Science.gov

Sample records for fossil fuel conversion

  1. Fossil fuel conversion -- Measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

    1995-11-01

    The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifier and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifier (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas). Results are presented on the devolatilization of large coal particles; transport reactor modeling; fluidized bed model; nitrogen evolution from small and large coal particles; modeling of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia release during coal pyrolysis; oxidation rates for large coal particles at high pressures; advanced fixed-bed model development and evaluation; application of ACERC combustion and gasification codes to AFR diagnostic capabilities to systems of interest to METC; and submodel for lean premixed combustion of natural gas in industrial gas turbines.

  2. Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

    2001-03-07

    We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

  3. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  4. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  5. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  6. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  7. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  8. Progress of fossil fuel science

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. More than 45% of the world's electricity is generated from coal, and it is the major fuel for generating electricity worldwide. The known coal reserves in the world are enough for more than 215 years of consumption, while the known oil reserves are only about 39 times of the world's consumption and the known natural gas reserves are about 63 times of the world's consumption level in 1998. In recent years, there have been effective scientific investigations on Turkish fossil fuels, which are considerable focused on coal resources. Coal is a major fossil fuel source for Turkey. Turkish coal consumption has been stable over the past decade and currently accounts for about 24% of the country's total energy consumption. Lignite coal has had the biggest share in total fossil fuel production, at 43%, in Turkey. Turkish researchers may investigate ten broad pathways of coal species upgrading, such as desulfurization and oxydesulfurization, pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, liquefaction and hydroliquefaction, extraction and supercritical fluid extraction, gasification, oxidation, briquetting, flotation, and structure identification.

  9. Liquid fossil-fuel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Highlights of research activities at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for the quarter ending March 1982 are summarized. Major research areas are: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: EOR data base, major new industry tool; properties of crude oils available via telephone hookup; alternative fuels data bank stresses transportation.

  10. Development incentives for fossil fuel subsidy reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Chen, Claudine; Fuss, Sabine; Marxen, Annika; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-08-01

    Reforming fossil fuel subsidies could free up enough funds to finance universal access to water, sanitation, and electricity in many countries, as well as helping to cut global greenhouse-gas emissions.

  11. Application of biochemical interactions in fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1994-12-31

    Certain extreme environments tolerant microorganisms interact with heavy crude oils by means of multiple biochemical reactions, asphaltenes, and bituminous materials. These reactions proceed via pathways which involve characteristic components of oils and coals such as asphaltenes, and in the chemically related constituents found in bituminous coals. These chemical components serve as markers of the interactions between microorganisms and fossil fuels. Studies in which temperature, pressure, and salinity tolerant microorganisms have been allowed to interact with different crude oils and bituminous coals, have shown that biochemically induced changes occur in the distribution of hydrocarbons and in the chemical nature of organometallic and heterocyclic compounds. Such structural chemical rearrangements have direct applications in monitoring the efficiency, the extent, and the chemical nature of the fossil fuels bioconversion. Recent developments of chemical marker applications in the monitoring of fossil fuels bioconversion will be discussed.

  12. Fossil fuels in a trillion tonne world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Vivian; Haszeldine, R. Stuart; Tett, Simon F. B.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The useful energy services and energy density value of fossil carbon fuels could be retained for longer timescales into the future if their combustion is balanced by CO2 recapture and storage. We assess the global balance between fossil carbon supply and the sufficiency (size) and capability (technology, security) of candidate carbon stores. A hierarchy of value for extraction-to-storage pairings is proposed, which is augmented by classification of CO2 containment as temporary (<1,000 yr) or permanent (>100,000 yr). Using temporary stores is inefficient and defers an intergenerational problem. Permanent storage capacity is adequate to technically match current fossil fuel reserves. However, rates of storage creation cannot balance current and expected rates of fossil fuel extraction and CO2 consequences. Extraction of conventional natural gas is uniquely holistic because it creates the capacity to re-inject an equivalent tonnage of carbon for storage into the same reservoir and can re-use gas-extraction infrastructure for storage. By contrast, balancing the extraction of coal, oil, biomass and unconventional fossil fuels requires the engineering and validation of additional carbon storage. Such storage is, so far, unproven in sufficiency.

  13. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  14. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  15. Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Gorlov

    2007-10-15

    The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

  16. The future of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Klaus

    2007-03-01

    With today's energy technology, the world faces a stark choice between economic growth and a healthy environment. The accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere must stop, while energy services to a growing world population striving for a high standard of living must improve. New technologies must eliminate CO2 emissions. Only carbon capture and storage can maintain access to fossil carbon reserves that by themselves could satisfy energy demand for centuries. Technologies for CO2 capture at power plants and other large sources already exist. A new generation of efficient, clean power plants could capture its CO2 and deliver it for underground injection or mineral sequestration. However, the remaining CO2 emissions from distributed sources are too large to be ignored. Either hydrogen or electricity need to substitute for carbonaceous energy carriers, or CO2 emissions must be balanced out by capturing an equivalent amount of carbon from the environment. Biomass growth offers one such option; direct capture of CO2 from the air provides another. Carbon capture and storage technologies can close the anthropogenic carbon cycle and, thus, provide one possible avenue to a world that is not limited by energy constraints.

  17. Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Orly; Dinamarca, Jorge; Hochman, Gal; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-03-01

    Long-term global climate change, caused by burning petroleum and other fossil fuels, has motivated an urgent need to develop renewable, carbon-neutral, economically viable alternatives to displace petroleum using existing infrastructure. Algal feedstocks are promising candidate replacements as a 'drop-in' fuel. Here, we focus on a specific algal taxon, diatoms, to become the fossil fuel of the future. We summarize past attempts to obtain suitable diatom strains, propose future directions for their genetic manipulation, and offer biotechnological pathways to improve yield. We calculate that the yields obtained by using diatoms as a production platform are theoretically sufficient to satisfy the total oil consumption of the US, using between 3 and 5% of its land area. PMID:24529448

  18. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  19. Advanced materials development for fossil energy conversion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Kingsley, J.J.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.; Youngblood, G.E.; Hurst, J.K.; Bell, A.E.; Grainger, D.W.; Rananavare, S.B.; Roe, D.K.; Thompson, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    Research activities being conducted as part of this project include: (1) fundamental studies of electrochemical processes occurring at surfaces and interfaces in fuel cells, and (2) development of novel materials synthesis and processing methodologies for fossil energy conversion applications. Complex impedance and dc polarization studies of the electrocatalytic activity at the cathode have allowed intrinsic materials properties to be separated from extrinsic properties related to morphology. Mixed conduction in cathode materials was shown to dramatically enhance electrocatalytic activity with this approach. Combustion synthesis methods were used to prepare multicomponent perovskite catalysts in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3} system. Electronic properties of these catalysts can be altered by adjusting the composition, which affects both catalytic activity and selectivity. Inverse micelles have been utilized to prepare nanosized nickel sulfide particles, which show promise as hydrodesulfurization catalysts for liquefied coal. Self-assembling organic monolayers and derivatized inorganic surfaces have been used to control nucleation and crystal morphology of inorganic phases.

  20. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-01-01

    During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios—low, medium and high—are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15–30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10–15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030. PMID:19770156

  1. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts. PMID:16678400

  2. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  3. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    DOEpatents

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  4. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  5. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Chew, Kenneth J

    2014-01-13

    Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere. PMID:24298078

  6. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FOSSIL FUEL CO-FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; ...

  7. COMPOUND FORMS OF FOSSIL FUEL FLY ASH EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for identifying inorganic compounds in particulate emissions from fossil fuel combustion processes is described. Samples collected from power plants burning coal and oil fuels of different compositions provided a typical range of fly ashes for the investigations. El...

  8. Divesting from Fossil Fuels Makes Sense Morally… and Financially

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Reibstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Should university endowments divest from fossil fuels? A public discussion of this question has seen some university presidents issuing statements that they would not divest--that investments should not be used for "political action." Many universities hold large endowments that have significant positions in fossil fuel companies or…

  9. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    DOEpatents

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  10. Catching the fossil fuel biodesulfurization wave

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, I.M. )

    1993-10-01

    Both coal and oil contain sulfur atoms covalently bound to the carbon skeleton of the fuel. This organic sulfur is located in more complex and more polycyclo-aromatic structures in coals than in petroleum and is modeled (albeit not perfectly) by the simple aromatic compound dibenzothiophene (DBT). Coals, but not petroleum, also contain inorganic forms of sulfur. These are various iron sulfides, most notably iron pyrites. Unlike organic sulfur, inorganic sulfur is not chemically bound to the carbon matrix of coal and can be removed, at least partially, by physical means that depend on differences in density and hydrophobicity between coal and pyrites. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, DOE/PETC was active in promoting advanced physical methods of coal cleaning and had invested considerable money, effort, and prestige in their development. To address that other coal-sulfur problem--the organic sulfur component--DOE/PETC funded a range of chemistry-based options through the early 1990s. By the early 1980s, and in the wake of the coming of age of genetic engineering, microbially based processes were beginning to make an appearance on the industrial scene. Coal cleaning was no exception. The author discusses his perceptions of the DOE's foray into fossil fuel biodesulfurization.

  11. The use of non-fossil derived hydrogen in coal conversion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Merrick, D.; Smith, M.; Rasmussen, G.

    The National Coal Board, UK, carried out a technical and economic study of the use of non-fossil derived (NFD) hydrogen on three coal conversion processes: methanol synthesis, solid phase hydrogenation (hydrogasification) for substitute natural gas production, and liquid phase hydrogenation (liquifaction) for the manufacture of liquid fuels. Use of NFD hydrogen generally resulted in an increase in the conversion efficiency and carbon utilization, and a reduction in the number of component stages of the process. It was also shown that market conditions could exist in which the use of NFD hydrogen in coal conversion would be preferable to both conventional coal conversion and the direct use of hydrogen, irrespective of the coal price. Substitute natural gas production from synthesis gas (methanation) and the production of liquid fuels from synthesis gas by a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis route were also evaluated and showed similar technical and economic results. Preliminary results of the overall costs of using NFD hydrogen from a nuclear power/electrolysis plant showed that at present fuel prices, coal conversion processes using NFD hydrogen are not competitive with conventional processes, but would be if the price of coal were to double.

  12. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed. PMID:22467662

  13. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  14. Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron-Smith, P; Kosovic, B; Guilderson, T; Monache, L D; Bergmann, D

    2009-08-06

    We have an established project at LLNL to develop the tools needed to constrain fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions using measurements of the carbon-14 isotope in atmospheric samples. In Figure 1 we show the fossil fuel plumes from Los Angeles and San Francisco for two different weather patterns. Obviously, a measurement made at any given location is going to depend on the weather leading up to the measurement. Thus, in order to determine the GHG emissions from some region using in situ measurements of those GHGs, we use state-of-the-art global and regional atmospheric chemistry-transport codes to simulate the plumes: the LLNL-IMPACT model (Rotman et al., 2004) and the WRFCHEM community code (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php). Both codes can use observed (aka assimilated) meteorology in order to recreate the actual transport that occurred. The measured concentration of each tracer at a particular spatio-temporal location is a linear combination of the plumes from each region at that location (for non-reactive species). The challenge is to calculate the emission strengths for each region that fit the observed concentrations. In general this is difficult because there are errors in the measurements and modeling of the plumes. We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figure 2. The Bayesian Inference step combines the a priori estimates of the emissions, and their uncertainty, for each region with the results of the observations, and their uncertainty, and an ensemble of model predicted plumes for each region, and their uncertainty. The result is the mathematical best estimate of the emissions and their errors. In the case of non-linearities, or if we are using a statistical sampling technique such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, then the process is iterated until it converges (ie reaches stationarity). For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast but requires assumptions of linearity and

  15. Geological setting of U.S. fossil fuels.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, C.D.; Mast, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The USA has a special position in terms of fossil fuel development. Not only is it one of the most important nations in terms of resources of oil, gas and coal, but it has also been by far the dominant producer and consumer. In this thorough review of the regional geological environments in which fossil fuels formed in the USA, the authors point to a variety of models of resource occurrence of global interest.-Authors

  16. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  17. Can UK fossil fuel emissions be determined by radiocarbon measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Angelina; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Manning, Alistair; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The GAUGE project evaluates different methods to estimate UK emissions. However, estimating carbon dioxide emissions as a result of fossil fuel burning is challenging as natural fluxes in and out of the atmosphere are very large. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements offer a way to specifically measure the amount of recently added carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. This is possible as, due to their age, all the radiocarbon in fossil fuels has decayed. Hence the amount of recently added CO2 from fossil fuel burning can be measured as a depletion of the 14C content in air. While this method has been successfully applied by several groups on a city or a regional scale, this is the first attempt at using the technique for a national emission estimate. Geographically the UK, being an island, is a good location for such an experiment. But are 14CO2 measurements the ideal solution for estimating fossil fuel emissions as they are heralded to be? Previous studies have shown that 14CO2emissions from the nuclear industry mask the 14C depletion caused by fossil fuel burning and result in an underestimation of the fossil fuel CO2. While this might not be a problem in certain regions around the world, many countries like the UK have a substantial nuclear industry. A correction for this enhancement from the nuclear industry can be applied but are invariably difficult as 14CO2emissions from nuclear power plants have a high temporal variability. We will explain how our sampling strategy was chosen to minimize the influence form the nuclear industry and why this proved to be challenging. In addition we present the results from our ground based measurements to show why trying to estimate national emissions using radiocarbon measurements was overambitious, and how practical the technique is for the UK in general.

  18. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  19. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

  20. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

  1. The dilemma of fossil fuel use and global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Fulkerson, W. ); Sanghvi, M.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels and relationship to climate change is discussed. As the use of fossil fuels has grown, the problems of protecting the environment and human health and safety have also grown, providing a continuing challenge to technological and managerial innovation. Today that challenge is to control atmospheric emissions from combustion, particularly those emissions that cause acidic deposition, urban pollution, and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Technology for reducing acidic deposition is available and needs only to be adopted, and the remedies for urban pollution are being developed and tested. How effective or expensive these will be remains to be determined. The control of emissions of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, seems possible only be reducing the total amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide, and by substituting efficient natural gas technologies for coal. Long before physical depletion forces the transition away from fossil fuels, it is at least plausible and even likely that the greenhouse effect will impose a show-stopping constraint. If such a transition were soon to be necessary, the costs would be very high because substitute energy sources are either limited or expensive or undesirable for other reasons. Furthermore, the costs would be unevenly felt and would be more oppressive for developing nations because they would be least able to pay and, on average, their use rates of fossil fuels are growing much faster than those of many industrialized countries. It is prudent, therefore, to try to manage the use of fossil fuels as if a greenhouse constraint is an important possibility.

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Applications to Unconventional Fossil Fuel Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinberg, R. L.; Leu, G.

    2008-12-01

    Technical and economic projections strongly suggest that fossil fuels will continue to play a dominant role in the global energy market through at least the mid twenty-first century. However, low-cost conventional oil and gas will be depleted in that time frame. Therefore new sources of energy will be needed. We discuss two relatively untapped unconventional fossil fuels: heavy oil and gas hydrate. In both cases, nuclear magnetic resonance plays a key role in appraising the resource and providing information needed for designing production processes.

  3. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    SciTech Connect

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  4. Rationale of Early Adopters of Fossil Fuel Divestment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Christopher Todd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research uses the social science perspectives of institutions, ecological modernization and social movements to analyze the rationale used by the early-adopting universities of fossil fuel divestment in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Through analysis of qualitative data from interviews with key actors at the universities that…

  5. HEAT PUMPS: SUBSTITUTES FOR OUTMODED FOSSIL-FUELED SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the state-of-the-art relative to development, capacity, and adequacy of the heat pump as a potential replacement for outmoded fossil-fueled heating and cooling systems in the residential and commercial sector. Projections are made of the rate at which heat pump...

  6. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  7. If Fossil and Fissile Fuels Falter, We've Got. . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Alternative energy sources and the new systems and techniques required for their development are described: fuel cells, magnetohydrodynamics, thermionics, geothermal, wind, tides, waste consersion, biomass, and ocean thermal energy conversion. (MF)

  8. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these

  9. Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1995-12-01

    The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

  10. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V.

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  12. The long-term legacy of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Toby; Shepherd, John G.; Castle, Stephanie

    2007-09-01

    Fossil fuels will have large impacts on ocean chemistry and climate during the period while they are being burnt (and carbon dioxide emitted) in large amounts. It is frequently assumed that these impacts will fade away soon thereafter. Recent model results, by contrast, suggest that significant impacts will persist for hundreds of thousands of years after emissions cease. We present a new analysis that supports these model findings by elucidating the cause of this `fossil fuel hangover' phenomenon. We explain why the carbonate compensation feedback is atypical, compared to other feedbacks, in the sense that convergence is back towards a new steady-state that is distinct from the starting state. We also calculate in greater detail the predicted implications for the future ocean and atmosphere. The post-fossil fuel long-term equilibrium state could differ from the pre-anthropogenic state by as much as 50% for total dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity and 100% for atmospheric pCO2, depending on the total amount of future emissions.

  13. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    PubMed

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. PMID:27506422

  14. PERSPECTIVE: Keeping a closer eye on fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter F.

    2009-12-01

    all have a major influence on progress to an international agreement. It is important that the political challenges are not underestimated. Long-term observers of the negotiations necessary for global agreements (Inman 2009) are pessimistic about the chances for success at COP15, and argue that agreements between smaller groups of countries may be more effective. China and other developing countries clearly expect greater emission cuts by developed nations as a condition for a successful deal (Pan 2009). Conversely, the constraints on US climate policies are considerable, notably those imposed by fears that an international agreement that does not include equitable emission control measures for developing countries like China and India, will compromise the agreement and reduce its effectiveness (Skodvin and Andresen 2009). In this context the need for earlier, and more reliable, information on emissions is a high priority. Myhre and coworkers (Myhre et al 2009) provide an efficient method for calculating global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion by combining industry statistics with data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; http://cdiac.ornl.gov/). Recent analyses of carbon dioxide emission data show a worrying acceleration in emissions, beyond even the most extreme IPCC projections, but are based largely on the CDIAC which gives information about emissions released two to three years before real time (Canadell et al 2007, Raupach et al 2007). The approach used by Myhre et al (2009) uses BP annual statistics of fossil fuel consumption and has a much shorter lag, of the order of six months. Of significant concern is that their analysis of the data also reveals that the recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 is largely driven by an increase in emissions from coal, most significantly in China. By contrast, emissions from oil and gas continue to follow longer-term historical trends. Earlier and accurate data on CO2 emissions is

  15. Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

    2002-09-26

    Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

  16. Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

  17. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the {open_quotes}Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.{close_quotes} Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100, 000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}low emission sources{close_quotes} and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  18. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    Almost half of the energy used for beating in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 boilerhouses with a total capacity of 1,071 MW, and about 100,000 home furnaces with a total capacity of about 300 MW. More than 600 boilerhouses and 60 percent of the home furnaces are situated near the city center. These facilities are referred to as ``low emission sources`` because they have low stacks. They are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbons in the city, and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in Krakow as the ``Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.`` Funding is provided through the US Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe.

  19. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  20. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  1. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  2. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  3. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  4. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  5. Quantifying Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Space: Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System and Global Urban Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) quantifies fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the planet at a scale of 10 km hourly for the time period 1997-2012. FFDAS is based on the Kaya identity constrained by multiple ground and space-based observations. Among these are the DMSP nightlights, Landscan population, and the Ventus power plant database. We have recently downscaled the FFDAS version 2.0 to 1 km x 1 km resolution using nighlights. The finer spatial resolution allows for the examination of urban emissions across the planet. We take two approaches to examination of urban FFCO2 emissions. The first, utilizes named administrative boundaries combined with manual GIS identification (supported by LandSat and ISA) to identify the top emitting urban areas of the planet. We also utilize an urban land mask, without governmental boundary identification, to analyze all urban area by country across the planet. We perform multiple regression to identify key drivers and patterns. The results demonstrate the change in urban emissions during the last decade and assess the question of whether urban areas exhibit scaling properties vis a vis FFCO2 emissions.

  6. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Gregg, JS; Losey, London M; Marland, Gregg; Boden, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

  7. Conversion of microalgae to jet fuel: process design and simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Bluck, David; Van Wie, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    Microalgae's aquatic, non-edible, highly genetically modifiable nature and fast growth rate are considered ideal for biomass conversion to liquid fuels providing promise for future shortages in fossil fuels and for reducing greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from combustion. We demonstrate adaptability of PRO/II software by simulating a microalgae photo-bio-reactor and thermolysis with fixed conversion isothermal reactors adding a heat exchanger for thermolysis. We model a cooling tower and gas floatation with zero-duty flash drums adding solids removal for floatation. Properties data are from PRO/II's thermodynamic data manager. Hydrotreating is analyzed within PRO/II's case study option, made subject to Jet B fuel constraints, and we determine an optimal 6.8% bioleum bypass ratio, 230°C hydrotreater temperature, and 20:1 bottoms to overhead distillation ratio. Process economic feasibility occurs if cheap CO2, H2O and nutrient resources are available, along with solar energy and energy from byproduct combustion, and hydrotreater H2 from product reforming. PMID:24997379

  8. New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

    2006-09-30

    Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

  9. On Corporate Accountability: Lead, Asbestos, and Fossil Fuel Lawsuits.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Christine

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress. PMID:25910492

  10. Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B.; Krishna, C.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. The project is being conducted in three phases. In Phase I, testing and analytical activities will establish the current level of emissions from existing equipment and operating practices, and will provide estimates of the costs and emission reductions of various options. Phase II consists of a series of public meetings in both Poland and the United States to present the results of Phase I activities. In Phase III, DOE will issue a solicitation for Polish/US joint ventures to perform commercial feasibility studies for the use of US technology in one or more of the areas under consideration. This report provides interim results from Phase 1.

  11. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled ``Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.`` was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  12. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Jr., Lee T.; Boggess, Ronald J.; Carson, Ronald J.; Falkenberg, Virginia P.; Flanagan, Patrick; Hettinger, Jr., William P.; Kimel, Kris; Kupchella, Charles E.; Magid, Lee J.; McLaughlin, Barbara; Royster, Wimberly C.; Streepey, Judi L.; Wells, James H.; Stencel, John; Derbyshire, Frank J.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Magid, Lee J.; McEllistrem, Marc T.; Riley, John T.; Steffen, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  13. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

  14. Atmospheric Verification of Point Source Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Norris, M. W.; Wiltshire, R.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, T.

    2015-12-01

    Large point sources (electricity generation and large-scale industry) make up roughly one third of all fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. Currently, these emissions are determined from self-reported inventory data, and sometimes from smokestack emissions monitoring, and the uncertainty in emissions from individual power plants is about 20%. We examine the utility of atmospheric 14C measurements combined with atmospheric transport modelling as a tool for independently quantifying point source CO2ff emissions, to both improve the accuracy of the reported emissions and for verification as we move towards a regulatory environment. We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Facility as a test case. It is located in rural New Zealand with no other significant fossil fuel CO2 sources nearby, and emits CO2ff at ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. We use several different sampling methods to determine the 14C and hence the CO2ff content downwind of the emission source: grab flask samples of whole air; absorption of CO2 into sodium hydroxide integrated over many hours; and plant material which faithfully records the 14C content of assimilated CO2. We use a plume dispersion model to compare the reported emissions with our observed CO2ff mole fractions. We show that the short-term variability in plume dispersion makes it difficult to interpret the grab flask sample results, whereas the variability is averaged out in the integrated samples and we obtain excellent agreement between the reported and observed emissions, indicating that the 14C method can reliably be used to evaluated point source emissions.

  15. ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS: FOSSIL FUEL, STEAM ELECTRIC GENERATING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report addresses the energy requirements for environmental control in the fossil fuel, steam electric industry. These requirements arise through a number of mechanisms, including: direct fuel or electricity requirements for operating pollution control equipment, including pro...

  16. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  17. Research Spotlight: What are the effects of controlling fossil fuel soot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Leslie; Tretkoff, Ernie

    Fossil fuel soot, emitted during combustion of diesel fuel, jet fuel, and coal, and biofuel soot, emitted mainly through burning of wood and organic waste for heating and cooking, can affect climate and air quality. How much does each of these contribute to global warming? What would be the effects of limiting fossil fuel and biofuel soot emissions? To find out, Jacobson used climate model simulations to investigate and compare the short-term effects of controlling fossil fuel and biofuel soot, as well as methane and carbon dioxide.

  18. The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji; Borgwardt, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

  19. Ecological consequences of elevated total dissolved solids associated with fossil fuel extraction in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fossil fuel burning is considered a major contributor to global climate change. The outlook for production and consumption of fossil fuels int he US indicates continued growth to support growing energy demands. For example, coal-generated electricity is projected ot increase from...

  20. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63404), announcing a public meeting and seeking...

  1. Fossil Fuels. A Supplement to the "Science 100, 101" Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soprovich, William, Comp.

    When the fossil fuels unit was first designed for Science 101 (the currently approved provincial guide for grade 10 science in Manitoba), Canadian support materials were very limited. Since students are asked to interpret data concerning energy consumption and sources for certain fossil fuels, the need for appropriate Canadian data became obvious.…

  2. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy Stationary Fuel Cell Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph P.; Surdoval, Wayne A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industries, is leading a program for the development and demonstration of high efficiency solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell/turbine hybrid power generation systems for near-term distributed generation markets, with emphasis on premium power and high reliability. NETL is partnering with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in developing new directions for research under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative to develop and commercialize modular, low cost, and fuel flexible SOFC systems. Through advanced materials, processing and system integration research and development (R&D), the SECA initiative will reduce the fuel cell cost to $400 kW -1 for stationary and auxiliary power unit markets. The SECA industry teams and core program have made significant progress in scale-up and performance. Presidential initiatives are focusing research toward a new hydrogen economy. The movement to a hydrogen economy would accomplish several strategic goals, namely that SOFCs have no emissions, and hence figure significantly in DOE strategies. The SOFC hybrid is a key part of the FutureGen plant, a major new DOE FE initiative to produce hydrogen from coal. The highly efficient SOFC hybrid plant will produce electric power while other parts of the plant could produce hydrogen and sequester CO 2. The produced hydrogen can be used in fuel cell cars and for SOFC distributed generation applications.

  3. Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

  4. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

    2001-01-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for

  5. A Vulnerability-Benefit Analysis of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delman, E. M.; Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although we can anticipate continued improvements in our understanding of future climate impacts, the central challenge of climate change is not scientific, but rather political and economic. In particular, international climate negotiations center on how to share the burden of uncertain mitigation and adaptation costs. We expose the relative economic interests of different countries by assessing and comparing their vulnerability to climate impacts and the economic benefits they derive from the fossil fuel-based energy system. Vulnerability refers to the propensity of humans and their assets to suffer when impacted by hazards, and we draw upon the results from a number of prior studies that have quantified vulnerability using multivariate indices. As a proxy for benefit, we average CO2 related to each country's extraction of fossil fuels, production of CO2 emissions, and consumption of goods and services (Davis et al., 2011), which should reflect benefits accrued in proportion to national economic dependence on fossil fuels. We define a nondimensional vulnerability-benefit ratio for each nation and find a large range across countries. In general, we confirm that developed and emerging economies such as the U.S., Western Europe, and China rely heavily on fossil fuels and have substantial resources to respond to the impacts of climate change, while smaller, less-developed economies such as Sierra Leone and Vanuatu benefit little from current CO2 emissions and are much more vulnerable to adverse climate impacts. In addition, we identify some countries with a high vulnerability and benefit, such as Iraq and Nigeria; conversely, some nations exhibit both a low vulnerability and benefit, such as New Zealand. In most cases, the ratios reflect the nature of energy-climate policies in each country, although certain nations - such as the United Kingdom and France - assume a level of responsibility incongruous with their ratio and commit to mitigation policy despite

  6. Conversion of wood residues to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The general conversion scheme is shown. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, paraffinic fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A flow diagram of the continuous laboratory unit is shown. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. Capacity is about 10 lbs/h of feedstock. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. If a high octane gasoline is desired, the paraffinic fuel is passed through a conventional catalytic reformer. The normal propanol could be used as a fuel extender if blended with the hydrocarbon fuel products. Off gases from the downstream reactors are of high quality due to the accumulation of low molecular weight paraffins.

  7. Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.; Krajewski, R.; LaMontagne, J.; Kirchstetter, T.

    1992-05-01

    In Karkow, Poland almost half of the energy used for heating is supplied by local, solid-fuel-fired boilerhouses and home stoves. These facilities are referred to as the ``low emission sources`` and are primary contributors of particulates and hydrocarbon air pollution in the city and secondary contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support of Eastern European Democracy Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. The Project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and uito the rest of Eastern Europe. The project plan includes three phases which have been developed around five specific subprojects. In Phase 1, technical and economic assessments will be made of pollution reduction options for the five subprojects. Phase 2 plans call for public meetings in the US and Poland for companies interested in forming joint ventures. Information will be available in these meetings to enable companies to identify markets and select potential partners that meet with their capabilities and interests. In Phase 3, DOE will issue a solicitation for Polish/American joint ventures to perform commercial feasibility studies for the supply of US technology applicable to one or more of the five subprojects. The selected joint venture companies would receive assistance in the form of cooperative agreements requiring at least 50% cost-sharing to perform those activities necessary to permit them to conduct business in Poland.

  8. Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.; Krajewski, R.; LaMontagne, J.; Kirchstetter, T.

    1992-05-01

    In Karkow, Poland almost half of the energy used for heating is supplied by local, solid-fuel-fired boilerhouses and home stoves. These facilities are referred to as the low emission sources'' and are primary contributors of particulates and hydrocarbon air pollution in the city and secondary contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support of Eastern European Democracy Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. The Project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and uito the rest of Eastern Europe. The project plan includes three phases which have been developed around five specific subprojects. In Phase 1, technical and economic assessments will be made of pollution reduction options for the five subprojects. Phase 2 plans call for public meetings in the US and Poland for companies interested in forming joint ventures. Information will be available in these meetings to enable companies to identify markets and select potential partners that meet with their capabilities and interests. In Phase 3, DOE will issue a solicitation for Polish/American joint ventures to perform commercial feasibility studies for the supply of US technology applicable to one or more of the five subprojects. The selected joint venture companies would receive assistance in the form of cooperative agreements requiring at least 50% cost-sharing to perform those activities necessary to permit them to conduct business in Poland.

  9. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  10. Multiple timescales for neutralization of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, David; Kheshgi, Haroon; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

    The long term abiological sinks for anthropogenic CO2 will be dissolution in the oceans and chemical neutralization by reaction with carbonates and basic igneous rocks. We use a detailed ocean/sediment carbon cycle model to simulate the response of the carbonate cycle in the ocean to a range of anthropogenic CO2 release scenarios. CaCO3 will play only a secondary role in buffering the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere because CaCO3 reaction uptake capacity and kinetics are limited by the dynamics of the ocean carbon cycle. Dissolution into ocean water sequesters 70-80% of the CO2 release on a time scale of several hundred years. Chemical neutralization of CO2 by reaction with CaCO3 on the sea floor accounts for another 9-15% decrease in the atmospheric concentration on a time scale of 5.5-6.8 kyr. Reaction with CaCO3 on land accounts for another 3-8%, with a time scale of 8.2 kyr. The final equilibrium with CaCO3 leaves 7.5-8% of the CO2 release remaining in the atmosphere. The carbonate chemistry of the oceans in contact with CaCO3 will act to buffer atmospheric CO2 at this higher concentration until the entire fossil fuel CO2 release is consumed by weathering of basic igneous rocks on a time scale of 200 kyr.

  11. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  12. Infrared imaging of fossil fuel power plant boiler interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, James W.; Cranton, Brian W.; Armstrong, Karen L.; Hammaker, Robert G.

    1997-08-01

    Fossil fuel power plant boilers operate continuously for months at a time, typically shutting down only for routine maintenance or to address serious equipment failures. These shutdowns are very costly, and diagnostic tools and techniques which could be used to minimize shutdown duration and frequency are highly desirable. Due to the extremely hostile environment in these boilers, few tools exist to inspect and monitor operating boiler interiors. This paper presents the design of a passively cooled, infrared borescope used to inspect the interior of operating boilers. The borescope operates at 3.9 micrometer, where flame is partially transparent. The primary obstacles overcome in the instrument design were the harsh industrial environment surrounding the boilers and the high temperatures encountered inside the boilers. A portable yet durable lens system and enclosure was developed to work with a scanning radiometer to address these two problems by both shielding the radiometer from the environment and by extending the optical train into a snout designed to be inserted into access ports on the sides of the boiler. In this manner, interior images of the boiler can be made while keeping the radiometer safely outside the boiler. The lens views a 40 degree field of view through any 2.5' or larger opening in a foot thick boiler wall. Three of these borescopes have been built, and high resolution images of boiler interiors have been obtained.

  13. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart Schesnack; Scott Morrison; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-07-31

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report presents hydrogen permeation data during long term tests and tests at high pressure in addition to progress with cermet, ceramic/ceramic, and thin film membranes.

  14. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

  15. The Fossil Fuel Divestment Movement: An Ethical Dilemma for the Geosciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, C. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    For over 200 years, fossil fuels have been the basis for an industrial revolution that has delivered a level of prosperity to modern society unimaginable during the previous 5000 years of human civilization. However, society's dependence on fossil fuels is coming to an end for two reasons. The first reason is because our fossil fuel reserves are running out, oil in this century, natural gas during the next century, and coal a few centuries later. The second reason is because fossil fuels are having a devastating impact on the habitability of our planet, disrupting our climate system and acidifying our oceans. So the question is not whether we will discontinue using fossil fuels, but rather whether we will stop using them before they do irreparable damage to the Earth's life-support systems. Within our geoscience community, climate scientists have determined that a majority of existing fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned if dangerous climate change and ocean acidification are to be avoided. In contrast, Exxon-Mobil, Shell, and other members of the fossil fuel industry are pursuing a business model that assumes all of their reserves will be burned and will not become stranded assets. Since the geosciences have had a long and mutually beneficial relationship with the fossil fuel industry, this inherent conflict between climate science and industrial interests presents an ethical dilemma for many geoscientists. This conflict is further heightened by the fossil fuel divestment movement, which is underway at over 400 college and university campuses around the world. This presentation will explore some of the ethical and financial issues being raised by the divestment movement from a geoscientist's perspective.

  16. Emissions from ethanol-blended fossil fuel flames

    SciTech Connect

    Akcayoglu, Azize

    2011-01-15

    A fundamental study to investigate the emission characteristics of ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Employing a heterogeneous experimental setup, emissions are measured from diffusion flames around spherical porous particles. Using an infusion pump, ethanol-fossil fuel blend is transpired into a porous sphere kept in an upward flowing air stream. A typical probe of portable digital exhaust gas analyzer is placed in and around the flame with the help of a multi-direction traversing mechanism to measure emissions such as un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since ethanol readily mixes with water, emission characteristics of ethanol-water blends are also studied. For comparison purpose, emissions from pure ethanol diffusion flames are also presented. A simplified theoretical analysis has been carried out to determine equilibrium surface temperature, composition of the fuel components in vapor-phase and heat of reaction of each blend. These theoretical predictions are used in explaining the emission characteristics of flames from ethanol blends. (author) This paper presents the results of an experimental study of flow structure in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts having double rows of half delta-wing type vortex generators mounted on the duct's slant surfaces. The test ducts have the same axial length and hydraulic diameter of 4 m and 58.3 mm, respectively. Each duct consists of double rows of half delta wing pairs arranged either in common flow-up or common flow-down configurations. Flow field measurements were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry Technique for hydraulic diameter based Reynolds numbers in the range of 1000-8000. The secondary flow field differences generated by two different vortex generator configurations were examined in detail. The secondary flow is found stronger behind the second vortex generator pair than behind the first pair but becomes weaker far from the second pair in the case of Duct1. However

  17. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  18. Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

    2013-11-01

    We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m a.g.l. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14CO2 content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~1 week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14CO2 sampling strategies.

  19. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... include conversions of conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles to hybrid-electric vehicles, and conversions from hybrid-electric vehicles to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Since alternative fuel... Parts Manufacturing. 336322 Other Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment...

  20. Plasmolysis for efficient CO2 -to-fuel conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooij, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    The strong non-equilibrium conditions provided by the plasma phase offer the opportunity to beat traditional thermal process energy efficiencies via preferential excitation of molecular vibrational modes. It is therefore a promising option for creating artificial solar fuels from CO2as raw material using (intermittently available) sustainable energy surpluses, which can easily be deployed within the present infrastructure for conventional fossil fuels. In this presentation, a common microwave reactor approach is evaluated experimentally with Rayleigh scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to assess gas temperatures and conversion degrees, respectively. The results are interpreted on basis of estimates of the plasma dynamics obtained with electron energy distribution functions calculated with a Boltzmann solver. It indicates that the intrinsic electron energies are higher than is favourable for preferential vibrational excitation due to dissociative excitation, which causes thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry still to dominate the initial experiments. Novel reactor approaches are proposed to tailor the plasma dynamics to achieve the non-equilibrium in which vibrational excitation is dominant. In collaboration with Dirk van den Bekerom, Niek den Harder, Teofil Minea, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands; Gield Berden, Institute for Molecules and Materials, FELIX facility, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Richard Engeln, Applied Physics, Plasma en Materials Processing, Eindhoven University of Technology; and Waldo Bongers, Martijn Graswinckel, Erwin Zoethout, Richard van de Sanden, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

  1. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Murat; Verhulst, Kristal R; Saltzman, Eric S; Battle, Mark O; Montzka, Stephen A; Blake, Donald R; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-08-11

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they affect both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, whereas methane (CH(4)) alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and waste water. Here we use measurements in firn (perennial snowpack) air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane (C(2)H(6)) during the twentieth century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980s, when the trend reversed, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. We find that this variability was primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels; these emissions peaked in the 1960s and 1970s at 14-16 teragrams per year (1 Tg = 10(12) g) and dropped to 8-10 Tg  yr(-1) by the turn of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is probably related to changes in light hydrocarbon emissions associated with petroleum production and use. The ethane-based fossil-fuel emission history is strikingly different from bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from fossil-fuel use, and implies that the fossil-fuel source of methane started to decline in the 1980s and probably caused the late twentieth century slow-down in the growth rate of atmospheric methane. PMID:21833087

  2. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  3. Material Flow Analysis of Fossil Fuels in China during 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Dai, Jing; Su, Meirong

    2012-01-01

    Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000–2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), resource consumption intensity (RCI), and fossil fuels productivity (FFP), are proposed to reflect the interactions between population, GDP, and fossil fuels. The results indicated that in the past 11 years, China's requirement for fossil fuels has been increasing continuously because of the growing mine productivity in domestic areas, which also leads to a single energy consumption structure as well as excessive dependence on the domestic exploitation. It is advisable to control the fossil fuels consumption by energy recycling and new energy facilities' popularization in order to lead a sustainable access to nonrenewable resources and decrease the soaring carbon emissions. PMID:23365525

  4. Material flow analysis of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Dai, Jing; Su, Meirong

    2012-01-01

    Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), resource consumption intensity (RCI), and fossil fuels productivity (FFP), are proposed to reflect the interactions between population, GDP, and fossil fuels. The results indicated that in the past 11 years, China's requirement for fossil fuels has been increasing continuously because of the growing mine productivity in domestic areas, which also leads to a single energy consumption structure as well as excessive dependence on the domestic exploitation. It is advisable to control the fossil fuels consumption by energy recycling and new energy facilities' popularization in order to lead a sustainable access to nonrenewable resources and decrease the soaring carbon emissions. PMID:23365525

  5. US fossil fuel technologies for developing countries: Costa Rica country packet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-21

    Costa Rica presents long-term opportunities for US participation in the power generation sector. A growing industrial base, high economic growth, and an increasing living standard will continue to require more reliable electric generation. Although the country has depended upon hydropower to meet much of its energy needs, coal could become a more reliable form of energy in the near term, based on estimated indigenous resources and proximity to food quality imports. Thus, trade opportunities exist for the United States, in the electric power sector, for the US advanced fossil fuel technologies and related services. This report describes the Costa Rican energy situation; examines the financial, economic, and trade issues; and discusses project opportunities in Costa Rica. Costa Rica appears to have a positive climate for trade and investment activities, stimulated by the Caribbean Basin Initiative. Although the economy has recently slowed, the economic outlook appears healthy. Application for membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is pending. Due to an unexpectedly large growth in electricity demand, the Costa Rican utility Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is evaluating the need for construction of a coal-fired power plant in the size range of 60 to 125 MW, with an in-service data of the mid-1990s. A decision is expected by the end of 1988 concerning the required size, source of coal, and timing of this coal-fired plant. Based on conditions in Costa Rica, US advanced fossil-fuel technologies were chosen for continued study in conjunction with the identified potential project opportunities. These technologies are the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor and coal-water mixtures. They could play a major role in meeting the utility expansion and/or industrial conversion opportunities summarized in Table I.1. The value of such projects could approximate US $160 million.

  6. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; M.K. Ferber; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-07-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and their team members are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, new cermet compositions were tested that demonstrated similar performance to previous materials. A 0.5-mm thick membrane achieved at H{sub 2} transport rate of 0.2 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C, which corresponded to an ambipolar conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Although these results were equivalent to those for other cermet compositions, this new composition might be useful if it demonstrates improved chemical or mechanical stability. Ceramic/ceramic composite membranes also were fabricated and tested; however, some reaction did occur between the proton- and electron-conducting phases, which likely compromised conductivity. This sample only achieved a H{sub 2} transport rate of {approx} 0.006 mL/min/cm{sup 2} and an ambipolar conductivity of {approx}4 x 10{sup -4} S/cm. Chemical stability tests were continued, and candidate ceramic membranes were found to react slightly with carbon monoxide under extreme testing conditions. A cermet

  7. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997-2010).

    PubMed

    Balch, Jennifer K; Nagy, R Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Bowman, David M J S; Moritz, Max A; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Williamson, Grant J

    2016-06-01

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997-2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216509

  8. BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL TO METHANOL AND CARBON VIA THE HYDROCARB PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the production of methanol and carbon from biomass and fossil fuels, utilizing the Hydrocarbon process. This process has the potential to minimize dependence on imported fuels for the transportation and utility sectors by increasing the yield and reducing the ...

  9. OVERVIEW OF POLLUTION FROM COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUELS IN BOILERS OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the fossil-fuel-fired boiler population of the U.S. It presents data on the number and capacity of boilers for categories most relevant to producing pollution. Information presented includes: type of fuel burned (coal, residual oil, distillate oil, natural ga...

  10. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  11. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  12. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  13. The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon emissions. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, only national annual data for anthropogenic carbon emissions are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of emissions are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon emissions. The annual total emissions estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon emissions allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon emissions, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.

  14. Garbage to hydrocarbon fuel conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, W.A.

    1986-07-15

    A garbage to hydrocarbon fuel conversion system is described which consists of: (a) a source of combustible garbage; (b) means for pulverizing the garbage; (c) a furnace to burn the garbage; (d) means for transporting the pulverized garbage to the furnace which comprises a motor operated worm feed automatic stoker; (e) a steam generating coil inside the furnace which supplies live steam to power a turbine which in turn powers an alternating current generator; and a condenser which returns remaining the steam to a liquid state for re-circulation through the steam generating coils; (f) means for collecting incompletely combusted waste gases from the furnace; precipitating out dust and light oil for re-combustion in the furnace; and, extracting hydrocarbon gas; where in the means for precipitating out dust and light oil for re-combustion in the furnace comprise a cottrell precipitator wherein oil from an external source is mixed with fine dust received from the exhaust port, wherein an electrostatic charge helps to precipitate the dust; a dust and light oil mixer which provides a homogeneous mixture; and, an oil burner mounted to the furnace whose heat output is supplied to the furnace to add energy thereto; and (g) means for burning trapped heavy gases and removing waste ash from the furnace for disposal.

  15. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-11-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  16. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  17. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  18. Interfacing infrared electric and fossil fuel units for brooding poultry

    SciTech Connect

    Medders, C.; Oliver, R.

    1987-01-01

    Initial data indicates that electric brooders for broiler houses may have some advantages over gas brooders. Less moisture, better litter, and better feed conversion seem to be some of the advantages.

  19. Fossils harbor climate clues and fuel debate over glacier stability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    At the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf near McMurdo Station in Antarctica, scientists have discovered fossils of well preserved wood and a mixture of microscopic marine organisms, dating from the Eocene epoch. This discovery promises significant clues to the onset of glaciation in Antarctica. Geologists believe that this discovery may shed light on Antarctica's link to world climate and help predict future climatic change. Debate centers around when glaciation first became extensive, 15 or 20 million years ago, and whether or not the ice sheet was dynamic and responsive to small fluctuations in climate or stable and able to lock up massive amounts of the world's water. 7 refs.

  20. High-Temperature Corrosion in Fossil Fuel Power Generation: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.

    2013-08-01

    Fossil fuels have historically represented two-thirds of all electricity generation in the United States and are projected to continue to play a similar role despite historically low projected growth rates in electricity demand and the recent dramatic shift from coal to more natural gas usage. Economic and environmental drivers will require more reliable and efficient fossil fuel generation systems in the future, likely with new system designs, higher operating temperatures, and more aggressive environments. Some of the current corrosion issues in power plants are reviewed along with research on materials solutions for systems envisioned for the near future, such as coal gasification and oxy-fired coal boilers.

  1. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOEpatents

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  2. CO₂ emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine; Wada, Kenichi; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  3. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  4. Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-11-01

    Interim results are presented from testing and analytical activities for establishing the current level of emissions from existing equipment. Cost estimates for conversions or replacements are included. A public relations effort has been defined to inform the citizens of Krakow about the project and provide the means for public attitudes to be measured and incorporated into project decision-making.

  5. Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon anode fuels in molton salt media

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N; Krueger, R; Cooper, J F

    2001-01-17

    We are conducting research into the direct electrochemical conversion of reactive carbons into electricity--with experimental evidence of total efficiencies exceeding 80% of the heat of combustion of carbon. Together with technologies for extraction of reactive carbons from broad based fossil fuels, direct carbon conversion addresses the objectives of DOE's ''21st Century Fuel Cell'' with exceptionally high efficiency (>70% based on standard heat of reaction, {Delta}H{sub std}), as well as broader objectives of managing CO{sub 2} emissions. We are exploring the reactivity of a wide range of carbons derived from diverse sources, including pyrolyzed hydrocarbons, petroleum cokes, purified coals and biochars, and relating their electrochemical reactivity to nano/microstructural characteristics.

  6. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  7. Aluminum-26 in the early solar system - Fossil or fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Mg was measured in different phases of a Ca-Al-rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite. Large excesses of Mg-26 of up to 10% were found. These excesses correlate strictly with the Al-27/Mg-24 ratio for four coexisting phases with distinctive chemical compositions. Models of in situ decay of Al-26 within the solar system and of mixing of interstellar dust grains containing fossil Al-26 with normal solar system material are presented. The observed correlation provides definitive evidence for the presence of Al-26 in the early solar system. This requires either injection of freshly synthesized nucleosynthetic material into the solar system immediately before condensation and planet formation, or local production within the solar system by intense activity of the early sun. Planets promptly produced from material with the inferred Al-26/Al-27 would melt within about 300,000 years.

  8. Recent Developments on the Production of Transportation Fuels via Catalytic Conversion of Microalgae: Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Ping; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-08-02

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize “food versus fuel” concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  9. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  10. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO{sub 2} emission fluxes for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin R. Gurney; Daniel L. Mendoza; Yuyu Zhou; Marc L. Fischer; Chris C. Miller; Sarath Geethakumar; Stephane de la Rue du Can

    2009-07-15

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of about 100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Geology, fossil fuel potential and environmental concerns of the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, P.; Yusifov, M.; Arnoldi, J.

    2003-04-01

    The fossil fuel producing areas of the Caspian region consists primarily of two basins, the Precaspian and South Caspian basins, both containing sediments in excess of 20km. The South Caspian Basin, a remnant of Tethys, was formed commencing in the Early-Middle Jurassic as a result of opening of back-arc basins behind volcanic arcs. The PreCaspian Basin extends onshore onto Kazakhstan and Russia and commenced its complicated geological evolution in the Middle Devonian. These basins are presently producing oil and gas in excess of one million barrels per day and two trillion cubic feet per day, respectively. They contain oil and gas reserves that are comparable to those of most other of the world's fossil fuel producing regions, excluding the Middle East. It is anticipated that within a decade these basins will produce over three million barrels of oil and four trillion cubic feet of gas per day. We review the economic, environmental, and geopolitical concerns with respect to exploration and recovery of the region’s fossil fuels. For one, the presence of mud volcanoes, gas hydrates, and earthquakes are a hazard for installation of oil platforms and other facilities. Pollution, attributed in large part to the fossil fuel industry, has created health and other environmental problems such as mass die-off of the Caspian seal, and in part to the large decrease in sturgeon population. Other important environmental concerns include the relatively rapid changes in sea level and desertification of the surrounding regions. There are also important legal questions with respect to ownership of resources beneath the seafloor. In addition, the transportation routes (pipelines) of fossil fuels that are anticipated to be recovered over the next decades have yet to be fully determined. Despite many of the political uncertainties, significant advances have been made in the short time since the breakup of the Soviet Union fueling optimism for the future of the region.

  12. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Kevin R; Mendoza, Daniel L; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L; Miller, Chris C; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-07-15

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of approximately 100 km2 and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO2 inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the "Vulcan" inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km2 and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Comparison to the global 1degree x 1 degree fossil fuel CO2 inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach. PMID:19708393

  13. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-03-19

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

  14. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... of conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles to hybrid-electric vehicles, and conversions from hybrid-electric vehicles to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Since alternative fuel conversion activity often... Manufacturing. 336322 Other Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing. 336399 All...

  15. Power Gas and Combined Cycles: Clean Power From Fossil Fuels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, William D.

    1973-01-01

    The combined-cycle system is currently regarded as a useful procedure for producing electricity. This system can burn natural gas and oil distillates in addition to coal. In the future when natural gas stocks will be low, coal may become an important fuel for such systems. Considerable effort must be made for research on coal gasification and…

  16. General circulation model response to production-limited fossil fuel emission estimates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Rutledge, D.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    The differences in emissions scenarios used to drive IPCC climate projections are the largest sources of uncertainty in future temperature predictions. These estimates are critically dependent on oil, gas, and coal production where the extremal variations in fossil fuel production used in these scenarios is roughly 10:1 after 2100. The development of emission scenarios based on production-limited fossil fuel estimates, i.e., total fossil fuel reserves can be reliably predicted from cumulative production, offers the opportunity to significantly reduce this uncertainty. We present preliminary results of the response of the NASA GISS atmospheric general circulation model to input forcings constrained by production-limited cumulative future fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates that reach roughly 500 GtC by 2100, which is significantly lower than any of the IPCC emission scenarios. For climate projections performed from 1958 through 2400 and a climate sensitivity of 5C/2xCO2, the change in globally averaged annual mean temperature relative to fixed CO2 does not exceed 3C with most changes occurring at high latitudes. We find that from 2100-2400 other input forcings such as increased in N2O play an important role in maintaining increase surface temperatures.

  17. QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

  18. Health effects of fossil fuel combustion products: report of a workshop.

    PubMed Central

    Comar, C L; Nelson, N

    1975-01-01

    Judgemental positions are presented on research priorities in regard to the health effects from stationary sources of fossil fuel combustion products. Hopefully, they can provide guidance for efforts to ensure that national energy needs are met with minimum environmental and economic burdens on the public. The major areas include epidemiological studies, controlled biological studies, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, trace elements, monitoring and analysis. PMID:1227856

  19. Sources of black carbon in aerosols: fossil fuel burning vs. biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The uncertainty in black carbon (BC) analysis and our inability to directly quantify the BC sources in the atmosphere has led to the uncertainty in compiling a regional or global BC emission inventory attributed to biomass burnings. We initiate this study to demonstrate a new approach, which quantifies the source of BC in the atmosphere between biomass and fossil fuel burnings. We applied the newly developed multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA) technology to quantify BC and organic carbon (OC), respectively, in aerosol samples. MESTA can also separate BC from OC for subsequent radiocarbon analyses. Because fossil fuel has been depleted of radiocarbon and biomass has radiocarbon of the modern atmospheric level, we can quantify the sources of BC between fossil fuel and biomass burnings. We sampled the PM2.5 in the ambient air of central Tallahassee and its rural areas during the May-June (prescribed burning) and Nov-Dec (non-burning) periods. The results indicate that biomass burning contributed 89×1% and 67×2% of BC, respectively, during May-June and Nov.-Dec. periods. The rest of PM2.5 BC was contributed from fossil fuel burning. The radiocarbon contents of the OC was 103.42×0.55 percent modern carbon (pmC), which is consistent with the current atmospheric level with a trace of the bomb radiocarbon remained from the open atmosphere nuclear testing.

  20. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1982-10-01

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  1. Relative importance of thermal versus carbon dioxide induced warming from fossil-fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth is heated both when reduced carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide and when outgoing longwave radiation is trapped by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (CO2 greenhouse effect). The purpose of this study is to improve our understanding of time scales and relative magnitudes of climate forcing increase over time from pulse, continuous, and historical CO2 and thermal emissions. To estimate the amount of global warming that would be produced by thermal and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, we calculate thermal emissions with thermal contents of fossil fuels and estimate CO2 emissions with emission factors from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. We then use a schematic climate model mimicking Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 to investigate the climate forcing and the time-integrated climate forcing. We show that, considered globally, direct thermal forcing from fossil fuel combustion is about 1.71% the radiative forcing from CO2 that has accumulated in the atmosphere from past fossil fuel combustion. When a new power plant comes on line, the radiative forcing from the accumulation of released CO2 exceeds the thermal emissions from the power plant in less than half a year (and about 3 months for coal plants). Due to the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere, CO2 radiative forcing greatly overwhelms direct thermal forcing on longer time scales. Ultimately, the cumulative radiative forcing from the CO2 exceeds the direct thermal forcing by a factor of ~100,000.

  2. The effects of hygroscopicity of fossil fuel BC on mixed-phase and cirrus ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Y.; Penner, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil fuel burning BC aerosols are often emitted together with sulfate, which coats the surface of these BC particles and changes their hygroscopicity. The ice forming capability of the fossil fuel burning BC can differ widely as a result of the amount of soluble coating on their surface. Due to the abundance of fossil fuel burning BC particles, a small change in their activated fraction can produce a large difference in their climate forcing. To better quantify the role of fossil fuel burning BC in climate change, a 3-BC (hydrophobic, hydrophilic and hygroscopic BC) scheme is developed to replace the 1-BC scheme in a coupled climate and aerosol transport model (CAM-IMPACT). The new scheme explicitly calculates the condensation and coagulation of sulfate on BC particles and keeps track of their coating in the 3-BC states. The hygroscopicity of BC is determined by the layers of sulfate coating on their surface according to criteria developed in laboratory observations. The ice formation scheme in mixed-phase and cirrus clouds is also updated to treat the 3 hygroscopicity BC groups separately according to their different ice freezing capabilities. This paper will report the climate forcing associated with the new BC scheme as well as comparison with observations.

  3. WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

  4. A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS WITH BIOMASS BY THE HYDROCARB PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and gives results of an assessment of a new process concept for the production of carbon and methanol from fossil fuels. The Hydrocarb Process consists of the hydrogasification of carbonaceous material to produce methane, which is subsequently thermally decom...

  5. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  6. Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

    2012-08-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

  7. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century.

    PubMed

    Graven, Heather D

    2015-08-01

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon ((14)C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio (14)C/C in atmospheric CO2 (Δ(14)CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases Δ(14)CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all (14)C from radioactive decay. Simulations of Δ(14)CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain Δ(14)CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0‰ through 2100, whereas "business-as-usual" emissions will reduce Δ(14)CO2 to -250‰, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial "aging" of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old. PMID:26195757

  8. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  9. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century

    PubMed Central

    Graven, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon (14C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio 14C/C in atmospheric CO2 (Δ14CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases Δ14CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all 14C from radioactive decay. Simulations of Δ14CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain Δ14CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0‰ through 2100, whereas “business-as-usual” emissions will reduce Δ14CO2 to −250‰, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial “aging” of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old. PMID:26195757

  10. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS WITH BIOMASS BY THE HYDROCARB PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and gives results of an assessment of a new process concept for the production of carbon and methanol from fossil fuels. he Hydrocarb Process consists of the hydrogasification of carbonaceous material to produce methane, which is subsequently thermally decomp...

  11. Quantifying fossil fuel CO2 from continuous measurements of APO: a novel approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickers, Penelope; Manning, Andrew C.; Forster, Grant L.; van der Laan, Sander; Wilson, Phil A.; Wenger, Angelina; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2016-04-01

    Using atmospheric measurements to accurately quantify CO2 emissions from fossil fuel sources requires the separation of biospheric and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. The ability to quantify the fossil fuel component of CO2 (ffCO2) from atmospheric measurements enables more accurate 'top-down' verification of CO2 emissions inventories, which frequently have large uncertainty. Typically, ffCO2 is quantified (in ppm units) from discrete atmospheric measurements of Δ14CO2, combined with higher resolution atmospheric CO measurements, and with knowledge of CO:ffCO2 ratios. In the United Kingdom (UK), however, measurements of Δ14CO2 are often significantly biased by nuclear power plant influences, which limit the use of this approach. We present a novel approach for quantifying ffCO2 using measurements of APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen; a tracer derived from concurrent measurements of CO2 and O2) from two measurement sites in Norfolk, UK. Our approach is similar to that used for quantifying ffCO2 from CO measurements (ffCO2(CO)), whereby ffCO2(APO) = (APOmeas - APObg)/RAPO, where (APOmeas - APObg) is the APO deviation from the background, and RAPO is the APO:CO2 combustion ratio for fossil fuel. Time varying values of RAPO are calculated from the global gridded COFFEE (CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate) dataset, combined with NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) transport model footprints. We compare our ffCO2(APO) results to results obtained using the ffCO2(CO) method, using CO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios (RCO) from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) database. We find that the APO ffCO2 quantification method is more precise than the CO method, owing primarily to a smaller range of possible APO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios, compared to the CO:CO2 emission ratio range. Using a long-term dataset of atmospheric O2, CO2, CO and Δ14CO2 from Lutjewad, The Netherlands, we examine the

  12. Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.

    PubMed

    Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. PMID:23246069

  13. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  14. Dynamics of fossil fuel CO2 neutralization by marine CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, David; Kheshgi, Haroon; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

    1998-06-01

    A detailed model of the ocean circulation and carbon cycle was coupled to a mechanistic model of CaCO3 diagenesis in deep sea sediments to simulate the millennium-scale response of the oceans to future fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and deep sea. Simulations of deep sea injection of CO2 show that CaCO3 dissolution is sensitive to passage of high-CO2 waters through the Atlantic Ocean, but CaCO3 dissolution has a negligible impact on atmospheric pCO2 or the atmospheric stabilization CO2 emission in the coming centuries. The ultimate fate of the fossil fuel CO2 will be to react with CaCO3 on the seafloor and on land. An initial CaCO3 dissolution spike reverses the net sedimentation rate in the ocean until it is attenuated by an enhanced vertical gradient of alkalinity after about 1000 years. The magnitude of the initial spike is sensitive to assumptions about the kinetics for CaCO3 dissolution, but subsequent behavior appears to be less model dependent. Neutralization by seafloor CaCO3 occurs on a timescale of 5-6 kyr, and is limited to at most 60-70% of the fossil fuel release, even if the fossil fuel release is smaller than the seafloor erodible inventory of CaCO3. Additional neutralization by terrestrial CaCO3 restores a balance between CaCO3 weathering and seafloor accumulation on a timescale of 8.5 kyr, while the deficit of seafloor CaCO3 (the lysocline) is replenished with an e-folding timescale of approximately 18 kyr. The final equilibrium with CaCO3 leaves 7-8% of the fossil fuel CO2 remaining in the atmosphere, to be neutralized by the silicate rock cycle on a time frame of hundreds of thousands of years.

  15. The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlade, Christophe; Ekins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world's oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers' instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production.

  16. Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin R.

    2011-07-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision-makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical constraints to carbon budget studies being performed at the national to urban scales. This study analyzes the spatial distribution and spatial drivers of total and sectoral fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the state and county levels in the United States. The spatial patterns of absolute versus per capita fossil fuel CO2 emissions differ substantially and these differences are sector-specific. Area-based sources such as those in the residential and commercial sectors are driven by a combination of population and surface temperature with per capita emissions largest in the northern latitudes and continental interior. Emission sources associated with large individual manufacturing or electricity producing facilities are heterogeneously distributed in both absolute and per capita metrics. The relationship between surface temperature and sectoral emissions suggests that the increased electricity consumption due to space cooling requirements under a warmer climate may outweigh the savings generated by lessened space heating. Spatial cluster analysis of fossil fuel CO2 emissions confirms that counties with high (low) CO2 emissions tend to be clustered close to other counties with high (low) CO2 emissions and some of the spatial clustering extends to multi-state spatial domains. This is particularly true for the residential and transportation sectors, suggesting that emissions mitigation policy might best be approached from the regional or multi-state perspective. Our findings underscore the potential for geographically focused, sector-specific emissions mitigation strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements. Keywords: Fossil-fuel

  17. Toward Solar Fuels: Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, SC; Varghese, OK; Paulose, M; Grimes, CA

    2010-03-01

    The past several decades have seen a significant rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels resulting from the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. A solar energy based technology to recycle carbon dioxide into readily transportable hydrocarbon fuel (i.e., a solar fuel) would help reduce atmospheric CO2 levels and partly fulfill energy demands within the present hydrocarbon based fuel infrastructure. We review the present status of carbon dioxide conversion techniques, with particular attention to a recently developed photocatalytic process to convert carbon dioxide and water vapor into hydrocarbon fuels using sunlight.

  18. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutzen, P. J.; Mosier, A. R.; Smith, K. A.; Winiwarter, W.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3-5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1%) estimated by IPCC (2006), and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35-0.45%) cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize), depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate

  19. Summary of research on hydrogen production from fossil fuels conducted at NETL

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsi, Abolghasem

    2008-03-30

    In this presentation we will summarize the work performed at NETL on the production of hydrogen via partial oxidation/dry reforming of methane and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide. We have determined that high pressure resulted in greater carbon formation on the reforming catalysts, lower methane and CO2 conversions, as well as a H2/CO ratio. The results also showed that Rh/alumina catalyst is the most resistant toward carbon deposition both at lower and at higher pressures. We studied the catalytic partial oxidation of methane over Ni-MgO solid solutions supported on metal foams and the results showed that the foam-supported catalysts reach near-equilibrium conversions of methane and H2/CO selectivities. The rates of carbon deposition differ greatly among the catalysts, varying from 0.24 mg C/g cat h for the dipped foams to 7.0 mg C/g cat h for the powder-coated foams, suggesting that the exposed Cr on all of the foam samples may interact with the Ni-MgO catalyst to kinetically limit carbon formation. Effects of sulfur poisoning on reforming catalysts were studies and pulse sulfidation of catalyst appeared to be reversible for some of the catalysts but not for all. Under pulse sulfidation conditions, the 0.5%Rh/alumina and NiMg2Ox-1100ºC (solid solution) catalysts were fully regenerated after reduction with hydrogen. Rh catalyst showed the best overall activity, less carbon deposition, both fresh and when it was exposed to pulses of H2S. Sulfidation under steady state conditions significantly reduced catalyst activity. Decomposition of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur was studied over several supported metal oxides and metal oxide catalysts at a temperature range of 650-850°C. H2S conversions and effective activation energies were estimated using Arrhenius plots. The results of these studies will further our understanding of catalytic reactions and may help in developing better and robust catalysts for the production of hydrogen from fossil

  20. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

    1985-12-03

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  1. Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  2. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  3. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  4. The significance of chemical markers in bioprocessing of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Manowitz, B.

    1993-12-31

    Biochemical conversion of crude oils is a multi-step process proceeding through a series of biochemical reactions. These reactions can be characterized by a set of chemical markers which are associated with the chemical composition of crude oils. Reactions with heavy crude oils indicate that there is an overall decrease in the concentration and chemical speciation of organic sulfur compounds, and a redistribution of hydrocarbons and organometallic species. The contents of trace metals in the crude oils, such as nickel and vanadium, also decrease. Further, heavy ends of crudes, containing the asphaltenes and the polar nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen containing fractions, as well as the organometallic compounds and complexes, are biochemically converted to lower molecular weight chemical species. In the studies reported in this paper, microorganisms used to mediate such reactions were thermophilic (>60{degrees}C) and pressure tolerant (up to 2500 psi). These organisms are also capable of biochemical conversion of bituminous and lignite coals in an analogous manner to their action on crude oils and follow similar trends characterized by chemical markers.

  5. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    A review of satellite-based photographic (optical and infrared) and microwave exploration and large-area mapping of the earth's surface in the ERTS program. Synoptic cloud-free coverage of large areas has been achieved with planimetric vertical views of the earth's surface useful in compiling close-to-orthographic mosaics. Radar penetration of cloud cover and infrared penetration of forest cover have been successful to some extent. Geological applications include map editing (with corrections in scale and computer processing of images), landforms analysis, structural geology studies, lithological identification, and exploration for minerals and fuels. Limitations of the method are noted.

  7. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    ScienceCinema

    McGraw, Jennifer

    2013-05-28

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2013-10-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and

  9. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  10. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  11. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  12. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  13. Biological conversion of methane to liquid fuels: status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Yang, Liangcheng; Sheets, Johnathon P; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2014-12-01

    Methane is the main component of natural gas and biogas. As an abundant energy source, methane is crucial not only to meet current energy needs but also to achieve a sustainable energy future. Conversion of methane to liquid fuels provides energy-dense products and therefore reduces costs for storage, transportation, and distribution. Compared to thermochemical processes, biological conversion has advantages such as high conversion efficiency and using environmentally friendly processes. This paper is a comprehensive review of studies on three promising groups of microorganisms (methanotrophs, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and acetogens) that hold potential in converting methane to liquid fuels; their habitats, biochemical conversion mechanisms, performance in liquid fuels production, and genetic modification to enhance the conversion are also discussed. To date, methane-to-methanol conversion efficiencies (moles of methanol produced per mole methane consumed) of up to 80% have been reported. A number of issues that impede scale-up of this technology, such as mass transfer limitations of methane, inhibitory effects of H2S in biogas, usage of expensive chemicals as electron donors, and lack of native strains capable of converting methane to liquid fuels other than methanol, are discussed. Future perspectives and strategies in addressing these challenges are also discussed. PMID:25281583

  14. COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS FOR CO2 EMISSION REDUCTION IN THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an evaluation of the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. hese products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. s fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, ...

  15. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol

  16. Fire vs. fossil fuel: all CO2 emissions are not created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, J.-S.; Matthews, H. D.

    2015-09-01

    Fire is arguably the most influential natural disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. Nevertheless, fire has not been the subject of dedicated studies in coupled climate-carbon models with interactive vegetation until very recently. Hence, previous studies resorted to results from simulations of fossil fuel emissions to estimate the effects of fire-induced CO2 emissions. While atmospheric CO2 molecules are all alike, fundamental differences in their origin suggest that the effects from fire emissions on the global carbon cycle and temperature are irreconcilable with the effects from fossil fuel emissions. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and non-deforestation fires (i.e., following which the natural vegetation can recover) using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons involve gross fire emissions. Our results also support the notion that most net emissions occur relatively soon after fire regime shifts and then progressively approach zero, whereas gross emissions stabilize around a new value that is a poor indicator of the cumulative net emissions caused by the fire regime shift. Overall, our study

  17. Assessment of a multi-stage underwater vehicle concept using a fossil-fuel Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Stirling Engine because of its inherent closed-cycle operation can be readily modified to work in an airless environment even if the primary source of energy is a fossil fuel. Thus, Stirling engines are well suited for use in the underwater environment and have been operated successfully in manned military submarines since the early 1980s. In recent years fossil fueled Stirling systems have been also proposed for use in small unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). However, in this case the need to carry an onboard oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design difficulties. These are identified in the paper. However, if the oxidant supply to the engine is provided by the membrane extraction of dissolved oxygen from seawater and/or disposable fuel/oxidant pods are used then the UUV Stirling system becomes more attractive. If this latter concept is extended to include multi-stage vehicles then it can be shown that fossil fueled Stirlings could also be put to effective use in long range-long endurance underwater vehicular operations.

  18. CO₂ emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; et al

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increasesmore » strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.« less

  19. Further experience for environmental improvement in fossil fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzeri, L.; Santis, R. de

    1998-12-31

    Reburning is a technology which has proven, by plant demonstration, capable of providing compliance with very stringent regulatory emissions requests (less than 90 ppm NO{sub x} firing oil and gas and less than 160--170 ppm firing coal). Designing a Reburn System requires a contemporary control of many parameters like flow rates, local stoichiometries residence times, etc.; it also requires the availability and capability of using complex and sophisticated numerical modeling. Although the system can be adapted to any already installed hardware it should be noted that the availability of reliable LNB`s and of specifically designed OFA`s and Reburn fuel injectors can greatly enhance the system performance. Design of OFA system is a subcase of a Reburn System design, as it implies same concepts of mixing and residence times which are the basis of Reburn System. As shown in the cases previously presented Reburning always provides additional margins to OFA operation specifically when very low emission limits are pursued. Finally it should be noted that the use of Reburning may create problems of unburned specifically when very low local stoichiometries and when very low sulfur oils are used which are often characterized by asphaltene instability especially when STZ oil is the result of blending high and low sulfur oils. A specific know-how has been jointly developed by Ansaldo and ENEL to solve these problems acting on both atomizer type selection and operation.

  20. Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

  1. Coal conversion and synthetic-fuel production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, R.; Atkins, W. T.; Bass, R. M.; Dascher, R.; Dunkin, J.; Luce, N.; Seward, W.; Warren, D.

    1980-01-01

    Report evaluates potential coal gasification and synthetic-fuel production technologies for 1985 to 1990. Book includes overview of present and future technical and economic potential, ways of evaluating gasification facility designs, discussion of promising processes, characterization of potential markets, and list of available gasification systems.

  2. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  3. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  4. FUEL DECOMPOSITION AND FLAME REACTIONS IN CONVERSION OF FUEL NITROGEN TO NOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an experimental and analytical research program conducted to provide information on the chemical phenomena involved in the conversion of air and fuel nitrogen to NOx. Under Task 1, Fuel Decomposition, early (preflame) reactions of fuel nitrogen species were i...

  5. Processing of solid fossil-fuel deposits by electrical induction heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, S. T.

    1980-02-01

    A study has been made to determine the feasibility of extracting the energy commodities electricity, gas, petroleum, chemical feedstocks, and coke from the solid fossil fuels coal, oil shale, oil sand, and heavy oil by the electrical induction heating of the deposits. Available electrical, physical, and chemical data indicate that this process may be technically and economically feasible. Some basic data are missing, and it has been necessary to indicate possible ranges of values for some parameters. The tentative conclusions drawn are the following. All four solid fossil fuels can be processed successfully underground. All five energy commodities can be produced economically in adequate quantities for a period of a century or more in North America, without recourse to any other major energy source. The development and construction time required is short enough to permit an uninterrupted supply of all energy commodities as present sources decline

  6. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  7. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  8. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  9. Molecular and isotopic evidence for fossil fuel aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtfouse, E.; Budzinski, F.H.; Garrigues, P.

    1996-10-01

    The origin of organic molecules occurring in complex media such as soils and sediments is still an enigma. In soils, for example, the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a major concern because these potentially toxic compounds may ultimately be transferred into food and drinking water. At present, two main hypotheses can be made for the origin of PAH in soils. PAH, or their precursors, can be synthesized by modem plants, within soil biomass and humic substance degradation. Alternatively, PAH may derive from fossil fuels and associated combustion products. In the present study, soils have been cultivated for 23 years with maize in order to label the organic matter with naturally {sup 13}C-enriched maize-derived carbon. {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C and molecular analysis of aromatic fractions from those soils show that the main part of PAH are ancient, most probably derived from fossil fuel and their combustion products.

  10. Combustion of available fossil-fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, R.; Levermann, A.; Ridgwell, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 meters in global sea-level rise. Here we show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil-fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil-fuel emissions of 10 000 GtC, Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 meters per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West- and East Antarctica results in a threshold-increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.

  11. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  12. Gas Conversion Systems Reclaim Fuel for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A human trip to Mars will require astronauts to utilize resources on the Red Planet to generate oxygen and fuel for the ride home, among other things. Lakewood, Colorado-based Pioneer Energy has worked under SBIR agreements with Johnson Space Center to develop technology for those purposes, and now uses a commercialized version of the technology to recover oil and gas that would otherwise be wasted at drilling sites.

  13. Conversion of waste plastics to fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roaper, R. B.; Bhatia, J.

    1981-10-01

    Most of the plastics in use in the world today are produced from crude oil. This increased use of plastics results in an increased generation of discard and waste. In the case of thermoplastics, the types which constitute the bulk of the plastics in high volume use, it is theoretically possible to recycle discard and waste into virgin plastics. However, due to type incompatibility, and contamination with foreign materials, this approach has not proven economically feasible except for a smal quantity of the discard and waste stream. A pyrolysis process was successfully demonstrated which converted atactic polypropylene, APP, to fuel oil and a small fraction of fuel gas. In the current program, a commercial plant, with capacity of 17,000,000 lb/year feedstock, was designed for the pyrolysis of APP waste to fuel oil. In addition, the feasibility of this approach was extended to waste or discarded isotactic polypropylene, PP, and low density polyethylene, LDPE, through pilot plant work, process design, and economic considerations.

  14. A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

  15. Bivariate, nonstationary time-series model for global fossil-fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, B.W.; Crosby, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mankind is returning fossil fuel generated C02 to Earth's atmosphere at an exponential rate, causing concern about a greenhouse warming. Jones, et.al. (1986) derived the record of yearly average temperature changes. The least squares straight line has slope 0.38 +/- 0.04 ( deg C) (century)-1, but the average slope since 1970 has been much greater and is thought by some to indicate the onset of the greenhouse.

  16. Dependence of the radiative forcing of the climate system on fossil fuel type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies are greatly directed towards the reduction of CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion to limit warming to 2º C in this century. For example, the Clean Power Plan aims to reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector by 32% of 2005 levels by 2030 by increasing power plant efficiency but also by switching from coal-fired power plants to natural gas-fired power plants. It is important to understand the impact of such fuel switching on climate change. While all fossil fuels emit CO2, they also emit other pollutants with varying effects on climate, health and agriculture. First, The emission of CO2 per joule of energy produced varies significantly between coal, oil and natural gas. Second, the complexity that the co-emitted pollutants add to the perturbations in the climate system necessitates the detangling of radiative forcing for each type of fossil fuel. The historical (1850-2011) net radiative forcing of climate as a function of fuel type (coal, oil, natural gas and biofuel) is reconstructed. The results reveal the significant dependence of the CO2 and the non-CO2 forcing on fuel type. The CO2 forcing per joule of energy is largest for coal. Radiative forcing from the co-emitted pollutants (black carbon, methane, nitrogen oxides, organic carbon, sulfate aerosols) changes the global mean CO2 forcing attributed to coal and oil significantly. For natural gas, the CO2-only radiative forcing from gas is increased by about 60% when the co-emitted pollutants are included.

  17. Solar thermal technologies as a bridge from fossil fuels to renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Vishwanath Haily; Panse, Sudhir V.; Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B.

    2015-11-01

    Integrating solar thermal systems into Rankine-cycle power plants can be done with minimal modification to the existing infrastructure. This presents an opportunity to introduce these technologies into the commercial space incrementally, to allow engineers to build familiarity with the systems before phasing out fossil-fuel energy with solar electricity. This paper shows that there is no thermodynamic barrier to injecting solar thermal heat into Rankine-cycle plants to offset even up to 50% fossil-fuel combustion with existing technology: with better solar-to-electricity efficiencies than conventionally deployed solar-thermal power plants. This strategy is economically preferable to installing carbon-capture and compression equipment for mitigating an equivalent amount of greenhouse-gas emissions. We suggest that such projects be encouraged by extending the same subsidy/incentives to the solar-thermal fraction of a `solar-aided’ plant that would be offered to a conventionally deployed solar-thermal power plant of similar capacity. Such a policy would prepare the ground for an incremental solar-thermal takeover of fossil-fuel power plants.

  18. Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vatalis, Konstantinos I

    2010-12-01

    The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources. PMID:20801577

  19. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  20. Partial replacement of non renewable fossil fuels energy by the use of waste materials as alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrawati, V.; Manaf, A.; Purwadi, G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports recent investigations on the use of biomass like rice husk, palm kernel shell, saw dust and municipal waste to reduce the use of fossil fuels energy in the cement production. Such waste materials have heat values in the range approximately from 2,000 to 4,000 kcal/kg. These are comparable to the average value of 5800 kcal/kg from fossil materials like coals which are widely applied in many industrial processing. Hence, such waste materials could be used as alternative fuels replacing the fossil one. It is shown that replacement of coals with such waste materials has a significant impact on cost effectiveness as well as sustainable development. Variation in moisture content of the waste materials, however should be taken into account because this is one of the parameter that could not be controlled. During fuel combustion, some amount of the total energy is used to evaporate the water content and thus the net effective heat value is less.

  1. Contributions of Fossil Fuel Combustion to Winter-time Arctic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, T. E.; Usenko, S.; Robinson, E.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last century, the Arctic has been warming at a rate almost twice the global average. Aerosols both directly and indirectly affect the radiative balance of the Arctic through the absorption and scattering of sunlight and by providing a source of cloud and ice condensation nuclei. Global climate models currently have difficulty reproducing the observed warming in the Arctic but could be improved through high temporal resolution measurements of aerosols and their sources. This study focuses on the quantification of fossil fuel and biomass combustion contributions to particulate organic carbon (OC) collected during a winter sampling campaign in the North Slope Alaska. Samples were collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Particulate matter (PM10) samples collected from December 2012 to March 2013 were analyzed for organic tracer analysis combined with radiocarbon of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC). Organic tracers, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkanes, hopanes and levoglucosan, were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). These tracers, commonly used as molecular markers for anthropogenic combustion sources, were then used in a molecular-marker chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Results from the CMB were then combined with radiocarbon (14C) abundance measurements. Radiocarbon analysis differentiates between fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning based on the large difference in end members between fossil and contemporary carbon. Radiocarbon results show an average fossil contribution of 44% to Arctic OC from with spark ignition (gasoline) and compression ignition (diesel) engines being implicated as major sources of fossil OC to Arctic aerosols. The 14C analysis and CMB source apportionment will be combined with back trajectory (BT) to assess the impact of geographic source regions on carbonaceous aerosol burden in the

  2. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    PubMed Central

    Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production. PMID:21687599

  3. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-06-01

    The Earth warms both when fossil fuel carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide and when greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide inhibits longwave radiation from escaping to space. Various important time scales and ratios comparing these two climate forcings have not previously been quantified. For example, the global and time-integrated radiative forcing from burning a fossil fuel exceeds the heat released upon combustion within 2 months. Over the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere, the cumulative CO2-radiative forcing exceeds the amount of energy released upon combustion by a factor >100,000. For a new power plant, the radiative forcing from the accumulation of released CO2 exceeds the direct thermal emissions in less than half a year. Furthermore, we show that the energy released from the combustion of fossil fuels is now about 1.71% of the radiative forcing from CO2 that has accumulated in the atmosphere as a consequence of historical fossil fuel combustion.

  4. Challenges faced when using radiocarbon measurements to estimate fossil fuel emissions in the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Allen, G.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating the anthropogenic component of carbon dioxide emissions from direct atmospheric measurements is difficult, due to the large natural carbon dioxide fluxes. One way of determining the fossil fuel component of atmospheric carbon dioxide is the use of radiocarbon measurements. Whilst carbon reservoirs with a reasonably fast carbon exchange rate all have a similar radiocarbon content, fossil fuels are completely devoid of radiocarbon due to their age. Previous studies have 14CO2 (UK) this approach is compromised by the high density of 14CO2 emitting nuclear power plants. Of the 16 nuclear reactors in the UK, 14 are advanced gas cooled reactors, which have one of the highest 14CO2 emission rates of all reactor types. These radiocarbon emissions not only lead to a serious underestimation of the recently added fossil fuel CO2, by masking the depletion of 14C in CO2, but can in fact overshadow the depletion by a factor of 2 or more. While a correction for this enhancement can be applied, the emissions from the nuclear power plants are highly variable, and an accurate correction is therefore not straightforward. We present the first attempt to quantify UK fossil fuel CO2 emissions through the use of 14CO2. We employ a sampling strategy that makes use of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, in combination with nuclear industry emission estimates, to forecast "good" sampling times, in an attempt to minimize the correction due to emissions from the nuclear industry. As part of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project, 14CO2measurements are performed at two measurement sites in the UK and Ireland, as well as during science flights around the UK. The measurement locations have been chosen with a focus on high emitting regions such as London and the Midlands. We discuss the unique challenges that face the determination of fossil fuel emissions through radiocarbon measurements in the UK and our sampling strategy to deal with them. In addition we

  5. Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.

    1988-01-01

    Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

  6. Process review of lignocellulose biochemical conversion to fuel ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review is meant to give a general technical review of the state-of-the-art in process technology for the biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to fuel ethanol. The proceeding details the chemical structure of biomass and basic process steps needed for extracting carbohydrates as sugars and ...

  7. Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, B.I.

    1987-01-13

    An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means, operable to release heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means, including the expansion chamber, in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; carburetor means in fluid communication with the converter means for metering and mixing vaporized alcohol with air for proper combustion and for feeding the mixture to an internal combustion engine; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the fuel storage means to the heat exchanger means, converter means, carburetor means, and to the engine.

  8. Fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mikulski, B.A.

    1991-05-01

    The Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 required the Secretary of Energy to cooperate with Polish officials to retrofit a coal-fired powerplant in Poland with advanced clean coal technology that has been successfully demonstrated in the United States. The project's goal is to demonstrate a cost-effective technique to control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions that can be used at other powerplants in Poland. The act required that the retrofit be carried out by United States companies using United States technology and equipment manufactured in the United States. Questions were raised about changes the Department of Energy (DOE) made to its original definition of a United States firm, and about reductions DOE made to its original SO{sub 2} emission requirements for the project. Such changes might result in foreign-owned rather than American-owned firms providing the technology and that the technology might not be the best this country could offer to the Polish people. This paper reviews the reasons for these changes.

  9. LIEKKI and JALO: Combustion and fuel conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Thomas M.; Renz, Ulrich; Sarofim, Adel F.

    LIEKKI and JALO are well conceived and structured programs designed to strengthen Finland's special needs in combustion and gasification to utilize a diversity of fuels, increase the ratio of electrical to heat output, and to support the export market. Started in 1988, these two programs provide models of how universities, Technical research center's laboratories (VTT's), and industry can collaborate successfully in order to achieve national goals. The research is focused on long term goals in certain targeted niche areas. This is an effective way to use limited resources. The niche areas were chosen in a rational manner and appear to be appropriate for Finland. The LIEKKl and JALO programs have helped pull together research efforts that were previously more fragmented. For example, the combustion modeling area still appears fragmented. Individual project objectives should be tied to program goals at a very early stage to provide sharper focusing to the research. Both the LIEKKl and JALO programs appear to be strongly endorsed by industry. Industrial members of the Executive Committees were very supportive of these programs. There are good mechanisms for technology transfer in place, and the programs provide opportunities to establish good interfaces between industrial people and the individual researchers. The interest of industry is shown by the large number of applied projects that are supported by industry. This demonstrates the relevancy of the programs. There is a strong interaction between the JALO program and industry in black liquor gasification.

  10. Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

  11. Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

  12. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  13. Preliminary carbon isotope measurements of fossil fuel and biogenic emissions from the Brazilian Southeastern region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. M.; Santos, G.; Macario, K.; Muniz, M.; Queiroz, E.; Park, J.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have confirmed that the continuing global rising of atmospheric CO2 content is caused by anthropogenic CO2 contributions. Most of those contributions are essentially associated with burning of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas). However, deforestation, biomass burning, and land use changes, can also play important roles. Researchers have showed that 14C measurements of annual plants, such as corn leaf (Hsueh et al. 2007), annual grasses (Wang and Pataki 2012), and leaves of deciduous trees (Park et al. 2013) can be used to obtain time-integrated information of the fossil fuel ration in the atmosphere. Those regional-scale fossil fuel maps are essential for monitoring CO2 emissions mitigation efforts and/or growth spikes around the globe. However, no current data from anthropogenic contributions from both biogenic and fossil carbon has been reported from the major urban areas of Brazil. Here we make use of carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) to infer sources of CO2 in the highly populated Brazilian Southeastern region (over 80 million in 2010). This region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, vehicles, industries, and many other utilities and major infrastructures. For a starting point, we focus on collecting Ipê leaves (Tabebuia, a popular deciduous tree) from across Rio de Janeiro city and state as well as Sao Paulo city during May/June of 2014 to obtain the regional distribution of 13C and 14C of those urban domes. So far, Δ14C range from -10 to 32‰, when δ13C values are running from -26 to -35‰. The result of these preliminary investigations will be presented and discussed.Hsueh et al. 2007 Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America. Geophysical Research Letters. 34: L02816. doi:10.1029/2006GL027032 Wang and Pataki 2012 Drivers of spatial variability in urban plant and soil isotopic composition in the Los Angeles Basin. Plant and Soil 350: 323

  14. Seasonal Variations in Fossil Fuel Emissions in the Los Angeles Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Xu, X.; Kort, E. A.; Miller, C. E.; Sander, S.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.; Yung, Y. L.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the effects of global warming resulting from increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere requires understanding the sources and trends of emissions in urban regions, which contribute disproportionately relative to their spatial extent. We report the carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in air collected during mid-afternoon in two locations within the Los Angeles basin of California, Pasadena and Palos Verdes peninsula, for the past 3 (Palos Verdes) - 6.5 (Pasadena) years. Radiocarbon (Δ14C) is the gold standard for distinguishing between CO2 produced by terrestrial biosphere processes and fossil fuel combustion, since the latter contains virtually no 14C, whereas photosynthesis and respiration reflect the modern atmosphere. The stable isotopic composition of carbon in CO2 (δ13C) can be useful in distinguishing petroleum (higher δ13C) from natural gas (lower δ13C) combustion. We observe a significant inverse correlation between the fraction of CO2 from fossil sources at the receptor site of Pasadena, as determined by Δ14C, and the δ13C of the pollutant end member, determined from the Keeling plot intercept. This indicates that the fraction of CO2 emitted by natural gas combustion increases as the fraction of CO2 contributed locally by all fossil fuel burning increases. The proportion of CO2 emitted by fossil fuel combustion was never less than 80% during the study period, and it was occasionally above 100% when the biosphere was a local sink for CO2 during the second quarter of the year. In Palos Verdes, the proportion of fossil fuel combustion in the local emissions was much more varied, ranging from 25 to >100%. The local emissions are inversely correlated at the two sites, reflecting the importance of transport in controlling the signals detected. During the summer, air travels from the ocean over the Los Angles basin to Pasadena, whereas during the winter, wind directions are much more varied, with frequent events from the northeast bringing air of

  15. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  16. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  17. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon). PMID:26289204

  18. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-01

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = +/-7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  19. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  20. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gurney, Kevin

    The Vulcan Project is a NASA/DOE funded effort under the North American Carbon Program (NACP) to quantify North American fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at space and time scales much finer than has been achieved in the past. The purpose is to aid in quantification of the North American carbon budget, to support inverse estimation of carbon sources and sinks, and to support the demands posed by higher resolution CO2 observations (in situ and remotely sensed). The detail and scope of the Vulcan CO2 inventory has also made it a valuable tool for policymakers, demographers, social scientists and the public at large. The Vulcan project has achieved the quantification of the 2002 U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the scale of individual factories, powerplants, roadways and neighborhoods on an hourly basis. The entire inventory was built on a common 10 km x 10 km grid to facilitate atmospheric modeling. In addition to improvement in space and time resolution, Vulcan is quantified at the level of fuel type, economic sub-sector, and county/state identification. Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  1. Analysis of possible future atmospheric retention of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.; Trabalka, J.R.; Reichle, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report investigates the likely rates and the potential range of future CO/sub 2/ emissions, combined with knowledge of the global cycle of carbon, to estimate a possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations through the year 2075. Historic fossil fuel usage to the present, growing at a rate of 4.5% per year until 1973 and at a slower rate of 1.9% after 1973, was combined with three scenarios of projected emissions growth ranging from approximately 0.2 to 2.8% per year to provide annual CO/sub 2/ emissions data for two different carbon cycle models. The emissions scenarios were constructed using an energy-economic model and by varying key parameters within the bounds of currently expected future values. The extreme values for CO/sub 2/ emissions in the year 2075 are 6.8 x 10/sup 15/ and 91 x 10/sup 15/ g C year/sup -1/. Carbon cycle model simulations used a range of year - 1800 preindustrial atmospheric concentrations of 245 to 292 ppM CO/sub 2/ and three scenarios of bioshere conversion as additional atmospheric CO/sub 2/ source terms. These simulations yield a range of possible atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations in year 2075 of approximately 500 to 1500 ppM, with a median of about 700 ppM. The time at which atmospheric CO/sub 2/ would potentially double from the preindustrial level ranges from year 2025 to >2075. The practical, programmatic value of this forecast exercise is that it forces quantitative definition of the assumptions, and the uncertainties therein, which form the basis of our understanding of the natural biogeochemical cycle of carbon and both historic and future human influences on the dynamics of the global cycle. Assumptions about the possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels provide a basis on which to evaluate the implications of these changes on climate and the biosphere. 44 references, 17 figures, 21 tables.

  2. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation's fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  3. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for large US cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain as a pilot effort to a CMS. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Phoenix (see figure). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In preparation for a formal urban-scale inversion, these forward comparisons offer insights into both improving our emissions data product and measurement strategies. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban

  4. COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS FOR CO2 EMISSION REDUCTION IN THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an evaluation of the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat engines (turbines and int...

  5. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based...

  6. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based...

  7. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based...

  8. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    PubMed

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-01

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources. PMID:26332865

  9. Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

    1994-06-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  10. Tracing fossil fuel CO2 using Δ14C in Xi'an City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijian; Wu, Shugang; Huo, Wenwen; Xiong, Xiaohu; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Xuefeng; Niu, Zhenchuan

    2014-09-01

    Radiocarbon can be used to trace fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere, because radiocarbon has been depleted in fossil fuels. Here we present our study on the spatial distribution and temporal variations of CO2ff in Xi'an City, China using Δ14C of both green foxtail (Setaria viridis, L. Beauv.) leaf samples and urban air samples collected in the recent years. Our results show that the CO2ff indicated by green foxtail ranged from 14.7 ± 1.7 to 52.6 ± 1.7 ppm, reflecting high CO2ff mole fractions in downtown, industrial areas, and at road sites, and low CO2ff mole fractions in public parks. Meanwhile, the monthly CO2ff reflected by air samples showed higher value in winter (57.8 ± 17.1 ppm) than that in summer (20.2 ± 9.8 ppm) due to the enhancement usage of coal burning and the poor dispersion condition of atmosphere. This study displays that the increased fossil fuel emission is associated with the fast development of Xi'an City in China. It is worth mentioning that the green foxtail samples can be used to map out the CO2ff spatial distribution on large scale quickly and conveniently, while the air samples can be used to trace the CO2ff temporal variations with high resolution effectively. Therefore the Δ14C of both green foxtail and air samples is a good indicator of CO2ff emission.

  11. Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  12. Serial biological conversion of coal to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Water soluble coal products produced by the action of coal solubilizing organisms LSC and H12 were obtained and used in a second biological process for conversion to alcohol fuels. Several sources of natural inocula were screened and studied for their ability to produce fuels from solubilized coal. Alcohols and organic acids were produced from cultures obtained from sewage sludge and sheep and rumen fluid. The sheep rumen culture, in addition to producing alcohols and acids, was capable of totally eliminating color from the culture medium indicating significant breakdown of the solubilized coal. 12 refs., 9 figs., 59 tabs.

  13. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates that total sales of fossil fuels produced from Federal and Indian Lands increased in fiscal year 2014 compared to fiscal year 2013. Production of crude oil increased 7%, natural gas production declined 7%, natural gas plant liquids production increased by 8%, and coal production increased slightly. Detailed tables and maps of production, by State, are contained in the report. EIA’s estimates are based on data provided by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Office of Natural Resources Revenue.

  14. Evaluation of innovative fossil fuel power plants with CO{sub 2} removal

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-15

    This interim report presents initial results of an ongoing study of the potential cost of electricity produced in both conventional and innovative fossil fueled power plants that incorporate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) removal for subsequent sequestration or use. The baseline cases are natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plants, with and without post combustion CO{sub 2} removal, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, with and without pre-combustion CO{sub 2} removal.

  15. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

  16. Research support on foreign funding of fossil fuel and alternative energy r&d. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, H.; Garian, R.

    1994-11-01

    A compendium of open-source materials for the period 1989-94, on fossil fuel and alternative energy research and development funding in selected industrialized countries. The information is presented in two types of tables: those showing the expenditures of all the countries and those showing expenditures of a single country over a given period of time. Sources of information are mainly from the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and materials provided by ministries, statistical bureaus, embassies, and public organizations of various countries.

  17. Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.

    1990-07-01

    Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N. R.; Brown, N. R.; Baek, J. S; Hanson, A. L.; Cuadra, A.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D. J.

    2014-04-30

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-Enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size-Plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). A summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented. Fuel element tolerance assumptions and hot channel factors used in the safety analysis are also given.

  19. High-resolution global fossil fuel CO2 emissions for 1992 to 2010 using integrated in-situ and remotely sensed data in a fossil fuel data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P.; Huang, J.; Song, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The largest single net source of CO2 into the Earth's atmosphere is due to the combustion of fossil fuel and an accurate quantification of the fossil fuel flux is needed to better address the concern of rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In the last decade, there has been a growing need, from both the science and policymaking communities for quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions at finer space and time scales. Motivated by this concern, we have built a global fossil fuel CO2 emission inventory at 0.25° and 0.1° resolutions for the years of 1992 - 2010 using a combination of in situ and remotely sensed data in a fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS). A suite of observations which include nightlights, population, sectoral national emissions and power plant stations are used to constrain the FFDAS model. FFDAS is based on a modified Kaya identity which expresses emissions as the product of areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity of economic activity, and carbon intensity of energy consumption. Nightlights has been shown to correlate well with national and regional GDP and its relationship with population has been used as an initial means of downscaling fossil fuel emissions. However nightlights data are subject to instrumental saturation, causing areas of bright nightlights, such as urban cores, to be truncated. To address the saturation problem during several time periods, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has requested and received data collected at multiple fixed gain settings to observe the bright areas with no saturation. However, this dataset is limited to only four years (1999, 2002, 2006 and 2010). We have applied a numerical technique to these four years of data to estimate the unsaturated values for all years from 1992 to 2010. The corrected nightlights time series is then used in FFDAS to generate a multiyear fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product. Nightlights and population

  20. Core conversion of the Portuguese research reactor to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, J.G.; Ramos, A.R.; Kocher, A.

    2008-07-15

    Core conversion of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) to LEU fuel is being performed within IAEA's Technical Cooperation project POR/4/016, with financial support from the US and Portugal. CERCA was selected as manufacturer of the LEU assemblies by the IAEA after an international call for bids. CERCA provided a comprehensive package to the RPI which included the mechanical verification of the design of the assemblies, their manufacture and arrangements for a joint inspection of the finished assemblies. The LEU fuel assemblies were manufactured within 8 months upon final approval of the design. The safety analyses for the core conversion to LEU fuel were made with the assistance of the RERTR program and were submitted for review by the IAEA and by Portuguese authorities in January 2007. Revised documents were submitted in June 2007 addressing the issues raised during review. Regulatory approval was received in early August and core conversion was done in early September. All measured safety parameters are within the defined acceptance limits. Operation at full power is expected by the end of October. (author)

  1. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2

  2. Nitrogen oxides reduction by carbonaceous materials and carbon dioxide separation using regenerative metal oxides from fossil fuel based flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Himanshu

    The ever-growing energy demands due to rising global population and continuing lifestyle improvements has placed indispensable emphasis on fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels leads to the emission of harmful gaseous pollutants such as oxides of sulfur (SOx) and nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), mercury, particulate matter, etc. Documented evidence has proved that this air pollution leads to adverse environmental health. This dissertation focuses on the development of technologies for the control of NOx and CO2 emissions. The first part of the thesis (Chapters 2--6) deals with the development of carbon based post combustion NOx reduction technology called CARBONOX process. High temperature combustion oxidizes both atmospheric nitrogen and organic nitrogen in coal to nitric oxide (NO). The reaction rate between graphite and NO is slow and requires high temperature (>900°C). The presence of metallic species in coal char catalyzes the reaction. The reaction temperature is lowered in the presence of oxygen to about 600--850°C. Chemical impregnation, specifically sodium compounds, further lowers the reaction temperature to 350--600°C. Activated high sodium lignite char (HSLC) provided the best performance for NO reduction. The requirement of char for NOx reduction is about 8--12 g carbon/g NO reduced in the presence of 2% oxygen in the inlet gas. The second part of this dissertation (chapter 7--8) focuses on the development of a reaction-based process for the separation of CO2 from combustion flue gas. Certain metal oxides react with CO2 forming metal carbonates under flue gas conditions. They can be calcined separately to yield CO2. Calcium oxide (CaO) has been identified as a viable metal oxide for the carbonation-calcination reaction (CCR) scheme. CaO synthesized from naturally occurring precursors (limestone and dolomite) attained 45--55% of their stoichiometric conversion due to the susceptibility of their microporous structure. High surface area

  3. High-resolution simulations of the Δ14CO2 gradients from fossil fuels and nuclear power plants over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhinova, D.; van der Molen, M. K.; Palstra, S. W.; Meijer, H. A.; Krol, M. C.; Peters, W.

    2012-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14CO2) can be used to quantify fossil fuel CO2 addition to the atmosphere, since fossil CO2 is void of 14C. However, the current observational network is not dense enough to constrain regional emissions in most parts of the world. Furthermore, most sampling sites are not as informative for the regional anthropogenic emissions because they are located outside polluted regions. High resolution modeling of regional fossil fuel CO2 dispersion can help to define sampling locations at which Δ14CO2 gradients will be strong enough to estimate regional fossil fuel emissions. However, an important consideration should be the 14CO2 enrichment due to nuclear power plant 14CO2 production. These point sources contribute little to the global radiocarbon budget, but on a regional scale their importance for the atmospheric Δ14CO2 signature can be considerable. We therefore simulate the fossil fuel CO2 and nuclear 14CO2 transport for Western Europe using the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-Chem) and evaluate the gradients and resulting Δ14CO2. We verify our modeling framework with integrated 14CO2, CO2, and meteorological observations. We find that the gradients in daytime fossil fuel CO2 addition can be as high as 10 ppm. Additionally, the effects of the nuclear 14CO2 emitted from the strongest source in the region can be traced to sites more than 500 km away, and their impact on the atmospheric Δ14CO2 signature can sometimes be of the same magnitude as the regional fossil fuel CO2 addition. We will present our findings and possible implications for sampling campaigns and observational sites.lt;img border=0 src="images/A33P-06_B.jpg">

  4. Alternative fuel information: Facts about CNG and LPG conversion

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, K.

    1994-06-01

    As new environmental and energy related laws begin to take effect, increasing numbers of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be required in federal, state, municipal, and private fleets across the country. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, along with several new state and local laws, will require fleet managers to either purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, which are produced by automakers, or convert existing vehicles to run on alternative fuels. Because there is a limited availability and selection of OEM vehicles, conversions are seen as a transition to the time when automakers will produce more AFVs for public sale. A converted vehicle is any vehicle that originally was designed to operate on gasoline, and has been altered to run on an alternative fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or propane (liquefied petroleum gas -- LPG), the two most common types of fuel conversions. In the United States, more than 25,000 vehicles already have been converted to COG, and 300,000 have been converted to LPG.

  5. Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil fuel dependence has severe consequences including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis: light harvesting, charge separation, and catalysis. These processes are compared in natural and artificial systems. Such a comparison can assist in understanding the general principles of photosynthesis and in developing working devices including photoelectrochemical cells for solar energy conversion. PMID:20534342

  6. Conversion of Pentose-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the conversion of biomass-derived hemicellulose into hydrocarbon molecules that can be used in the formulation of 'drop-in' fuels such as gasoline (C5-12), diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16). Our focus lies on the use of furfuryl alcohol as a starting material since that is already produced commercially from hemicellulose-derived pentoses. The steps required to convert the latter into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. However, furfuryl alcohol readily polymerizes to form resins in the presence of an acid catalyst, and the exothermic oligomerization must be carried out under reaction control. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this sugar-to-hydrocarbon pathway.

  7. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown N. R.; Brown,N.R.; Baek,J.S; Hanson, A.L.; Cuadra,A.; Cheng,L.Y.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-03-31

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. . The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). In addition, a summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented.

  8. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  9. Origin of carbonaceous aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean: Biomass burning or fossil fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.; Andreae, M.O.; Gabriel, R.; Kirchstetter, T.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Ramanathan, V.

    2000-08-26

    We present an analysis of the carbon, potassium and sulfate content of the extensive aerosol haze layer observed over the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). The black carbon (BC) content of the haze is as high as 17% of the total fine particle mass (the sum of carbonaceous and soluble ionic aerosol components) which results in significant solar absorption. The ratio of black carbon to organic carbon (OC) (over the Arabian Sea and equatorial Indian Ocean) was a factor of 5 to 10 times larger than expected for biomass burning. This ratio was closer to values measured downwind of industrialized regions in Japan and Western Europe. These results indicate that fossil fuel combustion is the major source of carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon during the events considered. If the data set analyzed here is representative of the entire INDOEX study then fossil fuel emissions from South Asia must have similarly contributed to aerosols over the whole study region. The INDOEX ratios are substantially different from those reported f or some source regions of South Asia, thus raising the possibility that changes in composition of carbonaceous aerosol may occur during transport.

  10. Long-term fate and impacts of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, D. D.; Brovkin, V.

    2006-12-01

    Several modeling studies have recently predicted the lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere, and their conclusions are quite consistent with each other, that a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2 will continue to affect climate for millennia. The main points of difference between the models are the time scale for CaCO3 neutralization, the effects of rising CO2 and climate change on weathering rates, and the extent of an ocean warming CO2 solubility feedback. The long tail of the CO2 lifetime will be important for the future evolution of ice sheets, and could lead to a prolonged period of interglacial climate. An interglacial climate state accelerates the global rate of CO2 uptake by igneous rock weathering, by exposing unweathered bedrock in the Canadian shield. If our current interglacial climate state lasts as long as the time scale of the silicate weathering feedback (order 100,000 years), the change in weathering regime will have time to further affect atmospheric CO2.

  11. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.

    2014-12-02

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most ofmore » which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Furthermore, energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.« less

  12. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.

    2014-12-02

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Furthermore, energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  13. Prospective Conversion: Data Transfer between Fossil and New Microcomputer Technologies in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vratny-Watts, Janet; Valauskas, Edward J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the technological changes that will necessitate the prospective conversion of library data over the next decade and addresses the problems of converting data from obsolete personal computers to newer models that feature radically different operating systems. Three case studies are used to illustrate possible scenarios. (11 references)…

  14. Δ14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X. T.; Ding, X. F.; Fu, D. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Liu, K. X.

    2013-01-01

    The 14C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14C/12C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO2 was estimated by comparing the measured Δ14C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric Δ14C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low Δ14C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  15. Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga

    2007-07-01

    High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Comparing observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 in California with predictions from bottom-up inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Lueker, T.; Fischer, M. L.; Guilderson, T. P.; Keeling, R. F.; Brophy, K.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2015-12-01

    The US state of California has a progressive climate change mitigation policy, AB-32, enacted in 2006 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 15% by 2020 and then a further 80% by 2050. Bottom-up inventories indicate California's fossil fuel CO2 emissions are currently about 100 Mt C per year, but different inventories show discrepancies of ±15% in the state-wide total, and some larger discrepancies in various sub-regions of the state. We are developing a top-down framework for investigating fossil fuel and biospheric CO2 fluxes in California using atmospheric observations and models. California has a relatively dense collaborative network of greenhouse gas observations run by several universities, government laboratories and Earth Networks. Using this collaborative network, we conducted three field campaigns in 2014-15 to sample flasks at 10 tower sites across the state. Flasks were analysed for atmospheric CO2 and CO concentrations and for stable isotopes and radiocarbon in CO2. The flask observations of radiocarbon in CO2 allow patterns of fossil fuel-derived and biospheric CO2 to be distinguished at relatively high resolution across the state. We will report initial results from the observations showing regional gradients in fossil fuel-derived CO2 and fluctuations from changing weather patterns. We will compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to predictions from several bottom-up inventories and two atmospheric models. Linking the flask data with observations from OCO-2, TCCON, aircraft flights and ground-based in situ analyzers, we will examine the variation in total CO2 and its drivers over California. Further analysis is planned to integrate the data into an inversion framework for fossil fuel and biospheric CO2 fluxes over California.

  17. Sensitivity of Flux Accuracy to Setup of Fossil Fuel and Biogenic CO2 Inverse System in an Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, K.; Lauvaux, T.; Deng, A.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Turnbull, J. C.; Davis, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to utilize a variety of measurements and a high resolution inversion system to estimate the spatial distribution and the temporal variation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the city of Indianapolis. We separated biogenic and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes and tested the sensitivity of inverse flux estimates to inverse system configurations by performing Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). The a priori CO2 emissions from Hestia were aggregated to 1 km resolution to represent emissions from the Indianapolis metropolitan area and its surroundings. With the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM), the physical relations between concentrations at the tower locations and emissions at the surface were simulated at 1 km spatial resolution, hourly. Within a Bayesian synthesis inversion framework, we tested the effect of multiple parameters on our ability to infer fossil fuel CO2 fluxes: the presence of biogenic CO2 fluxes in the optimization procedure, the use of fossil fuel CO2 concentration measurements, the impact of reduced transport errors, the sensitivity to observation density, and the spatio-temporal properties of prior errors. The results indicate that the presence of biogenic CO2 fluxes obviously weakens the ability to invert for the fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban environment, but having relatively accurate fossil fuel CO2 concentration measurements can effectively compensate the interference from the biogenic flux component. Reduced transport error and more intensive measurement networks are two possible approaches to retrieve the spatial pattern of the fluxes and decrease the bias in inferred whole-city fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The accuracy of posterior fluxes is very sensitive to the spatial correlation length in the prior flux errors which, if they exist, can enhance significantly our ability to recover the known fluxes

  18. Microbial conversion of coals to clean fuel forms

    SciTech Connect

    Barik, S.; Isbister, J.; Hawley, B.; Forgacs, T.; Reed, L.; Anspach, G.; Middaugh, T.

    1988-01-01

    Anaerobic cultures have been used for the production of methane and alcohols from coal. Cultures were adapted from natural inocula collected from sources such as sewage sludge and horse manure. A 1% (w/v) slurry of leonardite, lignite, or subbituminous coal was used in the incubations. Methane was produced from all cultures, including some untreated coals, to a greater extent than in control cultures. Over several months of adaptation, methane production capacity increased considerably. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were identified as intermediates in the conversion of coal to methane. A proposed scheme for the conversion is breakdown of the coal polymer by a series of organisms and metabolism of the fragments to methane precursors such as VFAs. A mixture of short chain alcohols was produced by cultures grown in the presence of methane inhibitors. These cultures after prolonged adaptation show potential for use in larger scale bioreactors for the production of gaseous and liquid fuels.

  19. Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller

    2007-12-15

    This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Adding value to coal conversion`s char: A strategy for lower-priced fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.W.; Fatemi, M.; Feizoulof, C.

    1994-12-31

    Coal`s low hydrogen to carbon ratio gives coal physical properties that are not the most desired in fuel markets. The problem is dealt with in conversion technologies designed to upgrade coal to more desirable fuels by either: (1) chemically adding hydrogen, as in liquefaction or high-BTU gasification, or (2) the production of char, as in mild gasification. The first option is neither cost-effective nor environmentally sound. Liquefaction results in the production of one mole of carbon dioxide for each mole of hydrogen needed. The result is that despite the preferred hydrogen to carbon ratio in the fuel, carbon dioxide is produced in greater quantities than it would be by simply burning the coal. The depressed market value of char is the primary drawback of coal utilization technologies exercising the second option. Making value-added, non-fuel products from char could significantly improve the economics of overall operations and result in competitively-priced premium hydrocarbon fuels. The research goal of a growing number of groups, including ours, is to produce and describe carbon products which will command higher prices than the carbon (coal) from which they were produced.

  1. Towards space/time resolved uncertainty quantification of urban fossil fuel CO2 emissions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Huang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Quantification of the uncertainty associated with bottom-up emission data products remains a challenging endeavor. There are a number of reasons for this. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made. The Hestia Project is an effort aimed at building high-resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data products at the scale of buildings/street segments for entire urban domains. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Salt Lake City. The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. In the course of this work, we have attempted to quantify uncertainty. In some cases, this is driven by parameter sensitivity, in other cases through the comparison of independent datasets reporting on the same entity. Expert judgment is also deployed where no alternative exists. Here, I will provide a review of some of these techniques with examples from our urban case studies. Total fossil fuel CO2 emissions for Marion County, IN, for the year 2002: (a) top view with numbered zones and (b) blowups of the numbered zones. Color units: log10 kg C

  2. Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition of Various Fossil-fuel Combustion Nitrogen Oxide Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, W.; Michalski, G. M.; Fang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important trace gases that impact atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. In order to help constrain NOx source contributions, the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of NOx (δ15N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning. However, despite anthropogenic emissions being the most prevalent source of NOx, there is still large uncertainty in the δ15N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources. To this end, this study provides a detailed analysis of several fossil-fuel combustion NOx sources and their δ15N-NOx values. To accomplish this, exhaust or flue samples from several fossil-fuel combustion sources were sampled and analyzed for their δ15N-NOx that included airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a catalytic converter, gasoline-powered lawn tools and utility vehicles, diesel-electric buses, diesel semi-trucks, and natural gas-burning home furnace and power plant. A relatively large range of δ15N-NOx values were measured from -28.1 to 0.3‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples with cold started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the lowest δ15N-NOx values at -20.9‰, and warm-started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the highest values of -1.7‰. The NOx sources analyzed in this study primarily originated from the "thermal production" of NOx and generally emitted negative δ15N-NOx values, likely due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with its production. It was found that there is a negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ15N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with catalytic NOx reduction technology, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx may have an influence on δ15N-NOx values. Based on the δ15N-NOx values reported in this study and in previous studies, a δ15N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous United States. The constructed isoscape demonstrates the seasonal importance of various

  3. Biofuels and biomass-to-liquid fuels in the biorefinery: catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass using porous materials.

    PubMed

    Stöcker, Michael

    2008-01-01

    At a time when the focus is on global warming, CO(2) emission, secure energy supply, and less consumption of fossil-based fuels, the use of renewable energy resources is essential. Various biomass resources are discussed that can deliver fuels, chemicals, and energy products. The focus is on the catalytic conversion of biomass from wood. The challenges involved in the processing of lignocellulose-rich materials will be highlighted, along with the application of porous materials as catalysts for the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) fuels in biorefineries. The mechanistic understanding of the complex reactions that take place, the development of catalysts and processes, and the product spectrum that is envisaged will be discussed, along with a sustainable concept for biorefineries based on lignocellulose. Finally, the current situation with respect to upgrading of the process technology (pilot and commercial units) will be addressed. PMID:18937235

  4. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Michael; Ruhl, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  5. Solid fossil-fuel recovery by electrical induction heating in situ - A proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, S.

    1980-04-01

    A technique, termed electrical induction heating, is proposed for in situ processes of energy production from solid fossil fuels, such as bitumen production from underground distillation of oil sand; oil by underground distillation of oil shale; petroleum from heavy oil by underground mobilization of heavy oil, from either residues of conventional liquid petroleum deposits or new deposits of viscous oil; methane and coal tar from lignite and coal deposits by underground distillation of coal; and generation of electricity by surface combustion of low calorific-value gas from underground coke gasification by combustion of the organic residue left from the underground distillation of coal by induction heating. A method of surface distillation of mined coking coal by induction heating to produce coke, methane, and coal tar is also proposed.

  6. An optical gas temperature probe for high temperature fossil fuel process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.; Cook, R.L.; Lineberry, J.T.; Litchford, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Reported here are the results of a feasibility study of a modular optical gas temperature probe for direct measurement of gas temperature in fossil-fueled combustion streams. A probe based upon the spectroscopic technique of line reversal would be superior to currently available gas temperature technology. The study concluded that a modular form of the line reversal optical temperature probe is feasible and, as such. the probe should be a commercially viable product with potential economic benefits from improved monitoring and control of utility furnaces. Such a probe will have the capability of making direct measurements of gas temperature in hot (>1500 K) process streams of coal combustion systems and large-scale power plant facilities.

  7. Fossil fuel characterization using laser desorption mass spectrometry: Applications and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.E.; Winans, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Laser desorption mass spectroscopy (LDMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) are applicable to the high molecular weight compounds in fossil fuels which resist intact ionization. LD or MALDI of coals and extracts do not show reproducible ion intensity over mass 2000. This paper describes the scope and limitations of LD and MALD in time-of-flight mass spectrometers applied to high molecular weight molecules such as proteins and polymers. Coal was also analyzed. It is concluded that the sample preparation step is perhaps the most important part in MALDI. Observed high mass ions in coal may be from contaminant proteins. Optimal matrices must be found. Finally, the mass spectrum is senstive to number average molecular weight; a low value, however, does not preclude presence of high molecular weight species.

  8. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  9. Device for separating CO2 from fossil-fueled power plant emissions

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN; Wilson, Kirk A [Knoxville, TN

    2002-04-23

    A gas separation device includes an inner conduit, and a concentric outer conduit. An electrically conductive filter media, preferably a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve, is provided in the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit. Gas flows through the inner conduit and the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit, so as to contact the filter media. The filter media preferentially adsorbs at least one constituent of the gas stream. The filter media is regenerated by causing an electric current to flow through the filter media. The inner conduit and outer conduit are preferably electrically conductive whereby the regeneration of the filter media can be electrically stimulated. The invention is particularly useful for the removal of CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases of fossil-fueled power plants.

  10. Analyses for conversion of the Georgia Tech Research Reactor from HEU to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, J.E.; Mo, S.C.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1992-09-01

    This document presents information concerning: analyses for conversion of the Georgia Tech Research Reactor from HEU to LEU; changes to technical specifications mandated by the conversion of the GTRR to low enrichment fuel; changes in the Safety Analysis Report mandated by the conversion of the GTRR to low enrichment fuel; and copies of all changed pages of the SAR and the technical specifications.

  11. What Geological, Economic, or Policy Forces Might Limit Fossil Fuel Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    In order to ensure a 50% chance of keeping global temperatures from exceeding 2°C above pre-industrial levels, it has been estimated that total carbon dioxide emissions between 2011-2050 must be capped at roughly 1,100 gigatons.[1] However, some estimates calculate that global fossil fuel reserves—including unconventional oil and gas—hold at least three times this amount of potential greenhouse gas emissions.[2]What socio-political, technological, or economic forces are most likely to keep these energy resources from being burned? While it is difficult to predict with specificity what combination of technological, geological, or human factors will significantly minimize global fossil fuel production, there are at least four key potential drivers: 1. Under-investment and the economics of unconventional oil and natural gas; 2. International policy, driven by citizen demand and leadership from key nations; 3. Massive deployment of renewable energy sources and other technological solutions; and 4. Large-scale energy curtailment resulting from global economic contraction. We will explore the implications, viability, and consequences of each of these potential factors. [1] [1]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Fifteenth Session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009. Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its Fifteenth Session. United Nations Climate Change Conf. Report 43 http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cop15/eng/11a01.pdf (UNFCC, 2009) [2] Raupach, M. R. et al. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions. Nature Clim. Chang. 4, 873-879 (2014)

  12. Pollutant Emissions and Lean Blowoff Limits of Fuel Flexible Burners Operating on Gaseous Renewable and Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colorado, Andres

    This study provides an experimental and numerical examination of pollutant emissions and stability of gaseous fueled reactions stabilized with two premixed-fuel-flexible and ultra-low NOx burner technologies. Both burners feature lean combustion technology to control the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The first fuel--flexible burner is the low-swirl burner (LSB), which features aerodynamic stabilization of the reactions with a divergent flow-field; the second burner is the surface stabilized combustion burner (SSCB), which features the stabilization of the reactions on surface patterns. For combustion applications the most commonly studied species are: NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). However these are not the only pollutants emitted when burning fossil fuels; other species such as nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) can be directly emitted from the oxidation reactions. Yet the conditions that favor the emission of these pollutants are not completely understood and require further insight. The results of this dissertation close the gap existing regarding the relations between emission of pollutants species and stability when burning variable gaseous fuels. The results of this study are applicable to current issues such as: 1. Current combustion systems operating at low temperatures to control formation of NOx. 2. Increased use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen, synthetic gas and biogas. 3. Increasing recognition of the need/desire to operate combustion systems in a transient manner to follow load and to offset the intermittency of renewable power. 4. The recent advances in measurement methods allow us to quantify other pollutants, such as N 2O, NH3 and CH2O. Hence in this study, these pollutant species are assessed when burning natural gas (NG) and its binary mixtures with other gaseous fuels such as hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethane (C 2H6) and propane (C3H8) at variable operation modes including

  13. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building/street scale for a large US city

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R.; Razlivanov, I.; Song, Yang; Zhou, Yuyu; Benes, Bedrich; Abdul- Massih, Michel

    2012-08-15

    In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface, build an effective carbon monitoring system and contribute to quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, fine spatial and temporal quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gas, is essential. Called the ‘Hestia Project’, this research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all fossil fuel CO2 emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. a large city (Indianapolis, Indiana USA). Here, we describe the methods used to quantify the on-site fossil fuel CO2 emissions across the city of Indianapolis, Indiana. This effort combines a series of datasets and simulation tools such as a building energy simulation model, traffic data, power production reporting and local air pollution reporting. The system is general enough to be applied to any large U.S. city and holds tremendous potential as a key component of a carbon monitoring system in addition to enabling efficient greenhouse gas mitigation and planning. We compare our estimate of fossil fuel emissions from natural gas to consumption data provided by the local gas utility. At the zip code level, we achieve a bias adjusted pearson r correlation value of 0.92 (p<0.001).

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. The two methods developed have...

  15. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/03

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.

  16. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/01

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985 and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands are forecast as well as the impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

  17. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/02

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

  18. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The softwaremore » can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.« less

  19. FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

  20. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The software can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. he two methods developed have b...

  2. Proceedings: 1990 fossil plant cycling conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Fossil plant cycling continues to be a key issue for many electric utilities. EPRI's previous cycling workshops, held in 1983, 1985, and 1987, allowed utilities to benefit from collective industry experience in the conversion of baseload fossil units to cyclic operation. Continued improvements in equipment, retrofits, diagnostics, and controls were highlighted at the 1990 conference. The objective is to provide a forum for utility discussions of the cycling operation of fossil fuel power plants. Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) hosted the 1990 EPRI Fossil Fuel Cycling Conference in Washington, DC, on December 4--6, 1990. More than 130 representatives from utilities, vendors, government agencies, universities, and industry associations attended the conference. Following the general session, technical sessions covered such topics as plant modifications, utility retrofit experience, cycling economics, life assessment, controls, environmental controls, and energy storage. Attendees also toured PEPCO's Potomac River generating station, the site of an earlier EPRI cycling conversion study.

  3. An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices

  4. Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions at Various Spatial and Temporal Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasing, T.

    2006-12-01

    Annual values of fossil-fuel carbon emissions (FFCE), estimated directly from fuel combustion data or fuel- supply data, exist at global and national scales and have been used in studies of the global carbon cycle. Annual averages at national levels are useful in tracking emissions and developing mitigation strategies. However, such large-scale long-term averages contain no information about small-scale, short-term processes influencing FFCE. Recent development of a monthly FFCE database for the United States (US) facilitates correlations of seasonal FFCE with other seasonal variables. An increasing fraction of FFCE has occurred during the warmest months, and appears to be related to population shifts to warmer regions, general climate warming, and increased use of air conditioners. These results incorporate effects of even smaller-scale variables. FFCE from electric-generating facilities occur on space scales represented by individual stacks, and depend on regional electricity demand, which depends on temperature and other regional variables which change from hour to hour. Such variables also influence FFCE from urban areas, which, like electric generating facilities, contribute a large fraction of global FFCE but occupy a small fraction of the earth's surface. Preliminary studies in US cities indicate elevated winter CO2 concentrations from local emissions due to combustion of natural gas for heating, but summer concentrations are much closer to global background levels. Energy for air conditioning in summer is likely to be provided by electric-generating facilities at distant locations; distance from the emissions sources, along with increased convection in summer would reduce urban CO2 concentrations. Greater understanding of processes affecting local and urban FFCE, as well as any spatial homogeneities arising from reliance on common resources and energy demands, transportation links, etc., will be necessary to project emissions changes in response to future

  5. Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions at Various Spatial and Temporal Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.; Myhre, G.; Stordal, F.; Berglen, T.

    2005-05-01

    Annual values of fossil-fuel carbon emissions (FFCE), estimated directly from fuel combustion data or fuel- supply data, exist at global and national scales and have been used in studies of the global carbon cycle. Annual averages at national levels are useful in tracking emissions and developing mitigation strategies. However, such large-scale long-term averages contain no information about small-scale, short-term processes influencing FFCE. Recent development of a monthly FFCE database for the United States (US) facilitates correlations of seasonal FFCE with other seasonal variables. An increasing fraction of FFCE has occurred during the warmest months, and appears to be related to population shifts to warmer regions, general climate warming, and increased use of air conditioners. These results incorporate effects of even smaller-scale variables. FFCE from electric-generating facilities occur on space scales represented by individual stacks, and depend on regional electricity demand, which depends on temperature and other regional variables which change from hour to hour. Such variables also influence FFCE from urban areas, which, like electric generating facilities, contribute a large fraction of global FFCE but occupy a small fraction of the earth's surface. Preliminary studies in US cities indicate elevated winter CO2 concentrations from local emissions due to combustion of natural gas for heating, but summer concentrations are much closer to global background levels. Energy for air conditioning in summer is likely to be provided by electric-generating facilities at distant locations; distance from the emissions sources, along with increased convection in summer would reduce urban CO2 concentrations. Greater understanding of processes affecting local and urban FFCE, as well as any spatial homogeneities arising from reliance on common resources and energy demands, transportation links, etc., will be necessary to project emissions changes in response to future

  6. The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C.

    PubMed

    McGlade, Christophe; Ekins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world's oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers' instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production. PMID:25567285

  7. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to

  8. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

  9. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.; Baker, David; Conway, Thomas J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, Jay; Miller, John B.; Southon, John R.; Zhou, Ling-Xi

    2011-12-01

    Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, derived from Δ14CO2observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO2ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO2ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO2ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO2ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO2ff ratios (RCO:CO2ff) of 47 ± 2 and 44 ± 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low RCO:CO2ffof 13 ± 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO2ff observations with modeled CO2ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO2ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO2ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.

  10. Uncertainty in projected climate change caused by methodological discrepancy in estimating CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilcaille, Yann; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe; Lecocq, Franck; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Mohr, Steve; Andres, Robert J.; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    There are different methodologies to estimate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The term "methodology" refers to the way subtypes of fossil fuels are aggregated and their implied emissions factors. This study investigates how the choice of a methodology impacts historical and future CO2 emissions, and ensuing climate change projections. First, we use fossil fuel extraction data from the Geologic Resources Supply-Demand model of Mohr et al. (2015). We compare four different methodologies to transform amounts of fossil fuel extracted into CO2 emissions based on the methodologies used by Mohr et al. (2015), CDIAC, EDGARv4.3, and IPCC 1996. We thus obtain 4 emissions pathways, for the historical period 1750-2012, that we compare to the emissions timeseries from EDGARv4.3 (1970-2012) and CDIACv2015 (1751-2011). Using the 3 scenarios by Mohr et al. (2015) for projections till 2300 under the assumption of an Early (Low emission), Best Guess or Late (High emission) extraction peaking, we obtain 12 different pathways of CO2 emissions over 1750-2300. Second, we extend these CO2-only pathways to all co-emitted and climatically active species. Co-emission ratios for CH4, CO, BC, OC, SO2, VOC, N2O, NH3, NOx are calculated on the basis of the EDGAR v4.3 dataset, and are then used to produce complementary pathways of non-CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion only. Finally, the 12 emissions scenarios are integrated using the compact Earth system model OSCAR v2.2, in order to quantify the impact of the selected driver onto climate change projections. We find historical cumulative fossil fuel CO2 emissions from 1750 to 2012 ranging from 365 GtC to 392 GtC depending upon the methodology used to convert fossil fuel into CO2 emissions. We notice a drastic increase of the impact of the methodology in the projections. For the High emission scenario with Late fuel extraction peaking, cumulated CO2 emissions from 1700 to 2100 range from 1505 GtC to 1685 GtC; this corresponds

  11. Historical emissions of carbonaceous aerosols from biomass and fossil fuel burning for the period 1870-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akinori; Penner, Joyce E.

    2005-06-01

    Historical changes of black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM) emissions from biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel (FF) burning are estimated from 1870 to 2000. A bottom-up inventory for open vegetation (OV) burning is scaled by a top-down estimate for the year 2000. Monthly and interannual variations are derived over the time period from 1979 to 2000 based on the TOMS satellite aerosol index (AI) and this global map. Prior to 1979, emissions are scaled to a CH4 emissions inventory based on land-use change. Biofuel (BF) emissions from a recent inventory for developing countries are scaled forward and backward in time using population statistics and crop production statistics. In developed countries, wood consumption data together with emission factors for cooking and heating practices are used for biofuel estimates. For fossil fuel use, we use fuel consumption data and specific emission factors for different fuel use categories to develop an inventory over 1950-2000, and emissions are scaled to a CO2 inventory prior to that time. Technology changes for emissions from the diesel transport sector are included. During the last decade of this time period, the BC and POM emissions from biomass burning (i.e., OV + BF) contribute a significant amount to the primary sources of BC and POM and are larger than those from FF. Thus 59% of the NH BC emissions and 90% of the NH POM emissions are from BB in 2000. Fossil fuel consumption technologies are needed prior to 1990 in order to improve estimates of fossil fuel emissions during the twentieth century. These results suggest that the aerosol emissions from biomass burning need to be represented realistically in climate change assessments. The estimated emissions are available on a 1° × 1° grid for global climate modeling studies of climate changes.

  12. Review of solar fuel-producing quantum conversion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. B.; Biddle, J. R.; Fujita, T.

    1984-05-01

    The status and potential of fuel-producing solar photochemical processes are discussed. Research focused on splitting water to produce dihydrogen and is at a relatively early stage of development. Current emphasis is primarily directed toward understanding the basic chemistry underlying such quantum conversion processes. Theoretical analyses by various investigators predict a limiting thermodynamic efficiency of 31% for devices with a single photosystem operating with unfocused sunlight at 300 K. When non-idealities are included, it appears unlikely that actual devices will have efficiencies greater than 12 to 15%. Observed efficiencies are well below theoretical limits. Cyclic homogeneous photochemical processes for splitting water have efficiencies considerably less than 1%. Efficiency can be significantly increased by addition of a sacrificial reagent; however, such systems are no longer cyclic and it is doubtful that they would be economical on a commercial scale. The observed efficiencies for photoelectrochemical processes are also low but such systems appear more promising than homogeneous photochemical systems. Operating and systems options, including operation at elevated temperature and hybrid and coupled quantum-thermal conversion processes, are also considered.

  13. Review of solar fuel-producing quantum conversion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. B.; Biddle, J. R.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The status and potential of fuel-producing solar photochemical processes are discussed. Research focused on splitting water to produce dihydrogen and is at a relatively early stage of development. Current emphasis is primarily directed toward understanding the basic chemistry underlying such quantum conversion processes. Theoretical analyses by various investigators predict a limiting thermodynamic efficiency of 31% for devices with a single photosystem operating with unfocused sunlight at 300 K. When non-idealities are included, it appears unlikely that actual devices will have efficiencies greater than 12 to 15%. Observed efficiencies are well below theoretical limits. Cyclic homogeneous photochemical processes for splitting water have efficiencies considerably less than 1%. Efficiency can be significantly increased by addition of a sacrificial reagent; however, such systems are no longer cyclic and it is doubtful that they would be economical on a commercial scale. The observed efficiencies for photoelectrochemical processes are also low but such systems appear more promising than homogeneous photochemical systems. Operating and systems options, including operation at elevated temperature and hybrid and coupled quantum-thermal conversion processes, are also considered.

  14. Atmospheric Modeling and Verification of Point Source Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, E. D.; Turnbull, J. C.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M. W.; Zondervan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from large point sources (electricity generation and large-scale industry) of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are currently determined from self-reported "bottom-up" inventory data, with an uncertainty of about 20% for individual power plants. As the world moves towards a regulatory environment, there is a need for independent, objective measurements of these emissions both to improve the accuracy of and to verify the reported amounts. "Top-down" atmospheric methods have the potential to independently constrain point source emissions, combining observations with atmospheric transport modeling to derive emission estimates. We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies and model sensitivities for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes and vents CO2 from locally extracted natural gas at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. We measured the CO2ff content in three different types of observations: air samples collected in flasks over a period of a few minutes, sodium hydroxide solution exposed the atmosphere, and grass samples from the surrounding farmland, the latter two representing ~1 week integrated averages. We use the WindTrax Lagrangian plume dispersion model to compare these atmospheric observations with "expected" values given the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the short-term variability in the flask samples but does well in representing the longer-term averages from grass samples, suggesting that passive integrated-sampling methods have the potential to monitor long-term emissions. Our results indicate that using this method, point source emissions can be verified to within about 30%. Further improvements in atmospheric transport modelling are needed to reduce uncertainties. In view of this, we discuss model strengths and weaknesses and explore model sensitivity to meteorological conditions

  15. Influence of Fossil Fuel Emissions on CO2 Flux Estimation by Atmospheric Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Patra, P. K.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; Peters, W.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches (or atmospheric inversions) using atmospheric transport models with CO2 observations are an effective way to estimate carbon fluxes at global and regional scales. CO2 flux estimation by Bayesian inversions require a priori knowledge of terrestrial biosphere and oceanic fluxes and fossil fuel (FF) CO2 emissions. In most inversion frameworks, FF CO2 is assumed to be a known quantity because FF CO2 based on world statistics are thought to be more reliable than natural CO2 fluxes. However different databases of FF CO2 emissions may have different temporal and spatial variations especially at locations where statistics are not so accurate. In this study, we use 3 datasets of fossil fuel emissions in inversion estimations and evaluate the sensitivity of the optimized CO2 fluxes to FF emissions with two different inverse models, JAMSTEC's ACTM and CarbonTracker Europe (CTE). Interannually varying a priori FF CO2 emissions were based on 1) CDIAC database, 2) EDGARv4.2 database, and 3) IEA database, with some modifications. Biosphere and oceanic fluxes were optimized. Except for FF emissions, other conditions were kept the same in our inverse experiments. The three a priori FF emissions showed ~5% (~0.3GtC/yr) differences in their global total emissions in the early 2000's and the differences reached ~9% (~0.9 GtC/yr) in 2010. This resulted in 0.5-1 GtC/yr (2001-2011) and 0.3-0.6 GtC/yr (2007-2011) differences in the estimated global total emissions for the ACTM and CTE inversions, respectively. Regional differences in the FF emissions were relatively large in East Asia (~0.5 GtC/yr for ACTM and ~0.3 GtC/yr for CTE) and Europe (~0.3 GtC/yr for ACTM). These a priori flux differences caused differences in the estimated biosphere fluxes for ACTM in East Asia and Europe and also their neighboring regions such as West Asia, Boreal Eurasia, and North Africa. The main differences in the biosphere fluxes for CTE were found in Asia and the Americas.

  16. Quantification of space/time explicit fossil fuel CO2 emissions in urban domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in development of a carbon monitoring system. A space/time explicit emissions data product can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements and offer practical information to authorities in order to optimize mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing in Los Angeles. The work in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort, INFLUX, aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions. The work in Los Angeles with JPL colleagues is aimed at building an operational carbon monitoring system with focus on global megacities. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate using Hestia to distribute emissions in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model constrained with multiple local data streams. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In collaboration with our JPL colleagues, we are testing the feasibility of quantifying a megacity domain and how it might integrate with remote sensing and in situ measurement systems. The Hestia effort also holds promise for a useable policy tool at the city scale. With detailed information on energy consumption and emissions with process

  17. Community, environmental, and occupational health risks associated with fossil fuel energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Mark A.

    Short-term and long-term health risks associated with fossil fuel power production can be grouped into three broad categories: risks to the surrounding community, the natural environment and to plant workers. The results of three studies examining the primary short-term or long-term impacts of fossil fuel power plants are presented within this dissertation. The first study estimates the plausible community health effects associated with peak SO2 emissions from three coal-fired power plants in the Baltimore, Maryland area. Concentrations from mobile and stationary air monitoring were compared to human clinical studies that demonstrated respiratory morbidity. Results indicate that exposure concentrations are below levels associated with respiratory symptoms. A single measurement at one monitoring site, however, may indicate risk of asymptomatic lung function decrement for SO2-sensitive asthmatics. The second study estimates the relationship between operational, environmental and temporal factors at a Texas coastal power plant and fish and shellfish impingement. Impingement is a long-term risk to fish populations near power plants. When large quantities of water are withdrawn from water bodies for cooling, fish and shellfish may be harmed if impinged against screens intended to remove debris. In this study, impingement of fish and shellfish was best explained by dissolved oxygen concentration, sampling month and sampling time. When examined separately, temperature and sampling month were most important in explaining fish impingement, while for shellfish, sampling month and sampling time were most important. Operational factors were not significant predictors of impingement. The third study examines whether the number of worker similar exposure groups classified using observation methods was the same as groups classified using personal exposure monitoring. Using observational techniques and personal monitoring, power plant workers were grouped according to exposure

  18. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  19. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  20. Modelling African aerosol using updated fossil fuel and biofuel emission inventories for 2005 and 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Penner, J. E.; Assamoi, E.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.; Guillaume, B.; Rosset, R.

    2010-12-01

    A regional fossil fuel and biofuel emission inventory for particulates has been developed for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° for the year 2005. The original database of Junker and Liousse (2008) was used after modification for updated regional fuel consumption and emission factors. Consumption data were corrected after direct inquiries conducted in Africa, including a new emitter category (i.e. two-wheel vehicles including “zemidjans”) and a new activity sector (i.e. power plants) since both were not considered in the previous emission inventory. Emission factors were measured during the 2005 AMMA campaign (Assamoi and Liousse, 2010) and combustion chamber experiments. Two prospective inventories for 2030 are derived based on this new regional inventory and two energy consumption forecasts by the Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems (POLES) model (Criqui, 2001). The first is a reference scenario, where no emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 are taken into account, and the second is for a "clean" scenario where possible and planned policies for emission control are assumed to be effective. BC and OCp emission budgets for these new inventories will be discussed and compared to the previous global dataset. These new inventories along with the most recent open biomass burning inventory (Liousse et al., 2010) have been tested in the ORISAM-TM5 global chemistry-climate model with a focus over Africa at a 1° x 1° resolution. Global simulations for BC and primary OC for the years 2005 and 2030 are carried out and the modelled particulate concentrations for 2005 are compared to available measurements in Africa. Finally, BC and OC radiative properties (aerosol optical depths and single scattering albedo) are calculated and the direct radiative forcing is estimated using an off line model (Wang and Penner, 2009). Results of sensitivity tests driven with different emission scenarios will be presented.

  1. Low enrichment fuel conversion for Iowa State University

    SciTech Connect

    Rohach, A.F.; Hendrickson, R.A.

    1990-08-01

    Work during the reported period was centered primarily in preparation for receiving the LEU fuel and the shipping of the HEU fuel. The LEU fuel has not been received. The HEU fuel assemblies for the UTR-10 reactor will not fit into any current research reactor shipping containers; therefore, the fuel assemblies must be disassembled and the fuel shipped as fuel plates. Procedures and practices have been developed so that the fuel assemblies will be disassembled in a shielded environment.

  2. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia during the last decade.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Michael; Rap, Alex; Reddington, Carly; Spracklen, Dominick; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of rapidly growing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning have increased the diffuse fraction of incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis leading to increased plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of atmospheric and biospheric models, we find that changes in diffuse light associated with fossil fuel aerosol emission accounts for only 2.8% of the increase in global net primary production (1.221 PgC/yr) over the study period 1998 to 2007. This relatively small global signal is however a result of large regional compensations. Over East Asia, the strong increase in fossil fuel emissions contributed nearly 70% of the increased plant carbon uptake (21 TgC/yr), whereas the declining fossil fuel aerosol emissions in Europe and North America contributed negatively (-16% and -54%, respectively) to increased plant carbon uptake. At global scale, we also find the CO2 fertilization effect on photosynthesis to be the dominant driver of increased plant carbon uptake, in line with previous studies. These results suggest that further research into alternative mechanisms by which fossil fuel emissions could increase carbon uptake, such as nitrogen deposition and carbon-nitrogen interactions, is required to better understand a potential link between the recent changes in fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon uptake.

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles in fossil fuel-related samples.

    PubMed

    Mössner, S G; Wise, S A

    1999-01-01

    An analytical method is described for the separation, identification, and quantification of a number of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) in three fossil fuel-related samples including two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 1597 (coal tar) and SRM 1582 (petroleum crude oil), and a decant oil. The compounds measured include the 3 possible naphtho[b]thiophenes; dibenzothiophene and selected methyl-, ethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-substituted isomers; the 3 possible benzo[b]naphthothiophenes; and the 30 methylbenzo[b]naphthothiophenes isomers. Because of the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PASHs together with their large number of possible alkyl-substituted isomers, the analytical method described requires a number of prerequisites:  effective sample cleanup, selective stationary phases, and selective methods of detection. The sample cleanup involves solid-phase extraction using aminopropylsilane cartridges with different solvent mixtures followed by normal-phase liquid chromatographic isolation of the PASHs based on the number of aromatic carbons. These aromatic ring fractions are then separated by capillary gas chromatography using two stationary phases with different selectivities, 5% phenyl-substituted methylpolysiloxane stationary phase and 50% phenyl-substituted methylpolysiloxane stationary phase, and analyzed with mass-selective detection and atomic emission detection. A liquid crystalline stationary phase was also used to separate the methylbenzo[b]naphthothiophene isomers in the crude oil sample. Advantages and limitations of each chromatographic and detection technique are discussed. PMID:21662926

  4. Sun, Ocean, Nuclear Bombs, and Fossil Fuels: Radiocarbon Variations and Implications for High-Resolution Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Koushik

    2016-06-01

    Radiocarbon, or 14C, is a radiometric dating method ideally suited for providing a chronological framework in archaeology and geosciences for timescales spanning the last 50,000 years. 14C is easily detectable in most common natural organic materials and has a half-life (5,730±40 years) relevant to these timescales. 14C produced from large-scale detonations of nuclear bombs between the 1950s and the early 1960s can be used for dating modern organic materials formed after the 1950s. Often these studies demand high-resolution chronology to resolve ages within a few decades to less than a few years. Despite developments in modern, high-precision 14C analytical methods, the applicability of 14C in high-resolution chronology is limited by short-term variations in atmospheric 14C in the past. This article reviews the roles of the principal natural drivers (e.g., solar magnetic activity and ocean circulation) and the anthropogenic perturbations (e.g., fossil fuel CO2 and 14C from nuclear and thermonuclear bombs) that are responsible for short-term 14C variations in the environment. Methods and challenges of high-resolution 14C dating are discussed.

  5. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOEpatents

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  6. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  7. Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

  8. Is the fossil fuel hangover going to last for hundreds of thousands of years? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Paleorecords show that the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was associated with massive carbon release and global warming >5 K. The PETM is considered the best paleo-analog for massive carbon release and may provide insight into future changes in climate and ocean chemistry. Surprisingly, the paleorecords indicate little, if any decline in, for instance, stable carbon isotope values after 50 kyr. Similar durations of the PETM main phase can be inferred from oxygen isotope records (indicating temperature) and surface ocean carbonate chemistry proxies. The inferred main phase duration of > 50 kyr is also independent of the age model applied. Conventional carbon-cycle/climate models forced with an initial carbon input pulse over ~10 kyr fail to reproduce the long duration of the PETM without invoking additional, slow carbon release over more than 50 kyr. However, potential carbon sources and climate feedbacks that could amplify and prolong the warming have hitherto remained elusive. In this presentation, I will suggest plausible mechanisms for the long duration of the PETM based on first-principle calculations. If such mechanisms are also applicable to the future, the fossil fuel hangover (i.e. magnitude and duration of future warming), could last for hundreds of thousands of years.

  9. Poly(3-Hydroxypropionate): a Promising Alternative to Fossil Fuel-Based Materials

    PubMed Central

    Andreeßen, Björn; Taylor, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage compounds synthesized by numerous microorganisms and have attracted the interest of industry since they are biobased and biodegradable alternatives to fossil fuel-derived plastics. Among PHAs, poly(3-hydroxypropionate) [poly(3HP)] has outstanding material characteristics and exhibits a large variety of applications. As it is not brittle like, e.g., the best-studied PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(3HB)], it can be used as a plasticizer in blends to improve their properties. Furthermore, 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is considered likely to become one of the new industrial building blocks, and it can be obtained from poly(3HP) by simple hydrolysis. Unfortunately, no natural organism is known to accumulate poly(3HP) so far. Thus, several efforts have been made to engineer genetically modified organisms capable of synthesizing the homopolymer or copolymers containing 3HP. In this review, the achievements made so far in efforts to obtain biomass which has accumulated poly(3HP) or 3HP-containing copolymers, as well as the properties of these polyesters and their applications, are compiled and evaluated. PMID:25149521

  10. Various Perspectives of Mitigating Fossil Fuel Use and Air Pollutant Emissions in China's Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is critical to reduce energy use and air pollutions in metropolitan areas because these areas usually serve as economic engines and have large, dense populations. Fossil fuel use and air-polluting emissions were analyzed in Beijing between 1997 and 2010 from both a bottom-up and a top-down perspective. From a bottom-up perspective, the key energy-intensive industrial sectors directly caused changes in Beijing's air pollution by means of a series of energy and economic policies. From a top-down perspective, variation in industrial production caused increases in most emissions between 2000 and 2010, however, there were decreases in PM10 and PM2.5 emissions during 2005-2010. Population growth was found to be the largest driver of energy consumption and emissions between1997 and 2010. Energy use and air pollutant emissions were also found to outsource from Beijing to other regions in China. Policies for reducing urban energy consumption and emissions should consider not only the key industrial sectors but also socioeconomic drivers.

  11. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  12. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

  13. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Sultan; Cess, Robert D.; Hogan, Joseph S.

    1980-12-01

    Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al., 1978; Hameed et al., 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx, and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NOx. The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NOx, and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  14. Cofiring fossil fuels with renewable energy in addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    In addressing the issue of Global Climate Change, the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency has been traditionally touted as the most effective way to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and to sequester carbon-based emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels for the worldwide production of power. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol of ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere`` will not be met unless the predictions for world energy production based on the use of oil, gas and coal are considered in using renewable energy resources. The use of renewable energy in the US amounted to 7.4 quads in 1997 which was only 7.8% of total domestic gross energy demand. In the US alone the biomass renewable energy economically accessible resource base is estimated at 14 quads per year which can be considered for use in addressing predicted increases in electric power demand. In 1990 the biomass generated power was 3.1 quads in the US alone, and renewable energy accounted for 14.7% of the total world power production allowing for significant increases in the future. The most significant use of renewable energy other than the power sector is the use of biofuels (principally from wood) in the industrial sector which accounts for 21% of the total renewable demand of 7.432 quads in 1997.

  15. On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

  16. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Hameed, S.; Hogan, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone and methane might increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test this possible climatic impact, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically-averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4 and NOx. The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NOx and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could enhance global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  17. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  18. Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Anthony

    2013-08-13

    There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H₂, HCOOH, NH₃, O₂, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO₂ deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein. PMID:23816906

  19. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L.; Wingen, Lisa M.; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R.; Gerber, R. Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  20. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  1. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of exhaust particulate matter of biodiesel compared to fossil diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Bünger, J; Krahl, J; Franke, H U; Munack, A; Hallier, E

    1998-07-01

    The mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) from a modern passenger car using rapeseed oil methyl esters (RME, biodiesel) as fuel were directly compared to DEE of diesel fuel (DF) derived from petroleum. Combustion particulate matter was collected on glass fiber filters coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) from an exhaust dilution tunnel using three different engine test cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Filters were extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus for 12 h. The mutagenicity of the extracts was tested in the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome plate-incorporation assay using strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. The toxicity to the established cell line L929 (mouse lung fibroblasts) was investigated in the neutral red assay. In the tester strains TA98 and TA100 a significant increase of mutations resulted for the particle extracts of both fuels, but for DF the revertants were significantly higher compared to RME. The highest levels of revertants were observed in tests including a cold start phase. This was probably due to incomplete combustion in the cold engine and a lower conversion rate of the cold catalytic converter. Testing with activated liver S9 fraction induced a slightly lower increase of revertants in most experiments. TA97a and TA102 showed no significant enhancement of spontaneous mutations. In the FTP-75 test cycle RME extracts showed slightly higher toxic effects to the L929 cells than DF, whereas in the other tests no significant differences were observable. These results indicate a higher mutagenic potency of DEE of DF compared to RME. This is probably due to the lower content of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) in RME exhaust, although the emitted masses of RME were higher in most test procedures applied in this study. PMID:9711258

  2. The temporal and spatial distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, J; Losey, London M; Andres, Robert Joseph; Blasing, T J; Marland, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Refinements in the spatial and temporal resolution of North American fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions provide additional information about anthropogenic aspects of the carbon cycle. In North America, the seasonal and spatial patterns are a distinctive component to characterizing anthropogenic carbon emissions. The pattern of fossil-fuel-based CO{sub 2} emissions on a monthly scale has greater temporal and spatial variability than the flux aggregated to the national annual level. For some areas, monthly emissions can vary by as much as 85% for some fuels when compared with monthly estimates based on a uniform temporal and spatial distribution. The United States accounts for the majority of North American fossil carbon emissions, and the amplitude of the seasonal flux in emissions in the United States is greater than the total mean monthly emissions in both Canada and Mexico. Nevertheless, Canada and Mexico have distinctive seasonal patterns as well. For the continent, emissions were aggregated on a 5{sup o} x 10{sup o} latitude-longitude grid. The monthly pattern of emissions varies on both a north-south and east-west gradient and evolves through the time period analyzed (1990-2007). For many areas in North America, the magnitude of the month-to-month variation is larger than the total annual emissions from land use change, making the characterization of emissions patterns essential to understanding humanity's influence on the carbon cycle.

  3. Conversion and evaluation of the THOR reactor core to TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.-H.; Shiau, L.-C.

    1990-07-01

    The THOR reactor is a pool type 1 MW research reactor and has been operated since 1961. The original MTR fuel elements have been gradually replaced by TRIGA fuel elements since 1977 and the conversion completed in 1987. The calculations were performed for various core configurations by using computer codes, WIMS/CITATION. The computing results have been evaluated and compared with the core measurements after the fuel conversion. The analysis results are in good correspondence with the measurements. (author)

  4. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels. PMID:18939591

  5. Feasibility study on AFR-100 fuel conversion from uranium-based fuel to thorium-based fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T.; Grandy, C.

    2012-07-30

    Although thorium has long been considered as an alternative to uranium-based fuels, most of the reactors built to-date have been fueled with uranium-based fuel with the exception of a few reactors. The decision to use uranium-based fuels was initially made based on the technology maturity compared to thorium-based fuels. As a result of this experience, lot of knowledge and data have been accumulated for uranium-based fuels that made it the predominant nuclear fuel type for extant nuclear power. However, following the recent concerns about the extent and availability of uranium resources, thorium-based fuels have regained significant interest worldwide. Thorium is more abundant than uranium and can be readily exploited in many countries and thus is now seen as a possible alternative. As thorium-based fuel technologies mature, fuel conversion from uranium to thorium is expected to become a major interest in both thermal and fast reactors. In this study the feasibility of fuel conversion in a fast reactor is assessed and several possible approaches are proposed. The analyses are performed using the Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR-100) design, a fast reactor core concept recently developed by ANL. The AFR-100 is a small 100 MW{sub e} reactor developed under the US-DOE program relying on innovative fast reactor technologies and advanced structural and cladding materials. It was designed to be inherently safe and offers sufficient margins with respect to the fuel melting temperature and the fuel-cladding eutectic temperature when using U-10Zr binary metal fuel. Thorium-based metal fuel was preferred to other thorium fuel forms because of its higher heavy metal density and it does not need to be alloyed with zirconium to reduce its radiation swelling. The various approaches explored cover the use of pure thorium fuel as well as the use of thorium mixed with transuranics (TRU). Sensitivity studies were performed for the different scenarios envisioned in order to determine the

  6. CONVERSION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIAL TO CHEMICALS AND FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    2001-06-30

    A direct conversion of cellulosic wastes, including resin-bonded furniture and building waste, to levulinate esters is being investigated with the view to producing fuels, solvents, and chemical intermediates as well as other useful by-products in an inexpensive process. The acid-catalyzed reaction of cellulosic materials with ethanol or methanol at 200 C gives good yields of levulinate and formate esters, as well as useful by-products, such as a solid residue (charcoal) and a resinous lignin residue. An initial plant design showed reasonable rates of return for production of purified ethyl levulinate and by-products. In this project, investigations have been performed to identify and develop reactions that utilize esters of levulinic acid produced during the acid-catalyzed ethanolysis reaction. We wish to develop uses for levulinate esters that allow their marketing at prices comparable to inexpensive polymer intermediates. These prices will allow a sufficient rate of return to justify building plants for utilizing the waste lignocellulosics. If need is demonstrated for purified levulinate, the initial plant design work may be adequate, at least until further pilot-scale work on the process is performed.

  7. Toward Regional Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Verification Using WRF-CHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Monache, L.; Kosoviæ, B.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Grant, K.; Guilderson, T.

    2008-12-01

    As efforts to reduce emissions of green house gases take shape it is becoming obvious that an essential component of a viable solution will involve emission verification. While detailed inventories of green house gas sources will represent important component of the solution additional verification methodologies will be necessary to reduce uncertainties in emission estimates especially for distributed sources and CO2 offsets. We developed tools for solving inverse dispersion problem for distributed emissions of green house gases. For that purpose we combine probabilistic inverse methodology based on Bayesian inversion with stochastic sampling and weather forecasting and air quality model WRF-CHEM. We demonstrate estimation of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel burning in California over two one-week periods in 2006. We use WRF- CHEM in tracer simulation mode to solve forward dispersion problem for emissions over eleven air basins. We first use direct inversion approach to determine optimal location for a limited number of CO2 - C14 isotope sensors. We then use Bayesian inference with stochastic sampling to determine probability distributions for emissions from California air basins. Moreover, we vary the number of sensors and frequency of measurements to study their effect on the accuracy and uncertainty level of the emission estimation. Finally, to take into account uncertainties associated with forward modeling, we combine Bayesian inference and stochastic sampling with ensemble modeling. The ensemble is created by running WRF-CHEM with different initial and boundary conditions as well as different boundary layer and surface model options. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL-ABS-406901-DRAFT). The project 07-ERD- 064 was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL.

  8. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  9. Clean uses of fossil fuels. Progress performance report, September 29, 1991--January 25, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.M.

    1994-01-25

    Science and engineering doctoral students performing energy related research were supported by a USDOE/ESPCoR Traineeship grant awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee. The grant, administered by the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee, focused on research having the general description of {open_quotes}Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels{close_quotes}. The value of the grant was $500,000 for three years duration, beginning September 30, 1991 and ending September 29, 1994. Ten PhD students were selected for support during the first year of the Traineeship. Upon reviewing coursework and research progress of the students at the end of the first year, the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee awarded a second year of support at the same $25,000/year funding level. A total of 12 students will have been supported during the duration of the grant as a consequence of one student completing his degree during the support period and of one student deciding that she wanted to complete only a Masters rather than a PhD degree. The students supported were at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville - the two PhD, science and engineering granting universities within the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The disciplines of these students included Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for the initial statewide solicitation for student support, the annual review of the students progress for support renewal, and a summary of progress and impact of the awards after two years are presented. It is shown that the Traineeships presented opportunities to: perform high quality research; initiate interactions between different scientific disciplines and departments; develop collaborations at national DOE laboratories, universities outside of Kentucky and industries; and establish research ideas for submittal to funding agencies.

  10. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkanes in combustion residuals of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Huiling; Peng, Lin; Li, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaofeng; Song, Chongfang; Mu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    The hydrogen isotope compositions (δD) of n-alkanes present in the combustion residuals of fossil fuels (coal, gasoline, and diesel) were measured using GC-IRMS to distinguish between coal soot and vehicle exhaust. The n-alkane δD values of industrial and domestic coal soot ranged from -95.3‰ to -219.6‰ and -128.1‰ to -188.6‰, respectively, exhibiting similar tendencies. The δD values of the C15-C18n-alkanes in both types of coal soot were nearly consistent, and the δD values of the C19-C24n-alkanes exhibited a zigzag profile. The δD values of C16-C22n-alkanes in gasoline exhaust exhibited a saw-tooth distribution, decreased with the carbon number, and were more positive than the δD values of C16-C22n-alkanes in diesel exhaust, which increased with the carbon number. However, the δD values of the C23-C29n-alkanes in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust were mostly consistent. The weighted average δD values of the C16-C19n-alkanes in industrial and domestic coal soot were similar to the average δD values in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhausts; however, the average δD values of the C21-C29n-alkanes in vehicle exhausts were richer in D than those in coal soot.

  11. The Future of Fossil Fuels: A Century of Abundance or a Century of Decline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelder, C.

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other advanced technologies have spawned a host of new euphoric forecasts of hydrocarbon abundance. Yet although the world's remaining oil and gas resources are enormous, most of them are destined to stay in the ground due to real-world constraints on price, flow rates, investor appetite, supply chain security, resource quality, and global economic conditions. While laboring under the mistaken belief that it sits atop a 100-year supply of natural gas, the U.S. is contemplating exporting nearly all of its shale gas production even as that production is already flattening due to poor economics. Instead of bringing "energy independence" to the U.S. and making it the top oil exporter, unrestricted drilling for tight oil and in the federal outer continental shelf would cut the lifespan of U.S. oil production in half and make it the world's most desperate oil importer by mid-century. And current forecasts for Canadian tar sands production are as unrealistic as their failed predecessors. Over the past century, world energy production has moved progressively from high quality resources with high production rates and low costs to lower quality resources with lower production rates and higher costs, and that progression is accelerating. Soon we will discover the limits of practical extraction, as production costs exceed consumer price tolerance. Oil and gas from tight formations, shale, bitumen, kerogen, coalbeds, deepwater, and the Arctic are not the stuff of new abundance, but the oil junkie's last dirty fix. This session will highlight the gap between the story the industry tells about our energy future, and the story the data tells about resource size, production rates, costs, and consumer price tolerance. It will show why it's time to put aside unrealistic visions of continued dependence on fossil fuels, face up to a century of decline, and commit ourselves to energy and transportation transition.

  12. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    coal--the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States with supplies projected to last 250 years. FutureGen's co-production of power and hydrogen will also serve as a stepping-stone to an environmentally sustainable energy future.

  13. Catalytic Conversion of Carbon-Containing Compounds into Valuable Chemicals and Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhuo

    Conversion of carbon-containing compounds, especially C1 compounds such as carbon dioxide and methane, to valuable chemicals and fuels will hopefully address concerns over decreasing supplies of fossil fuels and mitigate the eects of greenhouse gas emissions on global climate change. Many challenges, however, remain to be addressed before these technologies may be adopted on an industrial scale. Chiefly, catalysts must be developed to activate carbon-containing compounds from their thermodynamically stable ground states, using hydrogen, electrons, or heat as energy sources. We chose as model catalytic systems: 1) Metathesis of ethene and 2-butene; 2) Methane dehydrogenation and carbon dioxide hydrogenation. We developed three computational methodologies to study these processes across a range of length and time scales. First, we investigated how electronic structure affects the properties and reactivity of these catalyst systems; by computing the partial electronic density of states, electronic localization function, and excess spin density, we showed how redox supports, such as ceria, promote electron transfer reactions. We applied this to the studies of methane activation and carbon dioxide activation. Second, we developed a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach to calculate energies of activation at nite temperatures, based on the Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi principle and the Nudged Elastic Band method. Third, we developed an approach to numerically compute heat capacities and other thermodynamic properties on extended catalytic systems that are comparable in accuracy and precision to methods that have been well-developed for gas-phase molecules. We applied these to the studies of metathesis propagation and carbon dioxide hydrogenation. We gained mechanistic, thermodynamic, and kinetic insight into the elementary steps that comprise larger reaction networks of interest to the broader catalysis community. Ultimately, these theoretical and computational predictions

  14. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  15. Conversion of atactic polypropylene waste to fuel oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, J.

    1981-04-01

    A stable, convenient thermal pyrolysis process was demonstrated on a large scale pilot plant. The process successfully converted high viscosity copolymer atactic polypropylene to predominantly liquid fuels which could be burned in commercial burners. Energy yield of the process was very high - in excess of 93% including gas phase heating value. Design and operating data were obtained to permit design of a commercial size atactic conversion plant. Atactic polypropylene can be cracked at temperatures around 850/sup 0/F and residence time of 5 minutes. The viscosity of the cracked product increases with decrease in time/temperature. A majority of the pyrolysis was carried out at a pressure of 50 psig. Thermal cracking of atactic polypropylene is seen to result in sigificant coke formation (0.4% to 0.8% on a weight of feed basis) although the coke levels were of an order of magnitude lower than those obtained during catalytic cracking. The discrepancy between batch and continuous test data can be atrributed to lowered heat transfer and diffusion rates. Oxidative pyrolysis is not seen as a viable commercial alternative due to a significant amount of water formation. However, introduction of controlled quantities of oxygen at lower temperatures to affect change in feedstock viscosity could be considered. It is essential to have a complete characterization of the polymer composition and structure in order to obtain useful and duplicable data because the pyrolysis products and probably the pyrolysis kinetics are affected by introduction of abnormalities into the polymer structure during polymerization. The polymer products from continuous testing contained an olefinic content of 80% or higher. This suggests that the pyrolysis products be investigated for use as olefinic raw materials. Catalytic cracking does not seem to result in any advantage over the Thermal Cracking process in terms of reaction rates or temperature of operation.

  16. Fossil-energy program. Progress report for June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    This report - the eighty-third of series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, flue gas desulfurization, coal preparation waste utilization, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA FBC demonstration plant program technical support, PFBC systems analysis, fossil fuel applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international energy technology assessment, generalized equilibrium models for liquid and gaseous fuel supplies, analyses of coal production goals, and fossil energy information center.

  17. Partial replacement of fossil fuel in a cement plant: risk assessment for the population living in the neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2010-10-15

    In cement plants, the substitution of traditional fossil fuels not only allows a reduction of CO(2), but it also means to check-out residual materials, such as sewage sludge or municipal solid wastes (MSW), which should otherwise be disposed somehow/somewhere. In recent months, a cement plant placed in Alcanar (Catalonia, Spain) has been conducting tests to replace fossil fuel by refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW. In July 2009, an operational test was progressively initiated by reaching a maximum of partial substitution of 20% of the required energy. In order to study the influence of the new process, environmental monitoring surveys were performed before and after the RDF implementation. Metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in soil, herbage, and air samples collected around the facility. In soils, significant decreases of PCDD/F levels, as well as in some metal concentrations were found, while no significant increases in the concentrations of these pollutants were observed. In turn, PM(10) levels remained constant, with a value of 16μgm(-3). In both surveys, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks derived from exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of the facility were within the ranges considered as acceptable according to national and international standards. This means that RDF may be a successful choice in front of classical fossil fuels, being in accordance with the new EU environmental policies, which entail the reduction of CO(2) emissions and the energetic valorization of MSW. However, further long-term environmental studies are necessary to corroborate the harmlessness of RDF, in terms of human health risks. PMID:20709362

  18. Neutronic study on conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU silicide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, G.; Pond, R.; Hanan, N.; Matos, J.

    1995-02-01

    This paper marks the initial study into the technical and economic feasibility of converting the SAFARI-1 reactor in South Africa to LEU silicide fuel. Several MTR assembly geometries and LEU uranium densities have been studied and compared with MEU and HEU fuels. Two factors of primary importance for conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU fuel are the economy of the fuel cycle and the performance of the incore and excore irradiation positions.

  19. Design, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry.

    PubMed

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E; Pomberger, R; Rogetzer, M; Sipple, E M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the requirements for the production, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels (SRF) that are increasingly used in the cement industry. Different aspects have to be considered before using SRF as an alternative fuel. Here, a study on the quality of SRF used in the cement industry is presented. This overview is completed by an investigation of type and properties of input materials used at waste splitting and SRF production plants in Austria. As a simplified classification, SRF can be divided into two classes: a fine, high-calorific SRF for the main burner, or coarser SRF material with low calorific value for secondary firing systems, such as precombustion chambers or similar systems. In the present study, SRFs coming from various sources that fall under these two different waste fuel classes are discussed. Both SRFs are actually fired in the grey clinker kiln of the Holcim (Slovensko) plant in Rohožnik (Slovakia). The fine premium-quality material is used in the main burner and the coarse regular-quality material is fed to a FLS Hotdisc combustion device. In general, the alternative fuels are used instead of their substituted fossil fuels. For this, chemical compositions and other properties of SRF were compared to hard coal as one of the most common conventional fuels in Europe. This approach allows to compare the heavy metal input from traditional and alternative fuels and to comment on the legal requirements on SRF that, at the moment, are under development in Europe. PMID:24942836

  20. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-10-01

    In response to the multiple and tighter operation requirements already placed on power plants, and anticipating everyday variations on their quantity and relevance due to competition on deregulated energy markets, this dissertation contributes the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm that establishes a reference framework for the design of overall control systems for fossil-fuel power units, and develops a minimum prototype (ICCS-MP) to show its feasibility. The ICCS consists of a multiagent system organization structured as an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchy. The upper level performs the supervisory functions needed to produce self-governing system behavior, while the lower level performs the fast reactive functions necessary for real-time control and protection. The ICCS-MP greatly extends the concept of current coordinated control schemes and embraces a minimum set of ICCS functions for the power unit to participate in load-frequency control in deregulated power systems; provides the means to achieve optimal wide-range load-tracking in multiobjective operating scenarios. The ICCS-MP preserves the ICCS structure. Supervisory functions include optimization and command generation, learning and control tuning, and performance and state monitoring. Direct level control functions realize a nonlinear multivariable feedforward-feedback scheme. These functions are implemented in three modules: reference governor, feedforward control processor (FFCP), and feedback control processor (FBCP). The reference governor provides set-point trajectories for the control loops by solving a multiobjective optimization problem that accommodates the operating scenario at hand. The FFCP facilitates achievement of wide-range operation; it is implemented as a fuzzy system that emulates the inverse static behavior of the power unit, and it is designed using neural networks. The FBCP provides disturbance and uncertainty compensation

  1. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for the LA Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both verification and guidance to emissions mitigation. We have progress on applying our Hestia approach to the entire LA Basin. Here, we present these initial results focusing on a few points of progress worthy of dissemination. Geocoding of the original point sources are inaccurate, placing point sources in the wrong physical position. Sometimes these errors are many kilometers. We have corrected the majority of these point through a variety of techniques. The LAX airport and the LA Port pose large unique sources in the Basin and we have taken novel approaches to characterizing the space/time distribution of these emission sources. We have used AADT and hourly traffic data to best distribute emissions in the onroad sector. This has required both extrapolation and interpolation techniques to fully cover all road types other than local roads. Finally, we have updated the emission product to the year 2012 using a variety of scaling arguments. Work on greenhouse gas emissions has been accomplished by others, though these efforts typically go down to only the county spatial scale. However, these offer numerous opportunities to potentially calibrate or explore alternative methods and results. We will review these efforts and what benefit they are provided thus far. Finally, we will review our attempts to quantify uncertainty at the space/time scales attempted here. Uncertainty quantification remains challenging due to a variety of reasons. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made

  2. A multiresolution random field model for estimating fossil-fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.; Lee, J.; Lefantzi, S.; VanBloemenWaanders, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multiscale random field model (MsRF) that can be used for representing fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions. It is low-dimensional and is meant to be used in atmospheric inversions. The MsRF is constructed using wavelets. In this work, we will demonstrate a synthetic-data inversion aimed at estimating ffCO2 emissions, with 1o x 1o resolution, in the lower 48 states of the US. Measurements from 35 towers will be used. The measurements are constructed using the Vulcan inventory. The MsRF consists of a subset of Haar wavelets that can be defined in a rectangle bounding the US. By subjecting the Vulcan database to wavelet-transforms with a wide choice, the Haar wavelet was found to offer the most compressible representation. The MsRF was constructed by subjecting an image of lights at night to Haar transforms and retaining those with large weights. The lights-at-night image is correlated with ffCO2 inversions and have been used to downscale national ffCO2 aggregates when constructing spatially resolved ffCO2 emission inventories. The MsRF is then used to solve the linear inverse problem that underlies ffCO2 emission estimation. The number of parameters in the MsRF is far too large to be constrained by the measurements and thus we enforce sparsity to regularize the inverse problem. Further, we show that the transport model is only somewhat incoherent with respect to the chosen Haar bases, indicating that sparsification will be insufficient and further regularization using a prior emission model is required. This model is obtained by scaling up the nightlights to match EDGAR emissions. Finally, we present the results of the inversion and show that the resulting inversion mechanism can extract information from the observation to update and improve upon the predictive accuracy of prior model. The density of measurements dominates the accuracy of the inversion. We find that sparsification plays an important role since it removes about 50% of the wavelets in the Ms

  3. The influence of weather and environment on pulmonary embolism: pollutants and fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Ralf; Mayes, Julian; Hilton, Paul; Lawrenson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Previous publications have highlighted seasonal variations in the incidence of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and that weather patterns can influence these. While medical risk factors for pulmonary thrombo-embolism such as age, obesity, hypercoagulable states, cancer, previous thrombo-embolism, immobility, limb paralysis, surgery, major illness, trauma, hypotension, tachypnoea and right ventricular hypokinesis are not directly implicated regarding environmental factors such as weather, they could be influenced indirectly by these. This would be especially relevant in polluted areas that are associated with a higher pulmonary embolism risk. Routine nuclear medicine lung ventilation/perfusion studies (V/Q scans) of 2071 adult patients referred to the nuclear medicine department of the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford, UK, between January 1998 and October 2002 were reviewed and 316 of these patients were classified as positive for pulmonary embolism with high probability scan on PIOPED criteria. The occurrence of positive scans was compared to environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, vapour pressure, air pressure and rainfall. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the significance of these relations. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was positively related to vapour pressure and rainfall. The most significant relation was to vapour pressure (p=0.010) while rainfall was less significant (p=0.017). There was no significant relation between pulmonary embolism and air pressure, humidity or temperature. It is postulated that rainfall and water vapour may be contributary factors in thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by way of pollutants that are carried as condensation nuclei in micro-droplets of water. In particular, fossil fuel pollutants are implicated as these condensation nuclei. Pollutants may be inhaled by populations exposed to windborne vapour droplets in cities or airports. Polluted vapour droplets may be absorbed by the lung

  4. Field Observations of Methane Emissions from Unconventional and Conventional Fossil Fuel Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Arata, C.; Costigan, K. R.; Frankenberg, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rahn, T. A.; Henderson, B. G.; Love, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Energy from methane (CH4) has lower carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions per unit energy produced than coal or oil making it a desirable fossil fuel. Hydraulic fracturing is allowing United States to harvest the nation's abundant domestic shale gas reservoirs to achieve energy independence. However, CH4 is a gas that is hard to contain during mining, processing, transport and end-use. Therefore fugitive CH4 leaks occur that are reported in bottom up inventories by the EPA. Recent targeted field observations at selected plays have provided top down CH4 leak estimates that are larger than the reported EPA inventories. Furthermore, no long-term regional baselines are available to delineate leaks from unconventional mining operations from historical conventional mining. We will report and compare observations of fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional and unconventional mining to understand changes from technology shifts. We will report in situ and regional column measurements of CH4, its isotopologue 13CH4 and ethane (C2H6) at our Four Corners site near Farmington, NM. The region has substantial coal bed methane, conventional oil and gas production, processing and distribution with minimal hydraulic fracturing activity. We observe large enhancements in in situ and regional column CH4 with distinct time dependence. Our in situ 13CH4 observations and remote C2H6/CH4 provide strong evidence of thermogenic sources. Comparisons of WRF-simulations with emissions inventory (Edgar) with our observations show that the fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional mining are 3 times greater than reported. We also compare in situ mobile surveys of fugitive CH4 and 13CH4 leak signals in basins with conventional (San Juan) mining and unconventional (Permian and Powder River) mining. A large number of active and closed wells were sampled in these regions. Furthermore, play scale surveys on public roads allowed us to gain a regional perspective. The composition of atmospheric 13CH4

  5. Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, S. A.; Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Van Bloemen Waanders, B.; Michalak, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    We present a method to estimate spatially resolved fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions from sparse measurements of time-varying CO2 concentrations. It is based on the wavelet-modeling of the strongly non-stationary spatial distribution of ffCO2 emissions. The dimensionality of the wavelet model is first reduced using images of nightlights, which identify regions of human habitation. Since wavelets are a multiresolution basis set, most of the reduction is accomplished by removing fine-scale wavelets, in the regions with low nightlight radiances. The (reduced) wavelet model of emissions is propagated through an atmospheric transport model (WRF) to predict CO2 concentrations at a handful of measurement sites. The estimation of the wavelet model of emissions i.e., inferring the wavelet weights, is performed by fitting to observations at the measurement sites. This is done using Staggered Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), which first identifies (and sets to zero) the wavelet coefficients that cannot be estimated from the observations, before estimating the remaining coefficients. This model sparsification and fitting is performed simultaneously, allowing us to explore multiple wavelet-models of differing complexity. This technique is borrowed from the field of compressive sensing, and is generally used in image and video processing. We test this approach using synthetic observations generated from emissions from the Vulcan database. 35 sensor sites are chosen over the USA. FfCO2 emissions, averaged over 8-day periods, are estimated, at a 1 degree spatial resolutions. We find that only about 40% of the wavelets in emission model can be estimated from the data; however the mix of coefficients that are estimated changes with time. Total US emission can be reconstructed with about ~5% errors. The inferred emissions, if aggregated monthly, have a correlation of 0.9 with Vulcan fluxes. We find that the estimated emissions in the Northeast US are the most accurate. Sandia

  6. Analyses for conversion of the Georgia Tech Research Reactor from HEU to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, J.E.; Mo, S.C.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    The 5 MW Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) is a heterogeneous, heavy water moderated and cooled reactor, fueled with highly-enriched uranium aluminum alloy fuel plates. The GTRR is required to convert to low enrichment (LEU) fuel in accordance with USNRC policy. Results of design and safety analyses performed by the RERTR Program at the Argonne National Laboratory for LEU conversion of the GTRR are summarized. Only those parameters which could change as a result of replacing the fuel are addressed. The performance of the reactor and all safety margins with LEU fuel are expected to be about the same as those with the current HEU fuel.

  7. Analyses for conversion of the Georgia Tech Research Reactor from HEU to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, J.E.; Mo, S.C.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1992-12-31

    The 5 MW Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) is a heterogeneous, heavy water moderated and cooled reactor, fueled with highly-enriched uranium aluminum alloy fuel plates. The GTRR is required to convert to low enrichment (LEU) fuel in accordance with USNRC policy. Results of design and safety analyses performed by the RERTR Program at the Argonne National Laboratory for LEU conversion of the GTRR are summarized. Only those parameters which could change as a result of replacing the fuel are addressed. The performance of the reactor and all safety margins with LEU fuel are expected to be about the same as those with the current HEU fuel.

  8. Non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion: the source of CO2 emissions affects the global carbon cycle and climate responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-04-01

    Non-deforestation fire - i.e., fire that is typically followed by the recovery of natural vegetation - is arguably the most influential disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. The radiative effect from a given atmospheric CO2 perturbation is the same for fire and fossil fuel combustion. However, major differences exist per unit of CO2 emitted between the effects of non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion on the global carbon cycle and climate, because (1) fossil fuel combustion implies a net transfer of carbon from geological reservoirs to the atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial pools, whereas fire occurring in terrestrial ecosystems does not; (2) the average lifetime of the atmospheric CO2 increase is longer when originating from fossil fuel combustion compared to fire, due to the strong vegetation regrowth following fire disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems; and (3) other impacts, for example on land surface albedo, also differ between fire and fossil fuel combustion. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between fossil fuel combustion and non-deforestation fires using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects per unit of CO2 emitted - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons

  9. SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF FUEL CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY, IV (APRIL 1979, HOLLYWOOD, FL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations made at the symposium on Environmental Aspects of Fuel Conversion Technology. The symposium acted as a colloquium for discussion of environmentally related information on coal gasification and liquefaction. The program included sessions on p...

  10. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 2 report (New Task Series), The Base Case. Report 473-117-08/01

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report describes a base case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed by The Futures Group to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the Department of Energy. It builds upon the data base compiled in the default case previously submitted but uses a different set of energy technology assumptions. Objectives of the strategic backdrop analysis project are: (1) to delineate alternative socioeconomic futures or target worlds for the United States and to derive, for each world, the amount of energy needed to sustain its level of economic activity and lifestyle, assuming no technological changes; (2) to construct an analytical framework that accounts for the flow of energy from the disaggregated end-use target demand sectors back through the distribution and conversion processes to primary resource requirements; (3) to use this framework 1) to analyze how alternative government policies and associated new technologies can change the primary resource needs and fuel mix while still providing the same level of end-use energy service for the target world, and 2) to highlight resource constraints, program inconsistencies, and economic, environmental, and social implications; (4) to transfer to DOE personnel the methodology for generating energy targets and accounting for important characteristics of alternative energy policies and technologies.

  11. Fossil fuel conversion -- Measurement and modeling. Topical report, September 14, 1993--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Progress is described on the following tasks: Fixed-bed devolatilization processes; Fixed-bed combustion and gasification processes; Physical processes in transport reactors; Chemical processes in transport reactors; Advanced fixed-bed model development and evaluation; Advanced two-dimensional transport reactor model development and evaluation; Modeling of gas phase combustion; Modeling of fluidized bed systems; Advanced fixed-bed code application and implementation; Advanced two-dimensional transport gasification code applications and implementation; Modeling of fluidized-bed system applications and implementation; and Applications of ACERC combustion and gasification codes and AFR diagnostic capabilities to systems of interest to METC.

  12. Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Jason Michael

    Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained

  13. Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Jason Michael

    Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained

  14. Wine ethanol 14C as a tracer for fossil fuel CO2 emissions in Europe: Measurements and model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Karstens, Ute; Streurman, Harm-Jan; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2008-11-01

    14C (radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 is the most direct tracer for the presence of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 (CO2-ff). We demonstrate the 14C measurement of wine ethanol as a way to determine the relative regional atmospheric CO2-ff concentration compared to a background site ("regional CO2-ff excess") for specific harvest years. The carbon in wine ethanol is directly back traceable to the atmospheric CO2 that the plants assimilate. An important advantage of using wine is that the atmosphere can be monitored annually back in time. We have analyzed a total of 165 wines, mainly from harvest years 1990-1993 and 2003-2004, among which is a semicontinuous series (1973-2004) of wines from one vineyard in southwest Germany. The results show clear spatial and temporal variations in the regional CO2-ff excess values. We have compared our measured regional CO2-ff excess values of 2003 and 2004 with those simulated by the REgional MOdel (REMO). The model results show a bias of almost +3 parts per million (ppm) CO2-ff compared with those of the observations. The modeled differences between 2003 and 2004, however, which can be used as a measure for the variability in atmospheric mixing and transport processes, show good agreement with those of the observations all over Europe. Correcting for interannual variations using modeled data produces a regional CO2-ff excess signal that is potentially useful for the verification of trends in regional fossil fuel consumption. In this fashion, analyzing 14C from wine ethanol offers the possibility to observe fossil fuel emissions back in time on many places in Europe and elsewhere.

  15. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  16. Use of Chia Plant to Monitor Urban Fossil Fuel CO2 Emission: An Example From Irvine, CA in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Stills, A.; Trumbore, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Yi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Δ14CO2 is a unique tracer for quantifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, monitoring 14CO2 change and distribution in an urban environment is challenging because of its large spatial and temporal variations. We have tested the potential use of a chia plant (Salvia hispanica) as an alternative way to collect a time-integrated CO2 sample for radiocarbon analysis. The results show that Δ14C of the new growth of chia sprouts and chia leaves are consistent with the Δ14C of air samples collected during the growing period, indicating the new growth has no inherited C from seeds and thus records atmospheric 14CO2. Time-integrated air samples and chia leaf samples significantly reduced the noises of Δ14CO2 in an urban environment. We report here an example of monitoring 14CO2 change in Irvine, CA from Mar 2010 to Mar 2011 utilizing such a method. The results showed a clear seasonal cycle with high (close to remote air background level) Δ14C in summer and low Δ14C in winter months in this urban area. Excess (above remote air background) fossil fuel CO2 was calculated to be closed to 0 ppm in June to about 16 ppm from November 2010 to February 2011. Monthly mean Δ14CO2 was anti-correlated with monthly mean CO mixing ratio, indicating Δ14CO2 is mainly controlled by fossil fuel CO2 mixing with clean on-shore marine air. In summary, this study has shown encouraging result that chia plant can be potentially used as a convenient and inexpensive sampling method for time-integrated atmospheric 14CO2. Combined with other annual plants this provides the opportunity to map out time-integrated fossil fuel-derived CO2 in major cities at low cost. This in turn can be used to: 1) establish a baseline for fossil fuel emissions reductions in cities in the future; 2) provide invaluable information for validating emission models.

  17. Bioaccumulation of fossil fuel components during single-compound and complex-mixture exposures of Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Carlile, D.W.; Hanf, R.W. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    The authors conducted tests with the water flea (Daphnia magna) to compare the bioaccumulation of compounds presented alone with the bioaccumulation of these same compounds when they were presented within a complex coal liquid, water-soluble fraction. Phenol and aniline were used as representative compounds because they are highly soluble, moderately toxic, and common to many fossil fuel liquid products and corresponding wastes. The tests were primarily designed to aid in development of predictive models relating to the transport and fate of components from complex mixtures in aquatic biota.

  18. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  19. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Method development for mass spectrometry based molecular characterization of fossil fuels and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, Rajendra K.

    In an analytical (chemical) method development process, the sample preparation step usually determines the throughput and overall success of the analysis. Both targeted and non-targeted methods were developed for the mass spectrometry (MS) based analyses of fossil fuels (coal) and lipidomic analyses of a unique micro-organism, Gemmata obscuriglobus. In the non-targeted coal analysis using GC-MS, a microwave-assisted pressurized sample extraction method was compared with the traditional extraction method, such as Soxhlet. On the other hand, methods were developed to establish a comprehensive lipidomic profile and to confirm the presence of endotoxins (a.k.a. lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in Gemmata.. The performance of pressurized heating techniques employing hot-air oven and microwave irradiation were compared with that of Soxhlet method in terms of percentage extraction efficiency and extracted analyte profiles (via GC-MS). Sub-bituminous (Powder River Range, Wyoming, USA) and bituminous (Fruitland formation, Colorado, USA) coal samples were tested. Overall 30-40% higher extraction efficiencies (by weight) were obtained with a 4 hour hot-air oven and a 20 min microwave-heating extraction in a pressurized container when compared to a 72 hour Soxhlet extraction. The pressurized methods are 25 times more economic in terms of solvent/sample amount used and are 216 times faster in term of time invested for the extraction process. Additionally, same sets of compounds were identified by GC-MS for all the extraction methods used: n-alkanes and diterpanes in the sub-bituminous sample, and n-alkanes and alkyl aromatic compounds in the bituminous coal sample. G. obscuriglobus, a nucleated bacterium, is a micro-organism of high significances from evolutionary, cell and environmental biology standpoints. Although lipidomics is an essential tool in microbiological systematics and chemotaxonomy, complete lipid profile of this bacterium is still lacking. In addition, the presence of

  1. Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, James, P.

    2010-05-26

    Funding from DoE grant # FG0204-ER63721, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, supposed several postdoctoral fellows and research activities at MBARI related to ocean CO2 disposal and the biological consequences of high ocean CO2 levels on marine organisms. Postdocs supported on the project included Brad Seibel, now an associate professor at the University of Rhode Island, Jeff Drazen, now an associate professor at the University of Hawaii, and Eric Pane, who continues as a research associate at MBARI. Thus, the project contributed significantly to the professional development of young scientists. In addition, we made significant progress in several research areas. We continued several deep-sea CO2 release experiments using support from DoE and MBARI, along with several collaborators. These CO2 release studies had the goal of broadening our understanding of the effects of high ocean CO2 levels on deep sea animals in the vicinity of potential release sites for direct deep-ocean carbon dioxide sequestration. Using MBARI ships and ROVs, we performed these experiments at depths of 3000 to 3600 m, where liquid CO2 is heavier than seawater. CO2 was released into small pools (sections of PVC pipe) on the seabed, where it dissolved and drifted downstream, bathing any caged animals and sediments in a CO2-rich, low-pH plume. We assessed the survival of organisms nearby. Several publications arose from these studies (Barry et al. 2004, 2005; Carman et al. 2004; Thistle et al. 2005, 2006, 2007; Fleeger et al. 2006, 2010; Barry and Drazen 2007; Bernhard et al. 2009; Sedlacek et al. 2009; Ricketts et al. in press; Barry et al, in revision) concerning the sensitivity of animals to low pH waters. Using funds from DoE and MBARI, we designed and fabricated a hyperbaric trap-respirometer to study metabolic rates of deep-sea fishes under high CO2 conditions (Drazen et al, 2005), as well as a gas-control aquarium system to support laboratory studies of the

  2. Mixed core conversion study with HEU and LEU fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mixed core study are presented for gradual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. The key parameters show that the transition can be accomplished safely and economically.

  3. Low enrichment fuel conversion for Iowa State University

    SciTech Connect

    Rohach, A.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the UTR-10 reactor at Iowa State University which went critical on low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel on August 14, 1991. However, subsequent to the criticality experiments the fuel plates started to discolor. In addition, roll pins used to lift the fuel assemblies were discovered to be cracked. It was determined that these problems were due to chemical agents in the primary coolant water. The roll pins were replaced by solid stainless steel pins. The primary coolant was replaced and the reactor is currently in operation. Surveillance specimens will be used to monitor any possible future discoloration. The high enriched fuel (HEU) is being prepared for eventual shipment to a high enriched fuel receiving facility.

  4. Use of alcohol fuel: engine-conversion demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The use of ethanol as a fuel extender when mixed with gasoline, and the use of both hydrated and anhydrous ethanol as a fuel in gasoline and diesel engines are discussed. Required engine modifications for efficient use of ethanol are described, and include engine compression alterations, carburetor adjustments, and arrangement for fuel preheating. In 1981 and 1982 a demonstration of ethanol use in spark ignition engines was conducted at a major public park in South Carolina. The demonstration included a controlled road test with a pick-up truck and a demonstration of ethanol use in small, air cooled gasoline engines. One problem that was identified was that of contaminated fuel that clogged the fuel system after a few days' operation. (LEW)

  5. BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, thermochemical conversion of biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-12-01

    A primary mission of the US DOE is to stimulate the development, acceptance, and use of transportation fuels made from plants and wastes called biomass. Through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), DOE is developing and array of biomass conversion technologies that can be easily integrated into existing fuel production and distribution systems. The variety of technology options being developed should enable individual fuel producers to select and implement the most cost-effective biomass conversion process suited to their individual needs. Current DOE biofuels research focuses on the separate and tandem uses of biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. This overview specifically addresses NREL's thermochemical conversion technologies, which are largely based on existing refining processes.

  6. BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Thermochemical conversion of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A primary mission of the US DOE is to stimulate the development, acceptance, and use of transportation fuels made from plants and wastes called biomass. Through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Doe is developing and array of biomass conversion technologies that can be easily integrated into existing fuel production and distribution systems. The variety of technology options being developed should enable individual fuel producers to select and implement the most cost-effective biomass conversion process suited to their individual needs. Current DOE biofuels research focuses on the separate and tandem uses of biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. This overview specifically addresses NREL`s thermochemical conversion technologies, which are largely based on existing refining processes.

  7. Conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in thermal protection reactors of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranov, A. L.; Mikhaylov, A. M.; Korabelnikov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal protection of heat-stressed surfaces of a high-speed vehicle flying in dense layers of atmosphere is one of the topical issues. Not of a less importance is also the problem of hydrocarbon fuel combustion in a supersonic air flow. In the concept under development, it is supposed that in the most high-stressed parts of airframe and engine, catalytic thermochemical reactors will be installed, wherein highly endothermic processes of steam conversion of hydrocarbon fuel take place. Simultaneously with heat absorption, hydrogen generation will occur in the reactors. This paper presents the results of a study of conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in a slit reactor.

  8. Ten-percent solar-to-fuel conversion with nonprecious materials

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Casandra R.; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2014-01-01

    Direct solar-to-fuels conversion can be achieved by coupling a photovoltaic device with water-splitting catalysts. We demonstrate that a solar-to-fuels efficiency (SFE) > 10% can be achieved with nonprecious, low-cost, and commercially ready materials. We present a systems design of a modular photovoltaic (PV)–electrochemical device comprising a crystalline silicon PV minimodule and low-cost hydrogen-evolution reaction and oxygen-evolution reaction catalysts, without power electronics. This approach allows for facile optimization en route to addressing lower-cost devices relying on crystalline silicon at high SFEs for direct solar-to-fuels conversion. PMID:25225379

  9. Ten-percent solar-to-fuel conversion with nonprecious materials.

    PubMed

    Cox, Casandra R; Lee, Jungwoo Z; Nocera, Daniel G; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2014-09-30

    Direct solar-to-fuels conversion can be achieved by coupling a photovoltaic device with water-splitting catalysts. We demonstrate that a solar-to-fuels efficiency (SFE) > 10% can be achieved with nonprecious, low-cost, and commercially ready materials. We present a systems design of a modular photovoltaic (PV)-electrochemical device comprising a crystalline silicon PV minimodule and low-cost hydrogen-evolution reaction and oxygen-evolution reaction catalysts, without power electronics. This approach allows for facile optimization en route to addressing lower-cost devices relying on crystalline silicon at high SFEs for direct solar-to-fuels conversion. PMID:25225379

  10. Quantification of uncertainty associated with United States high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions: updates, challenges and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Mendoza, D. L.; Geethakumar, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Vulcan Project has estimated United States fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the hourly time scale and at spatial scales below the county level for the year 2002. Vulcan is built from a wide variety of observational data streams including regulated air pollutant emissions reporting, traffic monitoring, energy statistics, and US census data. In addition to these data sets, Vulcan relies on a series of modeling assumptions and constructs to interpolate in space, time and transform non-CO2 reporting into an estimate of CO2 combustion emissions. The recent version 2.0 of the Vulcan inventory has produced advances in a number of categories with particular emphasis on improved temporal structure. Onroad transportation emissions now avail of roughly 5000 automated traffic count monitors allowing for much improved diurnal and weekly time structure in our onroad transportation emissions. Though the inventory shows excellent agreement with independent national-level CO2 emissions estimates, uncertainty quantification has been a challenging task given the large number of data sources and numerous modeling assumptions. However, we have now accomplished a complete uncertainty estimate across all the Vulcan economic sectors and will present uncertainty estimates as a function of space, time, sector and fuel. We find that, like the underlying distribution of CO2 emissions themselves, the uncertainty is also strongly lognormal with high uncertainty associated with a relatively small number of locations. These locations typically are locations reliant upon coal combustion as the dominant CO2 source. We will also compare and contrast Vulcan fossil fuel CO2 emissions estimates against estimates built from DOE fuel-based surveys at the state level. We conclude that much of the difference between the Vulcan inventory and DOE statistics are not due to biased estimation but mechanistic differences in supply versus demand and combustion in space/time.

  11. Preliminary neutronics calculations for conversion of the Tehran research reactor core from HEU to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Nejat, S.M.R. . Dept. of Engineering Physics.)

    1993-08-01

    The 5-MW highly enriched uranium (HEU)-fueled Tehran Research Reactor is considered for conversion to high-density, low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. A preliminary neutronics calculation is performed as part of the conversion goal. In this study, two cores are considered: the HEU reference core and a proposed LEU core similar to the reference core, and a proposed LEU core similar to the reference core, using standardized U[sub 3]Si[sub 2] plates with the option of different [sup 235]U loadings. Various possibilities are investigated for the conversion of HEU to LEU fuel elements with 20% enriched [sup 235]U loadings of 207 to 297 g [sup 235]U/element. For the same equilibrium cycle length, the fuels are compared for flux, power distribution, burnup, and reactivity.

  12. Delays hit conversion to low enriched uranium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Eliminating highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel from civilian research reactors around the world will take a lot longer than anticipated, according to a new study by the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine.

  13. Fossil energy program. Progress report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, L. E.

    1980-10-01

    This report - the seventy-second of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process and program analysis, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, fossil energy applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international assessment of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology, and PFBC systems analysis.

  14. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  15. POLLUTION CONTROL PRACTICES--FUEL CONVERSION AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper examines water-related effects that could be expected from siting specific conversion plants at given locations in the major coal and oil shale bearing regions of the U.S. A total of 90 plant/site combinations were studied: 48 in the Central and Eastern U.S., and 42 in ...

  16. Catalytic conversion of biomass to monofunctional hydrocarbons and targeted liquid-fuel classes.

    PubMed

    Kunkes, Edward L; Simonetti, Dante A; West, Ryan M; Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Gärtner, Christian A; Dumesic, James A

    2008-10-17

    It is imperative to develop more efficient processes for conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such that the cost of these fuels would be competitive with the cost of fuels derived from petroleum. We report a catalytic approach for the conversion of carbohydrates to specific classes of hydrocarbons for use as liquid transportation fuels, based on the integration of several flow reactors operated in a cascade mode, where the effluent from the one reactor is simply fed to the next reactor. This approach can be tuned for production of branched hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds in gasoline, or longer-chain, less highly branched hydrocarbons in diesel and jet fuels. The liquid organic effluent from the first flow reactor contains monofunctional compounds, such as alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, and heterocycles, that can also be used to provide reactive intermediates for fine chemicals and polymers markets. PMID:18801970

  17. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  18. Conversion system overview assessment. Volume III. Solar thermal/coal or biomass derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R. J.

    1980-02-01

    The three volumes of this report cover three distinct areas of solar energy research: solar thermoelectrics, solar-wind hybrid systems, and synthetic fuels derived with solar thermal energy. Volume III deals with the conversion of synthetic fuels with solar thermal heat. The method is a hybrid combination of solar energy with either coal or biomass. A preliminary assessment of this technology is made by calculating the cost of fuel produced as a function of the cost of coal and biomass. It is shown that within the projected ranges of coal, biomass, and solar thermal costs, there are conditions when solar synthetic fuels with solar thermal heat will become cost-competitive.

  19. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments. PMID:27359161

  20. Energy conversion in natural and artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W

    2010-05-28

    Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil-fuel dependence has severe consequences, including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil-fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis: light harvesting, charge separation, and catalysis. These processes are compared in natural and in artificial systems. Such a comparison can assist in understanding the general principles of photosynthesis and in developing working devices, including photoelectrochemical cells, for solar energy conversion. PMID:20534342

  1. Development of Nano-crystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Hai; Dong, Junhang; Lin, Jerry; Romero, Van

    2012-03-01

    This is a final technical report for the first project year from July 1, 2005 to Jan 31, 2012 for DoE/NETL funded project DE-FC26-05NT42439: Development of Nanocrystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases. This report summarizes the technical progresses and achievements towards the development of novel nanocrystalline doped ceramic material-enabled optical fiber sensors for in situ and real time monitoring the gas composition of flue or hot gas streams involved in fossil-fuel based power generation and hydrogen production.

  2. Survey of US and total world production, proved resources, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The report updates previous IGT reports on US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. The US is endowed with roughly 22% of the world's proved reserves of conventional fossil fuels and about 9% of the uranium in the free world. It is particularly fortunate in having vast amounts of coal, oil shale, and peat. Although they present difficult economic and environmental problems in mining and utilization, a serious effort should be made to use these resources to a much greater extent.

  3. Surrogate gas prediction model as a proxy for Δ14C-based measurements of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, Kevin J.; Miller, John B.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Ben R.

    2016-06-01

    The measured 14C:12C isotopic ratio of atmospheric CO2 (and its associated derived Δ14C value) is an ideal tracer for determination of the fossil fuel derived CO2 enhancement contributing to any atmospheric CO2 measurement (Cff). Given enough such measurements, independent top-down estimation of U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions should be possible. However, the number of Δ14C measurements is presently constrained by cost, available sample volume, and availability of mass spectrometer measurement facilities. Δ14C is therefore measured in just a small fraction of samples obtained by flask air sampling networks around the world. Here we develop a projection pursuit regression (PPR) model to predict Cff as a function of multiple surrogate gases acquired within the NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN). The surrogates consist of measured enhancements of various anthropogenic trace gases, including CO, SF6, and halocarbon and hydrocarbon acquired in vertical airborne sampling profiles near Cape May, NJ and Portsmouth, NH from 2005 to 2010. Model performance for these sites is quantified based on predicted values corresponding to test data excluded from the model building process. Chi-square hypothesis test analysis indicates that these predictions and corresponding observations are consistent given our uncertainty budget which accounts for random effects and one particular systematic effect. However, quantification of the combined uncertainty of the prediction due to all relevant systematic effects is difficult because of the limited range of the observations and their relatively high fractional uncertainties at the sampling sites considered here. To account for the possibility of additional systematic effects, we incorporate another component of uncertainty into our budget. Expanding the number of Δ14C measurements in the NOAA GGGRN and building new PPR models at additional sites would improve our understanding of

  4. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31

    activity was to develop methods and enabling materials for syngas conversion to SNG with readily CO2 separation. Suitable methanation catalyst and CO2 sorbent materials were developed. Successful proof-of-concept for the combined reaction-sorption process was demonstrated, which culminated in a research publication. With successful demonstration, a decision was made to switch focus to an area of fuels research of more interest to all three research institutions (CAS-NETL-PNNL). Syngas-to-Hydrocarbon Fuels through Higher Alcohol Intermediates There are two types of processes in syngas conversion to fuels that are attracting R&D interest: 1) syngas conversion to mixed alcohols; and 2) syngas conversion to gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline process developed by Exxon-Mobil in the 1970s. The focus of this task was to develop a one-step conversion technology by effectively incorporating both processes, which is expected to reduce the capital and operational cost associated with the conversion of coal-derived syngas to liquid fuels. It should be noted that this work did not further study the classic Fischer-Tropsch reaction pathway. Rather, we focused on the studies for unique catalyst pathways that involve the direct liquid fuel synthesis enabled by oxygenated intermediates. Recent advances made in the area of higher alcohol synthesis including the novel catalytic composite materials recently developed by CAS using base metal catalysts were used.

  5. DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

  6. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics discussed are under the following projects: materials research and developments; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; and fossil fuels supplies modeling and research.

  7. EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF MAJOR FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study characterizes the atmospheric emissions from five major coal-fired power plant units in the Ohio River Valley between Portsmouth, Ohio, and Louisville, Kentucky. This characterization provides data that are representative of the boiler fuel emission control combination...

  8. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  9. A 21st-century shift from fossil-fuel to biogenic methane emissions indicated by ¹³CH₄.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Hinrich; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E; Veidt, Cordelia; Lassey, Keith R; Brailsford, Gordon W; Bromley, Tony M; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Michel, Sylvia E; Miller, John B; Levin, Ingeborg; Lowe, Dave C; Martin, Ross J; Vaughn, Bruce H; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Between 1999 and 2006, a plateau interrupted the otherwise continuous increase of atmospheric methane concentration [CH4] since preindustrial times. Causes could be sink variability or a temporary reduction in industrial or climate-sensitive sources. We reconstructed the global history of [CH4] and its stable carbon isotopes from ice cores, archived air, and a global network of monitoring stations. A box-model analysis suggests that diminishing thermogenic emissions, probably from the fossil-fuel industry, and/or variations in the hydroxyl CH4 sink caused the [CH4] plateau. Thermogenic emissions did not resume to cause the renewed [CH4] rise after 2006, which contradicts emission inventories. Post-2006 source increases are predominantly biogenic, outside the Arctic, and arguably more consistent with agriculture than wetlands. If so, mitigating CH4 emissions must be balanced with the need for food production. PMID:26966190

  10. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) from anthropogenic sources are the primary driver of observed increases in the atmospheric CO2 burden, and hence global warming. Quantification of the magnitude of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is vital to improving our understanding of the global and regional carbon cycle, and independent evaluation of reported emissions is essential to the success of any emission reduction efforts. The urban scale is of particular interest, because ~75% CO2ff is emitted from urban regions, and cities are leading the way in attempts to reduce emissions. Measurements of 14CO2 can be used to determine CO2ff, yet existing 14C measurement techniques require laborious laboratory analysis and measurements are often insufficient for inferring an urban emission flux. This presentation will focus on how 14CO2 measurements can be combined with those of more easily measured ancillary tracers to obtain high resolution CO2ff mixing ratio estimates and then infer the emission flux. A pilot study over Sacramento, California showed strong correlations between CO2ff and carbon monoxide (CO) and demonstrated an ability to quantify the urban flux, albeit with large uncertainties. The Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX) aims to develop and assess methods to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions. Indianapolis was chosen as an ideal test case because it has relatively straightforward meteorology; a contained, isolated, urban region; and substantial and well-known fossil fuel CO2 emissions. INFLUX incorporates atmospheric measurements of a suite of gases and isotopes including 14C from light aircraft and from a network of existing tall towers surrounding the Indianapolis urban area. The recently added CO2ff content is calculated from measurements of 14C in CO2, and then convolved with atmospheric transport models and ancillary data to estimate the urban CO2ff emission flux. Significant innovations in sample collection include: collection of hourly averaged samples to

  11. A 21st-century shift from fossil-fuel to biogenic methane emissions indicated by 13CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Hinrich; Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff; Veidt, Cordelia; Lassey, Keith R.; Brailsford, Gordon W.; Bromley, Tony M.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Michel, Sylvia E.; Miller, John B.; Levin, Ingeborg; Lowe, Dave C.; Martin, Ross J.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; White, James W. C.

    2016-04-01

    Between 1999 and 2006, a plateau interrupted the otherwise continuous increase of atmospheric methane concentration [CH4] since preindustrial times. Causes could be sink variability or a temporary reduction in industrial or climate-sensitive sources. We reconstructed the global history of [CH4] and its stable carbon isotopes from ice cores, archived air, and a global network of monitoring stations. A box-model analysis suggests that diminishing thermogenic emissions, probably from the fossil-fuel industry, and/or variations in the hydroxyl CH4 sink caused the [CH4] plateau. Thermogenic emissions did not resume to cause the renewed [CH4] rise after 2006, which contradicts emission inventories. Post-2006 source increases are predominantly biogenic, outside the Arctic, and arguably more consistent with agriculture than wetlands. If so, mitigating CH4 emissions must be balanced with the need for food production.

  12. Determination of wood burning and fossil fuel contribution of black carbon at Delhi, India: Using aerosol light absorption technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S.; Bisht, D. S.; Srivastava, A.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive measurement program of effective black carbon (eBC), fine particle (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) was undertaken during 1st December 2011 to 31st March 2012 in Delhi, India. The mean mass concentrations of eBC, PM2.5 and CO were recorded as 12.1±8.7μg/m3, 182.75±114.5μg/m3 and 3.41±1.6ppm respectively. Also, the Absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) was estimated from eBC and varied from 0.38 to 1.29 with mean value of 1.09±0.11. The frequency of occurrence of AAE was ~17% less than unity whereas ~83% was greater than unity. The mass concentrations of eBC were found to be higher by ~34% of the average value of eBC (12.1μg/m3) during the study period. Sources of eBC were estimated and they were ~ 94% from fossil fuel (eBCff) combustion whereas only 6% was from wood burning (eBCwb). The ratio between eBCff and eBCwb was fifteen which indicates a higher impact from fossil fuels compared to biomass burning. When comparing eBCff during day and night, a factor of three higher concentrations was observed in night-time than daytime, it is due to combustion of fossil fuel (diesel vehicle emission) and shallow boundary layer conditions. The contribution of eBCwb in eBC was higher in between 18.00 to 21.00 hrs due to burning of wood / biomass. A significant correlation between eBC and PM2.5 (r=0.78) and eBC and CO (r = 0.46) indicates the similarity in location sources. The mass concentration of eBC was highest (23.4μg/m3) during the month of December when the mean visibility (VIS) was lowest (1.31Km). Regression analysis among wind speed (WS), VIS, soot particles and CO were studied and significant negative relationships were seen as VIS and eBC (-0.65), eBCff (-0.66), eBCwb (-0.34) and CO (-0.65), however, in between WS among eBC (-0.68), eBCff (-0.67), eBCwb (-0.28) and CO (-0.53) respectively. The regression analysis indicated that emission of soot particles may be localized to fossil fuel combustion whereas wood/biomass burning emissions of black

  13. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most studied chemical transformations of carbohydrates is their thermocatalytic dehydration to form furans. Cellulose-derived glucose is thereby converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF), while the hemicellulose-derived pentoses (e.g., xylose, arabinose) form furfuraldehyde. Our objective is to identify new pathways to convert furfuryl alcohol into a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons that can be used as drop-in fuels for diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16) blends. Furfuryl alcohol is produced commercially through hydrogenation of furfuraldehyde that is derived from hemicellulose-derived pentoses via acid-catalyzed dehydration. The steps that we are currently pursuing to convert furfuryl alcohol into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this pathway.

  14. Catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fine chemicals and fuels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Hui; Xia, Xi; Lin, Chun-Xiang; Tong, Dong-Shen; Beltramini, Jorge

    2011-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and bio-renewable resource with great potential for sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. This critical review provides insights into the state-of the-art accomplishments in the chemocatalytic technologies to generate fuels and value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, with an emphasis on its major component, cellulose. Catalytic hydrolysis, solvolysis, liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation are the major processes presently studied. Regarding catalytic hydrolysis, the acid catalysts cover inorganic or organic acids and various solid acids such as sulfonated carbon, zeolites, heteropolyacids and oxides. Liquefaction and fast pyrolysis of cellulose are primarily conducted over catalysts with proper acidity/basicity. Gasification is typically conducted over supported noble metal catalysts. Reaction conditions, solvents and catalysts are the prime factors that affect the yield and composition of the target products. Most of processes yield a complex mixture, leading to problematic upgrading and separation. An emerging technique is to integrate hydrolysis, liquefaction or pyrolysis with hydrogenation over multifunctional solid catalysts to convert lignocellulosic biomass to value-added fine chemicals and bio-hydrocarbon fuels. And the promising catalysts might be supported transition metal catalysts and zeolite-related materials. There still exist technological barriers that need to be overcome (229 references). PMID:21863197

  15. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  16. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiangu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Jian; Street, Jason; Gao, Jinsen; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N(2), 21% CO, 18% H(2), 12% CO(2,) 2% CH(4) and trace amounts of impurities. A purification reaction system was designed to remove the impurities in the syngas such as moisture, oxygen, sulfur, ammonia, and tar. The purified syngas meets the requirements for catalytic conversion to liquid fuels. A multi-functional catalyst was developed and tested for the catalytic conversion of wood syngas to SATFs. It was demonstrated that liquid fuels similar to commercial aviation turbine fuels (Jet A) was successfully synthesized from bio-syngas. PMID:23131653

  17. Conversion and standardization of US university reactor fuels using LEU, status 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.R.; Matos, J.E.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, the US Department of Energy initiated a program to change the fuel used in most of the US university research reactors using HEU (93%) to LEU({lt}20{percent}) in order to minimize the risk of theft or diversion of this weapons-useable material. An important consideration in the LEU conversion planning process has been the desire to standardize the fuels that are used and to enhance the performance and utilization of the reactors. This paper describes the current status of this conversion process and the plans and schedules to complete an orderly transition from HEU to LEU fuel in most of these reactors. To date, three university reactors have been converted to LEU fuel, completed safety documentation for three reactors is being evaluated by the USNRC, and work on the safety documentation for six reactors is in progress. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

  18. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-fuel Combustion By-products.

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, A V.; Mccarthy, John F.; Amonette, James E.; Fisher, L S.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Daniels, William L.

    2004-03-01

    Concern for the potential global change consequences of increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted interest in the development of mechanisms to reduce or stabilize atmospheric CO2 .During the next several decades, a program focused on terrestrial sequestration processes could make a significant contribution to abating CO2 increases.The reclamation of degraded lands, such as mine-spoil sites, highway rights-of-way, and poorly managed lands, represents an opportunity to couple C sequestration with the use of fossil-fuel and energy by-products and other waste material, such as biosolids and organic wastes from human and animal sewage treatment facilities, to improve soil quality. Degraded lands are often characterized by acidic pH, low levels of key nutrients, poor soil structure, and limited moisture-retention capacity.Much is known about the methods to improve these soils, but the cost of implementation is often a limiting factor.However, the additional financial and environmental benefit s of C sequestration may change the economics of land reclamation activities.The addition of energy-related by-products can address the adverse conditions of these degraded lands through a variety of mechanisms, such as enhancing plant growth and capturing of organic C in long-lived soil C pools.This review examines the use of fossil-fuel combustion by-products and organic amendments to enhance C sequestration and identifies the key gaps in information that still must be addressed before these methods can be implemented on an environmentally meaningful scale.

  19. Isotopic measurements of atmospheric methane in Los Angeles, California, USA: Influence of “fugitive” fossil fuel emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Tyler, Stanley C.; Pataki, Diane E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Christensen, Lance E.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that CH4 emissions in Los Angeles and other large cities may be underestimated. We utilized stable isotopes (13C and D) and radiocarbon (14C) to investigate sources of CH4 in Los Angeles, California. First, we made measurements of δ13C and δD of various CH4 sources in urban areas. Fossil fuel CH4 sources (oil refineries, power plants, traffic, and oil drilling fields) had δ13C values between -45 and -30‰ and dD values between -275 and -100‰, whereas biological CH4 (cows, biofuels, landfills, sewage treatment plants, and cattle feedlots) had δ13C values between -65 and -45‰ and δD values between -350 and -275‰. We made high-altitude observations of CH4 concentration using continuous tunable laser spectroscopy measurements combined with isotope analyses (13C, 14C, and D) of discrete samples to constrain urban CH4 sources. Our data indicate that the dominant source of CH4 in Los Angeles has a δ13C value of approximately -41.5‰ and a δD value between -229 and -208‰. Δ14C of CH4 in urban air samples ranged from +262 to +344‰ (127.1 to 134.9 pMC), depleted with respect to average global background CH4. We conclude that the major source of CH4 in Los Angeles is leakage of fossil fuels, such as from geologic formations, natural gas pipelines, oil refining, and/or power plants. More research is needed to constrain fluxes of CH4 from natural gas distribution and refining, as this flux may increase with greater reliance on natural gas and biogas for energy needs.

  20. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  1. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.

    2008-03-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces

  2. Energy conversion and fuel production from electrochemical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Nenad

    2012-02-01

    Design and synthesis of energy efficient and stable electrochemical interfaces (materials and double layer components) with tailor properties for accelerating and directing chemical transformations is the key to developing new alternative energy systems -- fuel cells, electrolizers and batteries. In aqueous electrolytes, depending on the nature of the reacting species, the supporting electrolyte, and the metal electrodes, two types of interactions have traditionally been considered: (i) direct -- covalent - bond formation between adsorbates and electrodes, involving chemisorption, electron transfer, and release of the ion hydration shell; and (ii) relatively weak non-covalent metal-ion forces that may affect the concentration of ions in the vicinity of the electrode but do not involve direct metal-adsorbate bonding. The range of physical phenomena associated with these two classes of bonds is unusually broad, and are of paramount importance to understand activity of both metal-electrolyte two phase interfaces and metal-Nafion-electrolyte three phase interfaces. Furthermore, in the past, researcher working in the field of fuel cells (converting hydrogen and oxygen into water) and electrolyzers (splitting water back to H2 and O2) ) seldom focused on understanding the electrochemical compliments of these reactions in battery systems, e.g., the lithium-air system. In this lecture, we address the importance of both covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling catalytic activity at the two-phase and three-phase interfaces. Although the field is still in its infancy, a great deal has already been learned and trends are beginning to emerge that give new insight into the relationship between the nature of bonding interactions and catalytic activity/stability of electrochemical interfaces. In addition, to bridge the gap between the ``water battery'' (fuel cell <-> electrolyzer) and the Li-air battery systems we demonstrate that this would require fundamentally new

  3. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  4. Conversion and standardization of university reactor fuels using low-enrichment uranium - options and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.R.; Matos, J.E.; Young, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel used in twenty United States university reactors can be viewed as contributing to the risk of theft or diversion of weapons-useable material. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a policy statement expressing its concern and has published a proposed rule on limiting the use of HEU in NRC-licensed non-power reactors. The fuel options, functional impacts, licensing, and scheduling of conversion and standardization of these reactor fuels to use of low-enrichment uranium (LEU) have been assessed. The university reactors span a wide range in form and function, from medium-power intense neutron sources where HEU fuel may be required, to low-power training and research facilities where HEU fuel is unnecessary. Conversion provides an opportunity to standardize university reactor fuels and improve reactor utilization in some cases. The entire program is estimated to cost about $10 million and to last about five years. Planning for conversion and standardization is facilitated by the US Department of Energy. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

  6. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  8. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  9. Historical reconstruction of major pollutant levels in the Hudson-Raritan Basin: 1880-1980. Volume 2. Heavy metals and fossil fuels. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, R.U.; Ayers, L.W.

    1988-10-01

    Volume 2: Metals covers the sources, production processes, consumptive uses of and environmental emissions of eight heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead, zinc). Included are sections that discuss the part fossil fuel combustion plays in the overall pollution loading of Hudson-Raritan Basin.

  10. Method and apparatus for conversion of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuel

    DOEpatents

    Lux, Kenneth W.; Namazian, Mehdi; Kelly, John T.

    2015-12-01

    Embodiments of the invention relates to conversion of hydrocarbon material including but not limited to coal and biomass to a synthetic liquid transportation fuel. The invention includes the integration of a non-catalytic first reaction scheme, which converts carbonaceous materials into a solid product that includes char and ash and a gaseous product; a non-catalytic second reaction scheme, which converts a portion of the gaseous product from the first reaction scheme to light olefins and liquid byproducts; a traditional gas-cleanup operations; and the third reaction scheme to combine the olefins from the second reaction scheme to produce a targeted fuel like liquid transportation fuels.

  11. Separation of biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes of CO2 by atmospheric inversion of CO2 and 14CO2 measurements: Observation System Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sourish; Bharat Miller, John; Lehman, Scott

    2016-05-01

    National annual total CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels are likely known to within 5-10 % for most developed countries. However, uncertainties are inevitably larger (by unknown amounts) for emission estimates at regional and monthly scales, or for developing countries. Given recent international efforts to establish emission reduction targets, independent determination and verification of regional and national scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions are likely to become increasingly important. Here, we take advantage of the fact that precise measurements of 14C in CO2 provide a largely unbiased tracer for recently added fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere and present an atmospheric inversion technique to jointly assimilate observations of CO2 and 14CO2 in order to simultaneously estimate fossil fuel emissions and biospheric exchange fluxes of CO2. Using this method in a set of Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), we show that given the coverage of 14CO2 measurements available in 2010 (969 over North America, 1063 globally), we can recover the US national total fossil fuel emission to better than 1 % for the year and to within 5 % for most months. Increasing the number of 14CO2 observations to ˜ 5000 per year over North America, as recently recommended by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (Pacala et al., 2010), we recover monthly emissions to within 5 % for all months for the US as a whole and also for smaller, highly emissive regions over which the specified data coverage is relatively dense, such as for the New England states or the NY-NJ-PA tri-state area. This result suggests that, given continued improvement in state-of-the art transport models, a measurement program similar in scale to that recommended by the NAS can provide for independent verification of bottom-up inventories of fossil fuel CO2 at the regional and national scale. In addition, we show that the dual tracer inversion framework can detect and minimize biases in

  12. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF POTENTIAL EMISSIONS FROM FUEL CONVERSION FACILITIES. A SMOG CHAMBER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmospheric chemistry of chemical species that may be emitted from fuel conversion facilities were studied in smog chambers. Of 17 compounds assessed for ozone-forming potential, 6 compounds were selected along with a control species, propylene, for testing in the presence of...

  13. SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF FUEL CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY, V (SEPTEMBER 1980, ST. LOUIS, MO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents presentations at the fifth EPA-sponsored symposium on the environmental aspects of fuel conversion technology, in St. Louis, MO, 9/16-19/80. The symposium served as a colloquium on environmental information related to coal gasification, indirect liquefaction,...

  14. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  15. Control of Fossil-Fuel Particulate Black Carbon and Organic Matter, the Most Effective Method of Slowing Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2001-12-01

    Under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, no control of black carbon (BC) was considered. Here, it is found, through simulations in which seven new particles feedbacks to climate are identified, that any emission reduction of fossil-fuel (f.f.) particulate BC plus associated organic matter (OM) will slow global warming more than will any emission reduction of CO2 or CH4 for a definite time period. When all f.f. BC+OM and anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions are eliminated together, that period is 20-90 years. It is also found that historical net global warming can be attributed roughly to greenhouse-gas plus f.f. BC+OM warming minus anthropogenic sulfate cooling. Eliminating all f.f. BC+OM could eliminate more than 40 percent of such net warming within three years if no other changes occurred. Reducing CO2 emissions by a third would have the same effect, but after 50-200 years. Finally, diesel cars warm climate more than do equivalent gasoline cars; thus, fuel- and carbon-tax laws that favor diesel promote global warming.

  16. Radiation-initiated conversion of paraffins to engine fuel: Direct and indirect initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metreveli, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of gasoline and diesel fuel has been investigated using three various radiation-induced ways: (1) cracking of wax, (2) synthesis from methane, (3) high-temperature conversion of wax dilute solution in methane. The wax, synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch method, initially contained a mixture of C17-C120 linear paraffins. The yield of wax conversion to liquid mixture (C4-C27 alkenes and 61.5% alkanes) via mode (1) was 0.83±0.09 μmole/J, whereas yield of gas conversion to liquid mixture (C5-C13 alkanes) via mode (2) was 0.95±0.02 μmole/J. In the dilute solution wax underwent indirect action of radiation. In comparison with (1) the mode (3) produces similar amount of lighter fuel containing 80% of alkanes (C5-C15). At the same time degree of methane fixation is almost three times higher.

  17. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C10H8) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  18. Neutronic Analyses for HEU to LEU fuel conversion of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E. H.; Newton, T. H.; Bergeron, A.; Horelik, N.; Stevens, J. G

    2011-03-02

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor (MITR-II), based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a research reactor designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on a mixture of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of compact high performance reactors like the MITR-II. This report presents the results of steady state neutronic safety analyses for conversion of MITR-II from the use of HEU fuel to the use of U-Mo LEU fuel. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the safety analyses meet current requirements for an LEU core replacement of MITR-II.

  19. Status of core conversion with LEU silicide fuel in JRR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Teruo; Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Shirai, Eiji

    1997-08-01

    Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) is a light water moderated and cooled, 93% enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used and swimming pool type reactor with thermal output of 3.5MW. Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been used for shielding experiments, radioisotope production, neutron activation analyses, training for reactor engineers and so on for about 30 years. Within the framework of the RERTR Program, the works for conversion to LEU fuel are now under way, and neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations emphasizing on safety and performance aspects are being carried out. The design and evaluation for the core conversion are based on the Guides for Safety Design and Evaluation of research and testing reactor facilities in Japan. These results show that the JRR-4 will be able to convert to use LEU fuel without any major design change of core and size of fuel element. LEU silicide fuel (19.75%) will be used and maximum neutron flux in irradiation hole would be slightly decreased from present neutron flux value of 7x10{sup 13}(n/cm{sup 2}/s). The conversion works are scheduled to complete in 1998, including with upgrade of the reactor building and utilization facilities.

  20. High conversion Th-U{sup 233} fuel assembly for current generation of PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Baldova, D.; Fridman, E.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a preliminary design of a high conversion Th-U{sup 233} fuel assembly applicable for current generation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWRs). The considered fuel assembly has a typical 17 x 17 PWR lattice. However in order to increase the conversion of Th{sup 232} to U{sup 233}, the assembly was subdivided into the two regions called seed and blanket. The central seed region has a higher than blanket U{sup 233} content and acts as a neutron source for the peripheral blanket region. The latest acts as a U{sup 233} breeder. While the seed fuel pins have a standard dimensions the blanket fuel radius was increased in order to reduce the moderation and to facilitate the resonance neutron absorption in blanket Th{sup 232}. The U{sup 233} content in the seed and blanket regions was optimized to achieve maximal initial to discharged fissile inventory ratio (FIR) taking into account the target fuel cycle length of 12 months with 3-batch reloading scheme. In this study the neutronic calculations were performed on the fuel assembly level using Helios deterministic lattice transport code. The fuel cycle length and the core k{sub eff} were estimated by applying the Non Linear Reactivity Model. The applicability of the HELIOS code for the analysis of the Th-based high conversion designs was confirmed with the help of continuous-energy Monte-Carlo code SERPENT. The results of optimization studies show that for the heterogeneous seed and blanket (SB) fuel assembly the FIR of about 0.95 can be achieved. (authors)

  1. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G.; Gray, D.

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  2. Dual-fuel engine conversions evaluated by U.S. Navy

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    In seeking ways to reduce emissions from two-stroke locomotive type engines, the Navy has evaluated dual-fuel conversions operating on a compression ignition cycle, using up to 94% natural gas and 6% diesel pilot fuel. The Navy has conducted an evaluation and test program under the direction of Dr. Normnn L. Helgeson, at the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, California. Of the Navy`s many diesel engines, those installed in its MUSE (mobile utility support equipment) units for temporary electrical power were the first Navy off-road engines to be affected by emissions regulations. Most of the units are powered by the EMD 645 engine, and when burning diesel fuel do not meet the emission requirements in many areas of the country. This paper discusses the changes and results of the conversion and shakedown tests.

  3. Status of fossil energy resources: A global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article deals with recently status of global fossil energy sources. Fossil energy sources have been split into three categories: oil,coal, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are highly efficient and cheap. Currently oil is the fastest primary energy source in the world (39% of world energy consumption). Coal will be a major source of energy for the world for the foreseeable future (24% of world energy consumption). In 2030, coal covers 45% of world energy needs. Natural gas is expected to be the fastest growing component of world energy consumption (23% of world energy consumption). Fossil fuel extraction and conversion to usable energy has several environmental impacts. They could be a major contributor to global warming and greenhouse gases and a cause of acid rain; therefore, expensive air pollution controls are required.

  4. Particulate emission factors for mobile fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources.

    PubMed

    Watson, John G; Chow, Judith C; Chen, L-W Antony; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Fujita, Eric M; Kuhns, Hampden D; Sodeman, David A; Campbell, David E; Moosmüller, Hans; Zhu, Dongzi; Motallebi, Nehzat

    2011-05-15

    PM emission factors (EFs) for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies. In the Gas/Diesel Split Study (GD-Split), PM(2.5) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) ranged from 0.2 to ~2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age. EFs for HDDV estimated with the U.S. EPA MOBILE 6.2 and California Air Resources Board (ARB) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values. PM(2.5) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were ~two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates. In the Kansas City Study, PM(2.5) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles (e.g., passenger cars and light trucks) were generally <0.03 g/mile and were higher in winter than summer. EMFAC2007 reported higher PM(2.5) EFs than MOBILE 6.2 during winter, but not during summer, and neither model captured the variability of the measured EFs. Total PM EFs for heavy-duty diesel military vehicles ranged from 0.18±0.03 and 1.20±0.12 g/kg fuel, corresponding to 0.3 and 2 g/mile, respectively. These values are comparable to those of on-road HDDV. EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System (EES) model. The highest PM(2.5) EFs (76.8±37.5 g/kg) were measured for wet (>50% moisture content) Ponderosa Pine needles. EFs were generally <20 g/kg when moisture content was <20%. The EES model agreed with measured EFs for fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40%. Average EFs for dry chamise, rice straw, and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Discrepancies between measured and modeled emission factors suggest that there may be important uncertainties in current PM(2.5) emission inventories. PMID:21458027

  5. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  6. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.

    1992-04-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes. The integration of these programs as viable bioprocessing initiatives proposes an innovative and conceptual principle for the development of a ``new`` approach to fossil energy biotechnology. This unifying principle is NON-AQUEOUS BIOCATALYSIS. Biocatalysis coupled to conventional chemical catalysis in organic-based media offers bioprocessing options uniquely characterized by the selectivity of biocatalysts plus fast reaction rates and specificity of chemical catalysts.

  7. Preliminary Multiphysics Analyses of HFIR LEU Fuel Conversion using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D; Bodey, Isaac T; Arimilli, Rao V; Curtis, Franklin G; Ekici, Kivanc; Jain, Prashant K

    2011-06-01

    4 of this report. The HFIR LEU conversion project has also obtained the services of Dr. Prashant K. Jain of the Reactor & Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of ORNL. Prashant has quickly adapted to the COMSOL tools and has been focusing on thermal-structure interaction (TSI) issues and development of alternative 3D model approaches that could yield faster-running solutions. Prashant is the primary contributor to Section 5 of the report. And finally, while incorporating findings from all members of the COMSOL team (i.e., the team) and contributing as the senior COMSOL leader and advocate, Dr. James D. Freels has focused on the 3D model development, cluster deployment, and has contributed primarily to Section 3 and overall integration of this report. The team has migrated to the current release of COMSOL at version 4.1 for all the work described in this report, except where stated otherwise. Just as in the performance of the research, each of the respective sections has been originally authored by the respective authors. Therefore, the reader will observe a contrast in writing style throughout this document.

  8. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  10. Building-specific quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain: the case of Indianapolis, US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razlivanov, I.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lehman, S. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in interpreting atmospheric CO2 measurements in addition to providing critical emissions mitigation information. Recent research and decision-support has placed emphasis on quantification of emissions for urban domes with sector specificity. Here we present results of the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at quantifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building and road segment scale for the city of Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX experiment. To calculate CO2 emissions for buildings, we use a combination of county-level estimation from the Vulcan Project and distribute those emissions via an allocation method that utilizes a building energy simulation tool - eQuest (DOE). eQUEST is based on a series of building typologies and has a large number of input variables in order to quantify energy consumption. The simulation process uses default values when the actual data are inaccessible or non-existent. Our method is based on the construction of 22 commercial, 18 industrial, and 8 residential building types. This classification requires specification of building vintages and sizes. To calculate the total floor area of buildings from building heights, remote sensing data are used. The DOEs regional energy surveys, CBECS, RECS and MECS data for the East North Central Census Division, are used to calibrate hourly profiles for different building types. Previous published results for Indianapolis have been substantially updated by using additional data on natural gas pipelines. A more accurate, statistically-based building height assessment has been made using improved lidar data. The reclassification procedure converting Assessor's parcel types into Hestia prototypes, has been revised and improved. More accurate statistics have been calculated and corresponding diagrams and thematic maps have been prepared. Development of a powerful user-friendly information system for

  11. Measurement of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic trace gases from MEGAPOLI intensive campaign in Paris during winter 2010.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Delmotte, M.; Gros, V.; Mondelain, D.; Lehman, S. J.; Ramonet, M.; Vuillemin, C.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Paris agglomeration is the third biggest megacity in Europe (12 million inhabitants) and according to national emission inventories, is responsible for 15 % of the French anthropogenic CO2 emissions mainly originating from road transport, and residential and industrial energy consumption. The objective of our feasibility study was to design an efficient monitoring strategy in order to quantify future trends in anthropogenic CO2 emission in Paris area. During the winter campaign of the European project MEGAPOLI and the French project CO2-MEGAPARIS, we performed measurements of CO2 and related trace gases from January to February 2010. The RAMCES (Atmospheric Network for Greenhouse Gases Monitoring) team at LSCE monitored CO2 and CO mixing ratio with high temporal resolution using instruments based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) in the thirteenth arrondissement of Paris (south). We also sampled air in more than fifty flasks covering three full days at the same place. Flask were analysed in the RAMCES central laboratory with a Gas Chromatograph system for CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6 and H2 mixing ratios and also by Mass Spectroscopy for CO2 isotopic ratios (δ13C and δ18O). In order to quantify the fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) most flasks were analysed at INSTAAR for Δ14C in CO2. In addition, 13CO2 isotopic ratio and total CO2 concentration were measured at high temporal resolution (< 1 min) over three days at Paris with the SIMCO instrument developed at LPMAA. In parallel with the Paris measurements, in-situ CO2, CO and other trace gases were monitored at Gif-sur-Yvette, a semi urban station 20km south west of Paris and also at the Trainou tower, 100 km south of Paris. Similar synoptic variations of CO2and CO mixing ratios were found in Paris and Gif with maximum mixing ratio up to 495 ppm CO2 and 1000 ppb CO downtown Paris. The mean diurnal variation during this winter period shows a peak to peak amplitude of 15 ppm CO2 and 150 ppb CO at Paris and 10 ppm CO2

  12. Measurement of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic trace gases from MEGAPOLI intensive campaign in Paris during winter 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Delmotte, M.; Gros, V.; Mondelain, D.; Lehman, S.; Ramonet, M.; Vuillemin, C.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Paris agglomeration is the third biggest megacity in Europe (12 million inhabitants) and according to national emission inventories, is responsible for 15 % of the French anthropogenic CO2 emissions mainly originating from road transport, residential and industrial energy consumption. The objective of our feasibility study was to design an efficient monitoring strategy in order to quantify future trends in anthropogenic CO2 emission in Paris area. During the winter campaign of the European project MEGAPOLI and French project CO2-MEGAPARIS, we performed measurements of CO2 and related trace gases from January to February 2010. The RAMCES (Atmospheric Network for Greenhouse Gases Monitoring) team at LSCE monitored CO2 and CO mixing ratio with high temporal resolution using instruments based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) in the thirteenth arrondissement of Paris (south). We also sampled air in more than fifty flasks covering three full days at the same place. Flasks were analysed in the RAMCES central laboratory with a Gas Chromatograph system for CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6 and H2 mixing ratios and also by Mass Spectroscopy for CO2 isotopic ratios (δ13C and δ18O). In order to quantify the fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) most flasks were analysed at INSTAAR for Δ14C in CO2. In addition, 13CO2 isotopic ratio and total CO2 concentration were measured at high temporal resolution (< 1 min) over three days at Paris with Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscope developed at LPMAA. In parallel with the Paris measurements, in-situ CO2, CO and other trace gases were monitored at Gif-sur-Yvette, a semi urban station 20km south west of Paris. Similar synoptic variations of CO2 and CO mixing ratios were found in Paris and Gif with maximum mixing ratio up to 495 ppm CO2 and 1000 ppb CO downtown Paris. The mean diurnal variation during this winter period shows peak to peak amplitude of 15 ppm CO2 and 150 ppb CO at Paris and 10 ppm CO2 and 40 CO ppb at Gif station. We focused on CO and

  13. A Model of Carbon Capture and Storage with Demonstration of Global Warming Potential and Fossil Fuel Resource Use Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suebsiri, Jitsopa

    Increasing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere influences global climate change even though the level of impact is still unclear. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as an important component of broadly based greenhouse gas reduction measures. Although the other greenhouse gases are more potent, the sheer volume of CO 2 makes it dominant in term of its effect in the atmosphere. To understand the implications, CCS activities should be studied from a full life cycle perspective. This thesis outlines the successful achievement of the objectives of this study in conducting life cycle assessment (LCA), reviewing the carbon dioxide implications only, combining two energy systems, coal-fired electrical generations and CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). LCA is the primary approach used in this study to create a tool for CCS environmental evaluation. The Boundary Dam Power Station (BDPS) and the Weyburn-Midale CO 2 EOR Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, are studied and adopted as case scenarios to find the potential for effective application of CCS in both energy systems. This study demonstrates two levels of retrofitting of the BDPS, retrofit of unit 3 or retrofit of all units, combined with three options for CO 2 geological storage: deep saline aquifer, CO2 EOR, and a combination of deep saline aquifer storage and CO2 EOR. Energy output is considered the product of combining these two energy resources (coal and oil). Gigajoules (GJ) are used as the fundamental unit of measurement in comparing the combined energy types. The application of this tool effectively demonstrates the results of application of a CCS system concerning global warming potential (GWP) and fossil fuel resource use efficiency. Other environmental impacts could be analyzed with this tool as well. In addition, the results demonstrate that the GWP reduction is directly related to resource use efficiency. This means the lower the GWP of CCS, the lower resource use

  14. EDITORIAL: Non-thermal plasma-assisted fuel conversion for green chemistry Non-thermal plasma-assisted fuel conversion for green chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Gutsol, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This special issue is based on the symposium on Non-thermal Plasma Assisted Fuel Conversion for Green Chemistry, a part of the 240th ACS National Meeting & Exposition held in Boston, MA, USA, 22-26 August 2010. Historically, the Division of Fuel Chemistry of the American Chemical Society (ACS) has featured three plasma-related symposia since 2000, and has launched special issues in Catalysis Today on three occasions: 'Catalyst Preparation using Plasma Technologies', Fall Meeting, Washington DC, USA, 2000. Special issue in Catalysis Today 72 (3-4) with 12 peer-reviewed articles. 'Plasma Technology and Catalysis', Spring Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2003. Special issue in Catalysis Today 89 (1-2) with more than 30 peer-reviewed articles. 'Utilization of Greenhouse Gases II' (partly focused on plasma-related technologies), Spring Meeting, Anaheim, CA, USA, 2004. Special issue in Catalysis Today 98 (4) with 25 peer-reviewed articles. This time, selected presentations are published in this Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics special issue. An industrial material and energy conversion technology platform is established on thermochemical processes including various catalytic reactions. Existing industry-scale technology is already well established; nevertheless, further improvement in energy efficiency and material saving has been continuously demanded. Drastic reduction of CO2 emission is also drawing keen attention with increasing recognition of energy and environmental issues. Green chemistry is a rapidly growing research field, and frequently highlights renewable bioenergy, bioprocesses, solar photocatalysis of water splitting, and regeneration of CO2 into useful chemicals. We would also like to emphasize 'plasma catalysis' of hydrocarbon resources as an important part of the innovative next-generation green technologies. The peculiarity of non-thermal plasma is that it can generate reactive species almost independently of reaction temperature. Plasma

  15. A novel thin film solid oxide fuel cell for microscale energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiski, A F; Morse, J D

    1999-05-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication and assembly of a solid oxide fuel cell system is described which enables effective scaling of the fuel delivery, mainfold, and fuel cell stack components for applications in miniature and microscale energy conversion. Electrode materials for solid oxide fuel cells are developed using sputter deposition techniques. A thin film anode is formed by codeposition of nickel and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). This approach provides a mixed conducting interfacial layer between the nickel electrode and electrolyte layer. Similarly, a thin film cathode is formed by co-deposition of silver and yttria-stabilized zirconia. Additionally, sputter deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia thin film electrolyte enables high quality, continuous films to be formed having thickness on the order of 1-2 {micro}m. This will effectively lower the temperature of operation for the fuel cell stack significantly below the traditional ranges at which solid oxide electrolyte systems are operated (600--1000 C), thereby rendering this fuel cell system suitable for miniaturization. Scaling towards miniaturization is accomplished by utilizing novel micromaching approaches which allow manifold channels and fuel delivery system to be formed within the substrate which the thin film fuel cell stack is fabricated on, thereby circumventing the need for bulky manifold components which are not directly scalable.

  16. Decentralized conversion of biomass to energy, fuels and electricity with fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, P.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells, new processes, advanced equipment and total system approaches will allow biomass to become a larger source of energy to make electricity, fuel and chemicals. These innovative new approaches allow smaller scale operations and allow decentralization of biomass to energy. The pivotal role of biomass will change and expand. Biomass will become a significant near term and a long term energy source.

  17. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh; Jim Powers

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for April 2003--September 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid oxide Fuel Cell Program''. During this reporting period, the conceptual system design activity was completed. The system design, including strategies for startup, normal operation and shutdown, was defined. Sealant and stack materials for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack were identified which are capable of meeting the thermal cycling and degradation requirements. A cell module was tested which achieved a stable performance of 0.238 W/cm{sup 2} at 95% fuel utilization. The external fuel processor design was completed and fabrication begun. Several other advances were made on various aspects of the SOFC system, which are detailed in this report.

  18. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined

  19. Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2002-10-01

    Under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, no control of black carbon (BC) was considered. Here, it is found, through simulations in which 12 identifiable effects of aerosol particles on climate are treated, that any emission reduction of fossil-fuel (f.f.) particulate BC plus associated organic matter (OM) may slow global warming more than may any emission reduction of CO2 or CH4 for a specific period. When all f.f. BC + OM and anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions are eliminated together, the period is 25-100 years. It is also estimated that historical net global warming can be attributed roughly to greenhouse gas plus f.f. BC + OM warming minus substantial cooling by other particles. Eliminating all f.f. BC + OM could eliminate 20-45% of net warming (8-18% of total warming before cooling is subtracted out) within 3-5 years if no other change occurred. Reducing CO2 emissions by a third would have the same effect, but after 50-200 years. Finally, diesel cars emitting continuously under the most recent U.S. and E.U. particulate standards (0.08 g/mi; 0.05 g/km) may warm climate per distance driven over the next 100+ years more than equivalent gasoline cars. Thus, fuel and carbon tax laws that favor diesel appear to promote global warming. Toughening vehicle particulate emission standards by a factor of 8 (0.01 g/mi; 0.006 g/km) does not change this conclusion, although it shortens the period over which diesel cars warm to 13-54 years. Although control of BC + OM can slow warming, control of greenhouse gases is necessary to stop warming. Reducing BC + OM will not only slow global warming but also improve human health.

  20. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  1. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg

    2008-04-01

    Release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. Our best estimate is that China became the largest national source of CO2 emissions during 2006. Previously, the United States (US) had occupied that position. However, the annual emission rate in the US has remained relatively stable between 2001-2006 while the emission rate in China has more than doubled, apparently eclipsing that of the US in late 2006. Here we present the seasonal and spatial pattern of CO2 emissions in China, as well as the sectoral breakdown of emissions. Though our best point estimate places China in the lead position in terms of CO2 emissions, we qualify this statement in a discussion of the uncertainty in the underlying data (3-5% for the US; 15-20% for China). Finally, we comment briefly on the implications of China's new position with respect to international agreements to mitigate climate change.

  2. Analysis of derived optical parameters of atmospheric particles during a biomass burning event. Comparison with fossil fuel burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Mogo, S.; Cachorro, V.; de Frutos, A.; Medeiros, M.; Martins, R.; López, J. F.; Marcos, A.; Marcos, N.; Bizarro, S.; Mano, F.

    2015-12-01

    During the day November 26, 2014, a scheduled cleanup of the woods took place around the GOA-UVa aerosol measurement station located at the campus of the University of Beira Interior (40° 16’30”N, 7°30’35”W, 704m a.s.l.), Covilhã, Portugal. This cleanup included excessive vegetation removal during the morning, using fossil fuel-burning machinery, and burning of the vegetation during the afternoon. In situ measurements of aerosol optical properties were made and this study aims the characterization of the evolution of aerosol properties during the day. The optical parameters were monitored using a 3-wavelength nephelometer and a 3-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer. Selective sampling/exclusion of the coarse particles was done each 5 minutes. The scattering and absorption Ångström exponents as well as the single scattering albedo were derived and fully analyzed. The scattering and absorption coefficients increased dramatically during the event, reaching values as high as 720.3 Mm-1 and 181.9 Mm-1, respectively, for the green wavelength and PM10 size fraction. The spectral behavior of these parameters also changed wildly along the day and an inversion of the slope from positive to negative in the case of the single scattering albedo was observed.

  3. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY, QUASI-INSTANTANEOUS STEAM EXPANSION DEVICE UTILIZING FOSSIL OR NUCLEAR FUEL AS THE HEAT SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  5. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  6. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025

  7. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  8. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  9. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  10. The Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center conversion from HEU to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tehan, Terry

    2000-09-27

    The 2-MW Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center (RINSC) open pool reactor was converted from 93% UAL-High Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to 20% enrichment U3Si2-AL Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The conversion included redesign of the core to a more compact size and the addition of beryllium reflectors and a beryllium flux trap. A significant increase in thermal flux level was achieved due to greater neutron leakage in the new compact core configuration. Following the conversion, a second cooling loop and an emergency core cooling system were installed to permit operation at 5 MW. After re-licensing at 2 MW, a power upgrade request will be submitted to the NRC.

  11. CONVERSION OF RUSSIAN WEAPON-GRADE PLUTONIUM INTO OXIDE FOR MIXED OXIDE (MOX) FUEL FABRICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    Glagovski, E.; Kolotilov, Y.; Glagolenko, Y.; Zygmunt, Stanley J.; Mason, C. F. V.; Hahn, W. K.; Durrer, R. E.; Thomas, S.; Sicard, B.; Herlet, N.; Fraize, G.; Villa, A.

    2001-01-01

    Progress has been made in the Russian Federation towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program is funded both by French Commissariat x 1'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The French program was started as a way to make available their expertise gained from manufacturing MOX fuel. The US program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease available w-Pu. Russia has selected both the conversion process and the manufacturing site. This paper discusses the present state of development towards fulfilling this mission: the demonstration plant designed to process small amounts of Pu and validate all process stages and the industrial plant that will process up to 5 metric tons of Pu per year.

  12. High Conversion of Coal to Transportation Fuels for the Future With Low HC Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Alex G. Oblad; Wendell H. Wiser

    1996-07-01

    An announced objective of the Department of Energy in funding this work, and other current research in coal liquefaction, is to produce a synthetic crude from coal at a cost lower than $30.00 per barrel (Task A). A second objective, reflecting a recent change in direction in the synthetic fuels effort of DOE, is to produce a fuel which is low in aromatics, yet of sufficiently high octane number for use in the gasoline- burning transportation vehicles of today. To meet this second objective, research was proposed, and funding awarded, for conversion of the highly-aromatic liquid product from coal conversion to a product high in isoparaffins, which compounds in the gasoline range exhibit a high octane number (Task B).

  13. Year-round Source Contributions of Fossil Fuel and Biomass Combustion to Elemental Carbon on the North Slope Alaska Utilizing Radiocarbon Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, T. E.; Gustafsson, O.; Winiger, P.; Moffett, C.; Back, J.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well documented that the Arctic has undergone rapid warming at an alarming rate over the past century. Black carbon (BC) affects the radiative balance of the Arctic directly and indirectly through the absorption of incoming solar radiation and by providing a source of cloud and ice condensation nuclei. Among atmospheric aerosols, BC is the most efficient absorber of light in the visible spectrum. The solar absorbing efficiency of BC is amplified when it is internally mixed with sulfates. Furthermore, BC plumes that are fossil fuel dominated have been shown to be approximately 100% more efficient warming agents than biomass burning dominated plumes. The renewal of offshore oil and gas exploration in the Arctic, specifically in the Chukchi Sea, will introduce new BC sources to the region. This study focuses on the quantification of fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources to atmospheric elemental carbon (EC) during a year-long sampling campaign in the North Slope Alaska. Samples were collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Particulate matter (PM10) samples collected from July 2012 to June 2013 were analyzed for EC and sulfate concentrations combined with radiocarbon (14C) analysis of the EC fraction. Radiocarbon analysis distinguishes fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions based on large differences in end members between fossil and contemporary carbon. To perform isotope analysis on EC, it must be separated from the organic carbon fraction of the sample. Separation was achieved by trapping evolved CO2 produced during EC combustion in a cryo-trap utilizing liquid nitrogen. Radiocarbon results show an average fossil contribution of 85% to atmospheric EC, with individual samples ranging from 47% to 95%. Source apportionment results will be combined with back trajectory (BT) analysis to assess geographic source region impacts on the EC burden in the western Arctic.

  14. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Biobased Chemicals into Liquid Fuels in the Aqueous Phase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kejing; Wu, Yulong; Chen, Yu; Chen, Hao; Wang, Jianlong; Yang, Mingde

    2016-06-22

    Different biobased chemicals are produced during the conversion of biomass into fuels through various feasible technologies (e.g., hydrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, and pyrolysis). The challenge of transforming these biobased chemicals with high hydrophilicity is ascribed to the high water content of the feedstock and the inevitable formation of water. Therefore, aqueous-phase processing is an interesting technology for the heterogeneous catalytic conversion of biobased chemicals. Different reactions, such as dehydration, isomerization, aldol condensation, ketonization, and hydrogenation, are applied for the conversion of sugars, furfural/hydroxymethylfurfural, acids, phenolics, and so on over heterogeneous catalysts. The activity, stability, and reusability of the heterogeneous catalysts in water are summarized, and deactivation processes and several strategies are introduced to improve the stability of heterogeneous catalysts in the aqueous phase. PMID:27158985

  15. Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions.

    PubMed

    Jaeglé, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    We use space-based observations of NO2 columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to derive monthly top-down NOx emissions for 2000 via inverse modeling with the GEOS-CHEM chemical transport model. Top-down NOx sources are partitioned among fuel combustion (fossil fuel and biofuel), biomass burning and soils by exploiting the spatio-temporal distribution of remotely sensed fires and a priori information on the location of regions dominated by fuel combustion. The top-down inventory is combined with an a priori inventory to obtain an optimized a posteriori estimate of the relative roles of NOx sources. The resulting a posteriori fuel combustion inventory (25.6 TgN year(-1)) agrees closely with the a priori (25.4 TgN year(-1)), and errors are reduced by a factor of 2, from +/- 80% to +/- 40%. Regionally, the largest differences are found over Japan and South Africa, where a posteriori estimates are 25% larger than a priori. A posteriori fuel combustion emissions are aseasonal, with the exception of East Asia and Europe where winter emissions are 30-40% larger relative to summer emissions, consistent with increased energy use during winter for heating. Global a posteriori biomass burning emissions in 2000 resulted in 5.8 TgN (compared to 5.9 TgN year(-1) in the a priori), with Africa accounting for half of this total. A posteriori biomass burning emissions over Southeast Asia/India are decreased by 46% relative to a priori; but over North equatorial Africa they are increased by 50%. A posteriori estimates of soil emissions (8.9 TgN year(-1)) are 68% larger than a priori (5.3 TgN year(-1)). The a posteriori inventory displays the largest soil emissions over tropical savanna/woodland ecosystems (Africa), as well as over agricultural regions in the western U.S. (Great Plains), southern Europe (Spain, Greece, Turkey), and Asia (North China Plain and North India), consistent with field measurements. Emissions over these regions are highest during summer at

  16. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Implications of Sodium-Cooled Metal-Fueled Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ryan Clement; David W. Gerts

    2013-03-01

    If advanced fuel cycles are to include a large number of fast reactors (FRs), what should be the transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR)? The nuclear energy era started with the assumption that they should be breeder reactors (CR > 1), but the full range of possible CRs eventually received attention. For example, during the recent U.S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, the proposal was burner reactors (CR < 1). Yet, more recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology's "Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle" proposed CR [approximately] 1. Meanwhile, the French company EDF remains focused on breeders. At least one of the reasons for the differences of approach is different fuel cycle objectives. To clarify matters, this paper analyzes the impact of TRU CR on many parameters relevant to fuel cycle systems and therefore spans a broad range of topic areas. The analyses are based on a FR physics parameter scan of TRU CR from 0 to [approximately]1.8 in a sodium-cooled metal-fueled FR (SMFR), in which the fuel from uranium-oxide-fueled light water reactors (LWRs) is recycled directly to FRs and FRs displace LWRs in the fleet. In this instance, the FRs are sodium cooled and metal fueled. Generally, it is assumed that all TRU elements are recycled, which maximizes uranium ore utilization for a given TRU CR and waste radiotoxicity reduction and is consistent with the assumption of used metal fuel separated by electrochemical means. In these analyses, the fuel burnup was constrained by imposing a neutron fluence limit to fuel cladding to the same constant value. This paper first presents static, time-independent measures of performance for the LWR [right arrow] FR fuel cycle, including mass, heat, gamma emission, radiotoxicity, and the two figures of merit for materials for weapon attractiveness developed by C. Bathke et al. No new fuel cycle will achieve a static equilibrium in the foreseeable future. Therefore, additional analyses are shown with dynamic, time

  17. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  18. Long-term observations of 14C-based atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) and the CO/FFCO2 ratio in the Heidelberg urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Ingeborg; Hammer, Samuel; Kromer, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Urban environments are large emitters of fossil fuel CO2 and of combustion-related pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO). While huge efforts are currently undertaken to agree on commitments to reduce fossil fuel CO2 emissions, these have not really been successful yet, and the global atmospheric CO2 abundance is still increasing. However, the implementation of emission controls on pollutants, e.g. from traffic, seem to have been more efficient, based on recent emission inventory data (e.g. http://www.statistik.baden-wuerttemberg.de). In order to verify this bottom-up information we present here ten years of quasi-continuous atmospheric observations of CO2, fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) and CO in Heidelberg. The fossil fuel CO2 component is determined from integrated radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements, exploiting the fact that fossil fuel CO2 lacks 14C (e.g. Levin et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 2003). Our measurements show that the fossil fuel CO2 level in the Heidelberg suburbs has not significantly changed (i.e. decreased) in the last decade. Observed inter-annual variations are rather due to inter-annual changes of atmospheric transport, as was already reported by Levin and Rödenbeck (Naturwissenschaften 95, 2008). However, we find a ca. 25% change in the CO/FFCO2 ratio of the regional concentration offsets compared to background levels from about 14.5 ppb/ppm in 2002 to about 11 ppb/ppm in 2009. This observation is in very good agreement with the emission statistic for the closer catchment area of our measurement site. The Statistische Landesamt, Baden-Württemberg (http://www.statistik.baden-wuerttemberg.de) reported a change in the CO to FFCO2 emission ratio for the city area of Heidelberg from 13.8 ppb/ppm in 2000 to 10.5 ppb/ppm in 2007. A more than 20% decrease of the CO/FFCO2 emission ratio is also reported for the whole state of Baden-Württemberg (south-west Germany), but note that these ratios are generally smaller, between 11.5 and 9 ppb/ppm, due to a

  19. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  20. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2004-02-17

    solved by finite difference method. The solution of the model equations is complicated by the coupled reactions. At the inlet, if there is no hydrogen, rate expressions become singular. To overcome this problem, the first element of the reactor was treated as a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Several alternative numerical schemes were implemented in the solution algorithm to get a converged, stable solution. The model was also capable of handling steam-methane reforming reactions under non-membrane condition and equilibrium reaction conversions. Some of the numerical results were presented in the previous report. To test the membrane reactor model, we fabricated Pd-stainless steel membranes in tubular configuration using electroless plating method coupled with osmotic pressure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Xray (EDX) were used to characterize the fabricated Pd-film composite membranes. Gas-permeation tests were performed to measure the permeability of hydrogen, nitrogen and helium using pure gas. Some of these results are discussed in this progress report.

  1. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-02-03

    solved by finite difference method. The solution of the model equations is complicated by the coupled reactions. At the inlet, if there is no hydrogen, rate expressions become singular. To overcome this problem, the first element of the reactor was treated as a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Several alternative numerical schemes were implemented in the solution algorithm to get a converged, stable solution. The model was also capable of handling steam-methane reforming reactions under non-membrane condition and equilibrium reaction conversions. Some of the numerical results were presented in the previous report. To test the membrane reactor model, we fabricated Pd-stainless steel membranes in tubular configuration using electroless plating method coupled with osmotic pressure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize the fabricated Pd-film composite membranes. Gas-permeation tests were performed to measure the permeability of hydrogen, nitrogen and helium using pure gas. The membranes showed excellent perm-selectivity for hydrogen. This makes the Pd-composite membrane attractive for selective separation and recovery of H{sub 2} from mixed gases at elevated temperature.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

    1994-10-01

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

  3. Analysis of magma-thermal conversion of biomass to gaseous fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1982-02-01

    A wide range of magma types and pluton geometries believed to occur within the upper 10 km of the crust provide suitable sources of thermal energy for conversion of water-biomass mixtures to higher quality gaseous fuel. Gaseous fuel can be generated within a magma body, within the hot subsolidus margins of a magma body, or within surface reaction vessels heated by thermal energy derived from a magma body. The composition, amount, and energy content of the fuel gases generated from water-biomass mixtures are not sensitive to the type, age, depth, or temperature of a magma body thermal source. The amount and energy content of the generated fuel is almost entirely a function of the proportion of biomass in the starting mixture. CH/sub 4/ is the main gas that can be generated in important quantities by magma thermal energy under most circumstances. CO is never an important fuel product, and H/sub 2/ generation is very limited. The rates at which gaseous fuels can be generated are strongly dependent on magma type. Fuel generation rates for basaltic magmas are at least 2 to 3 times those for andesitic magmas and 5 to 6 times those for rhyolitic magmas. The highest fuel generation rates, for any particular magma body, will be achieved at the lowest possible reaction vessel operating temperature that does not cause graphite deposition from the water-biomass starting mixture. The energy content of the biomass-derived fuels is considerably greater than that consumed in the generation and refinement process.

  4. Potential for Worldwide Displacement of Fossil-Fuel Electricity by Nuclear Energy in Three Decades Based on Extrapolation of Regional Deployment Data

    PubMed Central

    Qvist, Staffan A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25–34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets. PMID:25970621

  5. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    PubMed

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets. PMID:25970621

  6. Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.L.

    1984-07-01

    Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

  7. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  8. Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats into paraffinic cetane enhancers for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Feng, Y.; Hogan, E.

    1995-11-01

    The two principal methods of producing biodiesel fuels are (a) transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a monohydric alcohol, and (b) direct hydrotreating of tree oils, vegetable oils and animal fats. The patented hydrotreating technology is based on the catalytic processing of biomass oils and fats with hydrogen, under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The typical mix of hydrotreated products is as follows: 5-15% light distillate (naphta), 40-60% middle distillate (cetane), 5-15% heavy distillate and 5-10% burner gas. The naptha fraction may be used as a gasoline supplement. The middle distillate is designed for use as a cetane booster for diesel fuels. Both heavy distillate and light hydrocarbon gases are usable as power boiler fuels. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This new diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel, for direct use in diesel engines without any modifications. The basic hydrotreatment technology has been evaluated further in the laboratory on degummed soya oil, yellow grease and animal tallow. The preliminary findings suggest that the technology can provide efficient conversion of these materials into cetane enhancers for diesel fuels.

  9. Progress made on the University of Missouri research reactor HEU to LEU fuel conversion feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, J. Charles; Kutikkad, Kiratadas; Foyto, Leslie P.

    2008-07-15

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), the highest-powered University-owned research reactor in the U.S. designed to operate at a maximum steady-state power level of 10 MW{sub th}, is one of five U.S. high performance research reactors that use HEU fuel that is actively th collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy to find a suitable LEU fuel replacement. A conversion feasibility study, using U-10Mo monolithic LEU fuel, is currently being performed at MURR. At first, broad scoping studies where conducted using the transport code MCNP, where the core water-to-metal ratio was varied by altering the thickness or width of the plate cladding, fuel meat, and coolant channel gaps, and varying the number of fuel plates. From these studies, an optimal LEU core design was chosen based on the following calculated parameters: power peaking factors, excess reactivity, and the fast and thermal fluxes available to the experimental facilities. Fuel burnup calculations are now being performed using the 3-D diffusion theory code REBUS. Also included in this paper are some preliminary safety analyses, including parametric studies using the reactivity transient code PARET-ANL and hydraulic calculations using the light- and heavy-water thermal-hydraulic transient code RELAP5/MOD3.3. (author)

  10. Light-absorbing properties of ambient black carbon and brown carbon from fossil fuel and biomass burning sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Willis, M. D.; Jaroudi, E.; Zimmerman, N.; Hilker, N.; Murphy, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Wenger, J. C.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of ambient black carbon-containing particles and the composition of their associated coatings were investigated at a downtown site in Toronto, Canada, for 2 weeks in June 2013. The objective was to assess the relationship between black carbon (BC) coating composition/thickness and absorption. The site was influenced by emissions from local vehicular traffic, wildfires in Quebec, and transboundary fossil fuel combustion emissions in the United States. Mass concentrations of BC and associated nonrefractory coatings were measured using a soot particle-aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), while aerosol absorption and scattering were measured using a photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS). Absorption enhancement was investigated both by comparing ambient and thermally denuded PASS absorption data and by relating absorption data to BC mass concentrations measured using the SP-AMS. Minimal absorption enhancement attributable to lensing at 781 nm was observed for BC using both approaches. However, brown carbon was detected when the site was influenced by wildfire emissions originating in Quebec. BC coating to core mass ratios were highest during this period (~7), and while direct absorption by brown carbon resulted in an absorption enhancement at 405 nm (>2.0), no enhancement attributable to lensing at 781 nm was observed. The efficiency of BC coating removal in the denuder decreased substantially when wildfire-related organics were present and may represent an obstacle for future similar studies. These findings indicate that BC absorption enhancement due to lensing is minimal for downtown Toronto, and potentially other urban locations, even when impacted by long-range transport events.

  11. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Rayner, Peter; Baker, David; Liu, Yu-ping

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emission inventories enable sensitivity tests of simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations to sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions and what this implies for the interpretation of observed CO2. Six experiments are conducted to investigate the potential impact of three cycles of FFCO2 emission variability (diurnal, weekly and monthly) using a global tracer transport model. Results show an annual FFCO2 rectification varying from -1.35 to +0.13 ppm from the combination of all three cycles. This rectification is driven by a large negative diurnal FFCO2 rectification due to the covariation of diurnal FFCO2 emissions and diurnal vertical mixing, as well as a smaller positive seasonal FFCO2 rectification driven by the covariation of monthly FFCO2 emissions and monthly atmospheric transport. The diurnal FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a diurnal FFCO2 concentration amplitude of up to 9.12 ppm at the grid cell scale. Similarly, the monthly FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a simulated seasonal CO2 amplitude of up to 6.11 ppm at the grid cell scale. The impact of the diurnal FFCO2 emissions, when only sampled in the local afternoon, is also important, causing an increase of +1.13 ppmv at the grid cell scale. The simulated CO2 concentration impacts from the diurnally and seasonally varying FFCO2 emissions are centered over large source regions in the Northern Hemisphere, extending to downwind regions. This study demonstrates the influence of sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration and suggests that inversion studies must take account of these variations in the affected regions.

  12. Transcontinental Surface Validation of Satellite Observations of Enhanced Methane Anomalies Associated with Fossil Fuel Industrial Methane Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, I.; Culling, D.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    A ground-based, transcontinental (Florida to California - i.e., satellite-scale) survey was conducted to understand better the role of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) fugitive emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, methane. Data were collected by flame ion detection gas chromatography (Fall 2010) and by a cavity ring-down sensor (Winter 2012) from a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle, allowing 24/7 data collection. Nocturnal methane measurements for similar sources tended to be higher compared to daytime values, sometime significantly, due to day/night meteorological differences. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI methane sources associated with refining, a presumed major pipeline leak, and several minor pipeline leaks, a coal loading plant, and areas of active petroleum production. Data showed FFI source emissions were highly transient and heterogeneous; however, integrated over these large-scale facilities, methane signatures overwhelmed that of other sources, creating clearly identifiable plumes that were well elevated above ambient. The highest methane concentration recorded was 39 ppm at an active central valley California production field, while desert values were as low as 1.80 ppm. Surface methane data show similar trends with strong emissions correlated with FFI on large (4° bin) scales and positive methane anomalies centered on the Gulf Coast area of Houston, home to most of US refining capacity. Comparison with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite data show agreement with surface data in the large-scale methane spatial patterns. Positive satellite methane anomalies in the southeast and Mexico largely correlated with methane anthropogenic and wetland inventory models suggests most strong ground methane anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico region were related to dominant FFI input for most seasons. Wind advection played a role, in some cases confounding a clear relationship. Results are consistent with a non-negligible underestimation of the FFI

  13. On the Ability of Ascends to Constrain Fossil Fuel, Ocean and High Latitude Emissions: Flux Estimation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Hammerling, D.; Moore, B., III; Rayner, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    In Hammerling et al., 2014 (H14) the authors demonstrated a geostatistical method for mapping satellite estimates of column integrated CO2 mixing ratio, denoted XCO2, that incorporates the spatial variability in satellite-measured XCO2 as well as measurement precision. The goal of the study was to determine whether the Active Sensing of CO2 over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission would be able to detect changes in XCO2 given changes in the underlying fluxes for different levels of instrument precision. Three scenarios were proposed: a flux-neutral shift in fossil fuel emissions from Europe to China (shown in the figure); a permafrost melting event; interannual variability in the Southern Oceans. The conclusions of H14 were modest but favorable for detectability in each case by ASCENDS given enough observations and sufficient precision. These signal detection experiments suggest that ASCENDS observations, together with a chemical transport model and data assimilation methodology, would be sufficient to provide quality estimates of the underlying surface fluxes, so long as the ASCENDS observations are precise enough. In this work, we present results that bridge the gap between the previous signal detection work by [Hammerling et al., 2014] and the ability of transport models to recover flux perturbations from ASCENDS observations utilizing the TM5-4DVAR data assimilation system. In particular, we will explore the space of model and observational uncertainties that will yield useful scientific information in each of the flux perturbation scenarios. This work will give a sense of the ability of ASCENDS to answer key questions about some of the foremost questions in carbon cycle science today. References: Hammerling, D., Kawa, S., Schaefer, K., and Michalak, A. (2014). Detectability of CO2 flux signals by a space-based lidar mission. Submitted.

  14. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  15. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

  16. Preliminary Constraints on Fossil-fuel CO2: Comparison of Tracers CO and SF6 With Measurements of 14CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S. J.; Sparks, R. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2004-12-01

    CO2 derived from the combustion of fossil fuels is a significant component of the carbon balance of North America. However, on the sub-continental spatial scales and sub-annual time scales relevant to the objectives of the North American Carbon Program, estimates of combustion CO2 from traditional economic inventories are unlikely to be accurate, and may contribute to biases in the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 measurements. Indirect estimates of the combustion CO2 component can also be obtained from measured CO:CO2 ratios and SF6:CO2 ratios. The low cost and ease of measurement allow the application of these methods in intensive measurement campaigns. However, the accuracy of the combustion CO2 detection capability relies on accurately determining the emission ratio of CO:CO2 or SF6:CO2 at relevant time and space scales. In the case of CO, atmospheric chemical biases and non fossil fuel sources must also be understood. CO2 derived from fossil fuels contains no 14C, whereas other sources have a 14C content close to that of ambient air. Measurement of the 14C content in CO2 thus provides a direct tracer for fossil fuel derived CO2, without the biases associated with the indirect tracer methods. We used high-precision accelerator mass spectrometry to determine the 14C content of CO2 at several North American sites (Niwot Ridge, CO, Harvard Forest, MA and New Hampshire) during 2003 and 2004, and calculate the fossil fuel CO2 contribution in each case. We compare these results with CO:CO2 and SF6:CO2 measurements on the same samples to evaluate the indirect tracer methods at these sites. Preliminary results for wintertime measurements (when biological CO2 exchange fluxes are small) support the accuracy of the 14C method. The back-calculated emission ratios for SF6:CO2 vary significantly and consistently underestimate the global average. While the back-calculated CO:CO2 ratios are more consistent, they also underestimate the predicted values from emissions

  17. Estimated contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol from fossil fuel combustion during the CalNex and Cal-Mex campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Frossard, A. A.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Liu, S.; Takahama, S.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J.; Coe, H.; Zhao, Y.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-05-01

    Observations during CalNex and Cal-Mex field campaigns at Bakersfield, Pasadena, Tijuana, and on board the R/V Atlantis show a substantial contribution of fossil fuel emissions to the ambient particle organic mass (OM). At least two fossil fuel combustion (FFC) factors with a range of contributions of oxidized organic functional groups were identified at each site and accounted for 60-88% of the total OM. Additional marine, vegetative detritus, and biomass burning or biogenic sources contribute up to 40% of the OM. Comparison of the FTIR spectra of four different unburned fossil fuels (gasoline, diesel, motor oil, and ship diesel) with PMF factors from ambient samples shows absorbance peaks from the fuels are retained in organic aerosols, with the spectra of all of the FFC factors containing at least three of the four characteristic alkane peaks observed in fuel standards at 2954, 2923, 2869 and 2855 cm-1. Based on this spectral similarity, we estimate the primary OM from FFC sources for each site to be 16-20%, with secondary FFC OM accounting for an additional 42-62%. Two other methods for estimating primary OM that use carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental carbon (EC) as tracers of primary organic mass were investigated, but both approaches were problematic for the CalNex and Cal-Mex urban sites because they were influenced by multiple emission sources that had site-specific and variable initial ratios to OM. For example, using the ΔPOM/ΔCO ratio of 0.0094 μg ppb V-1 proposed by other studies produces unrealistically high estimates of primary FFC OM of 55-100%.

  18. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

    2008-05-01

    Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were

  19. Hydrogen turbine power conversion system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lucci, A. D.; Campbell, J.; Lee, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A three part technical study was conducted whereby parametric technical and economic feasibility data were developed on several power conversion systems suitable for the generation of central station electric power through the combustion of hydrogen and the use of the resulting heat energy in turbogenerator equipment. The study assessed potential applications of hydrogen-fueled power conversion systems and identified the three most promising candidates: (1) Ericsson Cycle, (2) gas turbine, and (3) direct steam injection system for fossil fuel as well as nuclear powerplants. A technical and economic evaluation was performed on the three systems from which the direct injection system (fossil fuel only) was selected for a preliminary conceptual design of an integrated hydrogen-fired power conversion system.

  20. "Fossil" Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; deOnis, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Presents a density study in which students calculate the density of limestone substrate to determine if the specimen contains any fossils. Explains how to make fossils and addresses national standards. (YDS)

  1. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  2. Thermionic energy conversion technology - Present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Morris, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Aerospace and terrestrial applications of thermionic direct energy conversion and advances in direct energy conversion (DEC) technology are surveyed. Electrode materials, the cesium plasma drop (the difference between the barrier index and the collector work function), DEC voltage/current characteristics, conversion efficiency, and operating temperatures are discussed. Attention is centered on nuclear reactor system thermionic DEC devices, for in-core or out-of-core operation. Thermionic fuel elements, the radiation shield, power conditions, and a waste heat rejection system are considered among the thermionic DEC system components. Terrestrial applications include topping power systems in fossil fuel and solar power generation.

  3. FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter focuses on methane emissions from the coal and natural gas industries. The petroleum industry is not addressed because of the lack of related quality data. Emission points are identified for each industry, and a discussion of factors affecting emissions is presented. ...

  4. Marquee Fossils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2008-01-01

    Professors of an online graduate-level paleontology class developed the concept of marquee fossils--fossils that have one or more unique characteristics that capture the attention and direct observation of students. In the classroom, Marquee fossils integrate the geology, biology, and environmental science involved in the study of fossilized…

  5. Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

    2012-09-30

    Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

  6. A guide to the emissions certification procedures for alternative fuel aftermarket conversions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Emissions certification is still relatively new to the aftermarket vehicle conversion industry. Many in the industry think that as soon as a vehicle is converted to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LFG), it automatically runs as clean as or cleaner than it did on the conventional fuel. However, recent studies have shown that aftermarket conversions may not always reduce emissions. To achieve emissions benefits, the conversion equipment must be designed and calibrated specifically for the engine and emissions control system on which it has been installed, and the installation and setup must be performed so as to not adversely affect the vehicle`s original emissions performance. The reason for certification, then, is to ensure that these criteria are met, that the vehicle continues to perform properly, and that it continues to satisfy all appropriate emissions standards throughout its useful life. The authors have prepared this guide to help equipment manufacturers, distributors, and installers understand the emissions certification process for aftermarket conversions. The guide gives an overview of the certification requirements established by the US EPA and by the state of California.

  7. Two-stage thermal conversion of inedible lipid feedstocks to renewable chemicals and fuels.

    PubMed

    Asomaning, Justice; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the conversion of inedible, low cost lipid feedstocks to renewable hydrocarbons using a two stage thermal hydrolysis-pyrolysis method. Beef tallow, yellow grease, brown grease and cold pressed camelina oil were first hydrolyzed and the fatty acids produced were recovered and pyrolyzed in batch reactors. The pyrolysis products were identified and quantified using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The pyrolysis product yields were similar for all the feedstock used with the organic liquid fraction (OLF) accounting for 76-80% of the product. The OLF consisted predominantly of n-alkanes. Approximately 30% OLF constituted a gasoline-equivalent fraction and 50% a diesel fraction. Other fuel property test showed that the OLF met the specifications set out by the Canadian general standards board. This research demonstrated a novel two-stage thermal hydrolysis-pyrolysis conversion method for producing OLF from inedible and low-value lipids. PMID:24583215

  8. Radioactive Waste Management at the New Conversion Facility of 'TVEL'{sup R} Fuel Company - 13474

    SciTech Connect

    Indyk, S.I.; Volodenko, A.V.; Tvilenev, K.A.; Tinin, V.V.; Fateeva, E.V.

    2013-07-01

    The project on the new conversion facility construction is being implemented by Joint Stock Company (JSC) 'Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises' (SGChE) within TVEL{sup R} Fuel Company. The objective is to construct the up-to-date facility ensuring the industrial and environmental safety with the reduced impact on the community and environment in compliance with the Russian new regulatory framework on radioactive waste (RW) management. The history of the SGChE development, as well as the concepts and approaches to RW management implemented by now are shown. The SGChE future image is outlined, together with its objectives and concept on RW management in compliance with the new act 'On radioactive waste management' adopted in Russia in 2011. Possible areas of cooperation with international companies are discussed in the field of RW management with the purpose of deploying the best Russian and world practices on RW management at the new conversion facility. (authors)

  9. Direct conversion of spent fuel to High-Level-Waste (HLW) glass

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.

    1994-09-20

    The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) is a recently invented process for the direct, single-step conversion of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to high-level waste (HLW) glass. GMODS converts metals, ceramics, organics, and amorphous solids to glass in a single step. Conventional vitrification technology can not accept feeds containing metals or carbon. The GMODS has the potential to solve several issues associated with the disposal of various US Department of Energy (DOE) miscellaneous SNFs: (1) chemical forms unacceptable for repository disposal; (2) high cost of qualifying small quantities of particular SNFs for disposal; (3) limitations imposed by high-enriched SNF in a repository because of criticality and safeguards issues; and (4) classified design information. Conversion of such SNFs to glass eliminates these concerns. A description of the GMODS, {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} product criteria, experimental work to date, and product characteristics are included herein.

  10. Conversion of TRIGA research reactors from high-enriched- to low-enriched-uranium fuels: owner/operator view

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    In June 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) commissioners issued a four-point directive to the NRC staff concerning the conversion of research reactors from the use of high-enriched-uranium (HEU) to low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuels. As a result of this directive, the earlier concerns of the research reactor community that were presented to the NRC during the comment period of the 1984 proposed rule on HEU-LEU conversion must be dealt with now. This paper discusses the items of most concern to HEU TRIGA owner/operators for conversion to LEU fuel.

  11. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. PMID:21799983

  12. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  13. Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

    1993-02-01

    Light hydrocarbon gases could be reacted with low cost alkaline earth metal oxide (CaO, MgO) in high-temperature plasma reactor to achieve very high ([le]100%) gas conversion to H[sub 2], CO, and the corresponding metal carbides. These carbides could be stored, transported, and hydrolyzed to acetylene or methyl acetylene, which in turn could be upgraded to a wide range of chemicals and premium liquid hydrocarbon fuels. An electric arc discharge reactor was built for converting methane. Literature reviews were made.

  14. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  15. One-pot catalytic conversion of cellulose and of woody biomass solids to liquid fuels.

    PubMed

    Matson, Theodore D; Barta, Katalin; Iretskii, Alexei V; Ford, Peter C

    2011-09-01

    Efficient methodologies for converting biomass solids to liquid fuels have the potential to reduce dependence on imported petroleum while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. Here, we report quantitative catalytic conversions of wood and cellulosic solids to liquid and gaseous products in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. Little or no char is formed during this process. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH) and the catalyst, a copper-doped porous metal oxide, is composed of earth-abundant materials. The major liquid product is a mixture of C(2)-C(6) aliphatic alcohols and methylated derivatives thereof that are, in principle, suitable for applications as liquid fuels. PMID:21806029

  16. 78 FR 9016 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Massachusetts; Revisions to Fossil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...; Revisions to Fossil Fuel Utilization and Source Registration Regulations and Boiler Industrial Standards... revisions add new monitoring, inspection, maintenance and testing requirements for certain fossil fuel... approval of the state's revised fossil fuel utilization facility regulation, source registration...

  17. The Hestia Project: High Spatial Resolution Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Quantification at Hourly Scale in Indianapolis, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface and contribute to sound, quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, quantification of greenhouse gases emissions drivers at fine spatial and temporal scales is essential. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gases, has become a key component to cost-effective CO2 emissions mitigation options and a carbon trading system. Called the ‘Hestia Project’, this pilot study generated CO2 emissions down to high spatial resolution and hourly scale for the greater Indianapolis region in the USA through the use of air quality and traffic monitoring data, remote sensing, GIS, and building energy modeling. The CO2 emissions were constructed from three data source categories: area, point, and mobile. For the area source emissions, we developed an energy consumption model using DOE/EIA survey data on building characteristics and energy consumption. With the Vulcan Project’s county-level CO2 emissions and simulated building energy consumption, we quantified the CO2 emissions for each individual building by allocating Vulcan emissions to roughly 50,000 structures in Indianapolis. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions in each individual building was developed based on temporal patterns of energy consumption. The point sources emissions were derived from the EPA National Emissions Inventory data and effluent monitoring of electricity producing facilities. The mobile source CO2 emissions were estimated at the month/county scale using the Mobile6 combustion model and the National Mobile Inventory Model database. The month/county scale mobile source CO2 emissions were downscaled to the “native” spatial resolution of road segments every hour using a GIS road atlas and traffic monitoring data. The result is shown in Figure 1. The resulting urban-scale inventory can serve as a baseline of current CO2 emissions and should be of immediate use to

  18. Climate response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot's feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2004-11-01

    The first three-dimensional global model in which time-dependent spectral albedos and emissivities over snow and sea ice are predicted with a radiative transfer solution, rather than prescribed, is applied to study the climate response of fossil fuel plus biofuel black carbon plus organic matter (ff+bf BC+OM) when BC absorption in snow and sea ice is accounted for. The model treats the cycling of size-resolved BC+OM between emission and removal by dry deposition and precipitation from first principles. Particles produce and enter size-resolved clouds and precipitation by nucleation scavenging and aerosol-hydrometeor coagulation. Removal brings BC to the surface, where internally and externally mixed BC in snow and sea ice affects albedo and emissivity through radiative transfer. Climate response simulations were run with a ff+bf BC+OC emission inventory lower than that used in a previous study. The 10-year, globally averaged ff+bf BC+OM near-surface temperature response due to all feedbacks was about +0.27 K (+0.32 in the last 3 years), close to those from the previous study (5-year average of +0.3 K and fifth-year warming of +0.35 K) and its modeled range (+0.15 to +0.5 K) because warming due to soot absorption in snow and sea ice here (10-year average of +0.06 K with a modeled range of +0.03 to +0.11 K) offset reduced warming due to lower emission. BC was calculated to reduce snow and sea ice albedo by ˜0.4% in the global average and 1% in the Northern Hemisphere. The globally averaged modeled BC concentration in snow and sea ice was ˜5 ng/g; that in rainfall was ˜22 ng/g. About 98% of BC removal from the atmosphere was due to precipitation; the rest was due to dry deposition. The results here support previous findings that controlling ff+bf BC+OM and CO2 emission may slow global warming.

  19. Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into value-added and renewable fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2015-07-01

    The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO2 capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO2 to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO2 emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO2 and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO2 photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of reactants, CO2 activation as well as the possible reaction pathways. Finally, perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO2 photoreduction are outlined.

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency support of research reactor highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel conversion projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.; Adelfang, P.; Goldman, I.N.

    2008-07-15

    The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non- proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly assisted efforts to convert research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel. HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects differ significantly depending on several factors including the design of the reactor and fuel, technical needs of the member state, local nuclear infrastructure, and available resources. To support such diverse endeavours, the IAEA tailors each project to address the relevant constraints. This paper presents the different approaches taken by the IAEA to address the diverse challenges involved in research reactor HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects. Examples of conversion related projects in different Member States are fully detailed. (author)