated fortifying chapathi with different levels of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Food grade DDGS is an alternative sour...

  20. Feeding patterns of underweight children in rural Malawi given supplementary fortified spread at home

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified spread (FS), containing dry food particles embedded in edible fat, offers a convenient means for nutrition rehabilitation. To describe how caregivers feed FS to their undernourished children at home, and how FS use affects other feeding patterns, we conducted a longitudinal observational s...

  1. Iron Absorption from Two Milk Formulas Fortified with Iron Sulfate Stabilized with Maltodextrin and Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Maciero, Eugenia; Krasnoff, Gustavo; Cócaro, Nicolas; Gaitan, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers’ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33–47 years old) participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow’s milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (p < 0.001). The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers’ requirements of this micronutrient. PMID:26529007

  2. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  3. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05). However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  4. Influence of Inflammatory Disorders and Infection on Iron Absorption and Efficacy of Iron- Fortified Foods

    PubMed Central

    Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The provision of iron- fortified foods is a common strategy to prevent iron deficiency; however, ensuring adequate iron absorption is a challenge. Iron bioavailability depends on the choice of iron compound, the presence enhancers and inhibitors of absorption in the food matrix, and the physiological state of the consumer, including iron status, other nutritional deficiencies and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation associated with infections and inflammatory disorders would be expected to decrease iron absorption and reduce the efficacy of iron- fortified foods. The decreased absorption is due to an increase in circulating hepcidin in response to inflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin degrades ferroportin and blocks the passage of iron from the intestinal cell to the plasma. This is the innate immune response to infections and aims to restrict pathogen growth by restricting iron supply. Stable isotope studies have reported women and children with chronic malaria parasitemia or febrile malaria to have increased inflammatory cytokines, increased hepcidin and much decreased iron absorption. No studies have specifically investigated the efficacy of iron- fortified foods in the absence and presence of infections. In contrast, inflammation and increased hepcidin associated with adiposity in overweight have been linked to both lower iron absorption and the decreased efficacy of iron- fortified foods. PMID:25762975

  5. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  6. Haemoglobin fortified cereal: a source of available iron to breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, E; Olivares, M; Pizarro, F; Walter, T; Cayazzo, M; Heresi, G; Llaguno, S; Chadud, P; Stekel, A

    1990-11-01

    We tested in the field an extruded rice flour, fortified with a bovine haemoglobin concentrate (Fe:14 mg/100 g of powder). This cereal has a high iron bioavailability, good protein quality and amino acid score. Healthy, term breast-fed infants were prospectively studied. One group (n = 92) received the fortified cereal (from 4 to 12 months of age). As control, 96 infants received regular solid foods (cooked vegetables and meat) from age 4 months. At the end of the field trial, a subsample of infants in both groups was supplemented with 45 mg Fe during 90 d. Iron nutrition status was determined at 9, 12 and 15 months. At 12 months, iron deficiency anaemia was present in 17 per cent of controls, in 10 per cent of fortified infants as a whole, but only in 6 per cent of the babies who consumed over 30 g of cereal/d. In addition, this latter group did not show any significant changes in iron nutrition status after the supplementation trial. Results demonstrate that the consumption of a haemoglobin fortified cereal is effective in markedly reducing the incidence of iron deficiency in breast-fed infants. PMID:2086208

  7. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometric analysis of vitamin D in retail fortified orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of vitamin D fortified orange juice obtained from retail food stores were analyzed for vitamin D3 content using a method developed by combining the best features of two AOAC officially approved methods. The ether/petroleum ether extraction from AOAC 992.26 was combined with the high perform...

  8. Nutritional quality of nixtamal tortillas fortified with vitamins and soy proteins.

    PubMed

    de Dios Figueroa Cárdenas, Juan; Godínez, María Guadalupe Acero; Méndez, Nora Lilia Vasco; Guzmán, Alejandro Lozano; Acosta, Luz María Flores

    2003-05-01

    The nutritional qualities of nixtamal tortillas (TN) fortified with vitamins and soy flour was evaluated. The rats fed with TN and nixtamal tortillas with 0.15% of vitamins and iron (TNV) did not show differences in weights. The diets of fortified tortillas with 4% defatted soy (TNS), the combination of defatted soy and vitamins (TNVS) and the whole tortilla with defatted soy (TIS) were the treatments that caused the best growth in the experimental animals. The chemical analysis indicated appropriate levels of vitamins in the TNV, TNVS, TNS, and TIS diets. However, the TNV diet caused poor growth of the experimental animals. The diets of tortillas fortified with soy in general produced rats with longer femurs of greater density and strength. The rats fed with fortified tortillas showed higher levels of calcium and phosphorous in the bones. The X-ray diffractograms of bone tissue showed crystals with interplanar distances of 4.40, 3.34, 2.79, 2.28, 1.95, 1.85 and 1.45 A, which are characteristic of hydroxylapatite, except for the first two measurements. The peaks at 4.40 and 3.34 A tend to disappear as the nutritional quality of the diet improves with the addition of soy flour. PMID:12775368

  9. Fortified Extract of Red Berry, Ginkgo biloba, and White Willow Bark in Experimental Early Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control) rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats. PMID:23762874

  10. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize. PMID:24329552

  11. Stability of lutein in wholegrain bakery products naturally high in lutein or fortified with free lutein.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Young, J Christopher; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona

    2010-09-22

    Lutein is a yellow pigment found in common foods that promotes the health of eyes and skin and is associated with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. In the present study, selected high-lutein wheat and corn were milled into wholegrain flours by two mills to improve flour uniformity. The high-lutein and lutein-fortified wholegrain flours were processed into breads, cookies, and muffins to study lutein stability during baking and subsequent storage. Lutein and its isomers were separated, identified, and quantified by LC-UV/vis and LC-MS following extraction with water-saturated 1-butanol. Baking resulted in a significant reduction in all-trans-lutein and the formation of cis-lutein and cis-zeaxanthin isomers. Subsequent storage at ambient temperature had a slight impact on the content of all-trans-lutein. Effects of processing were more pronounced in lutein-fortified products, and the degradation rate of lutein was influenced by concentration and baking recipe. Fortified cookies and muffins showed greater lutein reduction compared with bread. Despite the significant reduction in lutein, the fortified bakery products still possessed reasonable amounts per serving that would enhance daily intake and consumption of wholegrain foods. PMID:20734986

  12. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium, and phosphorous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification, and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre...

  13. Fortifying food in the field to boost nutrition: case studies from Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia.

    PubMed

    van den Briel, Tina; Cheung, Edith; Zewari, Jamshid; Khan, Rose

    2007-09-01

    Deficiencies in micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A, and iodine affect billions of people worldwide, causing death, disease, and disability. The UN World Food Programme (WFP) has long been recognised for its ability to deliver food to some of the most remote locations, under the toughest conditions: refugees in border camps, populations cut off by conflict, extremely poor and marginalised people like ethnic minorities, orphans, and widows. Relatively little, however, is known about its efforts to ensure that the food it delivers not only provides enough calories for immediate survival but also provides the vitamins and minerals needed for healthy growth and development. Much of the food delivered by WFP is fortified with iron, vitamin A, and other micronutrients before being shipped. But there are several reasons to mill and fortify food as close to the beneficiaries as possible. For instance, milling and fortifying food locally helps to overcome the problems of the short shelf-life of whole fortified maizemeal. It also enhances the nutritional value of locally procured cereals. And it can foster demand for fortified foods among local consumers beyond WFP beneficiaries, thus nurturing an industry with potentially significant benefits for the health of entire communities. This paper outlines three approaches by WFP to fortifying cereals in Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia. It examines the challenges faced and the outcomes achieved in an effort to share this knowledge with others dedicated to improving the nutritional status of poor and food-insecure people. In Afghanistan, attempts to mill and fortify wheat flour using small-scale chakki mills were successful but much larger-scale efforts would be needed to promote demand and reach the level of consumption required to address serious iron deficiencies across the country. In Angola, maize has been fortified to combat the persistent occurrence of pellagra, a micronutrient deficiency disease found among people whose

  14. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  15. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  16. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  17. Optimising settlement assays of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Carl, C; Poole, A J; Vucko, M J; Williams, M R; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

    2011-09-01

    The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a common aquaculture species, and also a major fouling organism that has negative economic impacts. There are no standard assay conditions for this important species and therefore, this study quantified the effect of key factors on the settlement of pediveligers and plantigrades. Density dependent settlement did not occur for either pediveligers or plantigrades. Settlement increased in drop assays in a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, while bottom shade had no effect of any magnitude. In addition, settlement was significantly enhanced by storing pediveligers for between 4 and 24 days at 4 °C. Overall, these data provide the template to optimise and standardise static laboratory settlement assays for mussels in order to develop materials that either enhance settlement for the aquaculture industry, or deter settlement for antifouling applications. Furthermore, simple mechanisms such as storage at 4 °C can enhance settlement beyond current methods used in aquaculture hatcheries. PMID:21827335

  18. 43 CFR 413.3 - Assessment of settlement lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ASSESSMENT BY IRRIGATION DISTRICTS OF LANDS OWNED BY THE UNITED STATES, COLUMBIA BASIN PROJECT, WASHINGTON § 413.3 Assessment of settlement lands. (a) Settlement lands, which the...

  19. 43 CFR 413.3 - Assessment of settlement lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ASSESSMENT BY IRRIGATION DISTRICTS OF LANDS OWNED BY THE UNITED STATES, COLUMBIA BASIN PROJECT, WASHINGTON § 413.3 Assessment of settlement lands. (a) Settlement lands, which the...

  20. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years) compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011), reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl). Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies) and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies). Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain) and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to reduce anemia of

  1. Survival of salmonellae in pasteurized, refrigerated calcium-fortified orange juice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beuchat, L R; Doyle, M P; Chen, J

    2001-09-01

    Studies were done to determine the survival of salmonellae in orange juice as affected by fortification with calcium. Four brands of commercially pasteurized orange juice fortified with calcium (350 mg/240-ml serving) and nonfortified juice were inoculated separately with three types of inocula: strains of Salmonella Muenchen (inoculum 1), serotypes of human and animal origin (inoculum 2), and isolates from raw produce- and juice-associated outbreaks (inoculum 3). Juice inoculated with populations of 6.6 to 7.0 log10 CFU of Salmonella per ml was held at 4 degrees C for up to 32 days. The number of cells of inoculum 1 that survived in juice fortified with calcium lactate/tricalcium phosphate (CaL/TCP) was significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) (2.80 log10 CFU/ml) than in nonfortified juice (3.50 log10 CFU/ml) after 32 days' storage. Death of salmonellae in inocula 1 and 2 was less in juice fortified with TCP (3.21 and 3.33 log10 CFU/ml, respectively) than in the nonfortified juice (3.75 and 4.15 log10 CFU/ml, respectively). During the 32-day storage period, populations in inocula 1 and 3 showed significantly less inactivation (2.62 and 3.12 log10 CFU/ml, respectively) in juice fortified with calcium citrate (CC) than in nonfortified juice (3.14 and 3.60 log10 CFU/ml, respectively). There were no significant differences in the survival of Salmonella in juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM) and nonfortified juice. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing of randomly selected Salmonella colonies revealed that Salmonella Heidelberg in inoculum 2 and Salmonella Baildon and Salmonella Poona in inoculum 3 were the most prevalent at the end of the 32-day storage period at 4 degrees C, suggesting that serotypes selected for use in inocula differed in tolerance to acidic environments. This study reveals that the form of calcium used to fortify orange juice may affect the survival of Salmonella. PMID:11563503

  2. Growth and change in blood haemoglobin concentration among underweight Malawian infants receiving fortified spreads for 12 weeks: a preliminary trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified spreads (FSs) have proven effective in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We examined acceptability, growth and change in blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration among moderately underweight ambulatory infants given FS. This was a randomised, controlled, parallel-group, inv...

  3. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application. PMID:26022498

  4. 32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454... Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements in lieu of performance of actual restoration work... restoration. In view of the limitations of the Government's restoration obligations to amounts not in...

  5. 32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454... Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements in lieu of performance of actual restoration work... restoration. In view of the limitations of the Government's restoration obligations to amounts not in...

  6. 32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454... Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements in lieu of performance of actual restoration work... restoration. In view of the limitations of the Government's restoration obligations to amounts not in...

  7. 32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454... Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements in lieu of performance of actual restoration work... restoration. In view of the limitations of the Government's restoration obligations to amounts not in...

  8. 32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454... Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements in lieu of performance of actual restoration work... restoration. In view of the limitations of the Government's restoration obligations to amounts not in...

  9. 49 CFR 377.217 - Interline settlement of revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interline settlement of revenues. 377.217 Section... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.217 Interline settlement of revenues. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as affecting the interline settlement of revenues from traffic which is transported over...

  10. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  11. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  12. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Settlement and Escrow Accounts § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  13. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  14. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  15. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  16. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International settlements policy. 64.1002... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification Requests § 64.1002 International settlements policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International settlements policy. 64.1002... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification Requests § 64.1002 International settlements policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  18. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International settlements policy. 64.1002... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification Requests § 64.1002 International settlements policy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  19. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  20. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  3. Marie Russo: An Oral History of the Italian Settlement House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This study…

  4. 48 CFR 49.109-7 - Settlement by determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) General. If the contractor and TCO cannot agree on a termination settlement, or if a settlement proposal is not submitted within the period required by the termination clause, the TCO shall issue a... incorporated by reference. The TCO shall comply with 49.109-1 through 49.109-6 in making a settlement...

  5. 48 CFR 49.109-5 - Partial settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-5 Partial settlements. The TCO should attempt... arising from any continued portion of the contract. Generally, the TCO shall not attempt to make partial settlements covering particular items of the prime contractor's settlement proposal. However, when a...

  6. 48 CFR 49.109-5 - Partial settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-5 Partial settlements. The TCO should attempt... arising from any continued portion of the contract. Generally, the TCO shall not attempt to make partial settlements covering particular items of the prime contractor's settlement proposal. However, when a...

  7. 48 CFR 49.109-7 - Settlement by determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) General. If the contractor and TCO cannot agree on a termination settlement, or if a settlement proposal is not submitted within the period required by the termination clause, the TCO shall issue a... incorporated by reference. The TCO shall comply with 49.109-1 through 49.109-6 in making a settlement...

  8. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  9. 5 CFR 890.909 - End-of-year settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false End-of-year settlements. 890.909 Section..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.909 End-of-year settlements. Neither OPM, nor the FEHB plans, will perform end-of-year settlements with, or make retroactive adjustments as a result of retroactive...

  10. 5 CFR 890.909 - End-of-year settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false End-of-year settlements. 890.909 Section..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.909 End-of-year settlements. Neither OPM, nor the FEHB plans, will perform end-of-year settlements with, or make retroactive adjustments as a result of retroactive...

  11. 48 CFR 49.103 - Methods of settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of settlement. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.103 Methods of settlement. Settlement of terminated... subpart 49.3), or (d) a combination of these methods. When possible, the TCO should negotiate a fair...

  12. 22 CFR 1423.11 - Settlement or adjustment of issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Settlement or adjustment of issues. 1423.11... LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.11 Settlement or adjustment of issues. general settlement policy (a... Director with whom the charge was filed, for consideration, all facts and arguments concerning offers...

  13. 5 CFR 890.909 - End-of-year settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false End-of-year settlements. 890.909 Section..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.909 End-of-year settlements. Neither OPM, nor the FEHB plans, will perform end-of-year settlements with, or make retroactive adjustments as a result of retroactive...

  14. 5 CFR 890.909 - End-of-year settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false End-of-year settlements. 890.909 Section..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.909 End-of-year settlements. Neither OPM, nor the FEHB plans, will perform end-of-year settlements with, or make retroactive adjustments as a result of retroactive...

  15. 5 CFR 890.909 - End-of-year settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false End-of-year settlements. 890.909 Section..., and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.909 End-of-year settlements. Neither OPM, nor the FEHB plans, will perform end-of-year settlements with, or make retroactive adjustments as a result of retroactive...

  16. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  17. 48 CFR 249.109 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement agreements. 249.109 Section 249.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.109...

  18. 48 CFR 249.109 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement agreements. 249.109 Section 249.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.109...

  19. 48 CFR 249.109 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement agreements. 249.109 Section 249.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.109...

  20. 48 CFR 249.109 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement agreements. 249.109 Section 249.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.109...

  1. 14 CFR 14.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 14.25 Section 14.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES RULES IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Procedures for Considering Applications § 14.25...

  2. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  3. 49 CFR 826.35 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement. 826.35 Section 826.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Procedures for Considering Applications §...

  4. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Settlement. 280.219 Section 280.219 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER...

  5. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement. 280.219 Section 280.219 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER...

  6. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlement. 280.219 Section 280.219 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER...

  7. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Settlement. 280.219 Section 280.219 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER...

  8. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24...

  9. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24...

  10. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24...