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Sample records for fossil fuels combustion

  1. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded d...

  2. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  3. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FOSSIL FUEL CO-FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; ...

  4. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  5. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOEpatents

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  6. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997-2010).

    PubMed

    Balch, Jennifer K; Nagy, R Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Bowman, David M J S; Moritz, Max A; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Williamson, Grant J

    2016-06-01

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997-2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216509

  7. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  8. QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

  9. Health effects of fossil fuel combustion products: report of a workshop.

    PubMed Central

    Comar, C L; Nelson, N

    1975-01-01

    Judgemental positions are presented on research priorities in regard to the health effects from stationary sources of fossil fuel combustion products. Hopefully, they can provide guidance for efforts to ensure that national energy needs are met with minimum environmental and economic burdens on the public. The major areas include epidemiological studies, controlled biological studies, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, trace elements, monitoring and analysis. PMID:1227856

  10. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  11. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  12. Relative importance of thermal versus carbon dioxide induced warming from fossil-fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth is heated both when reduced carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide and when outgoing longwave radiation is trapped by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (CO2 greenhouse effect). The purpose of this study is to improve our understanding of time scales and relative magnitudes of climate forcing increase over time from pulse, continuous, and historical CO2 and thermal emissions. To estimate the amount of global warming that would be produced by thermal and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, we calculate thermal emissions with thermal contents of fossil fuels and estimate CO2 emissions with emission factors from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. We then use a schematic climate model mimicking Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 to investigate the climate forcing and the time-integrated climate forcing. We show that, considered globally, direct thermal forcing from fossil fuel combustion is about 1.71% the radiative forcing from CO2 that has accumulated in the atmosphere from past fossil fuel combustion. When a new power plant comes on line, the radiative forcing from the accumulation of released CO2 exceeds the thermal emissions from the power plant in less than half a year (and about 3 months for coal plants). Due to the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere, CO2 radiative forcing greatly overwhelms direct thermal forcing on longer time scales. Ultimately, the cumulative radiative forcing from the CO2 exceeds the direct thermal forcing by a factor of ~100,000.

  13. Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga

    2007-07-01

    High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.

    1990-07-01

    Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Further experience for environmental improvement in fossil fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzeri, L.; Santis, R. de

    1998-12-31

    Reburning is a technology which has proven, by plant demonstration, capable of providing compliance with very stringent regulatory emissions requests (less than 90 ppm NO{sub x} firing oil and gas and less than 160--170 ppm firing coal). Designing a Reburn System requires a contemporary control of many parameters like flow rates, local stoichiometries residence times, etc.; it also requires the availability and capability of using complex and sophisticated numerical modeling. Although the system can be adapted to any already installed hardware it should be noted that the availability of reliable LNB`s and of specifically designed OFA`s and Reburn fuel injectors can greatly enhance the system performance. Design of OFA system is a subcase of a Reburn System design, as it implies same concepts of mixing and residence times which are the basis of Reburn System. As shown in the cases previously presented Reburning always provides additional margins to OFA operation specifically when very low emission limits are pursued. Finally it should be noted that the use of Reburning may create problems of unburned specifically when very low local stoichiometries and when very low sulfur oils are used which are often characterized by asphaltene instability especially when STZ oil is the result of blending high and low sulfur oils. A specific know-how has been jointly developed by Ansaldo and ENEL to solve these problems acting on both atomizer type selection and operation.

  16. Contributions of Fossil Fuel Combustion to Winter-time Arctic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, T. E.; Usenko, S.; Robinson, E.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last century, the Arctic has been warming at a rate almost twice the global average. Aerosols both directly and indirectly affect the radiative balance of the Arctic through the absorption and scattering of sunlight and by providing a source of cloud and ice condensation nuclei. Global climate models currently have difficulty reproducing the observed warming in the Arctic but could be improved through high temporal resolution measurements of aerosols and their sources. This study focuses on the quantification of fossil fuel and biomass combustion contributions to particulate organic carbon (OC) collected during a winter sampling campaign in the North Slope Alaska. Samples were collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Particulate matter (PM10) samples collected from December 2012 to March 2013 were analyzed for organic tracer analysis combined with radiocarbon of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC). Organic tracers, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkanes, hopanes and levoglucosan, were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). These tracers, commonly used as molecular markers for anthropogenic combustion sources, were then used in a molecular-marker chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Results from the CMB were then combined with radiocarbon (14C) abundance measurements. Radiocarbon analysis differentiates between fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning based on the large difference in end members between fossil and contemporary carbon. Radiocarbon results show an average fossil contribution of 44% to Arctic OC from with spark ignition (gasoline) and compression ignition (diesel) engines being implicated as major sources of fossil OC to Arctic aerosols. The 14C analysis and CMB source apportionment will be combined with back trajectory (BT) to assess the impact of geographic source regions on carbonaceous aerosol burden in the

  17. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO{sub 2} emission fluxes for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin R. Gurney; Daniel L. Mendoza; Yuyu Zhou; Marc L. Fischer; Chris C. Miller; Sarath Geethakumar; Stephane de la Rue du Can

    2009-07-15

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of about 100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-03-19

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

  19. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Kevin R; Mendoza, Daniel L; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L; Miller, Chris C; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-07-15

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of approximately 100 km2 and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO2 inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the "Vulcan" inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km2 and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Comparison to the global 1degree x 1 degree fossil fuel CO2 inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach. PMID:19708393

  20. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    PubMed

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-01

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources. PMID:26332865

  1. Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

  2. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-01

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = +/-7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  3. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  4. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon). PMID:26289204

  5. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  6. Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition of Various Fossil-fuel Combustion Nitrogen Oxide Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, W.; Michalski, G. M.; Fang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important trace gases that impact atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. In order to help constrain NOx source contributions, the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of NOx (δ15N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning. However, despite anthropogenic emissions being the most prevalent source of NOx, there is still large uncertainty in the δ15N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources. To this end, this study provides a detailed analysis of several fossil-fuel combustion NOx sources and their δ15N-NOx values. To accomplish this, exhaust or flue samples from several fossil-fuel combustion sources were sampled and analyzed for their δ15N-NOx that included airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a catalytic converter, gasoline-powered lawn tools and utility vehicles, diesel-electric buses, diesel semi-trucks, and natural gas-burning home furnace and power plant. A relatively large range of δ15N-NOx values were measured from -28.1 to 0.3‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples with cold started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the lowest δ15N-NOx values at -20.9‰, and warm-started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the highest values of -1.7‰. The NOx sources analyzed in this study primarily originated from the "thermal production" of NOx and generally emitted negative δ15N-NOx values, likely due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with its production. It was found that there is a negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ15N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with catalytic NOx reduction technology, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx may have an influence on δ15N-NOx values. Based on the δ15N-NOx values reported in this study and in previous studies, a δ15N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous United States. The constructed isoscape demonstrates the seasonal importance of various

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. he two methods developed have b...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. The two methods developed have...

  9. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  11. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOEpatents

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  12. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  13. OVERVIEW OF POLLUTION FROM COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUELS IN BOILERS OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the fossil-fuel-fired boiler population of the U.S. It presents data on the number and capacity of boilers for categories most relevant to producing pollution. Information presented includes: type of fuel burned (coal, residual oil, distillate oil, natural ga...

  14. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkanes in combustion residuals of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Huiling; Peng, Lin; Li, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaofeng; Song, Chongfang; Mu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    The hydrogen isotope compositions (δD) of n-alkanes present in the combustion residuals of fossil fuels (coal, gasoline, and diesel) were measured using GC-IRMS to distinguish between coal soot and vehicle exhaust. The n-alkane δD values of industrial and domestic coal soot ranged from -95.3‰ to -219.6‰ and -128.1‰ to -188.6‰, respectively, exhibiting similar tendencies. The δD values of the C15-C18n-alkanes in both types of coal soot were nearly consistent, and the δD values of the C19-C24n-alkanes exhibited a zigzag profile. The δD values of C16-C22n-alkanes in gasoline exhaust exhibited a saw-tooth distribution, decreased with the carbon number, and were more positive than the δD values of C16-C22n-alkanes in diesel exhaust, which increased with the carbon number. However, the δD values of the C23-C29n-alkanes in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust were mostly consistent. The weighted average δD values of the C16-C19n-alkanes in industrial and domestic coal soot were similar to the average δD values in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhausts; however, the average δD values of the C21-C29n-alkanes in vehicle exhausts were richer in D than those in coal soot.

  15. Uncertainty in projected climate change caused by methodological discrepancy in estimating CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilcaille, Yann; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe; Lecocq, Franck; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Mohr, Steve; Andres, Robert J.; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    There are different methodologies to estimate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The term "methodology" refers to the way subtypes of fossil fuels are aggregated and their implied emissions factors. This study investigates how the choice of a methodology impacts historical and future CO2 emissions, and ensuing climate change projections. First, we use fossil fuel extraction data from the Geologic Resources Supply-Demand model of Mohr et al. (2015). We compare four different methodologies to transform amounts of fossil fuel extracted into CO2 emissions based on the methodologies used by Mohr et al. (2015), CDIAC, EDGARv4.3, and IPCC 1996. We thus obtain 4 emissions pathways, for the historical period 1750-2012, that we compare to the emissions timeseries from EDGARv4.3 (1970-2012) and CDIACv2015 (1751-2011). Using the 3 scenarios by Mohr et al. (2015) for projections till 2300 under the assumption of an Early (Low emission), Best Guess or Late (High emission) extraction peaking, we obtain 12 different pathways of CO2 emissions over 1750-2300. Second, we extend these CO2-only pathways to all co-emitted and climatically active species. Co-emission ratios for CH4, CO, BC, OC, SO2, VOC, N2O, NH3, NOx are calculated on the basis of the EDGAR v4.3 dataset, and are then used to produce complementary pathways of non-CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion only. Finally, the 12 emissions scenarios are integrated using the compact Earth system model OSCAR v2.2, in order to quantify the impact of the selected driver onto climate change projections. We find historical cumulative fossil fuel CO2 emissions from 1750 to 2012 ranging from 365 GtC to 392 GtC depending upon the methodology used to convert fossil fuel into CO2 emissions. We notice a drastic increase of the impact of the methodology in the projections. For the High emission scenario with Late fuel extraction peaking, cumulated CO2 emissions from 1700 to 2100 range from 1505 GtC to 1685 GtC; this corresponds

  16. Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Jason Michael

    Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained

  17. Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Jason Michael

    Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained

  18. Non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion: the source of CO2 emissions affects the global carbon cycle and climate responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-04-01

    Non-deforestation fire - i.e., fire that is typically followed by the recovery of natural vegetation - is arguably the most influential disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. The radiative effect from a given atmospheric CO2 perturbation is the same for fire and fossil fuel combustion. However, major differences exist per unit of CO2 emitted between the effects of non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion on the global carbon cycle and climate, because (1) fossil fuel combustion implies a net transfer of carbon from geological reservoirs to the atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial pools, whereas fire occurring in terrestrial ecosystems does not; (2) the average lifetime of the atmospheric CO2 increase is longer when originating from fossil fuel combustion compared to fire, due to the strong vegetation regrowth following fire disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems; and (3) other impacts, for example on land surface albedo, also differ between fire and fossil fuel combustion. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between fossil fuel combustion and non-deforestation fires using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects per unit of CO2 emitted - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons

  19. Combustion of available fossil-fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, R.; Levermann, A.; Ridgwell, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 meters in global sea-level rise. Here we show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil-fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil-fuel emissions of 10 000 GtC, Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 meters per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West- and East Antarctica results in a threshold-increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.

  20. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  1. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  2. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  3. Particulate emission factors for mobile fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources.

    PubMed

    Watson, John G; Chow, Judith C; Chen, L-W Antony; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Fujita, Eric M; Kuhns, Hampden D; Sodeman, David A; Campbell, David E; Moosmüller, Hans; Zhu, Dongzi; Motallebi, Nehzat

    2011-05-15

    PM emission factors (EFs) for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies. In the Gas/Diesel Split Study (GD-Split), PM(2.5) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) ranged from 0.2 to ~2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age. EFs for HDDV estimated with the U.S. EPA MOBILE 6.2 and California Air Resources Board (ARB) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values. PM(2.5) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were ~two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates. In the Kansas City Study, PM(2.5) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles (e.g., passenger cars and light trucks) were generally <0.03 g/mile and were higher in winter than summer. EMFAC2007 reported higher PM(2.5) EFs than MOBILE 6.2 during winter, but not during summer, and neither model captured the variability of the measured EFs. Total PM EFs for heavy-duty diesel military vehicles ranged from 0.18±0.03 and 1.20±0.12 g/kg fuel, corresponding to 0.3 and 2 g/mile, respectively. These values are comparable to those of on-road HDDV. EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System (EES) model. The highest PM(2.5) EFs (76.8±37.5 g/kg) were measured for wet (>50% moisture content) Ponderosa Pine needles. EFs were generally <20 g/kg when moisture content was <20%. The EES model agreed with measured EFs for fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40%. Average EFs for dry chamise, rice straw, and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Discrepancies between measured and modeled emission factors suggest that there may be important uncertainties in current PM(2.5) emission inventories. PMID:21458027

  4. Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions.

    PubMed

    Jaeglé, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    We use space-based observations of NO2 columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to derive monthly top-down NOx emissions for 2000 via inverse modeling with the GEOS-CHEM chemical transport model. Top-down NOx sources are partitioned among fuel combustion (fossil fuel and biofuel), biomass burning and soils by exploiting the spatio-temporal distribution of remotely sensed fires and a priori information on the location of regions dominated by fuel combustion. The top-down inventory is combined with an a priori inventory to obtain an optimized a posteriori estimate of the relative roles of NOx sources. The resulting a posteriori fuel combustion inventory (25.6 TgN year(-1)) agrees closely with the a priori (25.4 TgN year(-1)), and errors are reduced by a factor of 2, from +/- 80% to +/- 40%. Regionally, the largest differences are found over Japan and South Africa, where a posteriori estimates are 25% larger than a priori. A posteriori fuel combustion emissions are aseasonal, with the exception of East Asia and Europe where winter emissions are 30-40% larger relative to summer emissions, consistent with increased energy use during winter for heating. Global a posteriori biomass burning emissions in 2000 resulted in 5.8 TgN (compared to 5.9 TgN year(-1) in the a priori), with Africa accounting for half of this total. A posteriori biomass burning emissions over Southeast Asia/India are decreased by 46% relative to a priori; but over North equatorial Africa they are increased by 50%. A posteriori estimates of soil emissions (8.9 TgN year(-1)) are 68% larger than a priori (5.3 TgN year(-1)). The a posteriori inventory displays the largest soil emissions over tropical savanna/woodland ecosystems (Africa), as well as over agricultural regions in the western U.S. (Great Plains), southern Europe (Spain, Greece, Turkey), and Asia (North China Plain and North India), consistent with field measurements. Emissions over these regions are highest during summer at

  5. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-fuel Combustion By-products.

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, A V.; Mccarthy, John F.; Amonette, James E.; Fisher, L S.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Daniels, William L.

    2004-03-01

    Concern for the potential global change consequences of increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted interest in the development of mechanisms to reduce or stabilize atmospheric CO2 .During the next several decades, a program focused on terrestrial sequestration processes could make a significant contribution to abating CO2 increases.The reclamation of degraded lands, such as mine-spoil sites, highway rights-of-way, and poorly managed lands, represents an opportunity to couple C sequestration with the use of fossil-fuel and energy by-products and other waste material, such as biosolids and organic wastes from human and animal sewage treatment facilities, to improve soil quality. Degraded lands are often characterized by acidic pH, low levels of key nutrients, poor soil structure, and limited moisture-retention capacity.Much is known about the methods to improve these soils, but the cost of implementation is often a limiting factor.However, the additional financial and environmental benefit s of C sequestration may change the economics of land reclamation activities.The addition of energy-related by-products can address the adverse conditions of these degraded lands through a variety of mechanisms, such as enhancing plant growth and capturing of organic C in long-lived soil C pools.This review examines the use of fossil-fuel combustion by-products and organic amendments to enhance C sequestration and identifies the key gaps in information that still must be addressed before these methods can be implemented on an environmentally meaningful scale.

  6. Kinetic measurements on elementary fossil fuel combustion reactions over wide temperatures ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Fontijin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of this work are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. This approach allows observations on single reactions in the 300 to 1800 K temperature range to be made. Typical total (bath gas) pressures are in the 100 to 1000 mbar range. Ground-state O and H atoms are produced by flash or excimer laser photolysis of suitable precursors (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}). The relative atom concentrations are monitored by resonance fluorescence pumped by a cw microwave discharge flow lamp. The molecular reactant-in-excess is introduced through a cooled inlet. Adequate time for mixing, 0.1 to 10 s, between this inlet and the photolysis/observation zone is achieved by using slow flows (typically less than 20 cm s{sup {minus}1}). Results are reported for: O-Atom Reactions with the Four Isomeric Butenes, H + HCl {yields} H{sub 2} + Cl, and the O-atom 1,3-butadiene reaction.

  7. Unique case of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning in the absence of a combustible fossil fuel.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D R; Poon, P; Titley, J; Jagger, S F; Rutty, G N

    2001-09-01

    A 37-year-old man died as a result of exposure to carbon monoxide within an apartment. An investigation of the apartment showed no gas appliances or gas supply to the apartment and no evidence of any combustion event to any part of the apartment or roof space. Inhalation of dichloromethane was excluded. Heating to the apartment was found to be via an electrical storage heater, the examination of which revealed that the cast-iron core and insulating material showed evidence of heat damage with significant areas devoid of carbon. This electric storage heater is hypothesized to be the source of carbon for the fatal production of carbon monoxide within the apartment. PMID:11563726

  8. The role of fossil fuel combustion on the stability of dissolved iron in rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Joan D.; Kieber, Robert J.; Humphreys, Joshua J.; Rice, Briana C.; Hopwood, Mark J.; Avery, G. Brooks; Mead, Ralph N.

    2015-04-01

    The concentration of dissolved Fe(II) has decreased in coastal NC rainwater because of less complexation and stabilization of Fe(II) (aq) by automobile and coal combustion emissions. Better emission control has removed stabilizing organic ligands hence dissolved Fe(II) currently occurs more as inorganic iron, which is not protected against oxidation. Increasing rainwater pH allows oxidation by molecular O2 in addition to H2O2 and also increases the ratio of the ion pair Fe(OH)+ to Fe(II) free ion, which increases the oxidation rates by both H2O2 and molecular oxygen. The concentration of H2O2 in rain has increased; hydrogen peroxide is the primary oxidant of inorganic Fe(II) in precipitation. The East Coast of the USA is also receiving less rain of terrestrial origin, which tends to be higher in dissolved iron and organic compounds. All these factors operate in the same direction and contribute to the lower concentrations and lack of stability of Fe(II) in rainwater currently observed. Results of this study suggest that wet deposition of soluble Fe(II) is an episodic, temporally variable factor in the iron cycle in oceanic regions adjacent to developed or developing coastal regions.

  9. Emissions of Water and Carbon Dioxide from Fossil-Fuel Combustion Contribute Directly to Ocean Mass and Volume Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuce, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The direct, non-climate, contribution of carbon dioxide and water emissions from fossil-fuel (FF) combustion to the volume and mass of the oceans has been omitted from estimates of sea-level rise (SLR) in IPCC reports. Following the method of Gornitz et al. (1997), H2O emissions are estimated using carbon emissions from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, along with typical carbon and hydrogen contents of FF. Historic H2O emissions from 1750 to 2010 amount to 430 ±50 PgH2O, equivalent to 1.2 ±0.2 mmSLR. Sometime in this decade the volume of H2O from historic FF combustion will exceed the volume of Lake Erie (480 km3). CO2 dissolved in the ocean increases the seawater volume by 31-33 mL mol-1 CO2. From 1750 to 2010, 370 ±70 PgCO2 from FF combustion has dissolved in the oceans, causing 0.7 ±0.2 mmSLR. Combined H2O+CO2emissions from FF have therefore added 1.9 ±0.4 mm to sea levels in the Industrial Era. Combustion of FF in 2010 resulted in emissions of 32 PgCO2 and 12 ±1 PgH2O. SLR contributions for that year from FF emissions were 0.033 ±0.005 mm from H2O and 0.011±0.003 mm from dissolved CO2, a total rate of 0.044 ±0.008 mm yr-1. Emissions incorporated in socio-economic models underlying the RCP 8.5 and 2.6 scenarios are used along with concentration-driven CMIP5 Earth System Models results to estimate future sea-level rise from FF combustion. From 2010 to 2100, RCP8.5 and 2.6 models respectively produce 9 ±2 mmSLR and 5 ±1 mmSLR from FF H2O+CO2. For perspective, these amounts are larger than the modelled contributions from loss of glaciers in the Andes. The direct contribution of FF emissions to SLR is small (1-2%) relative to current rates and projected estimates under RCP scenarios up to 2100. The magnitude is similar to SLR estimates from other minor sources such as the melting of floating ice, land-use emissions and produced water from oil operations, none of which are currently included in SLR assessments. As uncertainties in

  10. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  11. Year-round Source Contributions of Fossil Fuel and Biomass Combustion to Elemental Carbon on the North Slope Alaska Utilizing Radiocarbon Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, T. E.; Gustafsson, O.; Winiger, P.; Moffett, C.; Back, J.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well documented that the Arctic has undergone rapid warming at an alarming rate over the past century. Black carbon (BC) affects the radiative balance of the Arctic directly and indirectly through the absorption of incoming solar radiation and by providing a source of cloud and ice condensation nuclei. Among atmospheric aerosols, BC is the most efficient absorber of light in the visible spectrum. The solar absorbing efficiency of BC is amplified when it is internally mixed with sulfates. Furthermore, BC plumes that are fossil fuel dominated have been shown to be approximately 100% more efficient warming agents than biomass burning dominated plumes. The renewal of offshore oil and gas exploration in the Arctic, specifically in the Chukchi Sea, will introduce new BC sources to the region. This study focuses on the quantification of fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources to atmospheric elemental carbon (EC) during a year-long sampling campaign in the North Slope Alaska. Samples were collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Particulate matter (PM10) samples collected from July 2012 to June 2013 were analyzed for EC and sulfate concentrations combined with radiocarbon (14C) analysis of the EC fraction. Radiocarbon analysis distinguishes fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions based on large differences in end members between fossil and contemporary carbon. To perform isotope analysis on EC, it must be separated from the organic carbon fraction of the sample. Separation was achieved by trapping evolved CO2 produced during EC combustion in a cryo-trap utilizing liquid nitrogen. Radiocarbon results show an average fossil contribution of 85% to atmospheric EC, with individual samples ranging from 47% to 95%. Source apportionment results will be combined with back trajectory (BT) analysis to assess geographic source region impacts on the EC burden in the western Arctic.

  12. COMPOUND FORMS OF FOSSIL FUEL FLY ASH EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for identifying inorganic compounds in particulate emissions from fossil fuel combustion processes is described. Samples collected from power plants burning coal and oil fuels of different compositions provided a typical range of fly ashes for the investigations. El...

  13. Estimated contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol from fossil fuel combustion during the CalNex and Cal-Mex campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Frossard, A. A.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Liu, S.; Takahama, S.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J.; Coe, H.; Zhao, Y.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-05-01

    Observations during CalNex and Cal-Mex field campaigns at Bakersfield, Pasadena, Tijuana, and on board the R/V Atlantis show a substantial contribution of fossil fuel emissions to the ambient particle organic mass (OM). At least two fossil fuel combustion (FFC) factors with a range of contributions of oxidized organic functional groups were identified at each site and accounted for 60-88% of the total OM. Additional marine, vegetative detritus, and biomass burning or biogenic sources contribute up to 40% of the OM. Comparison of the FTIR spectra of four different unburned fossil fuels (gasoline, diesel, motor oil, and ship diesel) with PMF factors from ambient samples shows absorbance peaks from the fuels are retained in organic aerosols, with the spectra of all of the FFC factors containing at least three of the four characteristic alkane peaks observed in fuel standards at 2954, 2923, 2869 and 2855 cm-1. Based on this spectral similarity, we estimate the primary OM from FFC sources for each site to be 16-20%, with secondary FFC OM accounting for an additional 42-62%. Two other methods for estimating primary OM that use carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental carbon (EC) as tracers of primary organic mass were investigated, but both approaches were problematic for the CalNex and Cal-Mex urban sites because they were influenced by multiple emission sources that had site-specific and variable initial ratios to OM. For example, using the ΔPOM/ΔCO ratio of 0.0094 μg ppb V-1 proposed by other studies produces unrealistically high estimates of primary FFC OM of 55-100%.

  14. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Michael R.; Victoria Garcia, Mercedes; Robinson, Michael A.; Van Rooy, Paul; Dietenberger, Mark A.; Bergin, Michael; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-07-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings. Filter-based absorption measurements were corrected and compared to photoacoustic absorption results. BC absorption was segregated from the total light extinction to estimate the BrC absorption from individual sources. Results were compared to elemental carbon (EC)/organic carbon (OC) concentrations to determine composition's impact on light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption coefficients, Angstrom exponent (6.9 to <1.0), mass absorption cross section (MAC), and Delta C (97 µg m-3 to ~0 µg m-3) were highly variable. Sources such as incense and peat emissions showed ultraviolet wavelength (370 nm) BrC absorption over 175 and 80 times (respectively) the BC absorption but only 21 and 11 times (respectively) at 520 nm wavelength. The bulk EC MACEC, λ (average at 520 nm = 9.0 ± 3.7 m2 g-1; with OC fraction <0.85 = ~7.5 m2 g-1) and the BrC OC mass absorption cross sections (MACBrC,OC,λ) were calculated; at 370 nm ultraviolet wavelengths; the MACBrC,OC,λ ranged from 0.8 m2 g-1 to 2.29 m2 g-1 (lowest peat, highest kerosene), while at 520 nm wavelength MACBrC,OC,λ ranged from 0.07 m2 g-1 to 0.37 m2 g-1 (lowest peat, highest kerosene/incense mixture). These MAC results show that OC content can be an important contributor to light absorption when present in significant quantities (>0.9 OC/TC), source emissions have variable absorption spectra, and nonbiomass combustion sources can be significant contributors to BrC.

  15. Metallic elements in fossil fuel combustion products: amounts and form of emissions and evaluation of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Vouk, V B; Piver, W T

    1983-01-01

    Metallic elements contained in coal, oil and gasoline are mobilized by combustion processes and may be emitted into the atmosphere, mainly as components of submicron particles. The information about the amounts, composition and form of metal compounds is reviewed for some fuels and combustion processes. Since metal compounds are always contained in urban air pollutants, they have to be considered whenever an evaluation of biological impact of air pollutants is made. The value of currently used bioassays for the evaluation of the role of trace metal compounds, either as major biologically active components or as modifiers of biological effects of organic compounds is assessed. The whole animal bioassays for carcinogenicity do not seem to be an appropriate approach. They are costly, time-consuming and not easily amenable to the testing of complex mixtures. Some problems related to the application and interpretation of short-term bioassays are considered, and the usefulness of such bioassays for the evaluation of trace metal components contained in complex air pollution mixtures is examined. PMID:6337825

  16. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  17. Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of biomass/biofuel burning, plastic burning, and fossil fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Pavuluri, C. M.; Swaminathan, T.

    2009-10-01

    Organic molecular composition of PM10 samples, collected at Chennai in tropical India, was studied using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twelve organic compound classes were detected in the aerosols, including aliphatic lipids, sugar compounds, lignin products, terpenoid biomarkers, sterols, aromatic acids, phthalates, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). At daytime, phthalates was found to be the most abundant compound class; while at nighttime, fatty acids was the dominant one. Concentrations of total quantified organics were higher in summer (611-3268 ng m-3, average 1586 ng m-3) than in winter (362-2381 ng m-3, 1136 ng m-3), accounting for 11.5±1.93% and 9.35±1.77% of organic carbon mass in summer and winter, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, C16 fatty acid, and levoglucosan were identified as the most abundant single compounds. The nighttime maxima of most organics in the aerosols indicate a land/sea breeze effect in tropical India, although some other factors such as local emissions and long-range transport may also influence the composition of organic aerosols. The abundances of anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan), lignin and resin products, hopanes and PAHs in the Chennai aerosols suggest that biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are significant sources of organic aerosols in tropical India. Interestingly, terephthalic acid was maximized at nighttime, which is different from those of phthalic and isophthalic acids. A positive correlation was found between the concentration of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (a tracer for plastic burning) and terephthalic acid, suggesting that field burning of municipal solid wastes including plastics is a significant source of terephthalic acid. This study demonstrates that, in addition to biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, the open-burning of plastics also contributes to the organic aerosols in South Asia.

  18. Bacterial and human cell mutagenicity study of some C18H10 cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with fossil fuels combustion.

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, A L; Longwell, J P; Marr, J A; Monchamp, P A; Plummer, E F; Thilly, W G; Mulder, P P; Boere, B B; Cornelisse, J; Lugtenburg, J

    1993-01-01

    A number of isomeric C18H10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thought to be primarily cyclopenta-fused PAHs, are produced during the combustion and pyrolysis of fossil fuels. To determine the importance of their contributions to the total mutagenic activity of combustion and pyrolysis samples in which they are found, we characterized reference quantities of four C18H10 CP-PAHs: benzo[ghi]fluoranthene (BF), cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP), cyclopent[hi]acephenanthrylene (CPAP), and cyclopent[hi]aceanthrylene (CPAA). Synthesis of CPAA and CPAP is described. The availability of reference samples of these isomers also proved to be an essential aid in the identification of the C18H10 species often found in combustion and pyrolysis samples. Chemical analysis of selected combustion and pyrolysis samples showed that CPP was generally the most abundant C18H10 isomer, followed by CPAP and BF. CPAA was detected only in pyrolysis products from pure PAHs. We tested the four C18H10 PAHs for mutagenicity in a forward mutation assay using S. typhimurium. CPP, BF, and CPAA were roughly twice as mutagenic as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), whereas CPAP was only slightly active. These PAHs were also tested for mutagenic activity in human cells. In this assay, CPP and CPAA were strongly mutagenic but less active than BaP, whereas CPAP and BF were inactive at the dose levels tested. Also, the bacterial and human cell mutagenicity of CPAA and CPAP were compared with the mutagenicity of their monocyclopenta-fused analogs, aceanthrylene and acephenanthyrlene. Although the mutagenicities of CPAP and acephenanthrylene are similar, the mutagenic activity of CPAA is an order of magnitude greater than that of aceanthyrlene. PMID:8354201

  19. Fossil fuels in a trillion tonne world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Vivian; Haszeldine, R. Stuart; Tett, Simon F. B.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The useful energy services and energy density value of fossil carbon fuels could be retained for longer timescales into the future if their combustion is balanced by CO2 recapture and storage. We assess the global balance between fossil carbon supply and the sufficiency (size) and capability (technology, security) of candidate carbon stores. A hierarchy of value for extraction-to-storage pairings is proposed, which is augmented by classification of CO2 containment as temporary (<1,000 yr) or permanent (>100,000 yr). Using temporary stores is inefficient and defers an intergenerational problem. Permanent storage capacity is adequate to technically match current fossil fuel reserves. However, rates of storage creation cannot balance current and expected rates of fossil fuel extraction and CO2 consequences. Extraction of conventional natural gas is uniquely holistic because it creates the capacity to re-inject an equivalent tonnage of carbon for storage into the same reservoir and can re-use gas-extraction infrastructure for storage. By contrast, balancing the extraction of coal, oil, biomass and unconventional fossil fuels requires the engineering and validation of additional carbon storage. Such storage is, so far, unproven in sufficiency.

  20. Progress of fossil fuel science

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. More than 45% of the world's electricity is generated from coal, and it is the major fuel for generating electricity worldwide. The known coal reserves in the world are enough for more than 215 years of consumption, while the known oil reserves are only about 39 times of the world's consumption and the known natural gas reserves are about 63 times of the world's consumption level in 1998. In recent years, there have been effective scientific investigations on Turkish fossil fuels, which are considerable focused on coal resources. Coal is a major fossil fuel source for Turkey. Turkish coal consumption has been stable over the past decade and currently accounts for about 24% of the country's total energy consumption. Lignite coal has had the biggest share in total fossil fuel production, at 43%, in Turkey. Turkish researchers may investigate ten broad pathways of coal species upgrading, such as desulfurization and oxydesulfurization, pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, liquefaction and hydroliquefaction, extraction and supercritical fluid extraction, gasification, oxidation, briquetting, flotation, and structure identification.

  1. Liquid fossil-fuel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Highlights of research activities at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for the quarter ending March 1982 are summarized. Major research areas are: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: EOR data base, major new industry tool; properties of crude oils available via telephone hookup; alternative fuels data bank stresses transportation.

  2. Contribution of Fossil Fuels and Wood Combustion to Carcinogenic PAHs in the Ambient Atmosphere of a Tropical Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyethi, D. S.; Khillare, P. S.; Sarkar, S.

    2015-12-01

    Weekly particulate matter sampling was carried out at a peri-urban site located in megacity Delhi, India for 1 year (2009-2010) and the annual mean PM10 level was found to be ˜9 times the World Health Organization limit. Seasonal variation of PAHs (range 37.2-74.0 ng m-3) was significant with winter values being 72% and 68% higher than summer and monsoon respectively. Principal component analysis coupled with multiple linear regression identified diesel, natural gas and lubricating oil combustion (49.5%), wood combustion (25.4%), gasoline (15.5%) and coal combustion (9.6%) sources for the observed PAHs. Heavy traffic on the national highway and arterial roads and domestic emissions from suburban households in the vicinity of the site appeared to have significantly affected its air quality. A substantial portion (˜55%) of the aerosol PAH load was comprised of carcinogenic species, which yielded a considerably high lifetime inhalation cancer risk estimate (8.7E-04). If considered as a conservative lower-bound estimate, this risk translates into ˜211 excess cancer cases for lifetime inhalation exposure to the observed PAH concentrations in Delhi.

  3. A Statistical Method for Estimating Missing GHG Emissions in Bottom-Up Inventories: The Case of Fossil Fuel Combustion in Industry in the Bogota Region, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Rojas, A. M.; Pulido-Guio, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The development of environmentally, socially and financially suitable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolios requires detailed disaggregation of emissions by activity sector, preferably at the regional level. Bottom-up (BU) emission inventories are intrinsically disaggregated, but although detailed, they are frequently incomplete. Missing and erroneous activity data are rather common in emission inventories of GHG, criteria and toxic pollutants, even in developed countries. The fraction of missing and erroneous data can be rather large in developing country inventories. In addition, the cost and time for obtaining or correcting this information can be prohibitive or can delay the inventory development. This is particularly true for regional BU inventories in the developing world. Moreover, a rather common practice is to disregard or to arbitrarily impute low default activity or emission values to missing data, which typically leads to significant underestimation of the total emissions. Our investigation focuses on GHG emissions by fossil fuel combustion in industry in the Bogota Region, composed by Bogota and its adjacent, semi-rural area of influence, the Province of Cundinamarca. We found that the BU inventories for this sub-category substantially underestimate emissions when compared to top-down (TD) estimations based on sub-sector specific national fuel consumption data and regional energy intensities. Although both BU inventories have a substantial number of missing and evidently erroneous entries, i.e. information on fuel consumption per combustion unit per company, the validated energy use and emission data display clear and smooth frequency distributions, which can be adequately fitted to bimodal log-normal distributions. This is not unexpected as industrial plant sizes are typically log-normally distributed. Moreover, our statistical tests suggest that industrial sub-sectors, as classified by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC

  4. Kinetic measurements on elementary fossil fuel combustion reactions over wide temperatures ranges. Progress report, December 1, 1990--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Fontijin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of this work are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. This approach allows observations on single reactions in the 300 to 1800 K temperature range to be made. Typical total (bath gas) pressures are in the 100 to 1000 mbar range. Ground-state O and H atoms are produced by flash or excimer laser photolysis of suitable precursors (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}). The relative atom concentrations are monitored by resonance fluorescence pumped by a cw microwave discharge flow lamp. The molecular reactant-in-excess is introduced through a cooled inlet. Adequate time for mixing, 0.1 to 10 s, between this inlet and the photolysis/observation zone is achieved by using slow flows (typically less than 20 cm s{sup {minus}1}). Results are reported for: O-Atom Reactions with the Four Isomeric Butenes, H + HCl {yields} H{sub 2} + Cl, and the O-atom 1,3-butadiene reaction.

  5. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Homogeneous chemistry of NO/sub x/ production and removal from fossil fuel combustion gases. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, J.A.; Gozewski, C.M.; Kolb, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    The reduction of NO/sub x/ emissions from stationary combustion sources by non-catalytic homogeneous chemical addition is a promising technique. Demonstrations in laboratory experiments and on a number of field scale combustors have shown that the addition of ammonia to the exhaust flow significantly reduces the NO concentrations in a narrow temperature range. This report summarizes the work performed to understand the detailed chemical mechanism which makes this reduction occur. A model describing the NH/sub i//NO/sub x/ chemical system is developed, and rates of the key reactions identified are measured in a high temperature fast flow reactor. Product channels for certain important reactions are also identified. The experimental results are incorporated into the computer code, and the model predictions are compared with laboratory and field test results. Possible additives other than ammonia are evaluated and discussed.

  7. Fuels research: Combustion effects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of broadened property fuels on gas turbine combustors were assessed. Those physical and chemical properties of fuels that affect aviation gas turbine combustion were isolated and identified. Combustion sensitivity to variations in particular fuel properties were determined. Advanced combustion concepts and subcomponents that could lessen the effect of using broadened property fuels were also identified.

  8. Fossil fuel conversion -- Measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

    1995-11-01

    The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifier and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifier (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas). Results are presented on the devolatilization of large coal particles; transport reactor modeling; fluidized bed model; nitrogen evolution from small and large coal particles; modeling of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia release during coal pyrolysis; oxidation rates for large coal particles at high pressures; advanced fixed-bed model development and evaluation; application of ACERC combustion and gasification codes to AFR diagnostic capabilities to systems of interest to METC; and submodel for lean premixed combustion of natural gas in industrial gas turbines.

  9. New Insights on the Use of Ethanol in Automotive Fuels: A Stable Isotopic Tracer for Fossil Fuel Combustion Inputs to the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, B. M.; Swart, P. K.; Riemer, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Ethanol’s use as an alternative fuel or fuel additive has been receiving increased attention due to its potential impact on air quality. Stable isotopic ratio measurements of 13C/12C in ethanol emitted directly from vehicle exhaust and a small group of tropical plants were used to establish ethanol’s δ13C source signatures. Ethanol emitted from vehicle exhaust is distinctly different than that emitted from tropical plants and as a result, serves as a unique stable isotopic tracer for transportation related inputs to the atmosphere. The exhaust ethanol is substantially enriched in 13C and reflects ethanol’s corn origins. Owing to a lack of isotopic data for ethanol we estimated a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for ethanol’s oxidative loss in the atmosphere and made assumptions with respect to the fractionation that may occur during episodes of dry and wet deposition. A small number of interpretive model calculations were used for source apportionment of ethanol and to understand the associated effects resulting from atmospheric removal. The models incorporated our source signatures and ambient measurements of ethanol, known or estimated source strengths and removal rates, and estimated KIEs associated with atmospheric removal processes for ethanol. We compared transportation related ethanol signatures to those from biogenic sources and used a set of ambient measurements to apportion each source contribution in Miami, Florida - a moderately polluted, but well ventilated urban location. Finally, we estimated the amount of ethanol potentially emitted to the atmosphere from vehicle exhaust using the U.S. Energy Information Agency’s 2009 value of ethanol fuel production and physical emission data for late model vehicles using various blends of ethanol fuel. Ethanol’s emission estimate, along with its isotopic characterization could perhaps bring closer agreement to present and future modeling and budget studies of ethanol and its atmospheric oxidation product

  10. New insights to the use of ethanol in automotive fuels: a stable isotopic tracer for fossil- and bio-fuel combustion inputs to the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Brian M; Swart, Peter K; Riemer, Daniel D

    2011-08-01

    Ethanol is currently receiving increased attention because of its use as a biofuel or fuel additive and because of its influence on air quality. We used stable isotopic ratio measurements of (13)C/(12)C in ethanol emitted from vehicles and a small group of tropical plants to establish ethanol's δ(13)C end-member signatures. Ethanol emitted in exhaust is distinctly different from that emitted by tropical plants and can serve as a unique stable isotopic tracer for transportation-related inputs to the atmosphere. Ethanol's unique isotopic signature in fuel is related to corn, a C4 plant and the primary source of ethanol in the U.S. We estimated a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for ethanol's oxidative loss in the atmosphere and used previous assumptions with respect to the fractionation that may occur during wet and dry deposition. A small number of interpretive model calculations were used for source apportionment of ethanol and to understand the associated effects resulting from atmospheric removal. The models incorporated our end-member signatures and ambient measurements of ethanol, known or estimated source strengths and removal magnitudes, and estimated KIEs associated with atmospheric removal processes for ethanol. We compared transportation-related ethanol signatures to those from biogenic sources and used a set of ambient measurements to apportion each source contribution in Miami, Florida-a moderately polluted, but well ventilated urban location. PMID:21692481

  11. Development incentives for fossil fuel subsidy reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Chen, Claudine; Fuss, Sabine; Marxen, Annika; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-08-01

    Reforming fossil fuel subsidies could free up enough funds to finance universal access to water, sanitation, and electricity in many countries, as well as helping to cut global greenhouse-gas emissions.

  12. Aircraft borne combined measurements of the Fukushima radionuclide Xe-133 and fossil fuel combustion generated pollutants in the TIL - Implications for Cyclone induced lift and TIL physical-chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Frank; Schlager, Hans; Simgen, Hardy; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Lindemann, Sigfried; Rauch, Ludwig; Kaether, Frank; Pirjolla, Liisa; Schumann, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The radionuclide Xe-133, released by the March 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima/Daiichi (hereafter FD), represents an ideal tracer for atmospheric transport. We report the, to our best knowledge, only aircraft borne measurements of FD Xe-133 in the Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL), indicating rapid lift of Xe-133 rich planetary boundary layer air to the TIL. On the same research aircraft (FALCON), we have also conducted on-line measurements of fossil fuel combustion generated pollutant gases (SO2, NOx, HNO3,NOy), which were found to have increased concentrations in the TIL. In addition, we have conducted supporting model simulations of transport, chemical processes, and aerosol processes. Our investigations reveal a potentially important influence of East-Asian cyclone induced pollutants transport to the TIL, particularly influencing aerosol formation in the TIL.

  13. The dilemma of fossil fuel use and global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Fulkerson, W. ); Sanghvi, M.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels and relationship to climate change is discussed. As the use of fossil fuels has grown, the problems of protecting the environment and human health and safety have also grown, providing a continuing challenge to technological and managerial innovation. Today that challenge is to control atmospheric emissions from combustion, particularly those emissions that cause acidic deposition, urban pollution, and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Technology for reducing acidic deposition is available and needs only to be adopted, and the remedies for urban pollution are being developed and tested. How effective or expensive these will be remains to be determined. The control of emissions of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, seems possible only be reducing the total amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide, and by substituting efficient natural gas technologies for coal. Long before physical depletion forces the transition away from fossil fuels, it is at least plausible and even likely that the greenhouse effect will impose a show-stopping constraint. If such a transition were soon to be necessary, the costs would be very high because substitute energy sources are either limited or expensive or undesirable for other reasons. Furthermore, the costs would be unevenly felt and would be more oppressive for developing nations because they would be least able to pay and, on average, their use rates of fossil fuels are growing much faster than those of many industrialized countries. It is prudent, therefore, to try to manage the use of fossil fuels as if a greenhouse constraint is an important possibility.

  14. Research Spotlight: What are the effects of controlling fossil fuel soot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Leslie; Tretkoff, Ernie

    Fossil fuel soot, emitted during combustion of diesel fuel, jet fuel, and coal, and biofuel soot, emitted mainly through burning of wood and organic waste for heating and cooking, can affect climate and air quality. How much does each of these contribute to global warming? What would be the effects of limiting fossil fuel and biofuel soot emissions? To find out, Jacobson used climate model simulations to investigate and compare the short-term effects of controlling fossil fuel and biofuel soot, as well as methane and carbon dioxide.

  15. A shift in emission time profiles of fossil fuel combustion due to energy transitions impacts source receptor matrices for air quality.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Scholz, Yvonne; Schaap, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on chemistry transport modeling are used to this end. Currently, these SRRs are made using invariant emission time profiles. The LOTOS-EUROS model equipped with a source attribution module was used to test this assumption for renewable energy scenarios. Renewable energy availability and thereby fossil fuel back up are strongly dependent on meteorological conditions. We have used the spatially and temporally explicit energy model REMix to derive time profiles for backup power generation. These time profiles were used in LOTOS-EUROS to investigate the effect of emission timing on air pollutant concentrations and SRRs. It is found that the effectiveness of emission reduction in the power sector is significantly lower when accounting for the shift in the way emissions are divided over the year and the correlation of emissions with synoptic situations. The source receptor relationships also changed significantly. This effect was found for both primary and secondary pollutants. Our results indicate that emission timing deserves explicit attention when assessing the impacts of system changes on air quality and climate forcing from short lived substances. PMID:25594282

  16. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments. PMID:27359161

  17. Application of biochemical interactions in fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1994-12-31

    Certain extreme environments tolerant microorganisms interact with heavy crude oils by means of multiple biochemical reactions, asphaltenes, and bituminous materials. These reactions proceed via pathways which involve characteristic components of oils and coals such as asphaltenes, and in the chemically related constituents found in bituminous coals. These chemical components serve as markers of the interactions between microorganisms and fossil fuels. Studies in which temperature, pressure, and salinity tolerant microorganisms have been allowed to interact with different crude oils and bituminous coals, have shown that biochemically induced changes occur in the distribution of hydrocarbons and in the chemical nature of organometallic and heterocyclic compounds. Such structural chemical rearrangements have direct applications in monitoring the efficiency, the extent, and the chemical nature of the fossil fuels bioconversion. Recent developments of chemical marker applications in the monitoring of fossil fuels bioconversion will be discussed.

  18. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales. PMID:26390037

  19. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales. PMID:26390037

  20. Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Gorlov

    2007-10-15

    The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

  1. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  2. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  3. The future of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Klaus

    2007-03-01

    With today's energy technology, the world faces a stark choice between economic growth and a healthy environment. The accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere must stop, while energy services to a growing world population striving for a high standard of living must improve. New technologies must eliminate CO2 emissions. Only carbon capture and storage can maintain access to fossil carbon reserves that by themselves could satisfy energy demand for centuries. Technologies for CO2 capture at power plants and other large sources already exist. A new generation of efficient, clean power plants could capture its CO2 and deliver it for underground injection or mineral sequestration. However, the remaining CO2 emissions from distributed sources are too large to be ignored. Either hydrogen or electricity need to substitute for carbonaceous energy carriers, or CO2 emissions must be balanced out by capturing an equivalent amount of carbon from the environment. Biomass growth offers one such option; direct capture of CO2 from the air provides another. Carbon capture and storage technologies can close the anthropogenic carbon cycle and, thus, provide one possible avenue to a world that is not limited by energy constraints.

  4. Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Orly; Dinamarca, Jorge; Hochman, Gal; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-03-01

    Long-term global climate change, caused by burning petroleum and other fossil fuels, has motivated an urgent need to develop renewable, carbon-neutral, economically viable alternatives to displace petroleum using existing infrastructure. Algal feedstocks are promising candidate replacements as a 'drop-in' fuel. Here, we focus on a specific algal taxon, diatoms, to become the fossil fuel of the future. We summarize past attempts to obtain suitable diatom strains, propose future directions for their genetic manipulation, and offer biotechnological pathways to improve yield. We calculate that the yields obtained by using diatoms as a production platform are theoretically sufficient to satisfy the total oil consumption of the US, using between 3 and 5% of its land area. PMID:24529448

  5. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  6. Fuel quality combustion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, D. W.; Moses, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    A high pressure research combustor operating over a wide range of burner inlet conditions was used to determine the effects of fuel molecular structure on soot formation. Six test fuels with equal hydrogen content (12.8%) were blended to stress different molecular components and final boiling points. The fuels containing high concentrations (20%) of polycyclic aromatics and partially saturated polycyclic structures such as tetralin, produced more soot than would be expected from a hydrogen content correlation for typical petroleum based fuels. Fuels containing naphthenes such as decalin agreed with the hydrogen content correlation. The contribution of polycyclic aromatics to soot formation was equivalent to a reduction in fuel hydrogen content of about one percent. The fuel sensitivity to soot formation due to the polycyclic aromatic contribution decreased as burner inlet pressure and fuel/air ratio increased.

  7. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-06-01

    The Earth warms both when fossil fuel carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide and when greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide inhibits longwave radiation from escaping to space. Various important time scales and ratios comparing these two climate forcings have not previously been quantified. For example, the global and time-integrated radiative forcing from burning a fossil fuel exceeds the heat released upon combustion within 2 months. Over the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere, the cumulative CO2-radiative forcing exceeds the amount of energy released upon combustion by a factor >100,000. For a new power plant, the radiative forcing from the accumulation of released CO2 exceeds the direct thermal emissions in less than half a year. Furthermore, we show that the energy released from the combustion of fossil fuels is now about 1.71% of the radiative forcing from CO2 that has accumulated in the atmosphere as a consequence of historical fossil fuel combustion.

  8. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman

    2008-05-15

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  9. Combustion device for liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Y.; Ohmukai, Y.; Tomisawa, T.

    1980-10-21

    A device is described which includes a porous burner head capable of containing a liquid fuel in a liquid state and in which air is supplied to the surface of the burner head to vaporize and burn the fuel contained therein. The burner head is made of a heat resistant porous material having extending therethrough minute channels which are predominantly up to 100 mu M in diameter and give the burner head a porosity of at least 25%. The burner head is capable of raising the liquid fuel at a rate of at least 0.001 g/cm/sub 2/ min to a height of up to 70 mm. The use of the burner head assures clean combustion and high combustion efficiency.

  10. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-01-01

    During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios—low, medium and high—are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15–30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10–15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030. PMID:19770156

  11. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts. PMID:16678400

  12. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  13. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  14. The Fossil Fuel Combustion Waste Leaching Code -- including the GMIN chemical equilibrium model and the HELP water balance model. Volume 2, Technical manual for the FOWL-GH{trademark} code

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.

    1993-12-01

    This document is a technical reference manual for FOWL-GH{trademark}, the FOssil Fuel Combustion Waste Leaching Code. FOWL-GH{trademark} predicts the chemical composition of fifteen chemical constituents (Ba, Ca, Cd, CO{sub 3} Cr, Cu, Mo, SO{sub 4}, Sr, As, B, Ni, Se, Zn, and total dissolved solids), plus the pH (H{sup +}), as a function of time at electric utility by-product disposal sites. Boron and Zn are considered only in the ponded site option. These sites may contain fly ash, bottom ash, or flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludges. FOWL-GH{trademark} considers both landfill and slurry pond disposal sites. FOWL-GH{trademark} is a completely restructured and recoded version of the original FOWL{trademark} model. The major improvements in FOWL-GH{trademark} are the inclusion of a chemical equilibrium model (GMIN) to perform the geochemical calculations, a recoded version of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model for water-balance calculations at landfill sites, the capability to model slurry pond sites, an enhanced user-oriented interface, improved mechanistic (thermodynamic) and empirical data for several elements, and the capability to model concentrations of highly soluble salts. This manual describes the scientific basis for the calculations in FOWL-GH{trademark}. An overview of the structure of the model is also provided. The reliability of the geochemical-module calculations is demonstrated by an extensive comparison of model calculations with experimental data from laboratory batch experiments and data collected at field disposal sites. The results show good agreement with the experimental and field data for most of the chemical constituents included in the model.

  15. The Fossil Fuel Combustion Waste Leaching Code -- including the GMIN chemical equilibrium model and the HELP water balance model. Volume 1: User`s guide for the FOWL-GH{trademark} code

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, D.

    1993-12-01

    This document is a user`s manual for FOWL-GH{trademark}, the FOssil Fuel Combustion Waste Leaching Code. The necessary input data, model output, installation procedures, and example test cases for FOWL-GH{trademark} are described in this manual. FOWL-GH{trademark} predicts the chemical composition of fifteen chemical constituents (Ba, Ca, Cd, CO{sub 3}, Cr, CU, Mo, SO{sub 4}, Sr, Zn, As, B, Ni, Se, and the total dissolved solids), plus the pH (H{sup +}), as a function of time at electric utility by-product disposal sites. These sites may contain fly ash, bottom ash, or flue gas desulfurization sludges. FOWL-GH{trademark} considers both landfill and slurry-pond disposal sites. FOWL-GH{trademark} is a completely restructured and recoded version of the original FOWL{trademark} model. The major improvements in FOWL-GH{trademark} are the inclusion of a chemical equilibrium model (GMIN) to perform the geochemical calculations, a recoded version of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model for water-balance calculations at landfill sites, the capability to model slurry-pond sites, an enhanced user-oriented interface, improved mechanistic (thermodynamic) and empirical data for several elements, and the capability to model concentrations of highly soluble salts. The actual implementation of these features is described in the accompanying technical manual (Felmy et al. 1993). FOWL-GH{trademark} distributed in executable form for IBM-compatible personal computers by the Electric Power Software Center through an Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (EPRI) license.

  16. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Joel Meier; Mosbacher, David Matthew; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  17. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  18. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  19. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  20. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the {open_quotes}Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.{close_quotes} Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100, 000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}low emission sources{close_quotes} and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  1. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    Almost half of the energy used for beating in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 boilerhouses with a total capacity of 1,071 MW, and about 100,000 home furnaces with a total capacity of about 300 MW. More than 600 boilerhouses and 60 percent of the home furnaces are situated near the city center. These facilities are referred to as ``low emission sources`` because they have low stacks. They are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbons in the city, and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in Krakow as the ``Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.`` Funding is provided through the US Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe.

  2. Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B.; Krishna, C.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. The project is being conducted in three phases. In Phase I, testing and analytical activities will establish the current level of emissions from existing equipment and operating practices, and will provide estimates of the costs and emission reductions of various options. Phase II consists of a series of public meetings in both Poland and the United States to present the results of Phase I activities. In Phase III, DOE will issue a solicitation for Polish/US joint ventures to perform commercial feasibility studies for the use of US technology in one or more of the areas under consideration. This report provides interim results from Phase 1.

  3. Divesting from Fossil Fuels Makes Sense Morally… and Financially

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Reibstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Should university endowments divest from fossil fuels? A public discussion of this question has seen some university presidents issuing statements that they would not divest--that investments should not be used for "political action." Many universities hold large endowments that have significant positions in fossil fuel companies or…

  4. Catching the fossil fuel biodesulfurization wave

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, I.M. )

    1993-10-01

    Both coal and oil contain sulfur atoms covalently bound to the carbon skeleton of the fuel. This organic sulfur is located in more complex and more polycyclo-aromatic structures in coals than in petroleum and is modeled (albeit not perfectly) by the simple aromatic compound dibenzothiophene (DBT). Coals, but not petroleum, also contain inorganic forms of sulfur. These are various iron sulfides, most notably iron pyrites. Unlike organic sulfur, inorganic sulfur is not chemically bound to the carbon matrix of coal and can be removed, at least partially, by physical means that depend on differences in density and hydrophobicity between coal and pyrites. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, DOE/PETC was active in promoting advanced physical methods of coal cleaning and had invested considerable money, effort, and prestige in their development. To address that other coal-sulfur problem--the organic sulfur component--DOE/PETC funded a range of chemistry-based options through the early 1990s. By the early 1980s, and in the wake of the coming of age of genetic engineering, microbially based processes were beginning to make an appearance on the industrial scene. Coal cleaning was no exception. The author discusses his perceptions of the DOE's foray into fossil fuel biodesulfurization.

  5. Quel avenir pour les combustibles fossiles ? Les avancées scientifiques et technologiques permettront-elles la poursuite d'un développement soutenable avec les énergies carbonées ?What a future for fossil fuels? Will scientific and technological progresses warrant growth of use in carbon-based fuels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, Bernard

    2001-12-01

    The world demand for primary energy keeps increasing and has little chance to decrease over the next decades, when considering the desirable and necessary development of the less wealthy countries. The two weightiest questions are to provide electricity to megalopolis, and fuels for transportation. In the present situation, fossil fuels (crude oil, natural gas and coal) provide 90 % of primary energy. Furthermore, hydrocarbons (crude oil and gas) are considered as closing energies to balance the level of demand. However, the link between fossil fuel consumption for one and a half century and climate change is now considered as highly probable. Crude oil and natural gas reserves are substantial, but limited. One half of the proven reserves of crude oil, and one third of gas reserves will be already used in year 2020. Gas reserves will be sufficient to reach 2050, but proven reserves of crude oil will not last until that year. Coal only, which is the largest source of CO 2 and pollutants, provides enough reserves for several centuries. A considerable effort of scientific and technological research is the only way to reach the end of the century using oil and gas, plus a drastic effort for saving energy. This effort in research is discussed in the paper, but it does not provide until now an answer to the climate problem.

  6. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  7. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, William J.; McNenly, Matt J.; Whitesides, Russell; Mehl, Marco; Killingsworth, Nick J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  8. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  9. Molecular and isotopic evidence for fossil fuel aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtfouse, E.; Budzinski, F.H.; Garrigues, P.

    1996-10-01

    The origin of organic molecules occurring in complex media such as soils and sediments is still an enigma. In soils, for example, the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a major concern because these potentially toxic compounds may ultimately be transferred into food and drinking water. At present, two main hypotheses can be made for the origin of PAH in soils. PAH, or their precursors, can be synthesized by modem plants, within soil biomass and humic substance degradation. Alternatively, PAH may derive from fossil fuels and associated combustion products. In the present study, soils have been cultivated for 23 years with maize in order to label the organic matter with naturally {sup 13}C-enriched maize-derived carbon. {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C and molecular analysis of aromatic fractions from those soils show that the main part of PAH are ancient, most probably derived from fossil fuel and their combustion products.

  10. Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron-Smith, P; Kosovic, B; Guilderson, T; Monache, L D; Bergmann, D

    2009-08-06

    We have an established project at LLNL to develop the tools needed to constrain fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions using measurements of the carbon-14 isotope in atmospheric samples. In Figure 1 we show the fossil fuel plumes from Los Angeles and San Francisco for two different weather patterns. Obviously, a measurement made at any given location is going to depend on the weather leading up to the measurement. Thus, in order to determine the GHG emissions from some region using in situ measurements of those GHGs, we use state-of-the-art global and regional atmospheric chemistry-transport codes to simulate the plumes: the LLNL-IMPACT model (Rotman et al., 2004) and the WRFCHEM community code (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php). Both codes can use observed (aka assimilated) meteorology in order to recreate the actual transport that occurred. The measured concentration of each tracer at a particular spatio-temporal location is a linear combination of the plumes from each region at that location (for non-reactive species). The challenge is to calculate the emission strengths for each region that fit the observed concentrations. In general this is difficult because there are errors in the measurements and modeling of the plumes. We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figure 2. The Bayesian Inference step combines the a priori estimates of the emissions, and their uncertainty, for each region with the results of the observations, and their uncertainty, and an ensemble of model predicted plumes for each region, and their uncertainty. The result is the mathematical best estimate of the emissions and their errors. In the case of non-linearities, or if we are using a statistical sampling technique such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, then the process is iterated until it converges (ie reaches stationarity). For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast but requires assumptions of linearity and

  11. Oscillating combustion from a premix fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    Stringent emissions requirements for stationary gas turbines have produced new challenges in combustor design. In the past, very low NOx pollutant emissions have been achieved through various combustion modifications, such as steam or water injection, or post-combustion cleanup methods such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). An emerging approach to NOx abatement is lean premix combustion. Lean premix combustion avoids the cost and operational problems associated with other NOx control methods. By premixing fuel and air at very low equivalence ratios, the high temperatures which produce NOx are avoided. The challenges of premix combustion include avoiding flashback, and ensuring adequate fuel/air premixing. In addition, the combustion must be stable. The combustor should not operate so close to extinction that a momentary upset will extinguish the flame (static stability), and the flame should not oscillate (dynamic stability). Oscillations are undesirable because the associated pressure fluctuations can shorten component lifetime. Unfortunately, experience has shown that premix fuel nozzles burning natural gas are susceptible to oscillations. Eliminating these oscillations can be a costly and time consuming part of new engine development. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is investigating the issue of combustion oscillations produced by lean premix fuel nozzles. METC is evaluating various techniques to stabilize oscillating combustion in gas turbines. Tests results from a premix fuel nozzle using swirl stabilization and a pilot flame are reported here.

  12. Combustion behavior of solid fuel ramjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, D. W.; Binn, B. A.; Scott, W. E.; Metochianakis, M.

    1980-01-01

    Nonreacting flowfield characteristics and fundamental fuel properties are considered with respect to their use in estimating the obtainable combustion efficiency for fuels and/or combustor geometries. It is shown that near wall turbulence intensity in nonreacting flow appears to correlate reasonably well with the fuel regression pattern in identical geometries. The HTPB based fuels exhibit solid phase exothermic reactions in contrast to purely endothermic reactions for plexiglas. It is further shown that combustion pressure oscillations appear to be related to physically induced disturbances to the fluctuating shear layers at the fuel grain and aft mixing chamber inlets.

  13. Geological setting of U.S. fossil fuels.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, C.D.; Mast, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The USA has a special position in terms of fossil fuel development. Not only is it one of the most important nations in terms of resources of oil, gas and coal, but it has also been by far the dominant producer and consumer. In this thorough review of the regional geological environments in which fossil fuels formed in the USA, the authors point to a variety of models of resource occurrence of global interest.-Authors

  14. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  15. Fireside corrosion in oxy-fuel combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, Gerald H.; Jung, Kee Young; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M.; Pettit, Frederick S.

    2011-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. Furthermore, the observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.

  16. Fireside corrosion in oxy-fuel combustion of coal

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, Gerald H.; Jung, Kee Young; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M.; Pettit, Frederick S.

    2011-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Crmore » alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. Furthermore, the observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.« less

  17. Evaluation of innovative fossil fuel power plants with CO{sub 2} removal

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-15

    This interim report presents initial results of an ongoing study of the potential cost of electricity produced in both conventional and innovative fossil fueled power plants that incorporate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) removal for subsequent sequestration or use. The baseline cases are natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plants, with and without post combustion CO{sub 2} removal, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, with and without pre-combustion CO{sub 2} removal.

  18. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, T.S.

    1995-06-01

    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.

  19. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  20. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  1. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  2. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2016-06-28

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  3. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Oda, H.; Tokushima, T.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a combustion chamber, the system comprising (a) an intake passage for introducing an intake gas into the combustion chamber and provided with an intake valve; (b) a fuel injection valve for injecting fuel into the intake passage in the vicinity of the combustion chamber; (c) operating condition detecting means for detecting the operating condition of the engine and outputting a signal corresponding to the thus detected operating condition; (d) fuel injection amount determining means which receives an output signal of the operating conditions detecting means, thereby determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber, and outputs a signal corresponding to thus determined amount; (e) crankshaft angle detecting means for detecting the rotation angle of the crankshaft; (f) injection timing control means which receives signals from the fuel injection amount determining means and crankshaft angle detecting means, outputs a start signal for actuating the fuel injection valve and a termination signal for terminating the actuation of the fuel injection valve, and actuates the fuel injection valve for the duration between the start and termination signals, thereby supplying an amount of fuel determined by the fuel injection amount determining means; (g) the start and termination signals being set against the crankshaft angle so that the whole fuel injection from the injection valve to the intake passage under light load operation of the engine reaches the combustion chamber substantially in the latter half of the intake stroke before the intake valve is closed.

  4. Can UK fossil fuel emissions be determined by radiocarbon measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Angelina; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Manning, Alistair; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The GAUGE project evaluates different methods to estimate UK emissions. However, estimating carbon dioxide emissions as a result of fossil fuel burning is challenging as natural fluxes in and out of the atmosphere are very large. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements offer a way to specifically measure the amount of recently added carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. This is possible as, due to their age, all the radiocarbon in fossil fuels has decayed. Hence the amount of recently added CO2 from fossil fuel burning can be measured as a depletion of the 14C content in air. While this method has been successfully applied by several groups on a city or a regional scale, this is the first attempt at using the technique for a national emission estimate. Geographically the UK, being an island, is a good location for such an experiment. But are 14CO2 measurements the ideal solution for estimating fossil fuel emissions as they are heralded to be? Previous studies have shown that 14CO2emissions from the nuclear industry mask the 14C depletion caused by fossil fuel burning and result in an underestimation of the fossil fuel CO2. While this might not be a problem in certain regions around the world, many countries like the UK have a substantial nuclear industry. A correction for this enhancement from the nuclear industry can be applied but are invariably difficult as 14CO2emissions from nuclear power plants have a high temporal variability. We will explain how our sampling strategy was chosen to minimize the influence form the nuclear industry and why this proved to be challenging. In addition we present the results from our ground based measurements to show why trying to estimate national emissions using radiocarbon measurements was overambitious, and how practical the technique is for the UK in general.

  5. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  6. Pollutant Formation in Monodisperse Fuel Spray Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cernansky, N. P.; Sarv, H.

    1983-01-01

    The combustion of liquid sprays represents an extremely important class of combustion processes. In the transition region, encompassing droplet sizes in the range of 25-80 micron diameter, the mixing and evaporation processes are both incomplete at the flame front and burning occurs in a combined diffusive and premixed fashion. Under these conditions, the relative importance of heterogeneous and homogeneous effects in dominating the combustion process is switched and gives rise to a number of interesting phenomena. NO (sub x) formation in monodisperse spray combustion was investigated with the following specific objectives: (1) to quantitatively determine the effect of droplet size, number density, etc. on NO sub x formation in monodisperse fuel spray combustion; and (2) to isolate the important physical and chemical phenomena in NO sub x formation in these combustion systems.

  7. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

  8. Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.; Krajewski, R.; LaMontagne, J.; Kirchstetter, T.

    1992-05-01

    In Karkow, Poland almost half of the energy used for heating is supplied by local, solid-fuel-fired boilerhouses and home stoves. These facilities are referred to as the ``low emission sources`` and are primary contributors of particulates and hydrocarbon air pollution in the city and secondary contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support of Eastern European Democracy Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. The Project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and uito the rest of Eastern Europe. The project plan includes three phases which have been developed around five specific subprojects. In Phase 1, technical and economic assessments will be made of pollution reduction options for the five subprojects. Phase 2 plans call for public meetings in the US and Poland for companies interested in forming joint ventures. Information will be available in these meetings to enable companies to identify markets and select potential partners that meet with their capabilities and interests. In Phase 3, DOE will issue a solicitation for Polish/American joint ventures to perform commercial feasibility studies for the supply of US technology applicable to one or more of the five subprojects. The selected joint venture companies would receive assistance in the form of cooperative agreements requiring at least 50% cost-sharing to perform those activities necessary to permit them to conduct business in Poland.

  9. Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.; Krajewski, R.; LaMontagne, J.; Kirchstetter, T.

    1992-05-01

    In Karkow, Poland almost half of the energy used for heating is supplied by local, solid-fuel-fired boilerhouses and home stoves. These facilities are referred to as the low emission sources'' and are primary contributors of particulates and hydrocarbon air pollution in the city and secondary contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support of Eastern European Democracy Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. The Project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and uito the rest of Eastern Europe. The project plan includes three phases which have been developed around five specific subprojects. In Phase 1, technical and economic assessments will be made of pollution reduction options for the five subprojects. Phase 2 plans call for public meetings in the US and Poland for companies interested in forming joint ventures. Information will be available in these meetings to enable companies to identify markets and select potential partners that meet with their capabilities and interests. In Phase 3, DOE will issue a solicitation for Polish/American joint ventures to perform commercial feasibility studies for the supply of US technology applicable to one or more of the five subprojects. The selected joint venture companies would receive assistance in the form of cooperative agreements requiring at least 50% cost-sharing to perform those activities necessary to permit them to conduct business in Poland.

  10. Combustion characteristics of gas turbine alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance values for specific heavyend, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. A flame tube combustor modified to duplicate an advanced gas turbine engine combustor was used for the tests. Each fuel was tested at steady-state operating conditions over a range of mass flow rates, fuel-to-air mass ratio, and inlet air temperatures. The combustion pressure, as well as the hardware, were kept nearly constant over the program test phase. Test results were obtained in regards to geometric temperature pattern factors as a function of combustor wall temperatures, the combustion gas temperature, and the combustion emissions, both as affected by the mass flow rate and fuel-to-air ratio. The synthetic fuels were reacted in the combustor such that for most tests their performance was as good, if not better, than the baseline gasoline or diesel fuel tests. The only detrimental effects were that at high inlet air temperature conditions, fuel decomposition occurred in the fuel atomizing nozzle passages resulting in blockage. And the nitrogen oxide emissions were above EPA limits at low flow rate and high operating temperature conditions.

  11. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  12. Combustion chemistry and an evolving transportation fuel environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.

    2010-05-01

    The world currently faces tremendous energy challenges stemming from the need to curb potentially catastrophic anthropogenic climate change. In addition, many nations, including the United States, recognize increasing political and economic risks associated with dependence on uncertain and limited energy sources. For these and other reasons the chemical composition of transportation fuels is changing, both through introduction of nontraditional fossil sources, such as oil sands-derived fuels in the US stream, and through broader exploration of biofuels. At the same time the need for clean and efficient combustion is leading engine research towards advanced low-temperature combustion strategies that are increasingly sensitive to this changing fuel chemistry, particularly in the areas of pollutant formation and autoignition. I will highlight the new demands that advanced engine technologies and evolving fuel composition place on investigations of fundamental reaction chemistry. I will focus on recent progress in measuring product formation in elementary reactions by tunable synchrotron photoionization, on the elucidation of pressure-dependent effects in the reactions of alkyl and substituted alkyl radicals with O{sub 2}, and on new combined efforts in fundamental combustion chemistry and engine performance studies of novel potential biofuels.

  13. Seasonal Variations in Fossil Fuel Emissions in the Los Angeles Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S.; Xu, X.; Kort, E. A.; Miller, C. E.; Sander, S.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.; Yung, Y. L.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the effects of global warming resulting from increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere requires understanding the sources and trends of emissions in urban regions, which contribute disproportionately relative to their spatial extent. We report the carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in air collected during mid-afternoon in two locations within the Los Angeles basin of California, Pasadena and Palos Verdes peninsula, for the past 3 (Palos Verdes) - 6.5 (Pasadena) years. Radiocarbon (Δ14C) is the gold standard for distinguishing between CO2 produced by terrestrial biosphere processes and fossil fuel combustion, since the latter contains virtually no 14C, whereas photosynthesis and respiration reflect the modern atmosphere. The stable isotopic composition of carbon in CO2 (δ13C) can be useful in distinguishing petroleum (higher δ13C) from natural gas (lower δ13C) combustion. We observe a significant inverse correlation between the fraction of CO2 from fossil sources at the receptor site of Pasadena, as determined by Δ14C, and the δ13C of the pollutant end member, determined from the Keeling plot intercept. This indicates that the fraction of CO2 emitted by natural gas combustion increases as the fraction of CO2 contributed locally by all fossil fuel burning increases. The proportion of CO2 emitted by fossil fuel combustion was never less than 80% during the study period, and it was occasionally above 100% when the biosphere was a local sink for CO2 during the second quarter of the year. In Palos Verdes, the proportion of fossil fuel combustion in the local emissions was much more varied, ranging from 25 to >100%. The local emissions are inversely correlated at the two sites, reflecting the importance of transport in controlling the signals detected. During the summer, air travels from the ocean over the Los Angles basin to Pasadena, whereas during the winter, wind directions are much more varied, with frequent events from the northeast bringing air of

  14. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century

    PubMed Central

    Graven, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon (14C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio 14C/C in atmospheric CO2 (Δ14CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases Δ14CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all 14C from radioactive decay. Simulations of Δ14CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain Δ14CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0‰ through 2100, whereas “business-as-usual” emissions will reduce Δ14CO2 to −250‰, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial “aging” of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old. PMID:26195757

  15. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century.

    PubMed

    Graven, Heather D

    2015-08-01

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon ((14)C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio (14)C/C in atmospheric CO2 (Δ(14)CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases Δ(14)CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all (14)C from radioactive decay. Simulations of Δ(14)CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain Δ(14)CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0‰ through 2100, whereas "business-as-usual" emissions will reduce Δ(14)CO2 to -250‰, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial "aging" of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old. PMID:26195757

  16. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Merritt, Sylvia A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot. Increasing

  17. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (3RD). VOLUME IV. FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Fundamental combustion research--(NOx abatement in fossil fuel combustion--chemical kinetic considerations, Heterogeneous processes involved in the control of nitrogen oxide formation in fossil fuel flames, Transport processes and numerical model development--FCR progr...

  18. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  19. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2006-03-15

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Applications to Unconventional Fossil Fuel Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinberg, R. L.; Leu, G.

    2008-12-01

    Technical and economic projections strongly suggest that fossil fuels will continue to play a dominant role in the global energy market through at least the mid twenty-first century. However, low-cost conventional oil and gas will be depleted in that time frame. Therefore new sources of energy will be needed. We discuss two relatively untapped unconventional fossil fuels: heavy oil and gas hydrate. In both cases, nuclear magnetic resonance plays a key role in appraising the resource and providing information needed for designing production processes.

  1. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  2. Comparison of the toxicity of diesel exhaust produced by bio- and fossil diesel combustion in human lung cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Popovicheva, Olga; Kireeva, Elena; Müller, Loretta; Heeb, Norbert; Mayer, Andreas; Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Alternative fuels are increasingly combusted in diesel- and gasoline engines and the contribution of such exhausts to the overall air pollution is on the rise. Recent findings on the possible adverse effects of biodiesel exhaust are contradictive, at least partly resulting from the various fuel qualities, engine types and different operation conditions that were tested. However, most of the studies are biased by undesired interactions between the exhaust samples and biological culture media. We here report how complete, freshly produced exhausts from fossil diesel (B0), from a blend of 20% rapeseed-methyl ester (RME) and 80% fossil diesel (B20) and from pure rapeseed methyl ester (B100) affect a complex 3D cellular model of the human airway epithelium in vitro by exposing the cells at the air-liquid interface. The induction of pro-apoptotic and necrotic cell death, cellular morphology, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory responses were assessed. Compared to B0 exhaust, B20 exhaust decreased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses, whereas B100 exhaust, depending on exposure duration, decreased oxidative stress but increased pro-inflammatory responses. The effects are only very weak and given the compared to fossil diesel higher ecological sustainability of biodiesel, it appears that - at least RME - can be considered a valuable alternative to pure fossil diesel.

  3. Hybrid combustion with metallized fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Jianwen; Wygle, Brian S.; Bates, Ronald W.; Jones, Michael D.; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method of adding certain catalysts to improve the degradation process of a solid fuel is discussed. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis used to study the fundamental degradation behavior of a typical hybrid fuel (HTPB) shows that high surface temperatures increase the degradation rate. Fuels were tested in a laboratory-scale experimental hybrid rocket and their behavior was compared to a baseline behavior of HTPB fuel regression rates. It was found that a small amount of metal powder added to the fuel can significantly increase the regression rates.

  4. Combustion engine for solid and liquid fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, W.

    1986-01-01

    A combustion engine having no piston, a single cylinder, and a dual-action, that is applicable for solid and liquid fuels and propellants, and that functions according to the principle of annealing point ignition is presented. The invention uses environmentally benign amounts of fuel and propellants to produce gas and steam pressure, and to use a simple assembly with the lowest possible consumption and constant readiness for mixing and burning. The advantage over conventional combustion engines lies in lower consumption of high quality igniting fluid in the most cost effective manner.

  5. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Chew, Kenneth J

    2014-01-13

    Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere. PMID:24298078

  6. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  7. Fire vs. fossil fuel: all CO2 emissions are not created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, J.-S.; Matthews, H. D.

    2015-09-01

    Fire is arguably the most influential natural disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. Nevertheless, fire has not been the subject of dedicated studies in coupled climate-carbon models with interactive vegetation until very recently. Hence, previous studies resorted to results from simulations of fossil fuel emissions to estimate the effects of fire-induced CO2 emissions. While atmospheric CO2 molecules are all alike, fundamental differences in their origin suggest that the effects from fire emissions on the global carbon cycle and temperature are irreconcilable with the effects from fossil fuel emissions. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and non-deforestation fires (i.e., following which the natural vegetation can recover) using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons involve gross fire emissions. Our results also support the notion that most net emissions occur relatively soon after fire regime shifts and then progressively approach zero, whereas gross emissions stabilize around a new value that is a poor indicator of the cumulative net emissions caused by the fire regime shift. Overall, our study

  8. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    DOEpatents

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  9. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    SciTech Connect

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  10. Rationale of Early Adopters of Fossil Fuel Divestment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Christopher Todd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research uses the social science perspectives of institutions, ecological modernization and social movements to analyze the rationale used by the early-adopting universities of fossil fuel divestment in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Through analysis of qualitative data from interviews with key actors at the universities that…

  11. HEAT PUMPS: SUBSTITUTES FOR OUTMODED FOSSIL-FUELED SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the state-of-the-art relative to development, capacity, and adequacy of the heat pump as a potential replacement for outmoded fossil-fueled heating and cooling systems in the residential and commercial sector. Projections are made of the rate at which heat pump...

  12. Quantifying fossil fuel CO2 from continuous measurements of APO: a novel approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickers, Penelope; Manning, Andrew C.; Forster, Grant L.; van der Laan, Sander; Wilson, Phil A.; Wenger, Angelina; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2016-04-01

    Using atmospheric measurements to accurately quantify CO2 emissions from fossil fuel sources requires the separation of biospheric and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. The ability to quantify the fossil fuel component of CO2 (ffCO2) from atmospheric measurements enables more accurate 'top-down' verification of CO2 emissions inventories, which frequently have large uncertainty. Typically, ffCO2 is quantified (in ppm units) from discrete atmospheric measurements of Δ14CO2, combined with higher resolution atmospheric CO measurements, and with knowledge of CO:ffCO2 ratios. In the United Kingdom (UK), however, measurements of Δ14CO2 are often significantly biased by nuclear power plant influences, which limit the use of this approach. We present a novel approach for quantifying ffCO2 using measurements of APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen; a tracer derived from concurrent measurements of CO2 and O2) from two measurement sites in Norfolk, UK. Our approach is similar to that used for quantifying ffCO2 from CO measurements (ffCO2(CO)), whereby ffCO2(APO) = (APOmeas - APObg)/RAPO, where (APOmeas - APObg) is the APO deviation from the background, and RAPO is the APO:CO2 combustion ratio for fossil fuel. Time varying values of RAPO are calculated from the global gridded COFFEE (CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate) dataset, combined with NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) transport model footprints. We compare our ffCO2(APO) results to results obtained using the ffCO2(CO) method, using CO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios (RCO) from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) database. We find that the APO ffCO2 quantification method is more precise than the CO method, owing primarily to a smaller range of possible APO:CO2 fossil fuel emission ratios, compared to the CO:CO2 emission ratio range. Using a long-term dataset of atmospheric O2, CO2, CO and Δ14CO2 from Lutjewad, The Netherlands, we examine the

  13. Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.

    PubMed

    Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. PMID:23246069

  14. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    DOEpatents

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  15. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines....

  5. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines....

  6. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  7. Clean fuel test burn in TVA combustion turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerman, R.; Houlihan, T.; Hall, R.; Stephens, E.

    1998-07-01

    In the fall of 1997, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cooperation with A-55 Clean Fuels of Reno, NV (A-55) conducted a series of tests on the Unit 1 combustion turbine at the TVA Colbert Fossil Plant near Huntsville, AL. TVA was interested in assessing the use of oil/water emulsified fuels because they offered the potential of significant reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions without a significant impact on unit performance. Notably, the recorded data shows that there was a significant reduction in NOx emissions--upwards of 50%--in both transient and steady-state operations. Moreover, base load gross output increased 1.2 MW over a full range of operating ambient conditions. The following presentation displays the full set of operating and emission data obtained in the tests.

  8. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  9. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these

  10. Evaporation and Combustion Characteristics of Multicomponent Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Pavan; Stagni, Alessandro; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Current generation fuels are mixtures of hundreds of complicated organic compounds and accurate modeling of their combustion characteristics provides fundamental physical insights which also help in the design of efficient combustors. This however requires accurate simulation of both evaporation and combustion processes, which, in case of such fuels, demands an approach based on calculating properties using only the information of functional groups present in the mixture. The presentation will elaborate on the assumptions and the framework utilized for evaporation and chemical mechanisms. We also present a comparison between various fuels used in the aviation industry as test cases while highlighting on their pros and cons. The focus of the talk will however be on the physical aspects captured using 1D simulations, i.e., preferential evaporation of each species, ignition parameters and emissions while justifying the numerical calculations with experimental data at each stage. Further work involving the coupling of flow with evaporation and combustion can be performed and we briefly discuss why a DNS is necessary to characterize the various combustion regimes. Federal Aviation Administration.

  11. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

  12. Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1995-12-01

    The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

  13. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Solar thermal technologies as a bridge from fossil fuels to renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Vishwanath Haily; Panse, Sudhir V.; Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B.

    2015-11-01

    Integrating solar thermal systems into Rankine-cycle power plants can be done with minimal modification to the existing infrastructure. This presents an opportunity to introduce these technologies into the commercial space incrementally, to allow engineers to build familiarity with the systems before phasing out fossil-fuel energy with solar electricity. This paper shows that there is no thermodynamic barrier to injecting solar thermal heat into Rankine-cycle plants to offset even up to 50% fossil-fuel combustion with existing technology: with better solar-to-electricity efficiencies than conventionally deployed solar-thermal power plants. This strategy is economically preferable to installing carbon-capture and compression equipment for mitigating an equivalent amount of greenhouse-gas emissions. We suggest that such projects be encouraged by extending the same subsidy/incentives to the solar-thermal fraction of a `solar-aided’ plant that would be offered to a conventionally deployed solar-thermal power plant of similar capacity. Such a policy would prepare the ground for an incremental solar-thermal takeover of fossil-fuel power plants.

  15. Small scale combustion testing of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, G.A.; Ekmann, J.M.; Navadauskas, R.J.; White, C.M.

    1982-03-01

    In order to assess any changes in the environmental impact of industrial or utility boiler exhaust gases upon changing from petroleum-based fuels to synthetic fuels, detailed characterizations of the exhaust emissions from both types of fuels burned under identical combustion conditions are required. A 20-hp (approximately 5 gallons of liquid fuel feed per hour) firetube boiler has been installed in the Combustion Technology Division of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) so such experiments can be performed. The boiler is fully instrumented for heat and material balance measurements, including analysis of the major and minor components of the combustion gases and the total hydrocarbons and particulates present in the gases. In addition, the exhaust duct of the boiler has a sampling port adjacent to the one used for major and minor components; this port is used to sample exhaust gases for the analysis of the trace organic compounds present in the gases. The Analytical Chemistry Division of PETC is developing the sampling and analytical methodologies for the trace organics. The effort to date has been focused on the problems involved in sampling the hot (ca. 350/sup 0/F) exhaust gases and on the analysis of the gases for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V.

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  17. Partial replacement of non renewable fossil fuels energy by the use of waste materials as alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrawati, V.; Manaf, A.; Purwadi, G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports recent investigations on the use of biomass like rice husk, palm kernel shell, saw dust and municipal waste to reduce the use of fossil fuels energy in the cement production. Such waste materials have heat values in the range approximately from 2,000 to 4,000 kcal/kg. These are comparable to the average value of 5800 kcal/kg from fossil materials like coals which are widely applied in many industrial processing. Hence, such waste materials could be used as alternative fuels replacing the fossil one. It is shown that replacement of coals with such waste materials has a significant impact on cost effectiveness as well as sustainable development. Variation in moisture content of the waste materials, however should be taken into account because this is one of the parameter that could not be controlled. During fuel combustion, some amount of the total energy is used to evaporate the water content and thus the net effective heat value is less.

  18. Biomass fuel combustion and health*

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, H. W.; Smith, K. R.; Last, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Biomass fuels (wood, agricultural waste, and dung) are used by about half the world's population as a major, often the only, source of domestic energy for cooking and heating. The smoke emissions from these fuels are an important source of indoor air pollution, especially in rural communities in developing countries. These emissions contain important pollutants that adversely affect health—such as suspended particulate matter and polycyclic organic matter which includes a number of known carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene, as well as gaseous pollutants like carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Exposure to large amounts of smoke may present a health risk that is of a similar order of magnitude to the risk from tobacco smoke. The effects on health arising from exposure to air pollution are reviewed, based on what has been reported in the literature so far. Further and more detailed information on exposures and on the epidemiological aspects is urgently required. The persons most frequently affected are women who do the cooking for households in rural villages; they suffer from impaired health due to prolonged and repeated contact with these harmful pollutants. When they are pregnant, the developing fetus may also be exposed and this leads to the risk of excess deaths. In the developing countries, exposure to biomass fuel emissions is probably one of the most important occupational health hazards for women. A conservatively estimated 300-400 million people worldwide, mostly in the rural areas of developing countries, are affected by these problems. PMID:3872729

  19. Apparatus for the premixed gas phase combustion of liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Roffe, G.A.; Trucco, H.A.

    1981-04-21

    This invention relates to improvements in the art of liquid fuel combustion and, more particularly, concerns a method and apparatus for the controlled gasification of liquid fuels, the thorough premixing of the then gasified fuel with air and the subsequent gas-phase combustion of the mixture to produce a flame substantially free of soot, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and unburned fuel.

  20. Solid fossil-fuel recovery by electrical induction heating in situ - A proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, S.

    1980-04-01

    A technique, termed electrical induction heating, is proposed for in situ processes of energy production from solid fossil fuels, such as bitumen production from underground distillation of oil sand; oil by underground distillation of oil shale; petroleum from heavy oil by underground mobilization of heavy oil, from either residues of conventional liquid petroleum deposits or new deposits of viscous oil; methane and coal tar from lignite and coal deposits by underground distillation of coal; and generation of electricity by surface combustion of low calorific-value gas from underground coke gasification by combustion of the organic residue left from the underground distillation of coal by induction heating. A method of surface distillation of mined coking coal by induction heating to produce coke, methane, and coal tar is also proposed.

  1. An optical gas temperature probe for high temperature fossil fuel process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.; Cook, R.L.; Lineberry, J.T.; Litchford, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Reported here are the results of a feasibility study of a modular optical gas temperature probe for direct measurement of gas temperature in fossil-fueled combustion streams. A probe based upon the spectroscopic technique of line reversal would be superior to currently available gas temperature technology. The study concluded that a modular form of the line reversal optical temperature probe is feasible and, as such. the probe should be a commercially viable product with potential economic benefits from improved monitoring and control of utility furnaces. Such a probe will have the capability of making direct measurements of gas temperature in hot (>1500 K) process streams of coal combustion systems and large-scale power plant facilities.

  2. Fuel Droplet Burning During Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.4MB, 13-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300168.html.

  3. Plasma-aided solid fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    E.I. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko

    2007-07-01

    Plasma supported solid fuel combustion is promising technology for use in thermal power plants (TPP). The realisation of this technology comprises two main steps. The first is the execution of a numerical simulation and the second involves full-scale trials of plasma supported coal combustion through plasma-fuel systems (PFS) mounted on a TPP boiler. For both the numerical simulation and the full-scale trials, the boiler of 200 MW power of Gusinoozersk TPP (Russia) was selected. The optimization of the combustion of low-rank coals using plasma technology is described, together with the potential of this technology for the general optimization of the coal burning process. Numerical simulation and full-scale trials have enabled technological recommendations for improvement of existing conventional TPP to be made. PFS have been tested for boilers plasma start-up and flame stabilization in different countries at 27 power boilers steam productivity of 75-670 tons per hour (TPH) equipped with different type of pulverised coal burners. At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were used. Volatile content of them varied from 4 to 50%, ash from 15 to 48% and calorific values from 6700 to 25,100 KJ/kg. In summary, it is concluded that the developed and industrially tested PFS improve coal combustion efficiency and decrease harmful emission from pulverised coal-fired TPP. 9 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    PubMed

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. PMID:27506422

  5. The long-term legacy of fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Toby; Shepherd, John G.; Castle, Stephanie

    2007-09-01

    Fossil fuels will have large impacts on ocean chemistry and climate during the period while they are being burnt (and carbon dioxide emitted) in large amounts. It is frequently assumed that these impacts will fade away soon thereafter. Recent model results, by contrast, suggest that significant impacts will persist for hundreds of thousands of years after emissions cease. We present a new analysis that supports these model findings by elucidating the cause of this `fossil fuel hangover' phenomenon. We explain why the carbonate compensation feedback is atypical, compared to other feedbacks, in the sense that convergence is back towards a new steady-state that is distinct from the starting state. We also calculate in greater detail the predicted implications for the future ocean and atmosphere. The post-fossil fuel long-term equilibrium state could differ from the pre-anthropogenic state by as much as 50% for total dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity and 100% for atmospheric pCO2, depending on the total amount of future emissions.

  6. Dependence of the radiative forcing of the climate system on fossil fuel type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies are greatly directed towards the reduction of CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion to limit warming to 2º C in this century. For example, the Clean Power Plan aims to reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector by 32% of 2005 levels by 2030 by increasing power plant efficiency but also by switching from coal-fired power plants to natural gas-fired power plants. It is important to understand the impact of such fuel switching on climate change. While all fossil fuels emit CO2, they also emit other pollutants with varying effects on climate, health and agriculture. First, The emission of CO2 per joule of energy produced varies significantly between coal, oil and natural gas. Second, the complexity that the co-emitted pollutants add to the perturbations in the climate system necessitates the detangling of radiative forcing for each type of fossil fuel. The historical (1850-2011) net radiative forcing of climate as a function of fuel type (coal, oil, natural gas and biofuel) is reconstructed. The results reveal the significant dependence of the CO2 and the non-CO2 forcing on fuel type. The CO2 forcing per joule of energy is largest for coal. Radiative forcing from the co-emitted pollutants (black carbon, methane, nitrogen oxides, organic carbon, sulfate aerosols) changes the global mean CO2 forcing attributed to coal and oil significantly. For natural gas, the CO2-only radiative forcing from gas is increased by about 60% when the co-emitted pollutants are included.

  7. Studies of oscillatory combustion and fuel vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borman, G. L.; Myers, P. S.; Uyehara, O. A.

    1972-01-01

    Research projects involving oscillatory combustion and fuel vaporization are reported. Comparisons of experimental and theoretical droplet vaporization histories under ambient conditions such that the droplet may approach its thermodynamic critical point are presented. Experimental data on instantaneous heat transfer from a gas to a solid surface under conditions of oscillatory pressure with comparisons to an unsteady one-dimensional model are analyzed. Droplet size and velocity distribution in a spray as obtained by use of a double flash fluorescent method were investigated.

  8. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  13. Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D.

    1995-04-01

    A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

  14. Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D.

    1997-04-01

    A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle.combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14 percent control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {minus}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

  15. PERSPECTIVE: Keeping a closer eye on fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter F.

    2009-12-01

    all have a major influence on progress to an international agreement. It is important that the political challenges are not underestimated. Long-term observers of the negotiations necessary for global agreements (Inman 2009) are pessimistic about the chances for success at COP15, and argue that agreements between smaller groups of countries may be more effective. China and other developing countries clearly expect greater emission cuts by developed nations as a condition for a successful deal (Pan 2009). Conversely, the constraints on US climate policies are considerable, notably those imposed by fears that an international agreement that does not include equitable emission control measures for developing countries like China and India, will compromise the agreement and reduce its effectiveness (Skodvin and Andresen 2009). In this context the need for earlier, and more reliable, information on emissions is a high priority. Myhre and coworkers (Myhre et al 2009) provide an efficient method for calculating global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion by combining industry statistics with data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; http://cdiac.ornl.gov/). Recent analyses of carbon dioxide emission data show a worrying acceleration in emissions, beyond even the most extreme IPCC projections, but are based largely on the CDIAC which gives information about emissions released two to three years before real time (Canadell et al 2007, Raupach et al 2007). The approach used by Myhre et al (2009) uses BP annual statistics of fossil fuel consumption and has a much shorter lag, of the order of six months. Of significant concern is that their analysis of the data also reveals that the recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 is largely driven by an increase in emissions from coal, most significantly in China. By contrast, emissions from oil and gas continue to follow longer-term historical trends. Earlier and accurate data on CO2 emissions is

  16. Pollutant Emissions and Lean Blowoff Limits of Fuel Flexible Burners Operating on Gaseous Renewable and Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colorado, Andres

    This study provides an experimental and numerical examination of pollutant emissions and stability of gaseous fueled reactions stabilized with two premixed-fuel-flexible and ultra-low NOx burner technologies. Both burners feature lean combustion technology to control the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The first fuel--flexible burner is the low-swirl burner (LSB), which features aerodynamic stabilization of the reactions with a divergent flow-field; the second burner is the surface stabilized combustion burner (SSCB), which features the stabilization of the reactions on surface patterns. For combustion applications the most commonly studied species are: NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). However these are not the only pollutants emitted when burning fossil fuels; other species such as nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) can be directly emitted from the oxidation reactions. Yet the conditions that favor the emission of these pollutants are not completely understood and require further insight. The results of this dissertation close the gap existing regarding the relations between emission of pollutants species and stability when burning variable gaseous fuels. The results of this study are applicable to current issues such as: 1. Current combustion systems operating at low temperatures to control formation of NOx. 2. Increased use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen, synthetic gas and biogas. 3. Increasing recognition of the need/desire to operate combustion systems in a transient manner to follow load and to offset the intermittency of renewable power. 4. The recent advances in measurement methods allow us to quantify other pollutants, such as N 2O, NH3 and CH2O. Hence in this study, these pollutant species are assessed when burning natural gas (NG) and its binary mixtures with other gaseous fuels such as hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethane (C 2H6) and propane (C3H8) at variable operation modes including

  17. Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

  18. High-resolution global fossil fuel CO2 emissions for 1992 to 2010 using integrated in-situ and remotely sensed data in a fossil fuel data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P.; Huang, J.; Song, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The largest single net source of CO2 into the Earth's atmosphere is due to the combustion of fossil fuel and an accurate quantification of the fossil fuel flux is needed to better address the concern of rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In the last decade, there has been a growing need, from both the science and policymaking communities for quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions at finer space and time scales. Motivated by this concern, we have built a global fossil fuel CO2 emission inventory at 0.25° and 0.1° resolutions for the years of 1992 - 2010 using a combination of in situ and remotely sensed data in a fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS). A suite of observations which include nightlights, population, sectoral national emissions and power plant stations are used to constrain the FFDAS model. FFDAS is based on a modified Kaya identity which expresses emissions as the product of areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity of economic activity, and carbon intensity of energy consumption. Nightlights has been shown to correlate well with national and regional GDP and its relationship with population has been used as an initial means of downscaling fossil fuel emissions. However nightlights data are subject to instrumental saturation, causing areas of bright nightlights, such as urban cores, to be truncated. To address the saturation problem during several time periods, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has requested and received data collected at multiple fixed gain settings to observe the bright areas with no saturation. However, this dataset is limited to only four years (1999, 2002, 2006 and 2010). We have applied a numerical technique to these four years of data to estimate the unsaturated values for all years from 1992 to 2010. The corrected nightlights time series is then used in FFDAS to generate a multiyear fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product. Nightlights and population

  19. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  20. Comparison of fuel value and combustion characteristics of two different RDF samples.

    PubMed

    Sever Akdağ, A; Atımtay, A; Sanin, F D

    2016-01-01

    Generation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) tends to increase with the growing population and economic development of the society; therefore, establishing environmentally sustainable waste management strategies is crucial. In this sense, waste to energy strategies have come into prominence since they increase the resource efficiency and replace the fossil fuels with renewable energy sources by enabling material and energy recovery instead of landfill disposal of the wastes. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), which is an alternative fuel produced from energy-rich Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials diverted from landfills, is one of the waste to energy strategies gaining more and more attention. This study aims to investigate the thermal characteristics and co-combustion efficiency of two RDF samples in Turkey. Proximate, ultimate and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted on these samples. Furthermore, elemental compositions of ash from RDF samples were determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The RDF samples were combusted alone and co-combusted in mixtures with coal and petroleum coke in a lab scale reactor at certain percentages on energy basis (3%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30%) where co-combustion processes and efficiencies were investigated. It was found that the calorific values of RDF samples on dry basis were close to that of coal and a little lower compared to petroleum coke used in this study. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that when RDF in the mixture was higher than 10%, the CO concentration in the flue gas increased and so the combustion efficiency decreased; furthermore, the combustion characteristics changed from char combustion to volatile combustion. However, RDF addition to the fuel mixtures decreased the SO2 emission and did not change the NOx profiles. Also, XRF analysis showed that the slagging and fouling potential of RDF combustion was a function of RDF portion in fuel blend. When the RDF was combusted alone, the slagging and fouling

  1. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  2. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  3. Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R.

    2008-12-15

    The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

  4. Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

    2002-09-26

    Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

  5. Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

  6. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gurney, Kevin

    The Vulcan Project is a NASA/DOE funded effort under the North American Carbon Program (NACP) to quantify North American fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at space and time scales much finer than has been achieved in the past. The purpose is to aid in quantification of the North American carbon budget, to support inverse estimation of carbon sources and sinks, and to support the demands posed by higher resolution CO2 observations (in situ and remotely sensed). The detail and scope of the Vulcan CO2 inventory has also made it a valuable tool for policymakers, demographers, social scientists and the public at large. The Vulcan project has achieved the quantification of the 2002 U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the scale of individual factories, powerplants, roadways and neighborhoods on an hourly basis. The entire inventory was built on a common 10 km x 10 km grid to facilitate atmospheric modeling. In addition to improvement in space and time resolution, Vulcan is quantified at the level of fuel type, economic sub-sector, and county/state identification. Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  7. Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

  8. Synthetic fuel aromaticity and staged combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Longanbach, J. R.; Chan, L. K.; Levy, A.

    1982-11-15

    Samples of middle and heavy SRC-II distillates were distilled into 50 C boiling point range fractions. These were characterized by measurements of their molecular weight, elemental analysis and basic nitrogen content and calculation of average molecular structures. The structures typically consisted of 1 to 3 aromatic rings fused to alicyclic rings with short, 1 to 3 carbon aliphatic side chains. The lower boiling fractions contained significant amounts (1 atom/molecule) of oxygen while the heavier fractions contained so few heteroatoms that they were essentially hydrocarbons. Laboratory scale oxidative-pyrolysis experiments were carried out at pyrolysis temperatures of 500 to 1100 C and oxygen concentrations from 0 to 100 percent of stoichiometry. Analysis of liquid products, collected in condensers cooled with liquid nitrogen showed that aromatization is a major reaction in the absence of oxygen. The oxygen-containing materials (phenolics) seem to be more resistant to thermal pyrolysis than unsubstituted aromatics. Nitrogen converts from basic to nonbasic forms at about 500 C. The nonbasic nitrogen is more stable and survives up to 700 C after which it is slowly removed. A recently constructed 50,000 Btu/hr staged combustor was used to study the chemistry of the nitrogen and aromatics. SRC II combustion was studied under fuel-rich, first-stage conditions at air/fuel ratios from 0.6 to 1.0 times stoichiometric. The chemistry of the fuel during combustion calls for further investigation in order to examine the mechanism by which HCN is evolved as a common intermediate for the formation of the nitrogen-containing gaseous combustion products. 25 references, 45 figures, 25 tables.

  9. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  10. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Shen, Ming-shing

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. The iron oxide present in the spent limestone is found to catalyze the regeneration rate of the spent limestone in a reducing environment. Thus both the calcium and iron components may be recycled.

  11. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, H.R.; Gralton, G.W.; Gronauer, T.W.; Liljedahl, G.N.; Love, B.F.

    1987-06-01

    Activities conducted under this contract include studies on the combustion and fireside behavior of numerous coal-water fuels (CWFs). The work has been broken down into the following areas: Task 1 -- Selection of Candidate Fuels; Task 2 -- Bench Scale Tests; Task 3 -- CWF Preparation and Supply; Task 4 -- Combustion Characterization; Task 5 -- Ash Deposition and Performance Testing; Task 6 -- Commercial Applications. This report covers Task 6, the study of commercial applications of CWFs as related to the technical and economic aspects of the conversion of existing boilers and heaters to CWF firing. This work involves the analysis of seven units of various sizes and configurations firing several selected CWFs. Three utility boilers, two industrial boilers, and two process heater designs are included. Each of the units was considered with four primary selected CWFs. A fifth fuel was considered for one of the utility units. A sixth fuel, a microfine grind CWF, was evaluated on two utility units and one industrial unit. The particular fuels were chosen with the objective of examining the effects of coal source, ash level, ash properties, and beneficiation on the CWF performance and economics of the seven units. 10 refs., 81 figs., 80 tabs.

  12. Historical reconstruction of major pollutant levels in the Hudson-Raritan Basin: 1880-1980. Volume 2. Heavy metals and fossil fuels. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, R.U.; Ayers, L.W.

    1988-10-01

    Volume 2: Metals covers the sources, production processes, consumptive uses of and environmental emissions of eight heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead, zinc). Included are sections that discuss the part fossil fuel combustion plays in the overall pollution loading of Hudson-Raritan Basin.

  13. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  14. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  15. Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions at Various Spatial and Temporal Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasing, T.

    2006-12-01

    Annual values of fossil-fuel carbon emissions (FFCE), estimated directly from fuel combustion data or fuel- supply data, exist at global and national scales and have been used in studies of the global carbon cycle. Annual averages at national levels are useful in tracking emissions and developing mitigation strategies. However, such large-scale long-term averages contain no information about small-scale, short-term processes influencing FFCE. Recent development of a monthly FFCE database for the United States (US) facilitates correlations of seasonal FFCE with other seasonal variables. An increasing fraction of FFCE has occurred during the warmest months, and appears to be related to population shifts to warmer regions, general climate warming, and increased use of air conditioners. These results incorporate effects of even smaller-scale variables. FFCE from electric-generating facilities occur on space scales represented by individual stacks, and depend on regional electricity demand, which depends on temperature and other regional variables which change from hour to hour. Such variables also influence FFCE from urban areas, which, like electric generating facilities, contribute a large fraction of global FFCE but occupy a small fraction of the earth's surface. Preliminary studies in US cities indicate elevated winter CO2 concentrations from local emissions due to combustion of natural gas for heating, but summer concentrations are much closer to global background levels. Energy for air conditioning in summer is likely to be provided by electric-generating facilities at distant locations; distance from the emissions sources, along with increased convection in summer would reduce urban CO2 concentrations. Greater understanding of processes affecting local and urban FFCE, as well as any spatial homogeneities arising from reliance on common resources and energy demands, transportation links, etc., will be necessary to project emissions changes in response to future

  16. Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions at Various Spatial and Temporal Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.; Myhre, G.; Stordal, F.; Berglen, T.

    2005-05-01

    Annual values of fossil-fuel carbon emissions (FFCE), estimated directly from fuel combustion data or fuel- supply data, exist at global and national scales and have been used in studies of the global carbon cycle. Annual averages at national levels are useful in tracking emissions and developing mitigation strategies. However, such large-scale long-term averages contain no information about small-scale, short-term processes influencing FFCE. Recent development of a monthly FFCE database for the United States (US) facilitates correlations of seasonal FFCE with other seasonal variables. An increasing fraction of FFCE has occurred during the warmest months, and appears to be related to population shifts to warmer regions, general climate warming, and increased use of air conditioners. These results incorporate effects of even smaller-scale variables. FFCE from electric-generating facilities occur on space scales represented by individual stacks, and depend on regional electricity demand, which depends on temperature and other regional variables which change from hour to hour. Such variables also influence FFCE from urban areas, which, like electric generating facilities, contribute a large fraction of global FFCE but occupy a small fraction of the earth's surface. Preliminary studies in US cities indicate elevated winter CO2 concentrations from local emissions due to combustion of natural gas for heating, but summer concentrations are much closer to global background levels. Energy for air conditioning in summer is likely to be provided by electric-generating facilities at distant locations; distance from the emissions sources, along with increased convection in summer would reduce urban CO2 concentrations. Greater understanding of processes affecting local and urban FFCE, as well as any spatial homogeneities arising from reliance on common resources and energy demands, transportation links, etc., will be necessary to project emissions changes in response to future

  17. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for large US cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain as a pilot effort to a CMS. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Phoenix (see figure). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In preparation for a formal urban-scale inversion, these forward comparisons offer insights into both improving our emissions data product and measurement strategies. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban

  18. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lachowicz, Y.V.; LaFlesh, R.C.

    1987-07-01

    This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. This report summarizes studies conducted under Task 4. The objective was to quantify CWF atomization and combustion properties utilizing industrial/utility scale equipment. Burners were evaluated and combustion performance differences identified for various CWF formulations. 12 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. CO2 and H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion for zero-emission power

    SciTech Connect

    G A Richards; K H Casleton; B T Chorpening

    2005-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for zero-emission power generation systems. These systems are intended to produce power without releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. One method to achieve this goal is to produce hydrogen from the gasification of fossil or biomass fuels. Using various membrane and reforming technologies, the carbon in the parent fuel can be shifted to CO2 and removed from the fuel stream, followed by direct CO2 sequestration. The hydrogen fuel can be used directly in gas turbines fitted with low-NOx combustors. A second approach to producing zero-emission power is to replace the nitrogen diluent that accompanies conventional combustion in air with either CO2 or H2O. In this concept, CO2 or H2O is added to oxygen to control combustion temperatures in oxygen–fuel reactions. In the absence of nitrogen, the primary combustion products for any hydrocarbon under lean conditions are then simply CO2 and H2O. Thus, merely cooling the exhaust stream condenses the water and produces an exhaust of pure CO2, ready for sequestration. The dilute oxy-fuel combustion strategy can be incorporated in power cycles that are similar to Brayton or Rankine configurations, using CO2 or H2O as the primary diluent respectively. While the relativemerits of the various strategies to zero-emission power are the subject of various technical and economic studies, very little work has focused on defining the combustion issues associated with the dilute oxy-fuel option. In this paper, the expected combustion performance of CO2 and H2O diluted systems are compared. Experimental results from a high-pressure oxy-fuel combustor are also presented.

  20. Origin of carbonaceous aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean: Biomass burning or fossil fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.; Andreae, M.O.; Gabriel, R.; Kirchstetter, T.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Ramanathan, V.

    2000-08-26

    We present an analysis of the carbon, potassium and sulfate content of the extensive aerosol haze layer observed over the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). The black carbon (BC) content of the haze is as high as 17% of the total fine particle mass (the sum of carbonaceous and soluble ionic aerosol components) which results in significant solar absorption. The ratio of black carbon to organic carbon (OC) (over the Arabian Sea and equatorial Indian Ocean) was a factor of 5 to 10 times larger than expected for biomass burning. This ratio was closer to values measured downwind of industrialized regions in Japan and Western Europe. These results indicate that fossil fuel combustion is the major source of carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon during the events considered. If the data set analyzed here is representative of the entire INDOEX study then fossil fuel emissions from South Asia must have similarly contributed to aerosols over the whole study region. The INDOEX ratios are substantially different from those reported f or some source regions of South Asia, thus raising the possibility that changes in composition of carbonaceous aerosol may occur during transport.

  1. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  2. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  3. Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1957-01-01

    Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.

  4. Quantifying Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Space: Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System and Global Urban Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) quantifies fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the planet at a scale of 10 km hourly for the time period 1997-2012. FFDAS is based on the Kaya identity constrained by multiple ground and space-based observations. Among these are the DMSP nightlights, Landscan population, and the Ventus power plant database. We have recently downscaled the FFDAS version 2.0 to 1 km x 1 km resolution using nighlights. The finer spatial resolution allows for the examination of urban emissions across the planet. We take two approaches to examination of urban FFCO2 emissions. The first, utilizes named administrative boundaries combined with manual GIS identification (supported by LandSat and ISA) to identify the top emitting urban areas of the planet. We also utilize an urban land mask, without governmental boundary identification, to analyze all urban area by country across the planet. We perform multiple regression to identify key drivers and patterns. The results demonstrate the change in urban emissions during the last decade and assess the question of whether urban areas exhibit scaling properties vis a vis FFCO2 emissions.

  5. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  6. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Gregg, JS; Losey, London M; Marland, Gregg; Boden, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

  7. LIEKKI and JALO: Combustion and fuel conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Thomas M.; Renz, Ulrich; Sarofim, Adel F.

    LIEKKI and JALO are well conceived and structured programs designed to strengthen Finland's special needs in combustion and gasification to utilize a diversity of fuels, increase the ratio of electrical to heat output, and to support the export market. Started in 1988, these two programs provide models of how universities, Technical research center's laboratories (VTT's), and industry can collaborate successfully in order to achieve national goals. The research is focused on long term goals in certain targeted niche areas. This is an effective way to use limited resources. The niche areas were chosen in a rational manner and appear to be appropriate for Finland. The LIEKKl and JALO programs have helped pull together research efforts that were previously more fragmented. For example, the combustion modeling area still appears fragmented. Individual project objectives should be tied to program goals at a very early stage to provide sharper focusing to the research. Both the LIEKKl and JALO programs appear to be strongly endorsed by industry. Industrial members of the Executive Committees were very supportive of these programs. There are good mechanisms for technology transfer in place, and the programs provide opportunities to establish good interfaces between industrial people and the individual researchers. The interest of industry is shown by the large number of applied projects that are supported by industry. This demonstrates the relevancy of the programs. There is a strong interaction between the JALO program and industry in black liquor gasification.

  8. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than -0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985-2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  9. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

  10. On Corporate Accountability: Lead, Asbestos, and Fossil Fuel Lawsuits.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Christine

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress. PMID:25910492

  11. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled ``Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.`` was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  12. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Jr., Lee T.; Boggess, Ronald J.; Carson, Ronald J.; Falkenberg, Virginia P.; Flanagan, Patrick; Hettinger, Jr., William P.; Kimel, Kris; Kupchella, Charles E.; Magid, Lee J.; McLaughlin, Barbara; Royster, Wimberly C.; Streepey, Judi L.; Wells, James H.; Stencel, John; Derbyshire, Frank J.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Magid, Lee J.; McEllistrem, Marc T.; Riley, John T.; Steffen, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  13. New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

    2006-09-30

    Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

  14. Pressurized cyclonic combustion method and burner for particulate solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, F.D.; Milligan, J.D.; Morrison, J.A.

    1989-07-25

    This paper describes an apparatus for burning particulate combustible fuel to produce a pressurized gas for operating a gas turbine. It comprises: a housing having side wall means forming a generally cylindrically shaped primary combustion chamber, a secondary chamber and a choke opening of reduced size between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary chamber; a fuel opening formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber near the end wall means for introducing a particulate fuel under pressure therein generally tangentially to the inner wall of the primary combustion chamber and transverse to its axis; a plurality of spaced apart tuyere openings formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber; at least one quench gas opening formed through side wall means of the choke opening intermediate its ends for introducing a quench gas into the choke opening for cooling the hot gas flowing.

  15. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  16. Atmospheric Verification of Point Source Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Norris, M. W.; Wiltshire, R.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, T.

    2015-12-01

    Large point sources (electricity generation and large-scale industry) make up roughly one third of all fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. Currently, these emissions are determined from self-reported inventory data, and sometimes from smokestack emissions monitoring, and the uncertainty in emissions from individual power plants is about 20%. We examine the utility of atmospheric 14C measurements combined with atmospheric transport modelling as a tool for independently quantifying point source CO2ff emissions, to both improve the accuracy of the reported emissions and for verification as we move towards a regulatory environment. We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Facility as a test case. It is located in rural New Zealand with no other significant fossil fuel CO2 sources nearby, and emits CO2ff at ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. We use several different sampling methods to determine the 14C and hence the CO2ff content downwind of the emission source: grab flask samples of whole air; absorption of CO2 into sodium hydroxide integrated over many hours; and plant material which faithfully records the 14C content of assimilated CO2. We use a plume dispersion model to compare the reported emissions with our observed CO2ff mole fractions. We show that the short-term variability in plume dispersion makes it difficult to interpret the grab flask sample results, whereas the variability is averaged out in the integrated samples and we obtain excellent agreement between the reported and observed emissions, indicating that the 14C method can reliably be used to evaluated point source emissions.

  17. ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS: FOSSIL FUEL, STEAM ELECTRIC GENERATING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report addresses the energy requirements for environmental control in the fossil fuel, steam electric industry. These requirements arise through a number of mechanisms, including: direct fuel or electricity requirements for operating pollution control equipment, including pro...

  18. Characteristics and combustion of future hydrocarbon fuels. [aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    As the world supply of petroleum crude oil is being depleted, the supply of high-quality crude oil is also dwindling. This dwindling supply is beginning to manifest itself in the form of crude oils containing higher percentages of aromatic compounds, sulphur, nitrogen, and trace constituents. The result of this trend is described and the change in important crude oil characteristics, as related to aircraft fuels, is discussed. As available petroleum is further depleted, the use of synthetic crude oils (those derived from coal and oil shale) may be required. The principal properties of these syncrudes and the fuels that can be derived from them are described. In addition to the changes in the supply of crude oil, increasing competition for middle-distillate fuels may require that specifications be broadened in future fuels. The impact that the resultant potential changes in fuel properties may have on combustion and thermal stability characteristics is illustrated and discussed in terms of ignition, soot formation, carbon deposition flame radiation, and emissions.

  19. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  20. The cosmic web and microwave background fossilize the first turbulent combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2015-09-01

    The weblike structure of the cosmic microwave background CMB temperature fluctuations are interpreted as fossils of the first turbulent combustion that drives the big bang1,2,3. Modern turbulence theory3 requires that inertial vortex forces cause turbulence to always cascade from small scales to large, contrary to the standard turbulence model where the cascade is reversed. Assuming that the universe begins at Planck length 10-35 m and temperature 1032 K, the mechanism of the big bang is a powerful turbulent combustion instability, where turbulence forms at the Kolmogorov scale and mass-energy is extracted by < -10113 Pa negative stresses from big bang turbulence working against gravity. Prograde accretion of a Planck antiparticle on a spinning particle-antiparticle pair releases 42% of a particle rest mass from the Kerr metric, producing a spinning gas of turbulent Planck particles that cascades to larger scales at smaller temperatures (10-27 m, 1027 K) retaining the Planck density 1097 kg m-3, where quarks form and gluon viscosity fossilizes the turbulence. Viscous stress powers inflation to ~ 10 m and ~ 10100 kg. The CMB shows signatures of both plasma and big bang turbulence. Direct numerical simulations support the new turbulence theory6.

  1. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the Department of Energy initiated a comprehensive effort in 1982 to develop the necessary performance and cost data and to assess the commercial viability of coal water fuels (CWFs) as applied to representative utility and industrial units. The effort comprised six tasks beginning with coal resource evaluation and culminating in the assessment of the technical and economic consequences of switching representative commercial units from oil to state-of-the-art CWF firing. Extensive bench, pilot and commercial-scale tests were performed to develop necessary CWF combustion and fireside performance data for the subsequent boiler performance analyses and retrofit cost estimates. This report (Volume 2) provides a review of the fuel selection and procurement activities. Included is a discussion on coal washability, transport of the slurry, and characterization. 20 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Fossil Fuels. A Supplement to the "Science 100, 101" Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soprovich, William, Comp.

    When the fossil fuels unit was first designed for Science 101 (the currently approved provincial guide for grade 10 science in Manitoba), Canadian support materials were very limited. Since students are asked to interpret data concerning energy consumption and sources for certain fossil fuels, the need for appropriate Canadian data became obvious.…

  3. Ecological consequences of elevated total dissolved solids associated with fossil fuel extraction in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fossil fuel burning is considered a major contributor to global climate change. The outlook for production and consumption of fossil fuels int he US indicates continued growth to support growing energy demands. For example, coal-generated electricity is projected ot increase from...

  4. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63404), announcing a public meeting and seeking...

  5. The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji; Borgwardt, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

  6. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000. PMID:24433051

  7. Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

  8. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

    2001-01-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for

  9. Converting a fuel to combustible gas

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, G.

    1985-04-02

    A sulfur-containing fuel is passed into a first fluidized bed containing CaSO/sub 4/ and CaO and an oxygen-transfer mediator (e.g. H/sub 2/) whereby the fuel is converted to combustible gas, some CaSO/sub 4/ being reduced to CaS and sulfur being fixed as CaS by reaction with CaO. Bed particles pass from the bottom layer of the first bed into the bottom layer of the second bed which is fluidized by air at conditions such that some, but not all of the CaS is selectively oxidized to CaSO/sub 4/ with no liberation of sulfur moieties. Bed particles pass from the bottom layer of second bed to the bottom layer of a third bed optionally after passage via a fourth bed between the second and third beds. In the third bed particles are fluidized with air to convert CaS selectively to CaSO/sub 4/ with no liberation of sulfur moiety whereby to raise the particles' temperature sufficiently above that of the first bed that particles passing from the bottom layer of the third bed into the bottom layer of the first bed provide sufficient sensible heat to maintain the fuel conversion temperature of the first bed. In the fourth bed particles are fluidized with air under such conditions that sulfur moiety is liberated, preferably at a rate which approximately equals the rate of sulfur-capture in the first bed whereby to maintain approximately a constant amount of reactive CaO in the beds for sulfur-capture in the first bed.

  10. Pressurized cyclonic combustion method and burner for particulate solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, F.D.; Milligan, J.D.; Morrison, J.A.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a method of operating a burner for burning particulate combustible fuel for producing a hot gas under pressure for operating a gas turbine, the burner comprising a housing having side wall means forming a cylindrical shape primary combustion chamber, a secondary chamber, and a choke opening of reduced size between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary chamber, the secondary chamber being in fluid communication with the primary combustion chamber through the choke opening, the end of the primary combustion chamber opposite the choke opening being closed by end wall means, the end of the secondary chamber opposite the choke opening having an outlet opening for the passage of hot gas for use of operating a gas turbine, a particulate fuel opening formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber near the end wall means.