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1

Cracking resistance of thin hard coatings estimated by four-point bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a fast and easily performed four-point bending test for evaluation of cracking resistance of thin hard coatings is presented. A bending device, small enough to be put in an SEM and observed in situ, has been designed. By crack formation studies, a measure of coating cracking resistance is obtained. Two methods of crack detection are utilised: detection

Urban Wiklund; Michael Bromark; Mats Larsson; Per Hedenqvist; Sture Hogmark

1997-01-01

2

Mechanical behavior of solder joints under dynamic four-point impact bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of solder joints under drop impact loading is important to mobile electronic products. In this paper, dynamic four-point impact bending tests of board level electronic packages are carried out to investigate mechanical behavior of solder joints. In the test, strain gauges, a high speed camera and the digital image correlation method are used to acquire strain and deflection of

Tong An; Fei Qin; Jiangang Li

2011-01-01

3

Evaluating Four-Point Bend Fatigue of Asphalt Mix Using Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary structural distress modes found in bituminous pavement layers is fatigue cracking, resulting from repeated application of traffic-induced stresses. The development of a four-point bending test arrangement to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of rectangular beam specimens (305345350 mm dimensions! of bituminous mixtures is discussed. This novel system allows the crack-damaged surfaces of beam specimens to be

A. M. Hartman; M. D. Gilchrist

2004-01-01

4

Four-point bending fatigue behaviour of an iron-based laser sintered material  

Microsoft Academic Search

New material processing methods such as laser sintering of metal powder necessitates new knowledge and characterization of the material to support its implementation in technical applications. Fatigue behaviour of a laser sintered FeNiCu-alloy was studied with emphasis on crack path, initiation and propagation. Fatigue crack growth was investigated by surface replication in four-point bending fatigue tests. The fatigue behaviour was

Y. Wang; J. Bergström; C. Burman

2006-01-01

5

Adhesion comparison of low dielectric constant thin films using four point bend and nanoscratch testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the semiconductor technology moves further into scaled down device structures, modern day complexities in the fabrication processes become more prevalent. This thesis focuses on the issues associated with mechaincal and adhesion failure in low dielectric constant (low-k) thin films. In this thesis the four point bend test and nanoscratch test method was used for evaluating adhesion of boro-phosphate-silicate glass

Daniel Vilceus

2008-01-01

6

Determination of piezo-optic coefficients of crystals by means of four-point bending.  

PubMed

A technique developed recently for determining piezo-optic coefficients (POCs) of isotropic optical media, which represents a combination of digital imaging laser interferometry and a classical four-point bending method, is generalized and applied to a single-crystalline anisotropic material. The peculiarities of measuring procedures and data processing for the case of optically uniaxial crystals are described in detail. The capabilities of the technique are tested on the example of canonical nonlinear optical crystal LiNbO3. The high precision achieved in determination of the POCs for isotropic and anisotropic materials testifies that the technique should be both versatile and reliable. PMID:23759855

Krupych, Oleg; Savaryn, Viktoriya; Krupych, Andriy; Klymiv, Ivan; Vlokh, Rostyslav

2013-06-10

7

Systematic Error in Mechanical Measures of Damage During Four-Point Bending Fatigue of Cortical Bone  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone specimens is commonly measured by a modulus or stiffness degradation after normalizing tissue heterogeneity by the initial modulus or stiffness of each specimen measured during a preloading step. In the first experiment, the initial specimen modulus defined using linear elastic beam theory (LEBT) was shown to be nonlinearly dependent on the preload level, which subsequently caused systematic error in the amount and rate of damage accumulation measured by the LEBT modulus degradation. Therefore, the secant modulus is recommended for measurements of the initial specimen modulus during preloading. In the second experiment, different measures of mechanical degradation were directly compared and shown to result in widely varying estimates of damage accumulation during fatigue. After loading to 400,000 cycles, the normalized LEBT modulus decreased by 26% and the creep strain ratio decreased by 58%, but the normalized secant modulus experienced no degradation and histology revealed no significant differences in microcrack density. The LEBT modulus was shown to include the combined effect of both elastic (recovered) and creep (accumulated) strain. Therefore, at minimum, both the secant modulus and creep should be measured throughout a test to most accurately indicate damage accumulation and account for different damage mechanisms. Histology further revealed indentation of tissue adjacent to roller supports, with significant sub-surface damage beneath large indentations, accounting for 22% of the creep strain on average. The indentation of roller supports resulted in inflated measures of the LEBT modulus degradation and creep. The results of this study suggest that investigations of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone should avoid the use of four-point bending unless no other option is possible.

Landrigan, Matthew D.; Roeder, Ryan K.

2009-01-01

8

Application of acoustic emission to detect damage mechanisms of particulate filled thermoset polymeric coatings in four point bend tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, particulate filled thermoset polymeric coatings with two different coating thicknesses were subjected to four point bend loading while being monitored by acoustic emission in order to establish the failure modes of the filled polymeric coatings. The polymeric coatings were approximately 260?m and 350?m in thickness on a steel substrate, and filled with 9% by volume of calcium

Y. Xu; B. G. Mellor

2011-01-01

9

Four-point bend interlaminar shear testing of uni- and multi-directional carbon\\/epoxy composite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the paper is to investigate the possibility of extending the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) results obtained by four-point bend testing of unidirectional laminates to multidirectional laminates, such as cross-ply and quasi-isotropic, the testing of which is a common practice in the industry but has not been previously validated in the literature. An experimental database is gathered through the

P. Feraboli; K. T. Kedward

2003-01-01

10

A computer simulation of four-point bending fatigue of a rear axle assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bending fatigue test of a rear axle assembly is simulated by using a FE-integrated fatigue analysis methodology. The presented technique is based on local stress–strain approach in conjunction with two critical plane damage parameters. The stress–strain response at a material point is computed with a cyclic plasticity model coupled with a notch stress–strain approximation scheme. Linear elastic FE stress

Mehmet Firat

2011-01-01

11

Measurement of stress distribution in sandwich beams under four-point bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bending-stress distributions through thickness in sandwich-composite beams are different from those obtained by conventional\\u000a composite-beam theory because of the shear effect of the core, especially when the ratio of elastic moduli of face to core\\u000a (k=E\\u000a \\u000a f\\u000a \\/E\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a ) is large.\\u000a \\u000a Accordingly, the stress distributions in sandwich beams of composite materials with various combinations of face and core

K. Kemmochi; M. Uemura

1980-01-01

12

Effect of Contact Stresses in Four-Point Bend Testing of Graphite/Epoxy and Graphite/PMR-15 Composite BEAMS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during fa...

W. K. Binienda G. D. Roberts D. S. Papadopoulos

1992-01-01

13

Development of hybrid four-point bending test for determining mechanical properties of thin films using finite element method and response surface method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a hybrid four-point bending test method using the response surface method and the finite element analysis is proposed for determining the mechanical properties of thin films. The proposed method has two advantages: (1) it results in improved measurement accuracy because calculations are performed under conditions that are similar to the experimental conditions and take into account the contact phenomenon between the specimen and a load applicator; and (2) the method can be used to calculate not only the Young's modulus but also the Poisson's ratio. To evaluate the proposed method, 1050 aluminum alloy and electroless Ni-P depositions were examined. The examination results show that it is possible to measure the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio of thin films with improved accuracy by simulating the actual experimental conditions into account as accurately as possible.

Kinoshita, K.

2009-12-01

14

Modified Mixed-Mode Bending Test Apparatus for Measuring Delamination Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified mixed-mode bending test apparatus was developed to measure delamination fracture toughness and fatigue delamination growth rates of laminated composites. The test apparatus is compact, lightweight, and has very few attachments. The use of needle bearings and a lightweight loading lever makes the apparatus particularly suitable for fatigue tests. The design parameters of the apparatus were selected to minimize

Kunigal N. Shivakumar; John H. Crews; Vishnu S. Avvat

1998-01-01

15

Measurement of mixed-mode delamination fracture toughness of unidirectional glass\\/epoxy composites with mixed-mode bending apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiation of cracking and delamination growth in a unidirectional glass\\/epoxy composite were evaluated under mode I, mode II, and mixed mode I + II static loading. They have been expressed in terms of the total critical strain energy release rate, GTC, and the total fracture resistance, GTR. For the mixed mode I + II, a mixed-mode bending apparatus was used.

M. L. Benzeggagh; M. Kenane

1996-01-01

16

Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations.

Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch H.; Wang, Fei; Yates, Bradley R.; Jones, Kevin S.; Hansen, Ole; Kontos, Alex; Nielsen, Peter F.

2012-11-01

17

Four-point amplitude from open superstring field theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open superstring field theory action has been proposed which does not suffer from contact term divergences. In this paper, we compute the on-shell four-point tree amplitude from this action using the Giddings map. After including contributions from the quartic term in the action, the resulting amplitude agrees with the first-quantized prescription.

Nathan Berkovits; Carlos Tello Echevarria

2000-01-01

18

Four-point characterization using capacitive and ohmic contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-point characterization method is developed for semiconductor samples that have either capacitive or ohmic contacts. When capacitive contacts are used, capacitive current- and voltage-dividers result in a capacitive scaling factor which is not present in four-point measurements with only ohmic contacts. Both lock-in amplifier and pre-amplifier are used to measure low-noise response over a wide frequency range from 1 Hz -- 100 kHz. From a circuit equivalent of the complete measurement system after carefully being modeled, both the measurement frequency band and capacitive scaling factor can be determined for various four-point characterization configurations. This technique is first demonstrated with a discrete element four-point test device and then with a capacitively and ohmically contacted Hall bar sample using lock-in measurement techniques. In all cases, data fit well to a circuit simulation of the entire measurement system over the whole frequency range of interest, and best results are achieved with large area capacitive contacts and a high input-impedance preamplifier stage. Results of samples (substrates grown by Max Bichler Dieter Schuh, and Frank Fischer of the WSI) measured in the QHE regime in magnetic fields up to 15 T at temperatures down to 1.5 K will also be shown.

Zhou, Wang; Kim, Brian; Shah, Yash; Zhou, Chuanle; Grayson, Matthew; I?ik, Nebile

2012-02-01

19

Fracture toughness calculation from maximum load in four point bend tests of chevron notch specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chevron notch specimen is especially useful for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness K I_ of brittle materials. The specimen's unique advantages are: (i) ~ sharp natural crack is produced during the early stage of test loading so that no pre-cracking is required, and (2) the test load passes through a maximum at a constant, material-independent crack length\\/width ratio

Dietrich G. Munz; John L. Shannon; Raymond T. Bubsey

1980-01-01

20

CLEAVAGE FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF CLADDED BEAMS WITH AN EMBEDDED FLAW UNDER FOUR-POINT BENDING  

SciTech Connect

Semi-large scale embedded flaw beams were tested at Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez in the Czech Republic for the 6th Network for Evaluating Structural Components (NESC_VI) project. The experiments included, among others, a series of semi-large scale tests on cladded beam specimens containing simulated sub-clad flaws. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted numerical studies to analyze the constraint issues associated with embedded flaws using various fracture mechanics methods, including T-Stress, hydrostatic stress based QH stress, and the Weibull stress model. The recently developed local approach using the modified Weibull stress model combined with the Master Curve methodology was also utilized to predict the failure probability (Pf) of semi-large scale beams. For this study, the Weibull statistical model associated with the Master Curve methodology was employed to stochastically simulate the fracture toughness data using the available Master Curve reference temperature T0 for the tested base material from the "aged?WWER-440 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The study was also conducted to investigate the sensitivity of predicated probability of failure of semi-large scale beams with embedded flaw with different Weibull shape parameters, m.

Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL

2008-01-01

21

Systematic error in mechanical measures of damage during four-point bending fatigue of cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone specimens is commonly measured by a modulus or stiffness degradation after normalizing tissue heterogeneity by the initial modulus or stiffness of each specimen measured during a preloading step. In the first experiment, the initial specimen modulus defined using linear elastic beam theory (LEBT) was shown to be nonlinearly dependent on the preload level,

Matthew D. Landrigan; Ryan K. Roeder

2009-01-01

22

Magic identities for conformal four-point integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an iterative procedure for constructing classes of off-shell four-point conformal integrals which are identical. The proof of the identity is based on the conformal properties of a subintegral common for the whole class. The simplest example are the so-called `triple scalar box' and `tennis court' integrals. In this case we also give an independent proof using the method of Mellin-Barnes representation which can be applied in a similar way for general off-shell Feynman integrals.

Drummond, James M.; Henn, Johannes; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Sokatchev, Emery

2007-01-01

23

Edge Effects in Four Point Direct Current Potential Drop Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four point direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique is used to measure electrical conductivity and crack depth. It is also used, together with Hall voltage measurements, to evaluate carrier concentration and mobility in semiconductors. Here the theory of DCPD is studied for planar structures in which edge effects may have to be taken into account and correction made to ensure accuracy. The current injected at a point on the surface of an infinite plate of finite thickness gives rise to a field that can be expressed as a summation derived using image theory. Because the images are periodic in the direction perpendicular to the plate surface, the field can also be conveniently expressed in the form of a Fourier series. The two basic formulas; image summation and Fourier series, can be modified for the case where the probe points are near the edge of a plate by further applying image theory and summing image/Fourier terms in two dimensions. Both of these approaches agree with measurement results very well.

Lu, Yi; Bowler, John R.; Zhang, Chongxue; Bowler, Nicola

2009-03-01

24

Modification of the in vivo four-point loading model for studying mechanically induced bone adaptation.  

PubMed

We modified the noninvasive, in vivo technique for strain application in the tibiae of rats (Turner et al., Bone 12:73-79, 1991). The original model applies four-point bending to right tibiae via an open-loop, stepper-motor-driven spring linkage. Depending on the magnitude of applied load, the model produces new bone formation at periosteal (Ps) or endocortical surfaces (Ec.S). Due to the spring linkage, however, the range of frequencies at which loads can be applied is limited. The modified system replaces this design with an electromagnetic vibrator. A load transducer in series with the loading points allows calibration, the loaders' position to be adjusted, and cyclic loading completed under load control as a closed servo-loop. Two experiments were conducted to validate the modified system: (1) a strain gauge was applied to the lateral surface of the right tibia of 5 adult female rats and strains measured at applied loads from 10 to 60 N; and (2) the bone formation response was determined in 28 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Loading was applied as a haversine wave with a frequency of 2 Hz for 18 sec, every second day for 10 days. Peak bending loads were applied at 33, 40, 52, and 64 N, and a sham-loading group was included at 64 N. Strains in the tibiae were linear between 10 and 60 N, and the average peak strain at the Ps.S at 60 N was 2664 +/- 250 microstrain, consistent with the results of Turner's group. Lamellar bone formation was stimulated at the Ec.S by applied bending, but not by sham loading. Bending strains above a loading threshold of 40 N increased Ec lamellar bone formation rate, bone forming surface, and mineral apposition rate with a dose response similar to that reported by Turner et al. (J Bone Miner Res 9:87-97, 1994). We conclude that the modified loading system offers precision for applied loads of between 0 and 70 N, versatility in the selection of loading rates up to 20 Hz, and a reproducible bone formation response in the rat tibia. Adjustment of the loader also enables study of mechanical usage in murine tibia, an advantage with respect to the increasing variety of transgenic strains available in bone and mineral research. PMID:9737355

Forwood, M R; Bennett, M B; Blowers, A R; Nadorfi, R L

1998-09-01

25

Bending Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, bend water with the help of static electricity. Discover how a comb can cause water flowing out of a faucet to bend in a unique direction. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-02-25

26

Generalized four-point characterization method using capacitive and ohmic contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a four-point characterization method is developed for samples that have either capacitive or ohmic contacts. When capacitive contacts are used, capacitive current- and voltage-dividers result in a capacitive scaling factor not present in four-point measurements with only ohmic contacts. From a circuit equivalent of the complete measurement system, one can determine both the measurement frequency band and capacitive scaling factor for various four-point characterization configurations. This technique is first demonstrated with a discrete element four-point test device and then with a capacitively and ohmically contacted Hall bar sample over a wide frequency range (1 Hz-100 kHz) using lock-in measurement techniques. In all the cases, data fit well to a circuit simulation of the entire measurement system, and best results are achieved with large area capacitive contacts and a high input-impedance preamplifier stage. An undesirable asymmetry offset in the measurement signal is described which can arise due to asymmetric voltage contacts.

Kim, Brian S.; Zhou, Wang; Shah, Yash D.; Zhou, Chuanle; I??k, N.; Grayson, M.

2012-02-01

27

The four point explicit decoupled group (EDG) Method: a fast poisson solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to introduce a four point explicit decoupled group (EDG) iterative method as a new Poisson solver. The method is shown to be very much faster compared to existing explicit group (EG) methods due to D. J. Evans and M. J. Biggins (1982) and W. Yousif and D. J. Evans (1985). Some numerical experiments are

Abdul Rahman Abdullah

1991-01-01

28

Numerical stability of implicit four-point scheme applied to inverse linear flow routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an analysis of stability and accuracy for numerical solution of the inverse problem for the Saint Venant equations is presented. For inverse flow routing a four-point implicit difference scheme with two weighting parameters ? and ? is used. This is the same scheme which with ? = 12 and ? ? 12 is used as the Preissmann

R. Szymkiewicz

1996-01-01

29

Fast and direct measurements of the electrical properties of graphene using micro four-point probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of the electronic properties of graphene using a repositionable micro four-point probe system, which we show here to have unique advantages over measurements made on lithographically defined devices; namely speed, simplicity and lack of a need to pattern graphene. Measurements are performed in ambient, vacuum and controlled environmental conditions using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM). The

M B Klarskov; H F Dam; D H Petersen; T M Hansen; A Löwenborg; T J Booth; M S Schmidt; R Lin; P F Nielsen; P Bøggild

2011-01-01

30

Cluster magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath: four-point measurements of mirror structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cluster spacecraft have returned the first simultaneous four-point measurements of the magnetosheath. We present an analysis of data recorded on 10 November 2000, when the four spacecrafts observed an interval of strong mirrorlike activity. Correlation analysis between spacecraft pairs is used to examine the scale size of the mirror structures in three dimensions. Two examples are presented which suggest

E. A. Lucek; M. W. Dunlop; T. S. Horbury; A. Balogh; P. Brown; P. Cargill; C. Carr; K.-H. Fornaçon; E. Georgescu; T. Oddy

2001-01-01

31

Four-point correlation functions in the AdS/CFT correspondence.  

SciTech Connect

We examine correlation functions within the correspondence between gauged supergravity on anti-de Sitter space and N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in Minkowski space. The imaginary parts of four-point functions in momentum space are computed, in addition to particular examples of three-point functions. Exchange diagrams for gravitons are included. The results indicate additional structure in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong 't Hooft coupling and in the large N limit.

Chalmers, G.; Schalm, K.

1999-02-09

32

The use of four-point probe sheet resistance measurements for characterizing low dose ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two techniques for extending the capabilities of conventional four-point sheet resistance measurements to the characterization of low-dose (1010-1013 ions\\/cm2) implantation. One technique, which involves the direct measurement of sheet resistance values as great as 100 kOmega\\/□ utilizes high resistivity substrates in conjunction with a special cleaning procedure for passivating the silicon surface. The second technique relies on

Alan K. Smith; David S. Perloff; Rob Edwards; Rob Kleppinger; Michael D. Rigik

1985-01-01

33

Four-point correlators of BPS operators in N=4 SYM at order g 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the large N degeneracy in the structure of the four-point amplitudes of 12-BPS operators of arbitrary weight k in perturbative N=4 SYM theory. At one loop (order g2) this degeneracy manifests itself in a smaller number of independent conformal invariant functions describing the amplitude, compared to AdS5 supergravity results. To study this phenomenon at the two-loop level (order

G. Arutyunov; S. Penati; A. Santambrogio; E. Sokatchev

2003-01-01

34

Cluster observes the Earth's magnetopause: coordinated four-point magnetic field measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four-spacecraft Cluster mission has provided high-time resolution measurements of the magnetic field from closely maintained separation distances (200-600 km). Four-point coverage of the Earth's magnetopause began on the 9 and 10 November 2000 when all spacecraft first exited the dusk-side magnetosphere at about 19:00 LT, providing extensive coverage of the near flank magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layer on re-entry

M. W. Dunlop; A. Balogh; P. Cargill; R. C. Elphic; K.-H. Fornaçon; E. Georgescu; F. Sedgemore-Schulthess

2001-01-01

35

Manifest Ultraviolet Behavior in the Three-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=8 Supergravity  

SciTech Connect

Using the method of maximal cuts, we obtain a form of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude of N = 8 supergravity in which all ultraviolet cancellations are made manifest. The Feynman loop integrals that appear have a graphical representation with only cubic vertices, and numerator factors that are quadratic in the loop momenta, rather than quartic as in the previous form. This quadratic behavior reflects cancellations beyond those required for finiteness, and matches the quadratic behavior of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. By direct integration we confirm that no additional cancellations remain in the N = 8 supergravity amplitude, thus demonstrating that the critical dimension in which the first ultraviolet divergence occurs at three loops is D{sub c} = 6. We also give the values of the three-loop divergences in D = 7, 9, 11. In addition, we present the explicitly color-dressed three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Johansson, H.; /UCLA; Roiban, R.; /Penn State U.

2008-09-03

36

One-loop four-point amplitudes in pure and matter-coupled {N}? 4 supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct all supergravity theories that can be obtained through factorized orbifold projections of {N}=8 supergravity, exposing their double-copy structure, and calculate their one-loop four-point scattering amplitudes. We observe a unified structure in both matter and gravity amplitudes, and demonstrate that the four-graviton amplitudes are insensitive to the precise nature of the matter couplings. We show that these amplitudes are identical for the two different realizations of {N}=4 supergravity with two vector multiplets, and argue that this feature extends to all multiplicities and loop orders as well as to higher dimensions. We also construct a selected set of supergravities obtained through a non-factorized orbifold action. Furthermore we calculate one-loop four-point amplitudes for all pure super-Yang-Mills theories with less-than-maximal supersymmetry using the duality between color and kinematics, finding here a unified expression that holds for all four gluon amplitudes in these theories. We recover the related amplitudes of factorized {N}? 4 supergravities employing the double-copy construction. We observe a requirement that the four-point loop-level amplitudes have non-local integrand representations, exhibiting a mild non-locality in the form of inverse powers of the three external Mandelstam invariants. These are the first loop-level color-kinematic-satisfying representations in reduced supersymmetry theories.

Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Chiodaroli, Marco; Günaydin, Murat; Roiban, Radu

2013-03-01

37

Manifest ultraviolet behavior for the three-loop four-point amplitude of N=8 supergravity  

SciTech Connect

Using the method of maximal cuts, we obtain a form of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude of N=8 supergravity in which all ultraviolet cancellations are made manifest. The Feynman loop integrals that appear have a graphical representation with only cubic vertices, and numerator factors that are quadratic in the loop momenta, rather than quartic as in the previous form. This quadratic behavior reflects cancellations beyond those required for finiteness, and matches the quadratic behavior of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. By direct integration we confirm that no additional cancellations remain in the N=8 supergravity amplitude, thus demonstrating that the critical dimension in which the first ultraviolet divergence occurs at three loops is D{sub c}=6. We also give the values of the three-loop divergences in D=7, 9, 11. In addition, we present the explicitly color-dressed three-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Dixon, L. J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Roiban, R. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2008-11-15

38

Pion and $\\\\rho$-meson form factors using four-point functions in N$_F$=2 QCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hadron wave functions and form factors can be extracted using four-point correlators. Stochastic techniques are used to estimate the all to all propagators, which are required for the exact calculation of four-point functions. We apply the so called one-end trick to evaluate meson four-point functions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique in the case of the pion and the

Constantia Alexandrou; Giannis Koutsou

2007-01-01

39

Spatially resolving variations in giant magnetoresistance, undetectable with four-point probe measurements, using infrared microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorefractive infrared (IR) microspectroscopy is demonstrated to resolve spatial variations in giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and, by modelling, provide an insight into the origin of the variations. Spatial variations are shown to be masked in conventional four-point probe electrical or IR spectral measurements. IR microspectroscopy was performed at the SMIS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron, modified to enable measurements in magnetic fields. A GMR gradient was induced in a CoFe/Cu multilayer sample by annealing in a temperature gradient. Modelling revealed that variations in GMR at 900 Oe could be attributed to local variations in interlayer coupling locally changing the switching field.

Kelley, C. S.; Thompson, S. M.; Illman, M. D.; LeFrançois, S.; Dumas, P.

2012-10-01

40

Evaluation of crystalline silicon solar cells by current-modulating four-point-probe method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current-modulating four-point-probe method (CMR) is proposed as a method to determine the conversion efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells. This technique was implemented based on the comprehensive consideration of multiple problems or factors that are present in crystalline Si wafers and the subsequent thermal processes during solar cell fabrication, rather than employ conventional lifetime mapping or diffusion length mapping. A single parameter measurement of Ith-Is from the CMR method reflects the effective resistivity or minority carriers of an entire wafer, to quickly characterize the quality or conversion efficiency of all kinds of crystalline Si.

Pan, Wugen; Fujiwara, Kozo; Uda, Satoshi

2013-07-01

41

Spatially resolving variations in giant magnetoresistance, undetectable with four-point probe measurements, using infrared microspectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Magnetorefractive infrared (IR) microspectroscopy is demonstrated to resolve spatial variations in giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and, by modelling, provide an insight into the origin of the variations. Spatial variations are shown to be masked in conventional four-point probe electrical or IR spectral measurements. IR microspectroscopy was performed at the SMIS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron, modified to enable measurements in magnetic fields. A GMR gradient was induced in a CoFe/Cu multilayer sample by annealing in a temperature gradient. Modelling revealed that variations in GMR at 900 Oe could be attributed to local variations in interlayer coupling locally changing the switching field.

Kelley, C. S.; Thompson, S. M.; Illman, M. D. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, North Yorkshire YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); LeFrancois, S.; Dumas, P. [SMIS Beamline, SOLEIL Synchrotron, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, Paris, BP 48 91192 (France)

2012-10-15

42

Conjectures for large NN=4 superconformal chiral primary four point functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expression for the four point function for 12-BPS operators belonging to the [0,p,0]SU(4) representation in N=4 superconformal theories at strong coupling in the large N limit is suggested for any p. It is expressed in terms of the four point integrals defined by integration over AdS and agrees with, and was motivated by, results for p=2,3,4 obtained via the AdS/CFT correspondence. It is assumed all long multiplets gain an anomalous dimension in the large N limit to leading order in 1/N. Using crossing symmetry and unitarity, the detailed form is then dictated by the requirement that at large N the contribution of long multiplets with twist less than 2p, and which, if present in the operator product expansion for two [0,p,0]12-BPS operators would not have anomalous dimensions, should be absent. This requires a non-trivial cancellation with corresponding free field contributions.

Dolan, F. A.; Nirschl, M.; Osborn, H.

2006-08-01

43

Yukawa corrections from four-point functions in intersecting D6-brane models  

SciTech Connect

We discuss corrections to the Yukawa matrices of the standard model (SM) fermions in intersecting D-brane models due to four-point interactions. Recently, an intersecting D-brane model has been found where it is possible to obtain correct masses and mixings for all quarks as well as the tau lepton. However, the masses for the first two charged leptons come close to the right values but are not quite correct. Since the electron and muon are quite light, it is likely that there are additional corrections to their masses which cannot be neglected. With this in mind, we consider contributions to the SM fermion mass matrices from four-point interactions. In an explicit model, we show that it is indeed possible to obtain the SM fermion masses and mixings which are a better match to those resulting from experimental data extrapolated at the unification scale when these corrections are included. These corrections may have broader application to other models.

Chen, C.-M.; Mayes, V. E. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Li Tianjun [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Nanopoulos, D. V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, Texas 77381 (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, Athens 10679 (Greece)

2008-11-15

44

Measurements of Wavenumber Spectra in the Solar Wind Using Four-Point Data from Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy spectra of the solar wind fluctuations have been extensively investigated by a number of spacecraft for almost four decades, but the analyses were made primarily on the basis of single point measurements. We determine energy spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations directly in the wavenumber domain using four-point measurements from the Cluster spacecraft. The wavenumber spectra exhibit features that are reminiscent of turbulence: an inertial range with the spectral slope approximately -5/3 at smaller wavenumbers; and a dissipation range at larger wavenumbers. This justifies the use of the frequency spectra in the earlier studies. Furthermore, we attempt to determine the spectra in the parallel and perpendicular direction to the mean magnetic field and also those of three invariants in ideal magnetohydrodymanics: total energy, cross helicity, and magnetic helicity using both velocity (from PEACE) and magnetic field measurements (FGM) on four spacecraft.

Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.; Treumann, R. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

2006-12-01

45

Noncommutative GUT inspired theories and the UV finiteness of the fermionic four point functions  

SciTech Connect

We show at one loop and first order in the noncommutativity parameters that in any noncommutative GUT inspired theory the total contribution to the fermionic four point functions coming only from the interaction between fermions and gauge bosons, though not UV finite by power counting, is UV finite at the end of the day. We also show that this is at odds with the general case for noncommutative gauge theories - chiral or otherwise - defined by means of Seiberg-Witten maps that are the same - barring the gauge group representation - for left-handed spinors as for right-handed spinors. We believe that the results presented in this paper tilt the scales to the side of noncommutative GUTS and noncommutative GUT inspired versions of the standard model.

Martin, C. P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tamarit, C. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106-4030 (United States)

2009-09-15

46

Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance (RS) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations.

Benjamin, M. C.; Hillard, R. J.; Borland, J. O.

2005-08-01

47

Finite element analysis of resistivity measurement with four point probe in a diamond anvil cell  

SciTech Connect

Using finite element analysis, we studied the steady current field distribution under the configuration of four point probe method for resistivity measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Based on the theoretical analysis, we made a correction to the formula by Valdes [L. B. Valdes, Proc IRE, 42, 420 (1958)]. The results show that our formula provides more accurate determination of sample resistivity, especially when the sample thickness is less than the probe spacing. We found that finite size of the electrode could lead to significant errors in resistivity measurement for semiconducting samples. We also found that the probe spacing is a key factor in the resistivity measurement accuracy for samples in DAC. When the sample thickness t is close to the probe spacing s, the error becomes larger and reaches a maximum.

Huang, Xiaowei; Gao, Chunxiao; Li, Ming; He, Chunyuan; Hao, Aimin; Zhang, Dongmei; Yu, Cuiling; Wang, Yue; Sang, Chong; Cui, Xiaoyan; Zou, Guangtian [State Key Laboratory for Superhard Materials, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2007-03-15

48

Finite element analysis of resistivity measurement with four point probe in a diamond anvil cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using finite element analysis, we studied the steady current field distribution under the configuration of four point probe method for resistivity measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Based on the theoretical analysis, we made a correction to the formula by Valdes [L. B. Valdes, Proc IRE, 42, 420 (1958)]. The results show that our formula provides more accurate determination of sample resistivity, especially when the sample thickness is less than the probe spacing. We found that finite size of the electrode could lead to significant errors in resistivity measurement for semiconducting samples. We also found that the probe spacing is a key factor in the resistivity measurement accuracy for samples in DAC. When the sample thickness t is close to the probe spacing s, the error becomes larger and reaches a maximum.

Huang, Xiaowei; Gao, Chunxiao; Li, Ming; He, Chunyuan; Hao, Aimin; Zhang, Dongmei; Yu, Cuiling; Wang, Yue; Sang, Chong; Cui, Xiaoyan; Zou, Guangtian

2007-03-01

49

Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

Lu, Y.; Bowler, N.; Bowler, J. R.; Huang, Y.

2009-07-01

50

Bone Bending  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about bones, learners' jaws will drop when a bone is tied in a knot! A rib or turkey/chicken leg bone is placed in a jar of vinegar. After two weeks, the calcium in the bone dissolves in the vinegar, so the bone is able to bend, sometimes into a knot. This activity can also be done with an egg, which is described at the end of this lesson. Use this experiment to illustrate the anatomy of bones and the process of ossification. This activity is featured on pp.13-14 of the "Bones: More Than They Appear" unit of study for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade learners.

Indianapolis, The C.; Creative Street, Inc.

2012-05-10

51

In situ Measurements of the Electric Rock Parameters by Means of a Wenner Four-Point Arrangement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different electrode materials for rock contacting purposes were tested and their efficiencies were compared. For a wattless collection of the potentials of the two inner points of a Wenner four-point arrangement impedance transformers with very high input...

M. Oberladstatter C. Grissemann N. Nessler

1974-01-01

52

Isothermal cyclic bend fatigue test method for lead free solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal three-point and four-point cyclic bend fatigue test method have been developed for Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints. Reported bend tests from the literature were conducted at room temperature (25degC) and there is lack of data for lead-free solder joints. In this study, VQFN assembly with Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder was tested under three-point and four-point cyclic bending load at room temperature (25degC)

John H. L. Pang; Fa-Xing Che

2006-01-01

53

Clay mineral variations in Four-Point Bayou, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Cores of unconsolidated sediments from the Four-Point Bayou area, representing an interdistributary basin deposit less than 1000 years old, were examined for variations in clay mineralogy. Two specific environments of deposition, interpreted from grain-size analyses and sedimentary structures, were compared: a sand-rich natural levee deposit and an overlying clay-rich interdistributary bay. Analyses of the < 2 ..mu..m clay fraction using Schultz's method show smectite to be the predominant clay in both environments. The relative abundance of kaolinite:illite:smectite in the natural levee, near-channel deposits is 1:3:6. In bay deposits, it is 2:3:5. Hydraulic fractionation of clays during deposition should result in a high K/I ratio in natural levees and a low ratio in bay deposits, the reverse of what was observed. Kaolinite should have been enriched in natural levees at the expense of illite. Other processes must have been operative either at the time of deposition or during early diagenesis of these deposits. Possible mechanisms include localized redistribution and sorting or chemical equilibration with early pore fluids associated with saltwater intrusion. The mixing of clays from different sources could also account for the observed differences.

Baxter, P.; Ferrell, R.E.

1987-05-01

54

Characterization of Four-Points-Pinned Ring-Shaped Silicon Microelectromechanical Systems Resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-points-inner-pinned ring-shaped microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonator has been investigated. The simulated comparison between disk- and ring-shaped resonators indicates that the amplitudes of the ring-shaped resonators are more than ten times larger than those of the disk-shaped ones for modes with the same resonant frequency. Three types of anchor configuration for the ring-shaped resonators, inner-pinned, outer-pinned, and center-fixed, were compared. The results show that, for the inner-pinned ring-shaped resonator, three fundamental resonant modes occur close to each other, although this resonator is the smallest and does not suffer from the effect of misalignment as a result of one mask fabrication. A new method to identify each fundamental resonant mode has been proposed and successfully adapted for evaluating the frequency characteristics of fabricated resonators. The fabricated ring-shaped resonator had a radial-contour-common (RCC) resonant mode at 1.615 MHz with a Q-factor of over 30,000. These values agreed at 98.9% accuracy with those of the simulated resonator.

Tomohiro Oka,; Hiroshi Tanigawa,; Kenichiro Suzuki,

2010-06-01

55

Self-consistent four-point closure for transport in steady random flows.  

PubMed

Ensemble averaging of advection-dispersion equations describing transport of a passive scalar in incompressible random velocity fields requires a closure approximation. Commonly used approaches, such as the direct interaction approximation and large-eddy simulations as well as equivalent renormalization schemes, employ so-called two-point (or one-loop) closures. These approaches have proven to be adequate for transport in zero-mean (unbiased) time-dependent random velocity fields with increasing accuracy for decreasing temporal coherence. In the opposite limit of steady velocity fields with finite bias, however, these schemes fail to predict effective transport properties both quantitatively and qualitatively, leading to an obvious inconsistency for transverse dispersion in two spatial dimensions. For this case, two-point closures predict that macroscopic transverse dispersion increases as the square root of the disorder variance while it has been proven rigorously that there is no disorder-induced contribution to macroscopic transverse dispersion for purely advective transport. Furthermore, two-point closures significantly underestimate the disorder-induced contribution to longitudinal dispersion. We derive a four-point closure for stochastically averaged transport equations that goes beyond classical one-loop schemes and demonstrate that it is exact for transverse dispersion and correctly predicts an increase of the longitudinal disorder-induced dispersion coefficient with the square of the variance of the strong disorder. The predicted values of asymptotic longitudinal dispersion coefficients are consistent with those obtained via Monte Carlo random walk simulations. PMID:18643371

Dentz, Marco; Tartakovsky, Daniel M

2008-06-17

56

Matching four-point functions in higher spin AdS3/CFT2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working in the context of the proposed duality between 3D higher spin gravity and 2D W N minimal model CFTs, we compute a class of four-point functions in the bulk and on the boundary, and demonstrate precise agreement between them. This is the first computation of a correlator in 3D higher spin gravity whose functional form is not fixed by conformal invariance. In the bulk we make use of elegant methods to solve the scalar field equation using only matrix manipulations, while on the CFT side we employ the Coulomb gas representation. Comparison is made in the semiclassical limit, in which the central charge is taken to infinity at fixed N. Along the way, we establish the rules for computing correlation functions of multi-trace operators in higher spin gravity. The method involves solving the scalar master field equation in a general representation of the bulk gauge algebra. Although most of our work is carried out for the bulk theory based on SL(N) × SL(N), we also discuss how our methods can be adapted to the hs[ ?] × hs[ ?] theory, which is relevant in the 't Hooft limit.

Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric

2013-05-01

57

A study of cyclic bending reliability of bare-die-type chip-scale packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both experimental and numerical studies were carried out in this work to investigate the second-level reliability of a bare-die-type chip-scale package, named ultra-CSP, under cyclic bending conditions. We performed four-point cyclic bending tests with combinations of deflection amplitudes up to 3 mm and excitation frequencies up to 2 Hz. It was observed from the bending experiments that the influence of

Yi-Shao Lai; Tong Hong Wang; Han-Hui Tsai; Jenq-Dah Wu

2004-01-01

58

Analysis of pregnant occupant crash exposure and the potential effectiveness of four-point seatbelts in far side crashes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present the crash exposure patterns of pregnant occupants and to evaluate the effectiveness of restraint systems, including four-point seatbelts, in far side crashes. The NASS CDS database revealed that 53.0 % of pregnant occupants are exposed to frontal crashes while 13.5 % are exposed to far side impacts. Given that far side crashes were the second leading crash mode after frontal impacts, a previously validated MADYMO computer model of a 30 week pregnant occupant was utilized to investigate pregnant occupant biomechanics in far side crashes. Three impact speeds (5, 15, and 25 mph) were simulated with four restraint conditions: unbelted, lap-belt only, three-point belt, and a four-point belt. Direct abdominal contact from the shoulder strap of the three-point or four-point belt caused uterine-placental strain in contrast to the inertial loading induced strain in the lap-belt and unbelted cases. Overall, the three-point and four-point belt systems provide superior restraint effectiveness for the pregnant occupant compared to the lap-belt and no restraint cases. The four-point resulted in slightly better performance than the three-point belt by reducing the fetal injury risk and occupant excursion. PMID:16968637

Duma, Stefan M; Moorcroft, David M; Gabler, Hampton C; Manoogian, Sarah M; Stitzel, Joel D; Duma, Greg G

2006-01-01

59

Analysis of Pregnant Occupant Crash Exposure and the Potential Effectiveness of Four-Point Seatbelts in Far Side Crashes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present the crash exposure patterns of pregnant occupants and to evaluate the effectiveness of restraint systems, including four-point seatbelts, in far side crashes. The NASS CDS database revealed that 53.0 % of pregnant occupants are exposed to frontal crashes while 13.5 % are exposed to far side impacts. Given that far side crashes were the second leading crash mode after frontal impacts, a previously validated MADYMO computer model of a 30 week pregnant occupant was utilized to investigate pregnant occupant biomechanics in far side crashes. Three impact speeds (5, 15, and 25 mph) were simulated with four restraint conditions: unbelted, lap-belt only, three-point belt, and a four-point belt. Direct abdominal contact from the shoulder strap of the three-point or four-point belt caused uterine-placental strain in contrast to the inertial loading induced strain in the lap-belt and unbelted cases. Overall, the three-point and four-point belt systems provide superior restraint effectiveness for the pregnant occupant compared to the lap-belt and no restraint cases. The four-point resulted in slightly better performance than the three-point belt by reducing the fetal injury risk and occupant excursion.

Duma, Stefan M.; Moorcroft, David M.; Gabler, Hampton C.; Manoogian, Sarah M.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Duma, Greg G.

2006-01-01

60

Analysis of Pregnant Occupant Crash Exposure and the Potential Effectiveness of Four-Point Seatbelts in Far Side Crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present the crash exposure patterns of pregnant occupants and to evaluate the effectiveness of restraint systems, including four-point seatbelts, in far side crashes. The NASS CDS database revealed that 53.0 % of pregnant occupants are exposed to frontal crashes while 13.5 % are exposed to far side impacts. Given that far side crashes

Stefan M. Duma; David M. Moorcroft; Hampton C. Gabler; Sarah M. Manoogian; Joel D. Stitzel; Greg G. Duma

61

Measurements of the four-point coherence function of a laser radiation field in a turbulent atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an experimental investigation of the four-point coherence function of a complex field of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere are presented. The measurements were conducted in a region of random focusings of radiation intensity at large values of the wave parameter. The results of the measurements are compared with the results of analogous measurements but at small

A. S. Gurvich; V. Kan

1979-01-01

62

In situ strain profiling of elastoplastic bending in Ti6Al4V alloy by synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic and plastic strain evolution under four-point bending has been studied by synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. Measured strain profiles across the specimen thickness showed an increasing linear elastic strain gradient under increasing four-point bending load up to ~2 kN. The bulk elastic modulus of Ti-6Al-4V was determined as 118 GPa. The onset of plastic deformation was found to set

M. Croft; V. Shukla; E. K. Akdogan; N. Jisrawi; Z. Zhong; R. Sadangi; A. Ignatov; L. Balarinni; K. Horvath; T. Tsakalakos; T Taskalakos

2009-01-01

63

On four-point functions and integrability in mathcal{N} = 4 SYM: from weak to strong coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using integrability techniques, we compute four-point functions of single trace gauge-invariant operators in mathcal{N} = 4 SYM to leading order at weak coupling. Our results are valid for operators of arbitrary size. In particular, we study the limit in which two of the four operators are taken to be much smaller than the others. We show that in this limit our weak coupling result matches with the strong coupling result in the Frolov-Tseytlin limit.

Caetano, João; Escobedo, Jorge

2011-09-01

64

Model-based characterization of homogeneous metal plates by four-point alternating current potential drop measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the conductivity, relative permeability, and thickness of homogeneous metal plates from four-point measurements of alternating current potential drop (ACPD) over the frequency range 1 Hz to 10 kHz. We developed simple analytical expressions from which these parameters can be calculated. In the low-frequency regime, in which the measured voltage tends to a constant, real value, the relative permeability

Nicola Bowler; Yongqiang Huang

2005-01-01

65

Single grain boundary characterization of Nb-doped SrTiO3 bicrystals using ac four-point impedance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AC four-point impedance spectroscopy has been applied to Nb-doped SrTiO3 bicrystals. Due to the simplified geometry and highly conductive bulk of the bicrystal, the reference impedance of the electrode was significantly reduced, validating the applicability of ac four-point impedance spectroscopy for electroceramics. DC current-voltage characteristics without any interference due to electrodes confirmed these ac measurements. Using ac four-point impedance spectroscopy,

Jin-Ha Hwang; Kevin D. Johnson; Thomas O. Mason; Vinayak P. Dravid

2000-01-01

66

Single grain boundary characterization of Nb-doped SrTiO3 bicrystals using ac four-point impedance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AC four-point impedance spectroscopy has been applied to Nb-doped SrTiO3 bicrystals. Due to the simplified geometry and highly conductive bulk of the bicrystal, the reference impedance of the electrode was significantly reduced, validating the applicability of ac four-point impedance spectroscopy for electroceramics. DC current–voltage characteristics without any interference due to electrodes confirmed these ac measurements. Using ac four-point impedance spectroscopy,

Jin-Ha Hwang; Kevin D. Johnson; Thomas O. Mason; Vinayak P. Dravid

2000-01-01

67

Design for Cyclic Bending Reliability of Large PBGA Assembly Using Experimental and Numerical Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, four-point cyclic bend test was conducted for PBGA (plastic ball grid array) assembly with Sn-3.5Ag lead free solder joint. Bending fatigue life of solder joint was recorded by measuring resistance of the designed daisy-chain for solder joints. Failure analysis was performed using dye penetration and the critical solder joint location was observed. Then, comprehensive finite element modeling

Fa Xing Che; D. Yap; Jing En Luan; Kim Yong Goh; Yi Yi Ma

2008-01-01

68

- and Four-Point Correlators of Operators Dual to Folded String Solutions in AdS5 × S5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has been progress on the calculation of n-point correlation functions with two "heavy" (with large quantum numbers) states at strong coupling. We extend these findings by computing three-point functions corresponding to a folded three-spin semiclassical string with one angular momentum in AdS and two equal spins in the sphere. We recover previous results as limiting cases. Also, following a recent paper by Buchbinder and Tseytlin, we provide relevant four-point functions and consider some of their limits.

Arnaudov, D.; Rashkov, R. C.; Vetsov, T.

69

Apparatus for measuring fluid flow  

DOEpatents

Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

Smith, Jack E. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, David G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

70

Discovering Gee's Bend Quilts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…

Johnson, Ann

2008-01-01

71

Fusion rules and four-point functions in the AdS{sub 3} Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model  

SciTech Connect

We study the operator product expansion in the AdS{sub 3} Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) model. The operator-product expansion of primary fields and their spectral flow images is computed from the analytic continuation of the expressions in the H{sub 3}{sup +} WZNW model, adding spectral flow. We argue that the symmetries of the affine algebra require a truncation which establishes the closure of the fusion rules on the Hilbert space of the theory. Although the physical mechanism determining the decoupling is not completely understood, we present several consistency checks on the results. A preliminary analysis of factorization allows to obtain some properties of four-point functions involving fields in generic sectors of the theory, to verify that they agree with the spectral flow selection rules and to show that the truncation must be realized in physical amplitudes for consistency.

Baron, Walter H. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de Correo 67-Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nunez, Carmen A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de Correo 67-Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2009-04-15

72

Comparing dynamic correlation lengths from an approximation to the four-point dynamic susceptibility and from the picosecond vibrational dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently an alternative approach to the determination of dynamic correlation lengths ? for supercooled liquids, based on the properties of the slow (picosecond) vibrational dynamics, was carried out [Hong, Novikov, and Sokolov, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.83.061508 83, 061508 (2011)]. Although these vibrational measurements are typically conducted well below the glass transition temperature, the liquid is frozen at Tg, whereby structural correlations, density variations, etc., manifested at low temperatures as spatial fluctuations of local elastic constants, can be related to a dynamic heterogeneity length scale for the liquid state. We compare ? from this method to values calculated using an approximation to the four-point dynamic susceptibility. For 26 different materials we find good correlation between the two measures; moreover, the pressure dependences are consistent within the large experimental error. However, ? from Boson peak measurements above Tg have a different, and unrealistic, temperature dependence.

Fragiadakis, D.; Casalini, R.; Roland, C. M.

2011-10-01

73

Analytic results for planar three-loop four-point integrals from a Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a recently suggested new strategy to solve differential equations for master integrals for families of Feynman integrals. After a set of master integrals has been found using the integration-by-parts method, the crucial point of this strategy is to introduce a new basis where all master integrals are pure functions of uniform transcendentality. In this paper, we apply this method to all planar three-loop four-point massless on-shell master integrals. We explicitly find such a basis, and show that the differential equations are of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type. We explain how to solve the latter to all orders in the dimensional regularization parameter ?, including all boundary constants, in a purely algebraic way. The solution is expressed in terms of harmonic polylogarithms. We explicitly write out the Laurent expansion in ? for all master integrals up to weight six.

Henn, Johannes M.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

2013-07-01

74

Flexible connection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A flexible connection apparatus is disclosed for accommodating relative movement between a compliant offshore structure and the sea floor. The compliant offshore structure supports a fluid-carrying system which conveys fluids between the sea floor and the structure. The fluid-carrying system includes a riser and a helical flowline. The lower end of the riser is connected to the sea floor. The first end of the helical flowline is connected to the upper end of the riser and the second end of the helical flowline is connected to the structure. As the compliant offshore structure is displaced from its vertical equilibrium position due to loading forces induced by wind, waves, and ocean currents, the helical flowline elastically flexes through torsional deflection to accommodate such movement. In a preferred embodiment of the apparatus, a wellhead is connected between the riser and the helical flowline such that the centerline of the helical flowline is substantially vertical. In yet another embodiment of the apparatus, a bending flowline is connected between a wellhead and the structure with its centerline being substantially horizontal to accommodate movement of the structure through bending deflection rather than by torsional deflection.

Barth, J.R.; Fowler, J.R.; Hitchcock, W.A.; Miller, J.E.

1984-06-26

75

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)|

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

76

Electrotherapy apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus for producing analgesia in a patient through electrical signals applied through electrodes to a patient's body, and methods of treating patients using the apparatus. The apparatus comprises a signal generator arranged to generate a biphasic waveform comprising successive cycles each containing a positive and negative pulse.

Littlewood; Roger Kenneth (Axbridge Somerset, GB); Macdonald; Alexander John Ranald (Bristol Avon, GB); Coates; Timothy William (Winscombe Somerset, GB); Gillbe; Ivor Stephen (Bristol Avon, GB)

2013-04-23

77

Micromachine friction test apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

78

Christian Bend Community Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of design, construction, performance, and educational opportunity are described for a small, simple passive solar community center in Christian Bend, Tennessee. This 2500-square-foot structure was designed in cooperation with this community of 75 families by TVA architects and was built entirely by volunteer labor. An educational process paralleled all phases of this building, begining with programming sessions, continuing through

Keysa

1980-01-01

79

Measuring graphene's bending stiffness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene's unusual combination of in-plane strength and out-of-plane flexibility makes it promising for mechanical applications. A key value is the bending stiffness, which microscopic theories and measurements of phonon modes in graphite put at ?0=1.2 eV.^1 However, theories of the effects of thermal fluctuations in 2D membranes predict that the bending stiffness at longer length scales could be orders of magnitude higher.^2,3 This macroscopic value has not been measured. Here we present the first direct measurement of monolayer graphene's bending stiffness, made by mechanically lifting graphene off a surface in a liquid and observing both motion induced by thermal fluctuations and the deflection caused by gravity's effect on added weights. These experiments reveal a value ?eff=12 keV at room temperature --- four orders of magnitude higher than ?0. These results closely match theoretical predictions of the effects of thermally-induced fluctuations which effectively thicken the membrane, dramatically increasing its bending stiffness at macroscopic length scales. [1] A. Fasolino et al., Nat. Mater. (2007) [2] D. R. Nelson and L. Peliti, J Physique (1987) [3] F. L. Braghin and N. Hasselmann, Phys Rev B (2010)

Blees, Melina; Barnard, Arthur; Roberts, Samantha; Kevek, Joshua W.; Ruyack, Alexander; Wardini, Jenna; Ong, Peijie; Zaretski, Aliaksandr; Wang, Siping; McEuen, Paul L.

2013-03-01

80

Palmetto Bend Project, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction is proposed of the Palmetto Bend Dam on the Navidad River, Edna, Texas. The project will change land use on about 18,400 acres, of which 11,300 acres will be inundated. Nine families will be displaced. The project will change the fresh-water ...

1972-01-01

81

Stiffened plates in bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semianalytical method developed by the author for the analysis of bare plates has been extended to the static analysis of stiffened plates. Both concentric and eccentric stiffeners have been considered. Deposition of the stiffener eccentric to the plate gives rise to axial and bending displacements in the middle plane of the plate. Three coupled differential equations are resulted due

M. Mukhopadhyay

1994-01-01

82

On the working accuracy of laser bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bending of sheet metal by laser-induced thermal stresses (laser bending) can be used for rapid prototyping and other bending tasks that demand a high flexibility of the process. Experimental investigations on laser bending in the range of the temperature gradient mechanism showed an acceptable reproducibility of the bending angle and the bending radius for a wide range of bending actions.

T Hennige; S Holzer; F Vollertsen; M Geiger

1997-01-01

83

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an oscillating electroscope, an apparatus to verify the time interval between successive events in nuclear decay, and electronic circuits that are the analog of consecutive reactions. (SL)|

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

84

BENDING FATIGUE CHARACTERISTICS OF NITINOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bending is the predominant deformation mode in Nitinol medical devices and components. Many of these applications also impose cyclic bending loading conditions. The present study of rotary bend fatigue provides insight into the behaviour of Nitinol under zero mean-strain conditions. This investigation also gives a better understanding about the influence of the surface condition, transformation temperature and test temperature on

A. Wick; Y. Gong; J. Fino; J. Sheriff; A. R. Pelton

85

Mechanical Characterization of Coatings Using Microbeam Bending and Digital Image Correlation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for characterizing end-supported microbeams of coating materials is presented. Microbeams are fabricated using\\u000a micro-EDM machining to isolate the material under investigation from the underlying substrate. Three- and four-point bending\\u000a is realized by a custom-built microspecimen testing system, and digital image correlation is employed to capture full-field\\u000a strains and displacements in theses microbeams. These experiments provide the foundation

C. Eberl; D. S. Gianola; K. J. Hemker

2010-01-01

86

Effects of Hole-size and Environment on the Mechanical Behaviour of a Quasi-isotropic AS4/3501-6 Laminate in Tension, Compression and Bending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of open-hole-tension (OHT), open- hole-compression (OHC) and open-hole-four-point-bend (OHB) tests conducted on AS4/3501-6 quasi-isotropic (45/0/- 45/90)2s laminates in the room temperature dry (RTD) and elevated temperat...

P. J. Callus

2007-01-01

87

Apparatus Review: Cenco Wave Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some apparatus from the 19th century illustrates the phenomena of physics so well that it crops up again in the 21st century. An example is the combined transverse and longitudinal wave machine in Fig. 1. This is in the current Cenco/Sargent-Welch catalog under the name of ``Wave Apparatus'' (Cat. No. WLS-1755-90) and sells for $49.95.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2009-01-01

88

Conjoint bending torsion fatigue — fractography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractography of conjoint bending torsion fatigue (CBTF) has been reported in this paper for a superalloy (Nimonic 75A) material used in gas turbine engines. The fracture surface features were characteristic of bending fatigue (BF), a distinct area of CBTF, and a region between the BF and CBTF, overloading (OL). Striations were documented in the two former regions, whereas ductile

Tarun Goswami

2002-01-01

89

New TE01 Waveguide Bends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new TE01 waveguide bends are suggested. The first version is resulted by the synthesis procedure which generates an optimal profile of the bending curvature. The second version is based on an eigen mode propagating in elliptic cross-section waveguide. The curvature profile is optimized by means of the theory of Chebyshev's transducers.

G. G. Denisov; S. V. Kuzikov; D. I. Sobolev; A. A. Vikharev

2006-01-01

90

Bending instabilities in stellar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the physics of bending instabilities in inhomogeneous stellar systems and propose a simple criterion for stability. We derive the bending modes of a family of thin disk models and show that long-wavelength modes in thin systems with realistic density profiles are not always stabilized by gravity, in contrast to an infinite sheet. We also present the results of

David Merritt; J. A. Sellwood

1994-01-01

91

Tungsten bending under hydrogen irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bending of a thin tungsten strip, fixed at one of the ends, under hydrogen plasma exposure was studied by the laser deflection technique. Two stages of the bending were observed: a rapid bending of the stripe outwards the plasma and then a slow bending in the opposite direction that is towards the plasma. The first stage has been concluded to be due to creation of stresses in the near-surface layer, and the second one - due to stresses of the opposite sign, possibly provoked/accompanied by generation of blisters on the plasma exposed surface. Calculations of the fluence dependence of the bending curvature based on the models of hydrogen supersaturation in the near-surface layer and contraction of the surface due to blister formation agree with the experimental data.

Moshkunov, K. A.; Schmid, K.

2012-05-01

92

Protection cover for pipe bends  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A protection cover for pipe bends produced from a plastic material by deep drawing into a shape which is similar to the shape which could be obtained if an integral and complete cover installed on a pipe bend had been cut along the interior generatrics line of the pipe bend and spread apart and opened up. The shape of the present protection cover is further modified by having a cup-shaped part generally elongated and rounded in transverse cross-section and having integral therewith tail sections located at each short side of the cup-shaped part. Each of the tail sections have a concave bend therein. The overall shape of the protection cover is such that when the cover is applied over an insulated pipe bend, the cover will have on its interior side a curvature radius that is essentially greater than the curvature radius of its exterior side, and the two curvature radii will have mutually different centers.

1976-06-01

93

Testing rig for low cycle fatigue tests in combined bending and torsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to simulate, on samples, the fatigue behavior of notched or grooved shafts used in industrial plants, a biaxal testing equipment, to transform the alternate motion of a conventional testing machine into combined torsion and bending cyclic loadings, was devised and realized. Several different amplitude ratios between torsion and bending can be obtained beyond pure torsion and pure bending. Design choices, modeling, numerical simulations and experimental verifications performed for the testing apparatus are reported. Influence of misalignment and manufacturing imperfections on the behavior of the equipment are considered.

Caligiana, Gianni; Curioni, Sergio

1992-07-01

94

The FACT-Melanoma quality-of-life instrument: comparison of a five-point and four-point response scale using the Rasch measurement model.  

PubMed

The FACT-Melanoma (FACT-M) is one of only two validated quality-of-life instruments designed specifically for use in patients with melanoma. The instrument incorporates FACT-G, followed by a set of questionnaire items that are specific to melanoma; all items are scored on a five-point response scale. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the five-point response format of the FACT-M for goodness of fit to the Rasch measurement model, and to investigate whether rescoring the instrument using a four-point response format improved the psychometric properties. Two data sets of similar patient sample sizes (n=127 and 123) were used to test the reliability and validity of the generic instrument (FACT-G) to measure quality of life for patients with melanoma. The Additional Concerns and Melanoma Surgery subscales were subjected to a more detailed analysis using a combination of confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis techniques. The Rasch model fit of the FACT-M was improved by the use of a four-point response format, together with the deletion of three items. Principal components analysis suggested that two melanoma-specific subscales existed within the Additional Concerns subscale and each could be reduced to seven items, respectively, with improved goodness of fit to the Rasch model. The FACT-M instrument showed improved fit to the Rasch model specifications when the items adopted a four-point response format. These results point to possible improvements in the content and structure of the FACT-M for use in future melanoma clinical trials. However, further study should be conducted with larger samples, selected by disease and treatment status. PMID:23262441

Winstanley, Julie B; Saw, Robyn; Boyle, Frances; Thompson, John

2013-02-01

95

Irradiation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for introducing ionizing radiation into compressed gas insulation systems, such as high-voltage generators or transmission lines to smooth out electrical discontinuities, particularly those caused by foreign particulates that produce high gradients, and to increase the voltage holding capability of the system is described. The apparatus of the invention may also be used to regulate and stabilize the voltage of the system by varying the amount of applied load. A corona discharge device may also be used in conjunction with the invention. (Official Gazette)

Goldie, C.H.; Fernald, R.A.

1974-01-29

96

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

97

A comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics: I. Measurement and characterization of mass and bending properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main content dealt with in this paper is to present a new apparatus and a new method that can measure multiple mechanical properties through a single test in principle, which can be used for handle evaluation for textile materials. The comprehensive handle evaluation system for fabrics and yarns (CHES-FY) is a kind of apparatus that is capable of measuring mass, bending, friction and tensile behavior just through one pulling-out test, and is able to characterize the handle of fabrics, whose measurement principle and structure of the CHES-FY system in mass and bending steps are analyzed in the present paper. The shape of a hung fabric was captured by a digital camera, and its weight was calculated. Then, a three-point bending in principle was utilized to model and analyze the bending properties of the fabric, and the corresponding formula was obtained for calculating the bending rigidity of the fabric. The comparisons of mass and bending rigidity based on 17 fabrics have been conducted by using CHES-FY, electronic balance and KES-FB2, respectively. The measured results show that there are high correlations between the three measuring systems for fabrics. It indicates that the approach using CHES-FY is feasible and accurate in measuring and characterizing mass and bending rigidity.

Du, Zhaoqun; Yu, Weidong

2007-11-01

98

Four-point functions of lowest weight chiral primary operators in N=4 four-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the supergravity approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the recently found quartic action for the scalars from the massless graviton multiplet of type IIB supergravity compactified on an AdS5×S5 background coincides with the relevant part of the action of the gauged N=8 5D supergravity on AdS5. We then use this action to compute the four-point function of the lowest weight chiral primary operators tr ( ?(i?j)) in N=4 four-dimensional SYM theory at large N and at strong 't Hooft coupling.

Arutyunov, G.; Frolov, S.

2000-09-01

99

Four-point functions of lowest weight chiral primary operators in N=4 four-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the supergravity approximation  

SciTech Connect

We show that the recently found quartic action for the scalars from the massless graviton multiplet of type IIB supergravity compactified on an AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} background coincides with the relevant part of the action of the gauged N=8 5D supergravity on AdS{sub 5}. We then use this action to compute the four-point function of the lowest weight chiral primary operators tr ( {phi}{sup (i}{phi}{sup j)}) in N=4 four-dimensional SYM theory at large N and at strong 't Hooft coupling. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Arutyunov, G. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, D-80333 Muenchen, (Germany); Frolov, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487-0324 (United States)

2000-09-15

100

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1980-01-01

101

Radiography apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiography apparatus including radiation generating means, collimator means interposed between the radiation generating means and an object to be exposed to radiation, scintillator means disposed on the opposite side of the object from the radiation generating means for converting the radiation to light, a self-scanning, integrated array of photodiodes for receiving light and emitting responsive electrical signals, optical coupling means

D. Sashin; E. J. Sternglass

1979-01-01

102

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

103

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)|

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

104

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)|

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

105

Bending Instabilities of Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an investigation on the buckling behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes (NTs) under bending and unveils several aspects concerning the dependence of critical bending curvature on the NT length. The buckling results are obtained by means of non-linear shell finite element analyses using ABAQUS code. It is shown that eigenvalue analyses do not give a correct prediction of the critical curvature of NTs under bending. Conversely, incremental-iterative non-linear analyses provide a better approximation to the molecular dynamics results due to the progressive ovalization of the NT cross-section under bending. For short NTs, the limit curvature drops with the increasing length mostly due to the decreasing influence of end effects. For moderate to long tubes, the limit curvature remains practically constant and independent on the tube length. An approximate formula based on the Brazier expression is proposed to predict the limit curvature.

Silvestre, N.; Camotim, D.

106

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

107

Hyperthermia apparatus  

DOEpatents

A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

108

Valve apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a valve apparatus for use in subterranean well and carriable on a fluid transmission conduit insertable therein, comprising: ball valve head means having camway slot means defined exteriorly theron; valve seat means having camway ball means secured thereto and carriable in said camway slot means to pivot said valve head means on said seat means to shift said appartus between open and closed positions in response to manipulation of said fluid transmission conduit.

McStravick, D.; Roberts, W.

1980-07-01

109

Friction role in bending behaviors of thin-walled tube in rotary-draw-bending under small bending radii  

Microsoft Academic Search

For contact dominated rotary-draw-bending (RDB) of thin-walled tube, friction role should be focused to achieve precision bending under small bending radii ratio (Rd\\/D<2.0, Rd-bending radius, D-tube diameter). By using explicit FE simulation combined with physical experiment, underlying effects of the friction on bending behaviors are explored from multiple aspects such as wrinkling, wall thickness variation and cross-section deformation. The results

H. Yang; H. Li; M. Zhan

2010-01-01

110

Bending strain study of Bi-2223/Ag tapes using Hall sensor magnetometry  

SciTech Connect

The influence of room temperature bending on critical current (I{sub c}) of Bi-2223/Ag tapes is studied by Hall sensor magnetometry, four-point method and scanning electron microscopy. Hall sensor magnetometry allows one to assess tape homogeneity and the amount of mechanical damage caused by bending. The microstructure of the Bi-2223 ceramic is found to strongly affect the tape behavior under bending strain. In a tape with moderate I{sub c} = 6.1 A at 77 K and a porous ceramic core, crack propagation took place normal to the Ag-ceramic interface, whereas in tapes with dense core, I{sub c} above 10 A at 77 K, cracks propagated in the tape plane. In monofilamentary tapes core homogeneity correlated with good bending strain performance. In multifilamentary tapes crack propagation between filaments was prohibited by the Ag matrix, thus leading to enhanced strain tolerance. In the high I{sub c} tapes studied, bending to 25 mm radius resulted in 1%--2% I{sub c} degradation.

Lahtinen, M.; Paasi, J.; Sarkaniemi, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Han, Z.; Freltoft, T. [NKT Research Center A/S, Broendby (Denmark)

1996-07-01

111

Tube bending on the roll machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulation of the elastic-plastic tube bending by pushing on three-roll machine with work hardening effect consideration is presented. Non-steady tube bending process for specified curvature is simulated with axis of bending roll displacement, followed by transfer to the steady-state bending process. Estimation of curvature, constrained by tube section elliptical distortion modeled by plastic hinge mechanism is given. Elastic-plastic bending moment versus curvature and critical curvature estimation reasonably correlated with experiments.

Nepershin, Rostislav I.

2013-10-01

112

Detonating apparatus  

DOEpatents

1. Apparatus for detonation of high explosive in uniform timing comprising in combination, an outer case, spark gap electrodes insulatedly supported in spaced relationship within said case to form a spark gap, high explosive of the class consisting of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and trimethylene trinitramine substantially free from material sensitive to detonation by impact compressed in surrounding relation to said electrodes including said spark gap under a pressure from about 100 psi to about 500 psi, said spark gap with said compressed explosive therein requiring at least 1000 volts for sparking, and means for impressing at least 1000 volts on said spark gap.

Johnston, Lawrence H. (Minneapolis, MN)

1976-01-01

113

SEPARATION APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

A furnace apparatus is designed for treating a nuclear reactor waste solution. The solution is sprayed onto a bed of burning petroleum coke which expels water, the more volatile fission products, and nitrogen oxides. Next, chlorine gas is introduced from below which causes aluminum to volatilize as aluminum chloride and along with it certain fission products including Nb/sup 95/ and Zr/sup 95/. These lose their radioactivity within four years and the long- lived radioactivity remains with the ash, which is stored. (AEC) V) nitrate. (P.C.H.)

Huff, J.B.

1962-03-13

114

Heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heating apparatus. It comprises a housing, means for introducing water to a plurality of water conduits of the housing, a fireplace compartment disposed within the housing, the fireplace compartment being provided with a burner, a fin coil member disposed in the upper portion of the housing and communicating with the room environment for heat emitting, the fin coil member containing a serpentine configured fin coils disposed therein for absorbing heat from the water disposed in the water conduits, a heat chamber containing the water conduits, the heat chamber connected at one end to the fireplace compartment and at the other end to a chimney disposed at the middle of the the fireplace compartment for circulating hot combustion gases therethrough and for heating the water disposed in the water conduits, the combustion gases being vented from the chimney, and at least four turbo fans communicating with the heat chamber for blowing air across the fin coil member so as to heat the air and discharge it to the room environment, and reduce noise pollution of the heating apparatus.

Woo, C.G.

1991-07-30

115

Bend effects on fibre Bragg gratings in standard and low bend loss optical fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of relatively small bend diameters on fibre Bragg gratings written in standard and low bend loss fibre have been investigated. Results including Bragg wavelength shifts with bending are reported.

Alexander C. Thompson; William G. A. Brown; Paul R. Stoddart; Scott A. Wade

2010-01-01

116

Bending behavior of lapped plastic ehv cables  

SciTech Connect

One of the factors delaying the development of lapped polymeric cables has been their reputed poor bending characteristics. Complementary programs were begun at BNL several years ago to mathematically model the bending of synthetic tape cables and to develop novel plastic tapes designed to have moduli more favorable to bending. A series of bend tests was recently completed to evaluate the bending performance of several tapes developed for use in experimental superconducting cables. The program is discussed and the results of the bend tests are summarized.

Morgan, G H; Muller, A C

1980-01-01

117

Clay Mobility, Portuguese Bend, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The south slope of Palos Verdes Hills west of San Pedro, California, in the area known as Portuguese Bend contains an unusual landslide. The slide movement takes place in members of the Monterey Shale which contain bentonite; particularly the Portuguese T...

P. F. Kerr I. M. Drew

1967-01-01

118

Combustion apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A combustion apparatus 2 has a fuel spraying nozzle 12, a feed canal 16 and a return canal 17, both the canals connected to the nozzle, with the former canal 16 feeding a fuel to the nozzle and with the latter canal 17 allowing an unsprayed portion of the fuel to flow back. An electromagnetic pump 18 disposed in the feed canal 16 serves to compress the fuel towards the nozzle 12, and an injector valve 25 is disposed in the return canal 17. A controller 40 regulates the operation of the injector valve 25 in the manner of duty-ratio control so as to adjust the flow rate of the fuel being sprayed out of the nozzle 12.

2005-06-21

119

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1981-01-01

120

MEASURING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

An ion chamber assembly is presented for measuring neutron emission of a relatively slow rate from a radioactive sample. The detecting apparatus comprises a container filled with neutron slowing material and having a cavity where a neutron source may be located centrally in the container. A plurality of ion chamber units are disposed equidistantly from the source and from each other for detecting the neutron radiation. Each of the ion chamber units has an ion chamber and a second chamber of substantially the same diameter as the ion chamber and in end-to-end relationship therewith. The second chamber contains paraffin and an axially disposed lead-in conductor for the ion chamber central electrode. The preamplifier circuit whose input is connected to the lead-in conductor is housed in a third container arranged in end-to-end relationship with the second chamber.

Kohman, T.P.; Weissbourd, B.W.

1959-02-17

121

Cryopump apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Cryopump apparatus includes means for supplying cryogenic fluid, means for supplying higher temperature refrigerant fluid, a panel having heat exchange surfaces on respective opposite sides thereof, with a conduit conducting cryogenic fluid therethrough, and a zigzag passageway formed by opposite sides of two radiation shields in spaced relationship with each other having the panel therebetween. The radiation shields are spaced from the panel, opcitally enclosing the panel therewithin. Corresponding edges of adjacent shields define open botton channel-configured passageways for flow of gas therethrough to respective heat exchange surfaces of a panel interjacent the shields. The shields include conduits for flow or refrigerant fluid therethrough. Heat insulative positioning spacer means contact with adjacent panels and a shield therebetween, maintaining the panels and shield in spaced relationship.

Bonn, J.W.

1984-09-11

122

Heliostat apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Heliostat apparatus for concentrating solar energy is described comprising a support structure disposed in a first plane and supporting a plurality of mirror units having freedom of substantial universal articulation thereon, each of the plurality of mirror units carrying at an upper portion thereof reflective element trained to receive incident rays of the sun and to focus reflection thereof to a desired focal point, adjustment structure operatively connected to the plurality of mirror units and disposed in a plane generally parallel to the first plane in which the support structure is disposed, the adjustment structure being shiftable to additional planes adjacent and generally parallel thereto to effect conjoint articulation of each of the mirror units at the support structure and thereby conjointly retrain the reflective element of each of the mirror units to receive incident rays of the sun and maintain reflection thereof on the focal point over the course of any day.

Bunch, J.C.

1980-08-19

123

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

124

Gameboard apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A gameboard apparatus picturing an advanced, economic, technological civilization throughout the solar system and beyond, a path of spaceships containing many contingency circumstances interspersed between man-made, unpurchaseable property containing many contingency circumstance, and eleven major types of purchaseable man-made properties containing many contingency circumstances. The indicia on color-coded leases describes the internal, external, vertical and horizontal development of real estate in over thirty ways, four decks of cards, Speed of Light Years Utility Service Card and Speed of Light Years Ticket Tokens color coded to work in conjunction with the path of spaceships which are path of the continuous open route with a starting point from Earth, the entire game being described by a set of rules.

1990-08-07

125

Cooking apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A cooking apparatus comprises a trough, a well, and a pot. The trough is configured to hold a first cooking medium. The trough has insulated floors, insulated walls, and a steam pipe as a heating element to directly heat the first cooking medium. The well is joined to a cover plate. The cover plate is configured to fit over the trough with a seal, such that at least a portion of the well extends into the trough for submersion into the first cooking medium. The pot is inserted in the well. A second cooking medium may be introduced in the well adjacent to the pot. A food product such as goetta may be introduced to the pot for cooking. Heat may be transferred from the heating element, to the first cooking medium, to the well, to the second cooking medium, to the pot, and then to the goetta.

Glier; Daniel William (Covington, KY)

2010-06-01

126

Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending

Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.

127

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

1992-09-01

128

Effect of bend angle on plastic loads of pipe bends under internal pressure and in-plane bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the effect of a bend angle of a pipe bend on plastic loads, via small strain and large strain finite element (FE) limit analyses using elastic–perfectly plastic materials. To consider the effect of the attached straight pipe, two limiting cases are considered. One case corresponds to the pipe bend without the attached straight pipe, and the other

Yun-Jae Kim; Kuk-Hee Lee; Chang-Sik Oh; Bong Yoo; Chi-Yong Park

2007-01-01

129

Measuring the bending of asymmetric planar EAP structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric characterization of low-voltage dielectric electro-active polymer (EAP) structures, comprised of nanometer thickness but areas of square centimeters, for applications such as artificial sphincters requires methods with nanometer precision. Direct optical detection is usually restricted to sub-micrometer resolution because of the wavelength of the light applied. Therefore, we propose to take advantage of the cantilever bending system with optical readout revealing a sub-micrometer resolution at the deflection of the free end. It is demonstrated that this approach allows us to detect bending of rather conventional planar asymmetric, dielectric EAP-structures applying voltages well below 10 V. For this purpose, we built 100 ?m-thin silicone films between 50 nm-thin silver layers on a 25 ?m-thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate. The increase of the applied voltage in steps of 50 V until 1 kV resulted in a cantilever bending that exhibits only in restricted ranges the expected square dependence. The mean laser beam displacement on the detector corresponded to 6 nm per volt. The apparatus will therefore become a powerful mean to analyze and thereby improve low-voltage dielectric EAP-structures to realize nanometer-thin layers for stack actuators to be incorporated into artificial sphincter systems for treating severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

Weiss, Florian M.; Zhao, Xue; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Urwyler, Prabitha; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert

2013-04-01

130

Bending loss of terahertz pipe waveguides.  

PubMed

We present an experimental study on the bending loss of terahertz (THz) pipe waveguide. Bending loss of pipe waveguides is investigated for various frequencies, polarizations, core diameters, cladding thicknesses, and cladding materials. Our results indicate that the pipe waveguides with lower guiding loss suffer lower bending loss due to stronger mode confinement. The unexpected low bending loss in the investigated simple leaky waveguide structure promises variety of flexible applications. PMID:21164983

Lu, Jen-Tang; Hsueh, Yu-Chun; Huang, Yu-Ru; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Sun, Chi-Kuang

2010-12-01

131

Effects of riblet bends on pipe flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four riblet bends were tested to investigate the effects of riblets on pipe flows including the secondary flow on the Reynolds numbers; ReD=6×103-4×104. The pressure gradients on the smooth pipe downstream from the riblet bends were measured, and also the pressure losses of the bends only were measured. All riblet bends reduced the pressure gradient on the smooth pipe downstream

Shin-Ichi Nakao

1995-01-01

132

Simulating Rotary Draw Bending and Tube Hydroforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tube hydroforming is currently an active area of development in the automotive industry on account of the advantages it offers in comparison to other manufacturing processes presently under use to produce similar components. The majority of hydroformed tubes must be pre-bent using some bending process. Rotary draw bending is one of the most commonly used tube bending processes, incorporating the

Dilip K Mahanty; Narendran M. Balan

133

Marine conductor bending tool and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subsea marine conductor bending tool for bending lower portions of the marine conductor when in the sea adjacent a subsea wellhead to align the conductor and its coupling member to a subsea wellhead has a plurality of individual bending beam assemblies and means for connecting them together in an articulated vertical array, a running tool for running the array

Regan

1984-01-01

134

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C.L.; Russell, L.H.

1981-06-23

135

Attachment Apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes an attachment apparatus comprising a rotation limiting member adapted to be threaded onto a threaded member; and a preload nut adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. The rotation limiting member comprises a plurality of pins; and the preload nut comprises plurality of slots, preferably wherein the plurality of pins and the plurality of slots are the same in number, which is preferably three. The plurality of pins of the rotation limiting member are filled into a corresponding plurality of slots of the preload nut to form a rotatable unit adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. In use, the rotatable unit is threaded onto the threaded member. The present invention thus provides a unitized removable device for holes, including holes other than circular in shape, which have an established depth before an end of, or before an enlargement of the hole. The configuration of some exposed part of the device, or the head, is shaped and formed for its intended purpose, such as clamping, anchor points, eye bolts, stud anchor, and the like. The device allows for the installation, preloading and removal of all components of the device, as a unit, without damage to the member for which attachment is required by simple rotations of some exposed part of the device.

Morrison, Edward F.

1998-08-18

136

Bending waves in crumpled sheets.  

PubMed

Crumpled paper has recently emerged as a model for disordered media. Here we use wave propagation to probe aluminum foils crumpled into balls made by hand or into cylinders obtained by confinement in a container. Surprisingly, the raw dispersion relations appear to differ from sample to sample. They correspond to bending waves that follow an effective path that is shorter than the distance between the input and output points. This can be interpreted in terms of two modes of propagation: slow bending waves and a fast mode whose possible origin is discussed. In addition, the effective paths behave differently in spheres and in cylinders. These results enable the characterization of the sample structure and point toward the geometric rigidity of the configurations. PMID:22304146

Seizilles, G; Bayart, E; Adda-Bedia, M; Boudaoud, A

2011-12-27

137

Biaxial bending moment magnifier method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a simplified method to design slender rectangular reinforced concrete columns with doubly symmetric reinforcement subjected to combined axial loads and biaxial bending, which is valid for short-time and sustained loads and for both normal and high strength concretes. The method is based on the so-called moment magnifier method (ACI-318-02) and EuroCode-2 (draft for stage 49) and it

J. L. Bonet; P. F. Miguel; M. A. Fernandez; M. L. Romero

2004-01-01

138

New TE 01 Waveguide Bends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new designs of the circular cross-section waveguide bends with the propagating TE01 mode are considered. The first design has a constant circular cross-section and a variable curvature with its profile generated\\u000a by synthesis. The second design is based on an optimized transition from a circular waveguide cross-section to an elliptical\\u000a one and the curvature profile optimized with the help

A. A. Vikharev; G. G. Denisov; S. V. Kuzikov; D. I. Sobolev

2009-01-01

139

What bends 3C 465?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the interaction of the prototypical wide-angle tailed radio source 3C 465 with the ambient cluster gas. 3C 465 is attached to the dominant D galaxy NGC 7720 in the cluster Abell 2634. New VLA maps of the radio source are presented which reveal an inner jet and a rapid change of structure at the hot spots at the beginning of each tail. New X-ray maps of the cluster gas are also presented. It is shown that the sharp bend of the flowing radio-luminous plasma between the inner jets and the beginning of the tails cannot be explained by any of the conventional models. Neither galactic motion, buoyancy, gravitational bending, nor dynamic pressure can account for the bending of this source. Attention is also given to new possibilities for the dynamics of this type of radio tailed source: the effect of a current in the jets, and the interaction with cooling clouds in the cluster gas.

Eilek, J. A.; Burns, J. O.; O'Dea, C. P.; Owen, F. N.

1984-03-01

140

Limit and plastic collapse loads for un-reinforced mitred bends under pressure and bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximate limit and plastic collapse load solutions for un-reinforced mitred bends under internal pressure and under bending are proposed in this paper, based on three-dimensional finite element analysis and approximate solutions for smooth bends. Solutions are given for single- and multi-mitred bends (mainly for single and double segmented bends) with the pipe mean radius-to-thickness ratio (r\\/t) ranging from r\\/t = 5 to

Sung-Hwan Min; Jun-Young Jeon; Kuk-Hee Lee; Yun-Jae Kim; Peter J. Budden

2011-01-01

141

The travail of River Bend  

SciTech Connect

This article looks at the attempts by Gulf States Utilities to get the River Bend Nuclear Plant into its rate base. The review begins with the initial filing of rate cases in Texas and Louisiana in 1986 and continues through many court cases and appeals all the way to the Texas Supreme Court. The preferred and preference shareholders now nominally control the company through election of 10 of 15 members of the company's board of directors. This case is used as an argument for deregulation in favor of competition.

Studness, C.M.

1990-10-11

142

Marine conductor bending tool and method  

SciTech Connect

A subsea marine conductor bending tool for bending lower portions of the marine conductor when in the sea adjacent a subsea wellhead to align the conductor and its coupling member to a subsea wellhead has a plurality of individual bending beam assemblies and means for connecting them together in an articulated vertical array, a running tool for running the array of beam assemblies down within the conductor from an overhead platform to lower portions within the conductor adjacent a subsea location to which the conductor is to be aligned and hydraulically operated means on each of the bending beam assemblies operable from the overhead platform for applying bending forces against adjacent interior portions of the conductor to bend the same as required to align the conductor and its end connector to the wellhead. The bending tool is run down into the conduit, the conduit is bent into an S curve while in the subsea environment and landed into connection to the associated subsea wellhead while being bent by the bending tool, hydraulic fluid pressure used for causing the bending tool to bend the conduit is then relieved after landing of the connector on the wellhead and the tool is then withdrawn from the conductor.

Regan, A.M.

1984-02-28

143

Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

Krauss, Alan R. (24461 W. Blvd. De John, Naperville, IL 60564)

1999-01-01

144

Riser position indication apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a Riser Position Indication Apparatus for disposition between an offshore vessel and a riser, the riser being moveable with respect to the offshore vessel. The riser position indication apparatus comprises: vessel connection means operatively engaged with the vessel to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the vessel, riser connection means operatively engaged with the riser to

1986-01-01

145

Apparatus for detecting leaks  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining the position of and estimating the size of leaks in an evacuating apparatus comprising the use of a testing gas such as helium or hydrogen flowing around said apparatus whereby the testing gas will be drawn in at the site of any leaks.

Booth, Eugene T. (New York, NY)

1976-02-24

146

Minimum Membrane Bending Energies of Fusion Pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes fuse by forming highly curved intermediates, culminating in structures described as fusion pores. These hourglass-like\\u000a figures that join two fusing membranes have high bending energies, which can be estimated using continuum elasticity models.\\u000a Fusion pore bending energies depend strongly on shape, and the present study developed a method for determining the shape\\u000a that minimizes bending energy. This was first

Meyer B. Jackson

2009-01-01

147

Pressure losses in microchannels with bends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bends in fluidic systems are necessary features due to design or technology constraints. Bends or curves in a duct always induce flow separation at the walls, which results in additional pressure loss. In this work, this phenomenon is investigated on a microscale. A set of microchannels, 20 ?m×1.1 ?m×5810 ?m in dimensions, with a 90°-bend at the channel center has

S. Yuk Kwan Lee; M. Wong; Y. Zohar

2001-01-01

148

Experimental Study of Bending Behaviour of Reinforcements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In composite reinforcement shaping, textile preform undergo biaxial tensile deformation, in plane shear deformation, transverse\\u000a compaction and out-of-plane bending deformations. Bending deformations have been neglected in some simulation codes up to\\u000a now, but taking into account them would give more accurate simulations of forming especially for stiff and thick textiles.\\u000a Bending behaviour is specific because the reinforcements are structural parts

E. de Bilbao; D. Soulat; G. Hivet; A. Gasser

2010-01-01

149

Experimental Investigations of Bend Force in Air Bending of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with bend force behavior of electro-galvanized (EG) steel sheets in air bending process. A detailed experimental study was carried out on EG steel sheets of various coating thicknesses to investigate the influence of parameters such as coating thickness, orientation of the sheet, punch radius, die opening, die radius, and punch velocity on bend force behavior. From the results, it is found that zinc coating reduces the bend force and the increase in coating thickness reduces the bend force significantly. It is observed that the bend force is larger for larger punch radius, smaller die opening, and smaller die radius. It is also observed that the bend force is larger for 0° orientation than for 90° orientation. The bend force decreases with increase in punch velocity, and this influence is more prevailing in EG sheets than in plain sheets.

Srinivasan, R.; Vasudevan, D.; Padmanabhan, Palani

2012-07-01

150

A preliminary study of bending stiffness alteration in shape changing nitinol plates for fracture fixation.  

PubMed

Nitinol is a promising biomaterial based on its remarkable shape changing capacity, biocompatibility, and resilient mechanical properties. Until now, very limited applications have been tested for the use of Nitinol plates for fracture fixation in orthopaedics. Newly designed fracture-fixation plates are tested by four-point bending to examine a change in equivalent bending stiffness before and after shape transformation. The goal of stiffness alterable bone plates is to optimize the healing process during osteosynthesis in situ that is customized in time of onset, percent change as well as being performed non-invasively for the patient. The equivalent bending stiffness in plates of varying thicknesses changed before and after shape transformation in the range of 24-73% (p values <0.05 for all tests). Tests on a Nitinol plate of 3.0 mm increased in stiffness from 0.81 to 0.98 Nm² (corresponding standard deviation 0.08 and 0.05) and shared a good correlation to results from numerical calculation. The stiffness of the tested fracture-fixation plates can be altered in a consistent matter that would be predicted by determining the change of the cross-sectional area moment of inertia. PMID:21286815

Olender, Gavin; Pfeifer, Ronny; Müller, Christian W; Gösling, Thomas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Hurschler, Christof

2011-02-01

151

The influence of external bending moments on the lifetime of bends in hot reheat pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of various factors (the initial pipe cross section ovality and external bending moments) on the lifetime of bends used in high-temperature pipelines is estimated using the techniques of continuum damage mechanics of metal. The investigation was carried out for two typical bends used in hot reheat pipelines. To this end, the bend lifetime was numerically analyzed taking into account the accumulated extent of damage based on the results of finite-element computations in geometrically nonlinear statement.

Kireev, O. B.; Saikova, M. S.; Danyushevskii, I. A.

2013-01-01

152

46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design, and substantially free of buckles. Such...

2012-10-01

153

Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit

Matthew T McDowell; Austin M Leach; Ken Gall

2008-01-01

154

Localized bending vibrations of piezoelectric plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the existence and propagation of electro-elastic bending waves localized at the free edge of a piezoelectric plate. The problem is considered within the framework of the high-order refined plate theory introduced by Ambartsumian. The condition for existence of a localized bending wave is obtained, and the dispersion equation solved with respect to a dimensionless frequency. It is

G. T. Piliposian; K. B. Ghazaryan

2011-01-01

155

Exact map through ideal bends (again?)  

SciTech Connect

There are three logically independent facets to calculating the transfer map through a bend magnet: physics, geometry, and representation. We will derive the exact map for transit through ideal bends while separating these three, esp., isolating the geometry problem from the other two.

Michelotti, L.

1995-06-01

156

46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any...bends designed as creased or corrugated. If doubt exists as to the...method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and...screwed plug extending outside the pipe covering. The...

2011-10-01

157

Bending Models for Thin Flexible Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textiles usually exhibit much larger resistance to in-plane deformation than to bending deformation. However, the latter essentially determines the formation of folds and wrinkles which in turn govern the overall appearance of the cloth. The resulting numerical problem is inherently sti and hence susceptible to instability. This overview is devoted to a closer investigation of bending deformation. Approaches known from

B. Thomaszewski; M. Wacker

158

An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 °C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 °C to 250 °C.

Kallaher, R. L.; Latham, C. A.; Sharifi, F.

2013-01-01

159

Cyclic Bending and Stationary Drawing Deformation of Metal Sheets : Experiments and Associated Numerical Simulations  

SciTech Connect

A simple bend-draw experimental device is employed to analyze the behavior of narrow strips submitted to a nearly cyclic bending deformation mode followed by a steady state drawing. In this bending-drawing experiment, the strip is firstly bent over a central bead and two lateral beads by applying a controlled holding load and then is pulled out of device throughout the bead radii by a drawing load. The apparatus is mounted in a standard tensile test machine where the holding and drawing loads are recorded with an acquisition data system. The specimen is a rectangular strip cut with 320 mm long and 7 mm wide. The longitudinal (1) and width (w) strip plastic strains are determined from two hardness marks 120 mm spaced whereas the corresponding thickness (t) strain is obtained by volume conservation. Previous experiments showed a correlation between the plastic strain ({epsilon}w/{epsilon}t)BD resulting from the bending-drawing and the Lankford R-values obtained from the uniaxial tensile test. However, previous 3D numerical simulations based upon Hill's quadratic and Ferron's yield criteria revealed a better correlation between the ({epsilon}w/{epsilon}t)BD and the stress ratio {sigma}PS/{sigma}({alpha}), where {sigma}PS stands for the plane-strain tension yield stress and {sigma}({alpha}) for the uniaxial yield stress in uniaxial tension along the drawing direction making an angle {alpha} with the rolling direction. In the present work, the behavior of an IF steel sheet is firstly evaluated by means of uniaxial tensile and drawing-bending experiments conducted at every 15 degrees with respect to the rolling direction. Afterwards, the bending-drawing experiment is investigated with the commercial finite element (FE) code ABAQUS/Standard in an attempt to assess the influence of cyclic loadings upon the bending-drawing strain-ratios.

Moreira, L.P.; Romao, E.C.; Vieira, L.C.A. [Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420, CEP 27 255 125, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Ferron, G. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Sampaio, A.P. [Gerencia de Desenvolvimento de Produtos, Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Rua 4, 33, CEP 27265-610, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

2005-08-05

160

Bending Machine Using Anisotropic Polypyrrole Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have found that a polypyrrole (PPy) film with anisotropy of conductivity and morphology bends in a regular direction and reverts during redox cycles. That is, the anisotropic PPy film acts as an actuator or a “bending machine”. The PPy film can be prepared electrochemically as a fiber in a slender Teflon pipe. The response speed of the PPy fiber actuator depends on the speed and amount of dopant insertion and extraction; namely, it becomes faster when the reduction potential is more negative or the electrolyte concentration is higher. The bending behavior strongly depends on the type of supporting salt in the electrolyte solutions, suggesting that cation transport into and out of PPy plays a key role in the bending behavior and that the size of the cation is also a critical factor. A bending behavior mechanism based on cation insertion and extraction, as well as on the anisotropic volume change upon doping/undoping, is proposed.

Okamoto, Tetsuya; Tada, Kazuya; Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

2000-05-01

161

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis.

Osterman, R.A.; Cox, R.

1991-01-22

162

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

163

Gravitropic bending of fruit bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes exhibit a unique mechanism of gravitropic bending, related to their specific architecture. The gravisensitive region of the stipe directly below the cap coincides with the bending zone. The hyphae of this region are equipped with the ability to generate positional information and translate it into differential growth. A model is introduced with the fundamental characteristics of agent-based modeling as it is applied in robotics and artificial intelligence. The hyphae are equivalent to autonomous decision-making agents on the basis of a simple set of rules. Repetitive interactions between the agents, i.e. the hyphae, permit the correct adjustment of the fruit body independent from its relative position in space. This model is based on the following structural as well as biochemical data derived from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. A statolith-mediated mechanism in each individual hypha of the gravisensitive region accounts for graviperception. Cell nuclei with a density of 1.22 g cm-3 are considered the most likely candidates for gravity-induced sedimentation (statoliths). The number of nuclei in this zone is increased from 2 to up to 10 individual nuclei within each hyphal compartment. The nuclei are suspended in a web of actin filaments anchored in the plasma membrane. Any shift from the vertical position is converted into a change in the gravitational pull exerted on the plasma membrane. This leads to a functional distinction of the upper and lower flanks of each hypha. Each hypha is equipped with the ability to generate and amplify a positional signal perpendicular to the axis of the gravisensitive zone. This signal coordinates different hyphal extension of the upper and lower flank of the stipe: upper flank hyphae grow slower than lower flank hyphae. Hyphal growth requires continued turgor pressure and depends on the expansion of the vacuolar compartment. This vacuolation is conspicuously increased in lower flank transition zone hyphae of a horizontally oriented stipe. Cells undergoing fast vacuolation have electron-translucent regions around their vacuoles. These regions are composed of small, light vesicle-like structures (microvesicles). They apparently fuse with the vacuole increasing their volume by subsequent osmotic water intake. Subcellular changes in response to a gravistimulus are already observed after 30 min.

Hock, Bertold

164

Study of concrete's behavior under 4-point bending load using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) is an ultrasonic NDT method suitable for complex material such as concrete that can precisely measure small propagation velocity variation (10-2%). By measuring variation of propagation velocity in concrete caused by acoustoelasticity phenomena, CWI analysis can be used to monitor concrete's internal stress level. For the first time, CWI is used to measure propagation velocity variations due to a stress field in a concrete beam under four-points bending test, which contains simultaneously compressive and tensile stress. Embedded optical-fiber sensors, strain gauges are used in the experiment, in order to confirm and validate the CWI analysis result. Thermocouples are also embedded into concrete beams for monitoring internal temperature fluctuations.

Zhang, Y.; Abraham, O.; Chapeleau, X.; Cottineau, L.-M.; Tournat, V.; Le Duff, A.; Lascoup, B.; Durand, O.

2013-01-01

165

Bending stress and dissipation in subducted lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic lithosphere undergoes permanent deformation during subduction once the stresses exceed the elastic limit. Departures from elastic behavior occur by brittle failure in the shallow lithosphere and by a combination of low- and high-temperature creep at greater depths. We combine laboratory-based rheological models with estimates of slab shape from earthquake hypocenters to quantify the bending stress and dissipation in subduction zones. The peak stress occurs at the depth of the brittle-ductile transition, which is controlled mainly by lithospheric age. Integrals of the stress over the thickness of the plate are used to evaluate the resistive bending force and the bending moment. A representative value for the resistive force on old oceanic lithosphere is 3 × 1012 N m-1, which is comparable in magnitude to ridge push but opposite in direction. Both the bending force and moment are remarkably insensitive to the rate of subduction. In fact, the bending moment can be approximated using a simple power law rheology and a stress exponent of n ? 14. Such a large exponent implies that the lithosphere behaves like a perfectly plastic solid. For most subduction zones the bending moment saturates along the entire plate. As a consequence, the bending stress does not influence the development of curvature during subduction. This behavior may explain why the curvature of subducted lithosphere is nearly independent of age.

Buffett, B. A.; Becker, T. W.

2012-05-01

166

Astable Resonator Photoneutralization Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apparatus is described for photoneutralization of negatively charged atomic or molecular particles, using multiple passes of electronmagnetic radiation of predetermined wavelength. 8 figs. (ERA citation 13:057793)

J. H. Fink

1987-01-01

167

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes apparatus for demonstrating magnetic lines of force, plastic discharge tubes, minimum angle of deviation of light passing through a prism, light scattering, and measuring high voltage. (SL)|

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

168

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

169

Contactless laser bending of silicon microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are going to present a new technology for laser bending of silicon microstructures based upon a suggestion of and carried out in cooperation with Prof. Dr. J. Frühauf from the Technical University Chemnitz (see acknowledgement). We investigated the influence of various laser process parameters on the bending angle and its reproducibility. Bending of the silicon element as a result of the laser induced thermal stresses in the material occurs toward the incident laser beam. The bending angle depends on a lot of laser process and material parameters. In particular we found that the irra-diation regime is well suited to control the bending angle. First substantial FEM based calculations of laser induced temperature fields using a moving laser heat source show the temperature field propagation in the material and reveal some regions of complicated overheating. As a result of our experiments we show a variety of examples including mul-tiple and also continuous bendings. There are several essential advantages compared to conventional bending technologies with this new method: Laser bending is contactless without using additional tools or external forces. Because of the local laser treatment the heat flux to the neighbouring material is minimized. The laser beam can be applied through windows of glass that means to al-most hermetically sealed micro devices. So laser technology is suitable for machining of already finished microsystems. It opens up a wide field of applications in micro system technologies: clip-chip-mechanism or sliding chips for micro optical benches, the adjustment of optical mirrors or other components or the ability of continuous bending for electro-static drives and so on.

Exner, Horst; Löschner, Udo

2003-04-01

170

Bending instability in electrospinning of nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A localized approximation was developed to calculate the bending electric force acting on an electrified polymer jet, which is a key element of the electrospinning process for manufacturing of nanofibers. Using this force, a far reaching analogy between the electrically driven bending instability and the aerodynamically driven instability was established. Continuous, quasi-one-dimensional, partial differential equations were derived and used to predict the growth rate of small electrically driven bending perturbations of a liquid column. A discretized form of these equations, that accounts for solvent evaporation and polymer solidification, was used to calculate the jet paths during the course of nonlinear bending instability leading to formation of large loops and resulting in nanofibers. The results of the calculations are compared to the experimental data acquired in the present work. Agreement of theory and experiment is discussed.

Yarin, A. L.; Koombhongse, S.; Reneker, D. H.

2001-03-01

171

Cooling and heating apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an energy transfer apparatus for transferring energy from and to a source liquid to heat and cool a facility, the apparatus comprising: means for providing a refrigerant cycle including means for evaporating refrigerant, means for condensing refrigerant and means for producing a phase change in the refrigerant; means for cooling air; means for providing a single continuous

Dittell

1987-01-01

172

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)|

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

173

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1993-01-01

174

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1994-01-01

175

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1994-02-15

176

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1993-12-28

177

Bearing Lubrication Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent described apparatus for lubrication of anti-friction bearings which uses the oil bleeding characteristics of grease. The apparatus consists of a housing for attachment to a bearing and a grease reservoir wherein the grease is retained in a slop...

K. H. Warren

1970-01-01

178

Flow line filter apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for filtering drilling mud that is recirculated out of a well casing. The apparatus includes: a. a flow conveying tubular section, sealably attachable at its first lower end to the well casing for allowing fluid flow therethrough and open-ended at its top portion; b. an outer tank portion being at least twice the diameter of the

Gardes

1986-01-01

179

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

180

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20

181

Pulse combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulse combustion apparatus is described which includes: a combustion chamber; an exhaust system including an exhaust pipe forming a resonant system with the combustion chamber and a generally cylindrical exhaust cushion chamber downstream of the exhaust pipe for receiving combustion gases from the pipe and communicating with an exhaust outlet form the apparatus; means for delivering successive fuel charges

Kitchen

1986-01-01

182

Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides.  

PubMed

We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory to qualitatively interpret the behavior observed in our simulation. Our results pave a promising way to realize ultra-compact devices operating in the terahertz region. PMID:23481806

Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

2013-02-11

183

Design of sharp bends with transformation plasmonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a design method of surface plasmon polaritons sharp bends based on transformation optics. Plasmonic waveguide bends with different angles, which possess little radiation loss, are proposed. Transformation media can be simply achieved with homogeneous and nonmagnetic materials, which can be constructed by altering two different dielectric films. Electromagnetic simulations by a finite-element method on detailed examples have been performed to validate the designs.

Wang, Yueke; Zhang, Dao Hua; Wang, Jun; Qin, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Xu, Zhengji

2013-09-01

184

In situ strain profiling of elastoplastic bending in Ti-6Al-4V alloy by synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Elastic and plastic strain evolution under four-point bending has been studied by synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. Measured strain profiles across the specimen thickness showed an increasing linear elastic strain gradient under increasing four-point bending load up to approx2 kN. The bulk elastic modulus of Ti-6Al-4V was determined as 118 GPa. The onset of plastic deformation was found to set in at a total in-plane strain of approx0.008, both under tension and compression. Plastic deformation under bending is initiated in the vicinity of the surface and at a stress of 1100 MPa, and propagates inward, while a finite core region remains elastically deformed up to 3.67 kN loading. The onset of the plastic regime and the plastic regime itself has been verified by monitoring the line broadening of the (100) peak of alpha-Ti. The effective compression/tension stress-strain curve has been obtained from the scaling collapse of strain profile data taken at seven external load levels. A similar multiple load scaling collapse of the plastic strain variation has also been obtained. The level of precision in strain measurement reported herein was evaluated and found to be 1.5x10{sup -5} or better.

Croft, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Shukla, V.; Akdogan, E. K.; Sadangi, R.; Ignatov, A.; Balarinni, L.; Tsakalakos, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Jisrawi, N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Zhong, Z. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Horvath, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2009-05-01

185

Forces, moments, and acceleration acting on a restrained dummy during simulation of three possible accidents involving a wheelchair negotiating a curb: comparison between lap belt and four-point belt.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two types of restraining belts (lap belt and a four-point belt) on an instrumented dummy during three situations: wheelchair hitting straight into curb (SIC); wheelchair falling straight off a curb (SOC); wheelchair falling diagonally off a curb (DOC). A fully instrumented (50th percentile Hybrid III) dummy was seated in a standard wheelchair and restrained with one of the belts. The wheelchair rolled down a ramp reaching a platform at 2.4 miles per hour (comfortable walking speed). Three types of experiments were performed: SIC, SOC, DOC. Each experiment was repeated at least three times. Forces, moments, and acceleration were monitored and recorded via 48 sensors placed at the head, spine, and limbs. All experiments were videotaped and photographed. The data were averaged and compared with standards that have been previously established in car crash testing and with data recently obtained in a similar study using a nonrestrained dummy. Our results showed that in the SIC experiments, low magnitude forces, moments, and acceleration of no clinical significance were recorded with both types of belts. The wheelchair remained upright and the dummy safely seated. In the SOC experiments, the two belts prevented the dummy's ejection from the chair and, thus, have been effective in lowering the forces, moments, and acceleration and preventing significant injuries to the head and neck regions. In the DOC experiments, the lap belt proved to be somewhat more effective than the four-point belt in lowering the extension forces at the upper neck and the moments at the lower neck below injury levels. It also kept the head injury criteria well below injury level. We postulate that the four-point belt was less effective because of its more extensive body fixation, which leads to concentration of moments and forces at the head and lower neck regions. The results of this study show that restraining systems can enhance the safety of wheelchair occupants in certain incidents. It has been demonstrated that the lap belt is as effective as the four-point belt system in SIC and SOC incidents. In DOC falls, neither belt could prevent falls and trauma to the head and neck region. The lap belt, however, was somewhat superior. We recommend that wheelchairs be equipped with a lap belt and patients be encouraged to buckle-up while using the wheelchair outdoors. PMID:9354490

Fast, A; Sosner, J; Begeman, P; Thomas, M; Drukman, D

186

On the bending response of Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings  

SciTech Connect

Kevlar 49/epoxy laminates often exhibit substantial material nonlinearity when subjected to bending. This is a consequence of the yeild-like behavior of a Kevlar 49/epoxy lamina in fiber-directed compression. In this paper, analyses that utilize a simple idealization of compressive yielding are described and calculated results for Kevlar 49 reinforced beams and rings are compared with available data. First, results of a finite element analysis of a thin, unidirectionally reinforced ring subjected to diametral compression are presented. This analysis uses beam elements that incorporate linear tensile and elastic-perfectly plastic compressive behavior. Then a method used to analyze quasi-isotropic beams tested in four-point bending is discussed. This finite element analysis uses a layered shell element with a lamina constitutive model that permits elastic-perfectly plastic response to fiber-directed compression, but otherwise assumes linear elastic behavior. Comparison of calculated and experimental results corroborate the ability of analyses using a simple compressive yield model to account for much of the observed flexural nonlinearity in Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings. 6 figs.

Reedy, E.D. Jr.

1988-05-01

187

AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

Howell, W.D.

1957-08-20

188

Nuclear reactor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

Wade, Elman E. (Ruffs Dale, PA)

1978-01-01

189

Mirror plasma apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

190

Understanding spontaneous sharp bending of DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene expression often requires the interplay of two distant genetic regions and thus sharp bending of DNA is essential for gene functioning. Contrary to the conventional thinking that the bending of DNA strand below its persistent length was essentially facilitated by DNA binding proteins, Widom's group recently demonstrated, using cyclization assay, that such kind of sharp bending can be spontaneously formed (Mol. Cell, 2004, 355). Two models were referred in the original work to explain this ``enhanced'' flexibility of short DNA strand, namely, the melted single- and double-bubble models. To elucidate the detailed mechanism behind the DNA sharp bending, DNA molecules containing single- and double-melted bubbles was synthesized by introducing non Watson-Crick base pairs to the DNA backbone. Time resolved fluorescence energy transfer was used as the major tool to evaluate the bending stiffness of afore mentioned short DNA strand. The effect of bubble size, number and position on the DNA stiffness was independently evaluated. The energetic penalty of forming the locally melted structure was determined using other individual experiments. These results not only clarify the physical origin of the previously observed cyclizability of short DNA strand but also help to interpret the cyclization data of DNA molecules of wider size ranges.

Yuan, Chongli; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Archer, Lynden

2006-03-01

191

DNA bending by asymmetric phosphate neutralization.  

PubMed

DNA is often bent when complexed with proteins. Understanding the forces responsible for DNA bending would be of fundamental value in exploring the interplay of these macromolecules. A series of experiments was devised to test the hypothesis that proteins with cationic surfaces can induce substantial DNA bending by neutralizing phosphates on one DNA face. Repulsions between phosphates in the remaining anionic helix are predicted to result in an unbalanced compression force acting to deform the DNA toward the protein. This hypothesis is supported by the results of electrophoretic experiments in which DNA spontaneously bends when one helical face is partially modified by incorporation of neutral phosphate analogs. Phasing with respect to a site of intrinsic DNA curvature (hexadeoxyadenylate tract) permits estimation of the electrostatic bend angle, and demonstrates that such modified DNAs are deformed toward the neutralized surface, as predicted. Similar model systems may be useful in exploring the extent to which phosphate neutralization can account for DNA bending by particular proteins. PMID:7997878

Strauss, J K; Maher, L J

1994-12-16

192

Sample positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in alpha particle counting with such as photomultiplier tubes, comprising a platform and linkage mechanism whereby samples are moved in linear manner toward and away from ends of the photomultiplier tubes.

Bell, Thomas H. (Boulder, CO); Johnson, Jr., Charles H. (Arvada, CO); Lane, Robert L. (Golden, CO); Martin, Bradley E. (Arvada, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO)

1976-01-06

193

Doubly Adaptive CFAR Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The doubly adaptive constant false alarm rate (CFAR) apparatus uses a doubly adaptive detector which is based upon the use of an auxiliary parallel adaptive detector in addition to the conventional main adaptive detector. The auxiliary adaptive detector h...

L. G. Cole

1979-01-01

194

Apparatus for forming boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Drilling apparatus is disclosed adapted for drilling upwardly a deviated hole from a carriage assembly disposed in a cased vertical hole below a target zone of a hydrocarbon bearing formation. The drilling apparatus includes a drill motor assembly having a drill bit driven by a shaft of a drill bit mud pressure driven motor. A weight on bit assembly is provided below the drill bit motor for imparting ''weight-on-bit'' drilling force to the drilling bit against the face of the borehole. The weight on bit assembly includes an anti-rotation assembly for preventing rotation of the drill bit motor with respect to the borehole and an axial drive assembly for applying axial force to the drill bit. Apparatus is provided to reverse the direction of the axial force generated by the weight on bit assembly. Apparatus is also provided to limit the axial force applied to the drill bit to a predetermined level.

Burton, J. A.

1985-11-26

195

Vacuum Filtration Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention discusses a filtration apparatus which provides for semiautomatic operation by including a filter element dispenser located at a filtration station. In order to effect removal of a used filter element from the filtration station, a tilting m...

R. Repaske A. H. Rich J. L. Slemp

1991-01-01

196

Riser position indication apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a Riser Position Indication Apparatus for disposition between an offshore vessel and a riser, the riser being moveable with respect to the offshore vessel. The riser position indication apparatus comprises: vessel connection means operatively engaged with the vessel to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the vessel, riser connection means operatively engaged with the riser to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the riser, flexible weight means having one end connected to one of the connection means and the other end operatively engaged with the other of the connection means, weight signal transmitter means associated with at least one end of the flexible weight means and operative to produce a continuous output signal which varies as a function of the weight of the weight means suspended from one end of the connection means.

Moore, B.B.

1986-09-23

197

Chemiluminescent Marker Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a chemiluminescent lighting apparatus for generating an illuminated marker material for delivery to a desired area. Two fluids to be mixed are contained in separate chambers and are separated from a mixing chamber by mean...

R. L. Gerber

1974-01-01

198

Vacuum pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

199

Fiber pulling apparatus modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Four flights have been completed to date during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated zero, high, and lunar gravity environments. In addition simulated lunar soil samples were tested for their fiber producing properties using the FPA.

Smith, Guy A.; Workman, Gary L.

1992-11-01

200

Spin coating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

201

Electric arc saw apparatus  

DOEpatents

A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

Deichelbohrer, P.R.

1983-08-08

202

Line retrieving apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus and method for retrieving lines, ropes, wires, optical fibres and the like from otherwise inaccessable locations, without the need for separate control lines, dissolving tables and the like. The apparatus comprises a line guide assembly, line clamping assembly, a line cutting assembly and a triggering mechanism for the activation of the aforementioned assemblies. The triggering mechanism is activated by the application of force to the line to be retrieved.

Orlick; Jonathan B. (Fort Worth, TX); Howard; William H. (Irvine, CA)

1990-03-20

203

Single molecule FRET shows uniformity in TBP-induced DNA bending and heterogeneity in bending kinetics†  

PubMed Central

TATA binding protein (TBP) is a key component of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription machinery that binds to TATA boxes located in the core promoter regions of many genes. Structural and biochemical studies have shown that when TBP binds DNA, it sharply bends the DNA. We used single-molecule FRET (smFRET) to study DNA bending by human TBP on consensus and mutant TATA boxes in the absence and presence of TFIIA. We found that the state of the bent DNA within populations of TBP/DNA complexes is homogeneous; partially bent intermediates were not observed. In contrast to previous ensemble studies, TBP was found to bend a mutant TATA box to the same extent as the consensus TATA box. Moreover, in the presence of TFIIA the extent of DNA bending was not significantly changed, although TFIIA did increase the fraction of DNA molecules bound by TBP. Analysis of the kinetics of DNA bending and unbending revealed that on the consensus TATA box two kinetically distinct populations of TBP/DNA complexes exist, however, the bent state of the DNA is the same in the two populations. Our smFRET studies reveal that human TBP bends DNA in a largely uniform manner under a variety of different conditions, which was unexpected given previous ensemble biochemical studies. Our new observations lead to us to revise the model for the mechanism of DNA binding by TBP and for how DNA bending is affected by TATA sequence and TFIIA.

Blair, Rebecca H.; Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

2012-01-01

204

Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides plastic limit and TES (twice-elastic-slope) plastic load solutions for 90° pipe bends under combined pressure\\u000a and out-of-plane bending, via three-dimensional non-linear FE analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Without\\u000a internal pressure, a closed-form approximation is given. For combined pressure and out-of-plane bending, tabulated data are\\u000a given, from which TES plastic loads can be interpolated. It is found that

Kuk-Hee Lee; Yun-Jae Kim; Chi-Yong Park

2008-01-01

205

Experimental Characterization of Stretch-Bending Formability of AHSS Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation conditions of combined stretching and bending are known to enhance material formability compared to forming conditions without bending (e.g. in-plane stretching). These phenomena can be observed for most conventional steel grades but is even more pronounced for Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) sheets. Consequently, there is an urgent need in industry to quantify the phenomena of enhanced material formability due to bending effects. In this work new stretch-bend test setups are presented which can be used in addition to the conventional Angular Stretch Bend Test to systematically investigate the influence of various stretch-bending deformation conditions on the formability of AHSS sheets.

Kitting, Daniela; Ofenheimer, Aldo; Pauli, Heinrich; Till, Edwin T.

2011-05-01

206

Bending effects on lasing action of semiconductor nanowires.  

PubMed

High flexibility has been one of advantages for one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in wide application of nanoscale integrated circuits. We investigate the bending effects on lasing action of CdSe NWs. Threshold increases and differential efficiency decreases gradually when we decrease the bending radius step by step. Red shift and mode reduction in the output spectra are also observed. The bending loss of laser oscillation is considerably larger than that of photoluminescence (PL), and both show the exponential relationship with the bending radius. Diameter and mode dependent bending losses are investigated. Furthermore, the polarizations of output can be modulated linearly by bending the NWs into different angles continuously. PMID:23389184

Yang, Weisong; Ma, Yaoguang; Wang, Yipei; Meng, Chao; Wu, Xiaoqin; Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun; Tong, Limin; Liu, Xu; Yang, Qing

2013-01-28

207

Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

Dalrymple, G. B.; Clague, D. A.

1976-01-01

208

Bending behaviour of corrugated web beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to the behaviour of mild steel structural beams with corrugated web subjected to three-point bending. Semicircular web corrugation in the cross-sectional plane (horizontal) and across the span of the beam (vertical) were investigated both experimental and computationally using finite element technique. In the finite element analysis, test specimen was modelled using commercially available finite element software

Y. A Khalid; C. L Chan; B. B Sahari; A. M. S Hamouda

2004-01-01

209

Wall Curl in Bending of Laminated Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminated steel sheets consist of thin visco-elastic polymer layers sandwiched between sheets of steel and are used primarily in products where sound and vibration need to be damped. Although laminated steel products have been successfully manufactured by stamping, these parts are relatively flat. Problems arise, however, when using the material in bending operations. The main problem is the fact that

Edmundo Corona; Travis Eisenhour; Shengjun Yin; James J. Mason

2004-01-01

210

Monitoring the Bending Stiffness of DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In eukaryotic cells, the accessibility of genomic sequences provides an inherent regulation mechanism for gene expression through variations in bending stiffness encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Cyclization of dsDNA is the prevailing method for determining DNA bending stiffness. Recent cyclization data for short dsDNA raises several fundamental questions about the soundness of the cyclization method, particularly in cases where the probability of highly bent DNA conformations is low. We herein evaluate the role of T4 DNA ligase in the cyclization reaction by inserting an environmental sensitive base analogue, 2-amino purine, to the DNA molecule. By monitoring the 2-AP fluorescence under standard cyclization conditions, it is found that in addition to trapping highly-bent cyclic DNA conformations, T4 DNA ligase enhances the apparent base pair flip out rate, thus exaggerating the measured flexibility. This result is further confirmed using fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on suitably labeled dsDNA provides an alternative approach for quantifying the bending stiffness of short fragments. DNA bending stiffness results obtained using FRET are compared with literature values.

Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiongwen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden

2007-03-01

211

Deformation of polymer films by bending forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of computer simulation, we study the deformation of nanoscale polymer films under the action of external bending forces. The polymer is represented by a generalized bead-spring model, intended to reproduce characteristic features of n-alkanes. The film is loaded by the action of a prismatic blade which is pressed into the polymer bulk from above and a pair of

Gerald Pätzold; Thorsten Hapke; Andreas Linke; Dieter W. Heermann

1997-01-01

212

Size Optimization of Stiffeners in Bending Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for the modeling and optimization of bending stiffened plates is presented. Eight node elements are used in the proposed Finite Element model. The proposed element is hybrid in the sense that it can model both the base plate and the stiffeners, simultaneously. A sizing optimization model aiming at maximizing the natural frequencies of free vibrations at a

Adel Elsabbagh

2012-01-01

213

Calculations on Uniform-Field Bending Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focal properties of some uniform-field bending magnets have been calculated. This report gives tables and graphs of the image distance and magnification for deflection angles of 20, 22-1/2, 35, 40, and 45 degrees, as a function of the object distance ...

P. Shapiro S. Podgor R. B. Theus

1965-01-01

214

Rayleigh type bending waves in anisotropic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence, dispersion properties, velocities and energy of waves, localized near the stress-free edge of thin anisotropic plates are investigated. As shown, some qualitatively new effects occur: the velocity of Rayleigh type waves can be not minimal between bending waves; wave decay takes place with oscillations; under some type of anisotropy, power flow can equal zero and can change the

D. D. Zakharov; W. Becker

2003-01-01

215

Strong bending of the DNA double helix  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, the issue of strong bending of the double helix has attracted a lot of attention. Here, we overview the major experimental and theoretical developments in the field sorting out reliably established facts from speculations and unsubstantiated claims. Theoretical analysis shows that sharp bends or kinks have to facilitate strong bending of the double helix. It remains to be determined what is the critical curvature of DNA that prompts the appearance of the kinks. Different experimental and computational approaches to the problem are analyzed. We conclude that there is no reliable evidence that any anomalous behavior of the double helix happens when DNA fragments in the range of 100 bp are circularized without torsional stress. The anomaly starts at the fragment length of about 70 bp when sharp bends or kinks emerge in essentially every molecule. Experimental data and theoretical analysis suggest that kinks may represent openings of isolated base pairs, which had been experimentally detected in linear DNA molecules. The calculation suggests that although the probability of these openings in unstressed DNA is close to 10?5, it increases sharply in small DNA circles reaching 1 open bp per circle of 70 bp.

Vologodskii, Alexander; D. Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim

2013-01-01

216

Characterising plastic collapse of pipe bend structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recently proposed design by analysis criteria of plastic collapse based on plastic work concepts, the plastic work (PW) criterion and the plastic work curvature (PWC) criterion, are applied to a strain hardening pipe bend arrangement subject to combined pressure and in-plane moment loading. Calculated plastic pressure–moment interaction surfaces are compared with limit surfaces, large deformation analysis instability surfaces and

Hongjun Li; Donald Mackenzie

2006-01-01

217

The Hungarian-Americans of South Bend.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Hungarian Americans in South Bend, Indiana, is intended to increase cultural awareness and appreciation. The document is divided into three sections. Section I offers a brief history of Hungary and describes the background of the three emigrant groups; lower…

Scherer, Darlene; Rasmussen, Karen, Ed.

218

Critical current measurement with spatial periodic bending imposed by electromagnetic force on a standard test barrel with slots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and validated a straightforward and fast method to investigate the response of technological superconducting strain sensitive wires (e.g., Nb3Sn) to a spatial periodic bending strain. In the present concept of cabled superconductors for application in nuclear fusion reactors the wires are twisted and cabled in several stages. When subjected to transverse electromagnetic forces after charging the magnet, the individual strands are subjected to spatial periodic bending with wavelengths in the order of 5-10 mm. Several apparatuses are presently under development to study the effect of bending on the transport properties, i.e., the voltage-current transition in terms of critical current (Ic) and n value. We propose a supplementary simple method to investigate the influence of bending strain by using a spatial periodic wire support on a broadly used standard Ic measurement barrel in combination with a Lorentz force. The bending force (BI) is varied by changing the applied field B. The peak bending strain in the Nb3Sn filaments is determined by the amplitude of the bending deflection, which is deduced from the mechanical axial tensile stress-strain properties of the wire. Three different spatial periodic wavelengths are applied and the results are in good agreement with the predictions. In addition we found a good agreement with results obtained by a more advanced experiment, named TARSIS, which is described briefly. The ``barrel-with-slots'' method can be applied easily and straightforward with minor effort and cost in laboratories having a standard Ic measurement facility for superconducting wire.

Nijhuis, A.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Ilyin, Y.; den Ouden, A.; Ten Kate, H. H. J.

2006-05-01

219

Thermal energy test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

Audet, N. F.

1991-10-01

220

Apparatus for superheating steam  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for superheating steam. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the apparatus is provided with two banks of inclined tubes extending upwardly from an outlet header to respective inlet headers. The banks of tubes are disposed in the flow path of main steam through the apparatus and provide a flow of vapor for adding superheat to the main steam. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the tubes extend upwardly to closed ends whereby a lower header acts as both a vapor inlet and condensate outlet. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the vapor is provided by a fossil fuel-fired vapor generator to superheat main steam which has been provided by a nuclear steam generator.

Schluderberg, D. C.

1985-07-23

221

Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

Olson, Kenneth W. (Ames, IA); Haas, Jr., William J. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

1978-08-29

222

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

223

Finite element plastic loads for circumferential cracked pipe bends under in-plane bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes plastic loads (limit load and twice-elastic-slope (TES) plastic load) for pipe bends with circumferential through-wall and part-through surface cracks under in-plane bending, based on three-dimensional FE limit analyses. The material is assumed to be elastic–perfectly plastic, and both the geometrically linear (small strain) and nonlinear (large geometry change) effects are considered. Regarding a crack location, both extrados

Yun-Jae Kim; Young-Il Kim; Tae-Kwang Song

2007-01-01

224

Electroplating method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm.

Looney, Robert B. (Aiken, SC); Smith, William E. L. (North Augusta, SC)

1978-06-20

225

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

226

Fissile solution measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

1984-06-11

227

Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

1993-01-01

228

Current measurement apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

2008-11-11

229

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General Construction Requirements for Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe...

2011-10-01

230

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General Construction Requirements for Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe...

2012-10-01

231

78 FR 34553 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bend, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...arriving under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) at Bend Municipal Airport. This improves the safety and management of IFR operations at the airport. This action...Municipal Airport, Bend, OR, to accommodate IFR aircraft executing Area Navigation...

2013-06-10

232

Bending Waves of the Posterior Flagellum of Ceratium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flagellar bending waves, as shown by multiple-flash photomicrographs of the posterior flagellum of Ceratium, are not sine waves. The bent regions are circular arcs; these regions are separated by short segments without bending.

C. J. Brokaw; Leigh Wright

1963-01-01

233

When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

234

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

235

Bending Waves of the Posterior Flagellum of Ceratium.  

PubMed

Flagellar bending waves, as shown by multiple-flash photomicrographs of the posterior flagellum of Ceratium, are not sine waves. The bent regions are circular arcs; these regions are separated by short segments without bending. PMID:17744109

Brokaw, C J; Wright, L

1963-11-29

236

Rotary Plant Growth Accelerating Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus for increasing plant yields by effectively removing the growing plants from the constraints of gravity and increasing the plant yield per unit of space is described. The apparatus is comprised of cylindrical plan...

R. D. Dedolph

1975-01-01

237

Tubular heat exchanger and method for bending tubes  

SciTech Connect

A tubular heat exchanger for a furnace is described, comprising: a smooth-walled tube having at least one bend of approximately 180[degree], the tube having a ratio of wall factor to diameter factor that is greater than 20, the tube having controlled wrinkles on the inside of the bend and beyond the inner tangent points of the bend as a result of the method of bending the tube.

Schuchert, E.H.

1993-06-29

238

Quadruple-bend achromatic low emittance lattice studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quadruple-bend-achromatic (QBA) cell, defined as a super cell made of two double-bend (DB) cells with different outer and inner dipole bend angles, is found to provide a factor of two in lowering the beam emittance of electron synchrotron light sources. The ratio of bending angles of the inner dipoles to that of the outer dipoles is numerically found to

Min-Huey Wang; H. P. Chang; H. C. Chao; C. C. Kuo; S. Y. Lee; W. M. Tarn; F. Wang

2007-01-01

239

A filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus are described for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

Krauss, Alan R.

1997-12-01

240

49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313 Transportation...Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe...process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and transverse segments of these...

2009-10-01

241

49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313 Transportation...Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe...process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and transverse segments of these...

2010-10-01

242

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section...Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be...

2009-10-01

243

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section...Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be...

2010-10-01

244

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

245

Holographic Animation Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

Johnston, Sean F.

1979-01-01

246

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO\\/sub x\\/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in

R. A. Egnell; B. L. Hansson

1981-01-01

247

Liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus of the type including: a cylinder defining a combustion chamber, the cylinder having an inlet end for receipt of combustion air and an outlet end for exhausting gaseous combustion products; an end plate covering the inlet end of the cylinder; a blower, including a rotor and a casing, for supplying combustion

K. Sawada; Y. Kimijima; H. Umehara

1986-01-01

248

Liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid fuel combustion apparatus is described comprising: wall means defining a cylindrical combustion chamber; a cylindrical portion of the wall means having a first port therein for receiving an ignition device and a first nipple integral with the wall means and surrounding the first port; means for introducing fuel and combustion air into the combustion chamber and for removing

K. Sawada; K. Kikuchi

1987-01-01

249

Solder Dross Removal Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic dross removal apparatus is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade is positioned adjacent the solder bath which skims the dross off of the surf...

W. S. Webb

1990-01-01

250

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a coriolis simulator which uses a carbon paper trace technique and a simple specific-heat apparatus, emphasizing instructional considerations. Also indicates that a variac and an ordinary electric drill can be used to wind coil if a lathe or coil winder are unavailable. (JN)|

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

251

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an apparatus for plotting electric fields using burglar alarm window tape for electrodes and carbonized electronic stencil paper as sheet resistance. Also describes a simple pentode modulator circuit which will modulate a typical helium-neon gas laser, providing an audio channel for demonstration purposes. (SK)|

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

252

Speed Measuring Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A speed measuring apparatus is provided for indicating a percentage of nominal full speed RPM of a jet engine and also for indicating time required for accelerating and decelerating the engine. A generator output is converted to a square wave and a time i...

K. L. Coffman

1981-01-01

253

Modelling the mitotic apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliographical review of the modelling of the mitotic apparatus covers a period of one hundred and twenty years, from the discovery of the bipolar mitotic spindle up to the present day. Without attempting to be fully comprehensive, it will describe the evolution of the main ideas that have left their mark on a century of experimental and theoretical research.

Jean-Pierre Gourret

1995-01-01

254

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides the apparatus setup, experimental method, necessary formulas, and references for three measurement experiments: (1) "Determine the Magnetic Induction of a Coil with a Hall Element"; (2) "Measuring Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field of Small Permanent Magnets"; and (3) "Measurements of Sound Velocity by Means of PZT" (piezoelectric…

Connolly, Walter, Ed.

1990-01-01

255

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)|

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1985-01-01

256

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes four body-lever models (biceps, triceps, back lever when lifting, foot lever and Achilles tendon muscle) used in noncalculus physics courses. Instructions for constructing the wooden models are provided. Also describes an improvement on a centripetal-force apparatus so that it is easier to operate. (JN)|

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1983-01-01

257

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum.

Dellinger, Roger D. (Prosser, WA)

1997-01-01

258

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an apparatus which demonstrates the stability of equilibrium of multidimensional objects and helps students to understand the concept of a lever arm. Also describes an alternative to the standard black, mercury "student cell" used as a reference voltage for calibrating a slide-wire potentiometer. (JN)|

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1984-01-01

259

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some laboratory apparatus and demonstrations; describes an electronic device to illustrate an octave synthesizer; shows how to get negative changes from an electrophorous; explains a body levers device to clarify the principles of moments and levers; and finally shows how to demonstrate acceleration in simple harmonic motion. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

260

Holographic Animation Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)|

Johnston, Sean F.

1979-01-01

261

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)|

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

262

Downhole steam apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downhole steam apparatus for location within the casing of a well borehole to facilitate oil recovery. A housing adapted to be lowered into the borehole includes a combustor for mixing and burning fuel and air, and a heat exchanger having an array of water tubes exposed to the heated gases from the combustor for converting water into steam. The

T. Meeks; C. A. Rhoades

1981-01-01

263

Acoustophoresis Method and Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absor...

J. S. Heyman

1990-01-01

264

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

265

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

266

Subsea wellhead apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a subsea wellhead apparatus for use at a bottom of a sea and the like and with a floating drilling rig with a subsea blowout preventer stack for permitting injection of a waste fluid containing noxious, or toxic, substances into a fractured formation penetrated by a drilled borehole while drilling and including: a. strings of conduit suspended

F. J. Schuh; J. Karish

1986-01-01

267

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in

Sridhar

1983-01-01

268

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in

Sridhar

1981-01-01

269

Scintillation counting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters one ; drawback has been the scarcity of radiation counters which efficiently measure ; both gamma and beta radiation. There has also been the problem of scintillation ; counting in the face of external or background radiation. A scintillation ; counting apparatus is provided herein which measures scintillations arising from

Noakes

1975-01-01

270

Mud separator valve apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic cleaning system is provided for a mud separator apparatus. Water and mud inputs to a mud pump feeding the separator are respectively controlled by two butterfly valves ganged for cooperation, and operated by a single valve actuator motor. When the mud separator is shut off, a time delay relay is actuated which keeps the mud separator rotor motor

1981-01-01

271

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1985-06-19

272

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

273

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container.

Danielle R. D. Campanizzi; Brenda Mason; Christine K. F. Hermann

1999-01-01

274

Membrane bending: the power of protein imbalance.  

PubMed

Many cellular processes require membrane deformation, which is driven by specialized protein machinery and can often be recapitulated using pure lipid bilayers. However, biological membranes contain a large amount of embedded proteins. Recent research suggests that membrane-bound proteins with asymmetric distribution of mass across the bilayer can influence membrane bending in a nonspecific manner due to molecular crowding. This mechanism is physical in nature and arises from collisions between such 'mushroom-shaped' proteins. It can either facilitate or impede the action of protein coats, for example COPII, during vesicle budding. We describe the physics of how molecular crowding can influence membrane bending and discuss the implications for other cellular processes, such as sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) and production of intraluminal vesicles. PMID:24054463

Derganc, Jure; Antonny, Bruno; Copi?, Alenka

2013-09-18

275

DNA Bending Stiffness on Small Length Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bending properties of short (15 90 bp), double-stranded DNA fragments are quantified using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and small angle x-ray scattering. Results from both types of measurements indicate that short double-stranded DNA fragments exhibit surprisingly high flexibility. These observations are discussed in terms of base-pair-level length fluctuations originating from dynamic features of Watson-Crick base pairs.

Yuan, Chongli; Chen, Huimin; Lou, Xiong Wen; Archer, Lynden A.

2008-01-01

276

Sharp waveguide bends induced by spatial solitons  

SciTech Connect

We experimentally demonstrate the ability of a self-guided laser beam to induce waveguides with sharp bends. The beam is a two-dimensional photorefractive screening-photovoltaic bright spatial soliton generated inside a biased lithium-niobate crystal shaped as a prism. The soliton robustness against total internal reflections is shown to leave place to a low-loss unimodal waveguide undergoing multiple zero-radius 90 deg. turns.

Jaeger, Robert; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Cambournac, Cyril; Haelterman, Marc; Chauvet, Mathieu [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Service d'optique et acoustique, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Institut Femto-ST, Departement d'optique P-M. Duffieux, UMRS CNRS 6174/Universite de Franche-Comte 6174, F-25030 Besancon cedex (France)

2006-02-06

277

Geology Fieldnotes: Big Bend National Park, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

That portion of the earth's surface known as "the Big Bend" has often been described as a "geologist's paradise". In part this is due to the sparse vegetation of the region, which allows the various strata to be easily observed and studied. In addition to a geologic history of the region, this site includes photographs, maps, recent earthquakes, volcanoes, petrology and paleontology relating to the park area, and visitor information.

278

Kinematic bending moments in pile foundations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the kinematic seismic interaction of single piles embedded in soil deposits is evaluated by focusing the attention on the bending moments induced by the transient motion. The analysis is performed by modeling the pile like an Euler–Bernoulli beam embedded in a layered Winkler-type medium. The excitation motion is obtained by means of a one-D propagation analysis. A

F. Dezi; S. Carbonari; G. Leoni

2010-01-01

279

Minimum Membrane Bending Energies of Fusion Pores  

PubMed Central

Membranes fuse by forming highly curved intermediates, culminating in structures described as fusion pores. These hourglass-like figures that join two fusing membranes have high bending energies, which can be estimated using continuum elasticity models. Fusion pore bending energies depend strongly on shape, and the present study developed a method for determining the shape that minimizes bending energy. This was first applied to a fusion pore modeled as a single surface and then extended to a more realistic model treating a bilayer as two monolayers. For the two-monolayer model, fusion pores were found to have metastable states with energy minima at particular values of the pore diameter and bilayer separation. Fusion pore energies were relatively insensitive to membrane thickness but highly sensitive to spontaneous curvature and membrane asymmetry. With symmetrical bilayers and monolayer spontaneous curvatures of ?0.1 nm?1 (a typical value) separated by 6 nm (closest distance determined by repulsive hydration forces), fusion pore formation required 43–65 kT. The pore radius of ?2.25 nm fell within the range estimated from conductance measurements. With bilayer separation >6 nm, fusion pore formation required less energy, suggesting that protein scaffolds can promote fusion by bending membranes toward one another. With nonzero spontaneous monolayer curvature, the shape that minimized the energy change during fusion pore formation differed from the shape that minimized its energy after it formed. Thus, a nascent fusion pore will relax spontaneously to a new shape, consistent with the experimentally observed expansion of nascent fusion pores during viral fusion.

2010-01-01

280

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30

281

Finite element simulation of laser tube bending: Effect of scanning schemes on bending angle, distortions and stress distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser forming has received considerable attention in recent years. Within laser forming, tube bending is an important industrial activity, with applications in critical engineering systems like micro-machines, heat exchangers, hydraulic systems, boilers, etc. Laser tube bending utilizes the thermal stresses generated during laser scanning to achieve the desired bends. The parameters to control the process are usually laser power, beam

Shakeel Safdar; Lin Li; M. A. Sheikh; Zhu Liu

2007-01-01

282

VIS-NIR bend loss sensitive photonic crystal fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present bend loss characteristics of silica Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) in the VIS-NIR-IR region. The PCFs made using the Stack-and- Draw technique consist of triangular and rectangular hollow lattices. The bend loss dependency of these PCFs was characterized by using an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and a white light source. The optical transmittance spectra were measured for different bend radius. These PCFs are sensitive to bending losses in the VIS-NIR region, but insensitive in the IR region. These PCFs may be used to bend sensors or optical filters.

Chillcce, E. F.; Allan, T.; Cordeiro, C. M. B.; Barbosa, L. C.

2011-05-01

283

Design of a 90{degree} overmoded waveguide bend  

SciTech Connect

A design for a 90{degree} bend for the TE{sub 01} mode in over-moded circular waveguide is presented. A pair of septa, symmetrically placed perpendicular to the plane of the bend, are adiabatically introduced into the waveguide before the bend and removed after it. Introduction of the curvature excites five propagating modes in the curved section. The finite element field solver YAP is used to calculate the propagation constants of these modes in the bend, and the guide diameter, septum depth, septum thickness, and bend radius are set so that the phase advances of all five modes through the bend are equal modulo 2{pi}. To a good approximation these modes are expected to recombine to form a pure mode at the end of the bend.

Nantista, C. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kroll, N.M. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nelson, E.M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1993-04-01

284

Effects of imposed bending on microtubule sliding in sperm flagella.  

PubMed

The movement of eukaryotic flagella is characterized by its oscillatory nature. In sea urchin sperm, for example, planar bends are formed in alternating directions at the base of the flagellum and travel toward the tip as continuous waves. The bending is caused by the orchestrated activity of dynein arms to induce patterned sliding between doublet microtubules of the flagellar axoneme. Although the mechanism regulating the dynein activity is unknown, previous studies have suggested that the flagellar bending itself is important in the feedback mechanism responsible for the oscillatory bending. If so, experimentally bending the microtubules would be expected to affect the sliding activity of dynein. Here we report on experiments with bundles of doublets obtained by inducing sliding in elastase-treated axonemes. Our results show that bending not only "switches" the dynein activity on and off but also affects the microtubule sliding velocity, thus supporting the idea that bending is involved in the self-regulatory mechanism underlying flagellar oscillation. PMID:15589153

Morita, Yutaka; Shingyoji, Chikako

2004-12-14

285

Characterization of bending loss in hollow flexible terahertz waveguides.  

PubMed

Attenuation characteristics of hollow, flexible, metal and metal/dielectric coated polycarbonate waveguides were investigated using an optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser at 215 µm. The bending loss of silver coated polycarbonate waveguides were measured as a function of various bending angles, bending radii, and bore diameters. Minimal propagation losses of 1.77, 0.96 dB/m were achieved by coupling the lowest loss TE11 mode into the silver or gold coated waveguide, and HE11 mode into the silver/polystyrene coated waveguides respectively. The maximal bending loss was found to be less than 1 dB/m for waveguides of 2 to 4.1 mm bore diameters, with a 6.4 cm bend radius, and up to 150° bending angle. The investigation shows the preservation of single laser mode in smaller bore waveguides even at greater bending angles. PMID:23038558

Doradla, Pallavi; Joseph, Cecil S; Kumar, Jayant; Giles, Robert H

2012-08-13

286

Servo control apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In a servo control apparatus in which a machine system is driven by a servo motor, a phase compensation device is provided. The phase compensating device calculates a speed component (phase delay compensation signal) corresponding to a phase delay caused by a mechanical resonance suppressing filter which is provided so as to suppress resonance and mechanical vibrations, produced by a characteristic frequency owned by the machine system. While such a signal obtained by adding this speed component (phase delay compensation signal) to an actual motor speed is used as a speed feedback signal for a control operation, unstable conditions of a servo system, which are caused by the phase delay caused when the mechanical resonance filter is applied, are suppressed, and a high gain of the servo control apparatus is realized.

Tsutsui; Kazuhiko (Tokyo, JP)

2001-08-14

287

Refrigerant reclaim apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for reclaiming refrigerant. It comprises: cleaning means for removing gaseous or liquid refrigerant from a container, vaporizing all of the liquid refrigerant and separating oil from the gaseous refrigerant, a compressor for receiving and compressing the gaseous refrigerant from the containers, a condenser for receiving and condensing the gaseous refrigerant from the compressor, storing means for receiving and storing the liquid refrigerant from the condenser, removal means for removing condensed refrigerant out from the storing means, and evacuations beans for evacuating high pressure gaseous refrigerant from the entire apparatus after all of the condenser refrigerant has been removed the storing means; the evacuation means comprised of the three-way solenoid valve and an operator activated switch functionally associated with the solenoid valve wherein the activation of the switch caused the evacuation of high pressure gaseous refrigerant; and the evacuation means located adjacent to and in fluid communication with the exit of the compressor.

Van Steenburgh, L.R.

1992-02-11

288

Intake air heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an intake air heating apparatus adapted to be positioned in the air intake passage of an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. The apparatus comprises: a heater member of semiconductive ceramic material in the configuration of a grid having apertures for passing air therethrough between opposite sides thereof; spaced frame members supporting therebetween edge portions of the heater member; a pair of electric terminals fixed to at least one of the frame members; electrode lead members connected to the terminals and extending adjacent one side of the heater member; and metal plate members inserted between the heater member one side and the electrode lead members and making electrical contact therebetween.

Hori, M.; Nomura, E.; Niwa, H.; Mukai, H.; Tanaka, T.

1987-05-26

289

Partial oxidation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for the simultaneous partial oxidation of a primary fuel stream comprising a high metals or ash containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or a slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel and a secondary fuel stream to produce a raw gas stream comprising: a vertical cylindrically shaped steel pressure vessel with a coaxial inlet port in the upper end of the vessel and a coaxial outlet port in the lower end of the vessel; a coaxial vertically disposed first gasification burner mounted in the upper inlet port for discharging reactant feedstreams directly into a first vertical coaxial free-flow refractory lined reaction chamber where partial oxidation of the fuel feedstream takes place to produce a first raw gas stream. The bottom of the first reaction chamber is frusto-conical or hemispherical shaped. The apparatus also comprises a coaxial free-flow refractory lined gas diversion chamber with an upper inlet and side and bottom outlets located below the first reaction chamber.

Jahnke, F.C.

1987-03-03

290

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

291

Infrared viewing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus known as a common module for converting a thermal scene into a visible image. The apparatus comprises an infrared objective, a pivotal mirror which can be pivoted back and forth about an axis, an infrared detection array comprising a plurality of detectors, and a linear display array which is connected to the infrared detection array via an amplifier arrangement. The radiation emitted by the display array is imaged in a plane of observation, preferably via the back of the pivotal mirror and via at least one diverting mirror. For omnidirectional viewing in the horizontal and the vertical direction the infrared objective, the pivotal mirror, the detector array and the display array are combined to form a constructional unit, which is arranged to be pivotable about a horizontal and about a vertical axis. Between the diverting mirror and the eyepiece an erecting prism is arranged. The erecting prism is rotated in conformity with the rotation of the constructional unit.

Christiansen, H.; Schnieder, H.

1984-10-02

292

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. A plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1986-08-20

293

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

294

Throttling mud choke apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Mud choke apparatus is disclosed, and the preferred embodiment has the form of a hollow, tubular body receiving a mud flow introduced from a lateral port, the flow being directed through an axial passage and past a valve seat. The valve seat is a replaceable, hardened metal liner and is formed with a gradual taper so that the mud flows from the large end through the tapered, smaller end. Thereafter, it flows out of the body through an axial opening. The flow of mud is throttled by a tapered, hardened plug serving as a valve element which is received into the valve seat. A hydraulic cylinder and piston with a connecting rod move the plug. The plug has a surrounding, perpendicular shoulder which seals and seats against a shoulder on the insert to fully close the throttling valve apparatus. Flow is choked by inserting the tapered plug with controlled clearance into the tapered valve seat.

Claycomb, J.R.

1983-03-22

295

Electrocell method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of an apparatus including an electrocell and, preferably, also a diaphragm pump for processing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom. The electrocell comprises a set of coaxial cylinders with end housings to maintain spacing. The innermost cylinder is a cathode. Surrounding the cathode is a porous barrier, then an anode and finally an outer shell. Interior to the cathode is a cathode coolant passage. Between the cathode and the porous barrier is a passage for a catholyte. Between the porous barrier and the anode is a passage for an anolyte. Exterior to the anode but inside an outer shell is a passage for the anode coolant. The passage for the anolyte is dimensioned, based upon the flow rate of the anolyte, to produce fully turbulent flow, preferably with a Reynolds number in excess of 4000. The diaphragm pump surges anolyte into the anolyte passage to further increase turbulence, thereby increasing the efficiency of the apparatus.

Mensink, D.L.; Graham, F.R.; Younkins, R.M.

1990-12-31

296

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

1987-12-22

297

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

298

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01

299

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

300

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

301

ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS CONTROL  

DOEpatents

An improved isotope separating apparatus of the electromagnetic type, commonly referred to as a calutron, is described. Improvements in detecting and maintaining optimum position and focus of the ion beam are given. The calutron collector is provided with an additional electrode insulated from and positioned between the collecting pockets. The ion beams are properly positioned and focused until the deionizing current which flows from ground to this additional electrode ts a minimum.

Barnes, S.W.

1959-08-25

302

IRRADIATION METHOD AND APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for changing fuel bodies into a process tube of a reactor. According to this method fresh fuel elements are introduced into one end of the tube forcing used fuel elements out the other end. When sufficient fuel has been discharged, a reel and tape arrangement is employed to pull the column of bodies back into the center of the tube. Due provision is made for providing shielding in the tube. (AEC)

Cabell, C.P.

1962-12-18

303

Nonlinear aeroelastic stability analysis of wind turbine blade with bending–bending–twist coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the nonlinear aeroelastic stability of wind turbine blade with bending–bending–twist coupling has been investigated for composite thin-walled structure with pretwist angle. The aerodynamic model used here is the differential dynamic stall nonlinear ONERA model. The nonlinear aeroelastic equations are reduced to ordinary equations by Galerkin method, with the aerodynamic force decomposition by strip theory. The nonlinear resulting equations are solved by a time-marching approach, and are linearized by small perturbation about the equilibrium point. The nonlinear aeroelastic stability characteristics are investigated through eigenvalue analysis, nonlinear time domain response, and linearized time domain response.

Liu, Tingrui; Ren, Yongsheng; Yang, Xinghua

2013-10-01

304

Air-cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

Howard, A.G.

1981-08-18

305

Electric heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An electric heating apparatus is disclosed for heating foods and liquids in a cooking vessel. It's comprising: a metal upper part, having an upper cooking surface and a lower surface; a metal lower part covering the bottom of the heating apparatus, a sealable space being formed between the upper part and the lower part; and, at least one tubular heating device with a metal covering arranged in the space and having a large flat contact surface for thermally conductively engaging the lower surface of the upper metal part, the space having at least a partial vacuum formed therein, the at least partial vacuum reducing convective heat loss and imparting a concave distortion to the upper metal part which counteracts a convex distortion of the upper metal part due to expansion upon heating, thereby holding the upper metal part substantially flat during heating and maximizing surface contact between the cooking surface and a cooking vessel resting thereon, whereby heat is transferred from the cooking surface to the cooking vessel with maximum efficiency. The apparatus may also be constructed as a receptacle for directly heating foods or liquids.

Fischer, K.

1984-02-14

306

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

307

Riser braking clamp apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A riser breaking clamp apparatus is described for use in a floating vessel having a substantially centrally positioned vertical hull opening therethrough. The vessel is provided with well drilling equipment, including an elongated vertical riser. The riser extends in tension down through the hull opening to a point adjacent the ocean floor, and motion-compensating and tensioning means are carried by the vessel operatively connected to the riser for tensioning the riser during normal operations. The invention comprises: riser braking clamp apparatus located substantially within the hull opening through the vessel, the riser braking clamp apparatus comprising: telescopic joint means having a first member and a second member, each member having a lower end and an upper end and axial throughbore, the lower end of the first member operatively connected to the upper end of the riser. The upper end of the first member is slideably engaged with the lower end of the second member, the second member operatively connected to the vessel; and brake means carried by one member of the telescopic joint means, operatively and selectively engageable with the other member of the telescopic joint means, to dampen, arrest, and prevent further movement of the first member relative to the second member of the telescopic joint means.

Langer, C.G.

1986-10-14

308

Circuit Bending with Play-Doh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Break open that used musical toy and squish some Play-Doh over the circuit boards, and you will hear some weird and distorted sounds the manufacturer never intended! In this activity learners experiment with the strange conductive properties of Play-Doh in order to safely short-circuit a musical toy. This is an entertaining activity about basic circuitry, sounds, and short circuiting or "circuit bending" battery powered musical toys. Note: often it is difficult to unscrew the musical toys open, and the insides are delicate. So consider this when turning this into a group activity.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-26

309

Light-bending tests of Lorentz invariance  

SciTech Connect

Classical light-bending is investigated for weak gravitational fields in the presence of hypothetical local Lorentz violation. Using an effective field theory framework that describes general deviations from local Lorentz invariance, we derive a modified deflection angle for light passing near a massive body. The results include anisotropic effects not present for spherical sources in General Relativity as well as Weak Equivalence Principle violation. We develop an expression for the relative deflection of two distant stars that can be used to analyze data in past and future solar-system observations. The measurement sensitivities of such tests to coefficients for Lorentz violation are discussed.

Tso, Rhondale; Bailey, Quentin G. [Physics Department, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 3700 Willow Creek Road, Prescott, Arizona 86301 (United States)

2011-10-15

310

FFAGs and Cyclotrons with Reverse Bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes tracking studies of radial-sector FFAGs and cyclotrons with reverse bends using the cyclotron equilibrium orbit code CYCLOPS. The results for FFAGs confirm those obtained with lumped-element codes, and suggest that cyclotron codes will prove to be important tools for evaluating the measured fields of FFAG magnets. The results for radial-sector cyclotrons show that the use of negative valley fields would allow vertical focusing to be maintained, and hence allow intense cw beams to be accelerated, to energies as high as 10 GeV.

Craddock, Michael; Rao, Yi-Nong

2009-05-01

311

Multifiber optical bend sensor to aid colonoscope navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colonoscopy's near-blind navigation process frequently causes disorientation for the scope operator, leading to harm for the patient. Navigation can be improved if real-time colonoscope shape, location, and orientation information is provided by a shape-tracking aid, such as a fiber optic bend sensor. Fiber optic bend sensors provide advantages over conventional electromechanical shape-trackers, including low cost and ease of integration. However, current fiber optic bend sensors lack either the ability to detect both bending direction and curvature, or the ability to detect multiple localized bends. An inexpensive multifiber bend sensor was developed to aid users in navigation during colonoscopy. The bend sensor employs active-cladding optical fibers modified with fluorescent quantum dots, bandpass filters, and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imager as key components. Results from three-fiber sensors demonstrate the bend sensor's ability to measure curvature (error of 0.01 mm), direction (100% accuracy), and location (predetermined distance) of a bend in the fiber bundle. Comparison with spectroscopy data further confirmed the accuracy of the bending direction measurement for a three-fiber sensor. Future work includes improvements in fiber manufacturing to increase sensor sensitivity and consistency. An expanded 31 fiber bundle would be needed to track the full length of a colonoscope.

Kesner, Jessica E.; Gavalis, Robb M.; Wong, Peter Y.; Cao, Caroline G. L.

2011-12-01

312

An experimental and theoretical study of the bending behavior of Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings  

SciTech Connect

The basic lamina properties were determined by testing unidirectionally reinforced specimens in tension and compression. Results indicate that unidirectional Kevlar 49/epoxy composites manifest nearly linear elastic response in tension and yield-like behavior in fiber-directed compression. The measured compressive yield strength is roughly 20% of the tensile ultimate strength. We also tested 3.2 and 12.7 mm thick, quasi-isotropic beams in tension, compression, short beam shear, and four-point bending, and 457 mm diameter, 12.7 mm thick, quasi-isotropic rings in diametral compression. All specimens were fully instrumented with strain gages to provide a detailed record of their deformation. As anticipated, the flexural response of laminated Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings exhibit nonlinearity. For this reason, a material model which includes compressive yield behavior was examined. In this model, a Kevlar 49 lamina is assumed to respond in a linear elastic manner to all loads except compression in the fiber direction. In fiber-directed compression, it is assumed to behave in an elastic-perfectly plastic manner. Laminate response is determined from the postulated lamina behavior in a manner analogous to that used in classical laminated plate theory. This constitutive model was used in conjunction with the ABAQUS finite element code to analyze the tested specimens. Comparison of predicted results with experimental data corroborates the model's ability to reproduce much of the observed nonlinear behavior.

Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.

1987-01-01

313

Structural Basis of Stable Bending in DNA Containing An Tracts. Different Types of Bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural determinants of DNA bending of different types have been studied by theoretical conformational analysis of duplexes. Their terminal parts were fixed either in an ordinary low-energy B-like conformation or in “anomalous” conformations with a narrowed minor groove typical of An tracts. The anomalous conformations had different negative tilt angles (up to about zero), different propeller twists and minor groove

Vasily P. Chuprina; Ruben A. Abagyan

1988-01-01

314

Nonlinear Bending Stiffness of Plates Clamped by Bolted Joints under Bending Moment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equivalent stiffness of plates clamped by bolted joints for designing should be evaluated according to not only the strength of bolted joints but also the deformation and vibration characteristics of the structures. When the applied external axial load or the bending moment is sufficiently small, the contact surfaces of the bolted joint are stuck together, and thus both the bolt and the clamped plates deform linearly. Although the sophisticated VDI 2230 code gives the appropriate stiffness of clamped plates for the infinitesimal deformation, the stiffness may vary nonlinearly with increasing the loading because of changing the contact state. Therefore, the present paper focuses on the nonlinear behaviour of the bending stiffness of clamped plates by using Finite Element (FE) analyses, taking the contact condition on bearing surfaces and between the plates into account. The FE models of the plates with thicknesses of 3.2, 4.5, 6.0 and 9.0 mm tightened with M8, 10, 12 and 16 bolts were constructed. The relation between bending moment and bending compliance of clamped plates is found to be categorized into three regions, namely, (i) constant compliance with fully stuck contact surfaces, (ii) transition showing the nonlinear compliance, and (iii) constant compliance with one-side contact surfaces. The mechanical models for these three regions are proposed and compared with FEM solutions. The prediction on the bounds of three regions is in a fairly good agreement except the case with smaller bolts and thicker plates.

Naruse, Tomohiro; Shibutani, Yoji

315

Coupled bending-bending vibrations of pretwisted tapered cantilever beams treated by the Reissner method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical natural frequencies and mode shapes of the first four coupled modes of a uniform pretwisted cantilever blade and the first five coupled flexural frequencies of pretwisted tapered blading are determined by using the Reissner method. The shape functions for the bending moments and deflections are developed in series form and with these used in the dynamic Reissner functional, the

K. B. Subrahmanyam; J. S. Rao

1982-01-01

316

Water treatment apparatus and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus for the biological treatment of saltwater-based domestic wastewater, the apparatus having an inlet for the introduction of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater, an outlet for the removal of treated wastewater, means for monitoring the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater entering or within the apparatus and means for controlling the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater entering or within the apparatus such that fluctuations in the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater are reduced and the biological treatment of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater is thereby maintained.

Fry; John (Torfaen, GB); Jones; Gerald (Nr Swindon, GB)

2011-01-25

317

The Effect of Anisotropy on Thin-Walled Tube Bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-walled tube bending has found many of its applications in the automobile and aerospace industries. The rotary-draw-bending method which is a complex physical process with multi-factor interactive effects is one of the advanced tube forming processes with high efficiency, high forming precision, low consumption and good flexibility for bending angle changes. However it may produce a wrinkling phenomenon, over thinning

K. Hasanpour; B. Amini; M. Poursina; M. Barati

2011-01-01

318

Tube bending and hydroforming of aluminium alloy S-rails  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the effect of the tube bending and hydroforming processes on the characteristics of aluminium alloy\\u000a s-rail structures used in crash applications. Tube bending and hydroforming experiments are conducted using a fully instrumented\\u000a mandrel-rotary draw tube bender and a 1,000 tonne hydroforming press to investigate the effect of bend severity on the thickness\\u000a and strain distributions within the

D. A. Oliveira; M. J. Worswick

2009-01-01

319

Influence from bends on a pressure-time measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the criteria for using the pressure-time method is that there is a straight pipe between the measurement cross sections. If the physical influences from a bend were known the method could be expanded for use over bends and hence on more power plants. At the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) a test rig suited for experiments on the pressure-time method has been built. In addition to earlier experiments performed on straight pipe and double 90 degree bend, experiments on double 45 degree bend has been performed. This is done in order to try to find out if there is a clear relationship between bend geometry and its influence on the pressure time curve. To further develop the knowledge a full scale test in the field has been conducted on a 5 MW 58 meter head machine with a vertical penstock and a 90 degree bend. In the laboratory a double 90 degree bend caused an underestimation of the flow of about 1 % compared to a straight pipe, while for a double 45 degree bend a conclusion can not be found as the spread around the mean and uncertainty bands is within the range for the straight pipe. The field measurements with a 90 degree bend showed that the underestimation became 8.5%. When measuring pressure difference over bends the resulting calculation will give an underestimation of the flow. This should imply that the measured transient pressure is damped. (Regardless if this is the correct term it is here chosen to call this damping.) The question is if the damping is caused by friction or kinetic effects. The rapid deceleration of the water masses will give transient friction. How transient friction behaves is a topic of interest in hydraulic research. Bends will also cause skewed velocity and pressure profile on inlet and outlet of the bend as well as secondary flows. How this affects the transient pressure is also an interesting parameter.

Ramdal, J.; Jonsson, P.; Nielsen, T.

2010-08-01

320

Precision laser bending of thin precious metal alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers are capable of delivering energy to a metal to induce stresses from the thermal gradient through the material. Under the right conditions these stresses can cause the metal to bend. Experiments were conducted to produce bending in the metal, Neyoro® G, and samples with a titanium coating on one side. In the experiments, both upward and downward bending was observed. The titanium coated samples showed potential to be more controllable than the uncoated samples.

Campbell, R. C.; Campbell, B. R.; Lehecka, T. M.; Palmer, J. A.; Knorovsky, G. A.

2007-03-01

321

Modelling and prediction of bending stiffness for paper board manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-physical auto-regressive moving average model of bending stiffness of the board produced at Assi Domän-Frövifors Bruk AB, as a function of measured control and disturbance variables, was identified. Based on the bending stiffness model, an adaptive on-line bending stiffness index predictor was implemented and found to have an RMS-error within the laboratory measurement accuracy. The predictor has been running

Per-Olof Gutman; Bengt Nilsson

1998-01-01

322

Pellet inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

323

CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

1960-06-28

324

Apparatus for bagging material  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus (10) for bagging material into a stretchable bag having an open end, comprises a movable bag stretching structure (18) displaceable between a first position for receiving the bag and a second position for holding the bag in a stretched state, wherein said stretching structure (18) is provided with elongated corner members (70, 72) for accumulating the bag thereon, each of said elongated corner members (70, 72) being provided with a movable strap-like member (210) extending along the length of the corner members (70, 72) to facilitate loading and unloading the bag on and from the corner members (70, 72).

2010-10-26

325

Radiation image inspection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A radiation image inspection apparatus is described comprising: means for generating and directing radiation toward an article to be inspected; a screen for converting a radiation pattern of the article into a first visible light image; lens means for maintaining the intensity of a first visible light image produced on the screen; camera means having an image tube target and producing an electrical output system corresponding to the incident image on the image tube target from the lens means; and control means for controlling the operation of a camera means and the radiation generating means.

Velasquez, J.F.

1988-04-05

326

Portable hydrogenerating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for generating hydroelectric power comprising a portable collector tube assembly which can be transported to the site of a water source having a waterfall sufficient in magnitude to provide a pressure head for driving a turbine generator. The tube assembly comprises telescopically arranged inner and outer tubes, and means for rotating the tube assembly and extending the inner tube so as to place the upper, extended end thereof in a position within and below the top of the waterfall so as to take advantage of the resulting hydrodynamic and hydrostatic forces.

Borgren, P.M.

1982-04-13

327

Rotary dental polishing apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A rotary dental polishing apparatus which utilizes a rotatably cylindrical cartridge for containing polishing paste therein. One end of the cartridge is provided with a polishing cup, the cavity of which is in communication with the interior of the cartridge to receive paste therefrom. The cartridge also comprises a wiper conveyer mechanism which is in communication with the outer end of the cartridge at the end opposite the cup and is prevented from rotating which results in the conveyer mechanism continuously urging the paste out of the cartridge into the cup. The cartridge may be configured to rotate at a right angle to the drive source.

Warden; Fuller (Tulsa, OK); Lewis; Eugene W. (Tulsa, OK)

1981-05-12

328

Mass flowmeter apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a non-venting mass flowmeter apparatus. It comprises: a substantially vertical container having a known mass content per unit of height or weight, the container in direct open fluid communication with conduits capable of carrying liquids; means capable of providing a set minimum positive displacement pressure in the vertical container; means for filling the vertical container against the set minimum pressure; and means for monitoring the amount of liquid in the container as change in mass over a measured time interval.

Adney, B.R.; Alworth, C.W.; Durkee, J.B.; Jeffries, B.T.

1990-10-16

329

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

330

Sonic levitation apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sonic levitation apparatus is disclosed which includes a sonic transducer which generates acoustical energy responsive to the level of an electrical amplifier. A duct communicates with an acoustical chamber to deliver an oscillatory motion of air to a plenum section which contains a collimated hole structure having a plurality of parallel orifices. The collimated hole structure converts the motion of the air to a pulsed. Unidirectional stream providing enough force to levitate a material specimen. Particular application to the production of microballoons in low gravity environment is discussed.

Dunn, S. A.; Pomplum, A. R.; Paquette, E. G.; Ethridge, E. C.; Johnson, J. L.

1984-05-01

331

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, C.E.; Ives, H.C.; Leifeste, G.T.; Miller, R.B.

1986-03-06

332

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

333

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

334

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

335

Bend-size reduction on the SOI rib waveguide platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimum bending radius of optical waveguides is typically the most important parameter that defines the footprint and cost of a photonic integrated circuit. In optical fibers and in planar waveguides with equally large mode fields (~10 ?m) the bending radii are typically in the cm-scale. The main advantage of using a high index waveguide core with a thickness below 1 ?m is the ability to realise single-mode bends with bending radii of just a few micrometers. In this paper we review the dependence of the minimum bending radius on the size and shape of waveguides with the main emphasis on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. Then we present simulation and measurement results from advanced waveguide bends and mirrors that have been integrated with 4-10 ?m thick single-mode SOI waveguides. We show that multi-step patterning and novel designs allow the reduction of the bending radius by up to three orders of magnitude while also reducing the bending losses by approximately one order of magnitude when compared to traditional rib waveguide bends on 4 ?m SOI. This allows to use the ?m-scale SOI waveguides for making almost as compact photonic integrated circuits as those based on sub-?m SOI waveguides.

Aalto, Timo; Cherchi, Matteo; Harjanne, Mikko; Ylinen, Sami; Kapulainen, Markku

2013-02-01

336

Characterization of bending losses for curved plasmonic nanowire waveguides.  

PubMed

We characterize bending losses of curved plasmonic nanowire waveguides for radii of curvature ranging from 1 to 12 microm and widths down to 40 nm. We use near-field measurements to separate bending losses from propagation losses. The attenuation due to bending loss is found to be as low as 0.1 microm(-1) for a curved waveguide with a width of 70 nm and a radius of curvature of 2 microm. Experimental results are supported by Finite Difference Time Domain simulations. An analytical model developed for dielectric waveguides is used to predict the trend of rising bending losses with decreasing radius of curvature in plasmonic nanowires. PMID:20720996

Dikken, Dirk Jan; Spasenovi?, Marko; Verhagen, Ewold; van Oosten, Dries; Kuipers, L Kobus

2010-07-19

337

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

338

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

1995-03-21

339

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

Hallman, R.L. Jr.

1991-01-01

340

Agitation apparatus. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

1982-03-12

341

Heat pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01

342

Fuel pump driving apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A fuel pump driving apparatus is described for an engine having a fuel pump, the apparatus comprising: a pump drive motor having an armature, first and second brushes arranged to oppose each other through the armature and a third brush arranged separately from the first and second brushes, wherein the first brush is grounded; a power source connected to at least one of the first to third brushes; first and second switch members for connecting the second and third brushes respectively through first and second switch members to the power source; means for detecting a load condition of the engine; first current drawing means for drawing electric current to the armature of the motor through two of the first to third brushes; second current drawing means for drawing electric current to the armature of the motor through all of the first to third brushes; and means for switching enabling and disabling of the first and second current drawing means in response to the detected load condition of the engine.

Yamada, H.; Ina, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kato, K.

1989-05-09

343

Battery charging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in combination: a portable module having a light mounted thereon, at least one rechargeable battery therein for operating the light, and a pair of contacts connected to the battery; an electrical system of an automotive vehicle having a second battery and an operation switch connected to the second battery, the switch having a normally open position; an apparatus for charging the rechargeable battery from the second battery. The apparatus has a charging circuit with a diode between the second battery and one of the contacts for the rechargeable battery, means for short circuiting the diode to permit a current flow around the diode, the means including a second switch having a normally closed position to complete a short circuit about the diode and an open position to interrupt the short circuit, and actuating means for actuating the second switch connected with the operation switch to move the second switch to the open position in response to closing of the operation switch.

Mc Dermott, J.A.

1987-09-01

344

[Weibull statistical analysis of bending strength data measured either in air or in distilled water for sintered hydroxyapatite ceramics coated on the metal substrate].  

PubMed

To assess the effects of H2O on the fracture stress of sintered hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramics prepared by procedures similar to those used for HAP coated on the metal substrate, four-point bending tests were carried out at 0.5 mm/min either in air (20 C, R.H. 73%) or in distilled water (37 degrees C). Then, strength data obtained were analyzed using two-parameter weibull statistics. In each condition, the bending strength data gave a good fit to single-mode weibull distribution. Weibull analysis of the data gave weibull parameter m = 7.8, sigma 0 = 26.2 MPa in air and m = 8.1, sigma 0 = 18.5 MPa in distilled water, which were calculated assuming a surface flaw model. The mean value of bending strength was 27.3 MPa in air and 18.2 MPa in distilled water. These results indicated that a corrosive environment such as H2O affects fracture stress when measured at a constant stress rate. This effect is considered to be caused by slow crack growth of cracks, occurring at a loading level lower than those at which specimens will fail. Using the weibull distribution function estimated in this study, the effects of both dimension of specimen and stress distribution in the specimen on the mean fracture stress have been predicted. PMID:2135508

Wakamatsu, N; Goto, T; Adachi, M; Imura, S; Hayashi, K; Kamemizu, H; Iijima, M; Gyotoku, T; Shibata, S; Horiguchi, T

1990-03-01

345

Performance Comparison of Rescue Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A performance comparison of 14 rescue breathing apparatus was undertaken as an assessment of past and present worldwide technology. Rescue breathing apparatus are self-contained, close-circuit breathing apparatus used for entry into areas having atmospher...

N. Kyriazi

1999-01-01

346

An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)|

Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

1984-01-01

347

An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

1984-01-01

348

Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second-order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters.

Shamid, Shaikh M.; Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan V.

2013-05-01

349

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface  

DOEpatents

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

1985-11-21

350

Head movements while steering around bends.  

PubMed

In this study, the determinants of head motions (rotations) when driving around bends were investigated when drivers viewed the scene through a head-mounted display. The scene camera was either fixed or coupled to head motions along 2 or 3 axes of rotation. Eight participants drove around a triangular circuit and the range and speed of head rotations, the correlations between head rotations and lateral acceleration, and the coupling between the different axes of head rotation were calculated. Results showed that substantial head rotations were made even when head rotations had no influence on the direction of the camera, suggesting a strong motor coupling between steering actions and head motion. Head roll was determined, at least in part, by the gravito-inertial force, contradicting earlier results reported in the literature. PMID:22582678

van Erp, Jan B F; Oving, Arjen B

2012-02-01

351

An Apparatus for Photochemical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus developed for photochemical studies, particularly those involving the fluorescence of halogenated acetones. The apparatus is constructed from equipment normally found in a moderately sized physical chemical laboratory. Also provides background information on some aspects of the photophysics of halogenated propanones. (JN)

Winter, M. J.; Winter, P. V.

1984-01-01

352

An Apparatus for Photochemical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an apparatus developed for photochemical studies, particularly those involving the fluorescence of halogenated acetones. The apparatus is constructed from equipment normally found in a moderately sized physical chemical laboratory. Also provides background information on some aspects of the photophysics of halogenated propanones. (JN)|

Winter, M. J.; Winter, P. V.

1984-01-01

353

Apparatus for processing bituminous sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for processing bituminous sands to recover petroleum is provided. The apparatus is preferably a multicell structure, principal cells of which include bottom stirrer zones and upper quiet zones separated from the stirrer zones by baffles. Continuous through-plant feed is provided for the plant structure by partially processed sands being urged into subsequent cells for continued processing. An oil

Brimhall

1971-01-01

354

Continuous mining apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous mining apparatus and method for the underground mining of coal. The continuous mining apparatus includes a cutter assembly, conveyor assembly and base assembly. The base assembly is adapted to be maintained in a stationary position during a cutting operation. The cutter assembly is adapted to be projected outwardly from the stationary base assembly into the seam of coal

Thompson

1982-01-01

355

Twin tower gas fractionation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for adsorptive fractionation of a gaseous mixture. The apparatus is a twin tower fractionator or dryer including a pair of sorbent beds. A filter and valve assembly directs a flow of the gaseous mixture from a source thereof to one of the beds for removing a gaseous component of said mixture while simultaneously directing a flow of purge

R. A. Null; L. C. laughlin; M. L. Goldberg

1985-01-01

356

Fluidized cracking catalyst regeneration apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for regeneration of spent coke contaminated fluidized cracking catalyst by burning coke therefrom using a molecular oxygen containing regeneration gas in a fluidized dense phase bed, and for burning substantially all carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Means are provided for transferring heat from the top of the regeneration apparatus to the bottom, employing catalyst as the

L. F. Jr. Castagnos; R. E. Pratt

1977-01-01

357

Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one

J. E. Griggs; H. J. Newman

1983-01-01

358

Heating apparatus having improved combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning heating apparatus, used as a parlor stove, and providing a significant heat output is disclosed. The stove has primary and secondary combustion chambers and a baffling arrangement for directing flue gases along a circuitous path to the exit aperture whereby a significant proportion of the heat of said gases is given up to the apparatus. A vertically oriented

Syme

1980-01-01

359

Hydraulic oil well pumping apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The preferred embodiment is directed to an oil well pumping apparatus incorporating a walking beam having a horsehead at one end which connects to the sucker rods in the oil well. The opposite end of the walking beam is supported on a fixed pivot. A hydraulic and pneumatic combination unit connects from a supporting platform to a central point on the beam to raise and lower the beam. The improved apparatus utilizes air pressure to balance the static load on the apparatus and dynamically strokes the sucker rod string by imparting a reciprocating motion through hydraulic power applied at a specified rate to raise and lower the walking beam. A pump and motor system for a closed hydraulic loop is included. Alternate preferred embodiments are disclosed. In one form, a lubricating system is incorporated. First and second alternate forms of pickoff apparatus which powers the pneumatically balanced pumping apparatus is also included.

McDuffie, T.F.

1983-09-27

360

Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-12-12

361

Plastic collapse of pipe bends under combined internal pressure and in-plane bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic collapse of pipe bends with attached straight pipes under combined internal pressure and in-plane closing moment is investigated by elastic–plastic finite element analysis. Three load histories are investigated, proportional loading, sequential pressure–moment loading and sequential moment–pressure loading. Three categories of ductile failure load are defined: limit load, plastic load (with associated criteria of collapse) and instability loads. The results

Andrew Robertson; Hongjun Li; Donald Mackenzie

2005-01-01

362

49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as near...

2011-10-01

363

49 CFR 195.212 - Bending of pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as near...

2011-10-01

364

49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as near...

2012-10-01

365

COASTAL BEND BAYS & ESTUARIES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program, Inc. (CBBEP) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)organization. The CBBEP project area encompasses 12 counties coincident with the Coastal Bend Council of Governments and extends from the Land-Cut in the Laguna Madre, through the Corpus Christi Bay s...

366

New Bending Algorithm for Field-Driven Molecular Dynamics  

PubMed Central

A field-driven bending method is introduced in this paper according to the coordinate transformation between straight and curved coordinates. This novel method can incorporate with the periodic boundary conditions in analysis along axial, bending, and transverse directions. For the case of small bending, the bending strain can be compatible with the beam theory. Consequently, it can be regarded as a generalized SLLOD algorithm. In this work, the bulk copper beam under bending is analyzed first by the novel bending method. The bending stress estimated here is well consistent to the results predicted by the beam theory. Moreover, a hollow nanowire is also analyzed. The zigzag traces of atomic stress and the corresponding 422 common neighbor type can be observed near the inner surface of the hollow nanowire, which values are increased with an increase of time. It can be seen that the novel bending method with periodic boundary condition along axial direction can provide a more physical significance than the traditional method with fixed boundary condition.

2010-01-01

367

General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 inches - 1 ft, March 13th 1893, drawing number 15384 (photograph of drawing of rail bending machine held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

368

Buckling of FGM cylindrical shells subjected to pure bending load  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, buckling behaviors of composite cylindrical shells made from functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to pure bending load were investigated. The material properties were assumed to be graded along the thickness. The non-uniform bending force on the shell section was considered in the buckling government equation of FGM cylindrical shells based on the Donnell shallow shell theory. The

Huaiwei Huang; Qiang Han; Demin Wei

369

Functional state of the axonemal dyneins during flagellar bend propagation.  

PubMed Central

When mouse spermatozoa swim in media of high viscosity, additional waves of bending are superimposed on the primary traveling wave. The additional (secondary) waves are relatively small in scale and high in frequency. They originate in the proximal part of the interbend regions. The initiation of secondary bending happens only in distal parts of the flagellum. The secondary waves propagate along the interbends and then tend to die out as they encounter the next-most-distal bend of the primary wave, if that bend exceeds a certain angle. The principal bends of the primary wave, being of greater angle than the reverse bends, strongly resist invasion by the secondary waves; when a principal bend of the primary wave propagates off the flagellar tip, the secondary wave behind it suddenly increases in amplitude. We claim that the functional state of the dynein motors in relation to the primary wave can be deduced from their availability for recruitment into secondary wave activity. Therefore, only the dyneins in bends are committed functionally to the maintenance and propagation of the flagellar wave; dyneins in interbend regions are not functionally committed in this way. We equate functional commitment with tension-generating activity, although we argue that the regions of dynein thus engaged nevertheless permit sliding displacements between the doublets.

Woolley, D M; Vernon, G G

2002-01-01

370

View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

371

Bending and Shape Control of Beams Using SMA Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new configurations for enhanced bending control of beams with in duced strain actuators are presented. In the first configuration the actuator is external to the beam and passes through selective points on the beam. Since the actuator is outside the beam, differential movement between the actuator and the beam is possible; this results in enhanced bending due to the

Z. Chaudhry; Craig A. Rogers

1991-01-01

372

Array technology for bending wave field analysis in constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is shown that array technology is an essential tool for the quantitative analysis of bending wave fields in elastic, solid constructions. The advantages can be compared with those of array-based acoustic wave field analysis in free air as well as in enclosed spaces. In contrast to acoustic waves, bending waves are highly dispersive, i.e., their propagation

A. J. Berkhout; Diemer de Vries; Maarten C. Brink

2007-01-01

373

Osteochondral microdamage from valgus bending of the human knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundValgus bending of the knee is promoted as an anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism and is associated with a characteristic “footprint” of bone bruising. The hypothesis of this study was that during ligamentous failure caused by valgus bending of the knee, high tibiofemoral contact pressures induce acute osteochondral microdamage.

Eric G. Meyer; Mark R. Villwock; Roger C. Haut

2009-01-01

374

BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, two elevations, sections, and details. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1 of 1. Various scales. December 15, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Bending Shop & Oven, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

375

Effects of Imposed Bending on Microtubule Sliding in Sperm Flagella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of eukaryotic flagella is characterized by its oscillatory nature [1]. In sea urchin sperm, for example, planar bends are formed in alternating directions at the base of the flagellum and travel toward the tip as continuous waves. The bending is caused by the orchestrated activity of dynein arms to induce patterned sliding between doublet microtubules of the flagellar

Yutaka Morita; Chikako Shingyoji

2004-01-01

376

On bending of strain gradient elastic micro-plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bending of strain gradient elastic thin plates is studied, adopting Kirchhoff’s theory of plates. Simple linear strain gradient elastic theory with surface energy is employed. The governing plate equation with its boundary conditions are derived through a variational method. It turns out that new terms are introduced, indicating the importance of the cross-section area in bending of thin plates. Those

K. A. Lazopoulos

2009-01-01

377

Bending and torsion models of beams with induced-strain actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops one-dimensional pure bending, coupled bending and extension, and combined bending, extension and torsion models of isotropic beams with induced strain actuation. A finite thickness adhesive layer between the crystal and beam is included to incorporate shear lag effects. Experimental tests evaluate the accuracy and limitations of the models. The bending and coupled bending and extension models show

Chris Park; Curtis Walz; Inderjit Chopra

1993-01-01

378

Bending and torsion models of beams with induced-strain actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops one-dimensional pure bending, coupled bending and extension, and combined bending, extension and torsion models of isotropic beams with induced-strain actuation. A finite thickness adhesive layer between the crystal and beam is included to incorporate shear lag effects. Experimental tests evaluate the accuracy and limitations of the models. The bending and coupled bending and extension models show acceptable

Christopher Park; Curtis Walz; Inderjit Chopra

1996-01-01

379

180-Degree-Bend Structures Using Light Reflection at Double Elliptic Mirror in Slab Waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a small 180°-bend structure employing a double elliptic mirror where the light changes its propagating direction by reflecting at the two mirrors. There are three other types of bend structure: (1) a Ag mirror bend structure, (2) a total internal reflection (TIR) mirror bend structure, and (3) a TIR mirror bend structure employing tapered waveguides. In the

Mariko Ishida; Yuichiro Ikuma; Takanori Suzuki; Hiroyuki Tsuda

2007-01-01

380

ANALYSIS FOR FLEXIBILITY IN THE OVALITY AND THINNING LIMITS OF PIPE BENDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipe bends are critical components in piping systems. In the manufacturing process of pipe bends it is difficult to avoid thickening on the intrados and thinning on the extrados. The cross section of the bend also becomes non circular due to bending process. The acceptability of pipe bends is based on the induced level of these shape imperfections. Ovality and

A. R. Veerappan; S. Shanmugam

381

Image forming apparatus  

DOEpatents

In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

1996-01-01

382

Wave energy apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Wave energy apparatus comprises a hollow buoy for floating in water. The buoy has a turbine which rotates in response to air flow into and out of the buoy through a nozzle. The turbine is designed to rotate in the same direction regardless of the axial direction of air flow. The air flow is caused by the change of level of water within the buoy in response to wave motion. To enable rocking motion to be accommodated as well as vertical motion, the interior of the buoy is divided into a plurality of conduits, by means of partitions, the conduits directing air to different portions of the turbine. The conduits preferably have lateral openings and may be defined in part by upwardly inclined portions of an inertial body. In an alternative embodiment the buoy has a closed bottom and liquid in the buoy is acted on by a centrally disposed air spring.

Wells, A.A.

1983-05-17

383

Reactor head shielding apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof.

Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

1992-01-28

384

Apparatus for proton radiography  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

Martin, Ronald L. (La Grange, IL)

1976-01-01

385

INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

Lobell, G.M.

1958-02-11

386

Laser diode control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a laser diode wavelength shift control apparatus. It comprises: laser diode first means, including signal input means and signal output means, the first means changing in operational wavelength as a function of current passing therethrough, where the function includes a non-linear knee, signal source second means, connected to the input means of the first means for passing a given frequency binary data first signal through the first means wherein the two logic levels alter current levels in the first means between opposite sides of the knee, intermodulation signal source third means, connected to the first means, for superimposing upon the data first signal intermodulation second and third signals, whose frequencies are different and are both low compared to the data rate of the first signal, the second and third signals creating maximum intermodulation signal levels when the current in the first means corresponds to the knee.

Ries, G.

1990-05-08

387

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

388

Downhole steam apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A downhole steam apparatus for location within the casing of a well borehole to facilitate oil recovery. A housing adapted to be lowered into the borehole includes a combustor for mixing and burning fuel and air, and a heat exchanger having an array of water tubes exposed to the heated gases from the combustor for converting water into steam. The steam is injected downwardly into the borehole, and the spent gases pass into the annulus between the casing and the housing. An expansible packer seals off the annulus between the steam injection area and the spent gas injection area. Compressed air for combustion is supplied at the lower spent gas pressure. Various arrangements are disclosed for the water tube array in the heat exchanger.

Meeks, T.; Rhoades, C.A.

1981-01-06

389

Heat Treating Apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

2002-09-10

390

Apparatus for dispensing material  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

2011-07-05

391

Modular board game apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A modular board game apparatus has a segmental playing surface comprising pairs of segments which are variously configured to provides a surface whose shape and playing area may be changed according to the requirements of a particular game. The segments facilitate versions of games normally only played between two players (such as chess and draughts) to be played by two, three or four people (Configurations II, III and IV). The board shapes described are each proportional in area to the number of players, are symmetrical, and may be variously patterned (6,7). A preferred embodiment comprising eight quadrilateral segments (3) that may be arranged in differing orientations, assembled and secured about a central point by means of a restraining ring (2) is illustrated. Segment sets comprising variously shaped segments of differing thickness can be assembled to simulate undulating terrain.

Stanton; Jaan Peter Charles (Norwich, GB)

2004-05-18

392

Mine working apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to mine working apparatus including a sprag plate. The sprag plate is included in a sprag unit that can be reciprocated in the fore-and-aft direction of the canopy and the sprag unit includes a sprag slide and a link system that can be reciprocated in the fore-and-aft sense relatively to each other. There is a range of lost motion between the slide and the link system and the means for moving the sprag unit between the position in which the sprag plate is operative and the position in which the sprag plate is inoperative also moves the sprag slide and the link syst relatively to each other through their range of lost motion and this relative movement swings the sprag plate between a generally upright, operative, position and a generally horizontal, retracted, position.

Saunders, G.J.

1981-05-26

393

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

394

Improved collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air following therethrough.

Duncan, C.P.

1981-03-05

395

Induction melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-06-17

396

FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

1956-04-17

397

PREDICTION OF SPRINGBACK OF TUBE INDUCTION BENDING PROCESS BY THE FE METHOD AND COMPARISON WITH ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction bending is the best method for bending large diameter pipes with relatively small bend radii. An important problem in bending process is prediction of springback for better control of the bending angle and improvement of the bending quality. In this article, an elasto-plastic coupled thermo- mechanical model was built to simulate in- duction bending of large diameter pipes by

Farshid Ahmadi; Mahmoud Farzin

398

Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

Lerch, Bradley

1995-04-01

399

How do spin waves pass through a bend?  

PubMed Central

Spin-wave devices hold great promise to be used in future information processing. Manipulation of spin-wave propagation inside the submicrometer waveguides is at the core of promoting the practical application of these devices. Just as in today's silicon-based chips, bending of the building blocks cannot be avoided in real spin-wave circuits. Here, we examine spin-wave transport in bended magnonic waveguides at the submicron scale using micromagnetic simulations. It is seen that the impact of the bend is relevant to the frequency of the passing spin wave. At the lowest frequencies, the spin wave continuously follows the waveguide in the propagation process. At the higher frequencies, however the bend acts as a mode converter for the passing spin wave, causing zigzag-like propagation path formed in the waveguide behind the bend. Additionally, we demonstrate a logic-NOT gate based on such a waveguide, which could be combined to perform logic-NAND operation.

Xing, Xiangjun; Yu, Yongli; Li, Shuwei; Huang, Xiaohong

2013-01-01

400

Molecular dynamics simulations of bending behavior of tubular graphite cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the bending behavior of tubular graphite cones (TGCs). The second-generation reactive bond-order potential and four different van der Waals potentials are used to describe bonding and nonbonding atomic interactions, respectively. It is shown that the bending behavior is insensitive to the choice of the van der Waals potentials. An increase in the cone apex angle of TGCs moderately improves the bending stiffness due to the low shear resistance between the nanotube walls. A TGC with a high cone apex angle is preferred to a TGC with a low cone apex angle in terms of bending stiffness and stress level. It is also shown that an increase in the diameter of the innermost nanotube effectively increases the bending stiffness of TGCs.

Liu, P.; Zhang, Y. W.; Lu, C.

2004-09-01

401

How do spin waves pass through a bend?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin-wave devices hold great promise to be used in future information processing. Manipulation of spin-wave propagation inside the submicrometer waveguides is at the core of promoting the practical application of these devices. Just as in today's silicon-based chips, bending of the building blocks cannot be avoided in real spin-wave circuits. Here, we examine spin-wave transport in bended magnonic waveguides at the submicron scale using micromagnetic simulations. It is seen that the impact of the bend is relevant to the frequency of the passing spin wave. At the lowest frequencies, the spin wave continuously follows the waveguide in the propagation process. At the higher frequencies, however the bend acts as a mode converter for the passing spin wave, causing zigzag-like propagation path formed in the waveguide behind the bend. Additionally, we demonstrate a logic-NOT gate based on such a waveguide, which could be combined to perform logic-NAND operation.

Xing, Xiangjun; Yu, Yongli; Li, Shuwei; Huang, Xiaohong

2013-10-01

402

Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF)booster ring, a full energy injector for the storage ring, is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150 MeV to 3.5 GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping. Closed orbit distortion (COD) caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting. Considering the affections of random errors in measurement, both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5 is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper. Supported by SSRF Project

Hou, Jie; Liu, Gui-Min; Li, Hao-Hu; Zhang, Man-Zhou

2008-04-01

403

Processes governing the flow redistribution in sharp river bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insight is provided in hydrodynamic processes governing the velocity redistribution in sharp river bends based on simulations of three recent experiments by means of Blanckaert and de Vriend's (2003, 2010) reduced-order nonlinear model without curvature restrictions. This model successfully simulated the flow redistribution and the secondary flow in all three experiments. The results indicate that the flow redistribution is primarily governed by topographic steering, curvature variations and secondary flow, in a broad range of different configurations, including mildly to sharply curved bends, narrow to shallow bends, smooth to rough bends, bends with additional complexities such as horizontal recirculation zones or patches of riverbed vegetation. The relative importance of these three dominant processes is case dependent, and controlled by the parameters Cf- 1H/B, R/B and streamwise curvature variations. The first parameter characterizes a river reach, whereas the second and third parameters are characteristics of individual bends. Major differences exist between the hydrodynamic processes in mildly and sharply curved bends. First, velocity redistribution induced by curvature variations is negligible in mildly curved bends, but the dominant process in sharp bends. This result is relevant, because most meander models are based on the assumption of weak-curvature variations. Second, nonlinear hydrodynamic interactions play a dominant role in sharp bends, where mild-curvature models overpredict the secondary flow and in some cases even falsely identify it as the dominant process governing the velocity redistribution, which leads to unsatisfactory flow predictions. The reduction in secondary flow strength provoked by the nonlinear hydrodynamic interactions is accompanied by a reduction in the transverse bed slope, which reduces the effect of topographic steering.

Ottevanger, W.; Blanckaert, K.; Uijttewaal, W. S. J.

2012-08-01

404

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

405

Range of interaction between DNA-bending proteins is controlled by the second-longest correlation length for bending fluctuations.  

PubMed

When a DNA molecule is stretched, the zero-force correlation length for its bending fluctuations-the persistence length A-bifurcates into two different correlation lengths-the shorter "longitudinal" correlation length ?_{?}(f) and the longer "transverse" correlation length ?_{?}(f). In the high-force limit, ?_{?}(f)=?_{?}(f)/2=sqrt[k_{B}TA/f]/2. When DNA-bending proteins bind to the DNA molecule, there is an effective interaction between the protein-generated bends mediated by DNA elasticity and bending fluctuations. Surprisingly, the range of this interaction is not the longest correlation length associated with transverse fluctuations of the tangent vector along the polymer, but instead is the second longest longitudinal correlation length ?_{?}(f,?). The effect arises from the protein-bend contribution to the Hamiltonian having an axial rotational symmetry which eliminates its coupling to the transverse fluctuations. PMID:23368394

Zhang, Houyin; Marko, John F

2012-12-10

406

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-06-18

407

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Placitas, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-30

408

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Sherwood, OR); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-06-10

409

Apparatus for measuring particle properties  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

1998-08-11

410

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1991-06-18

411

Bending strength of delaminated aerospace composites.  

PubMed

Buckling-driven delamination is considered among the most critical failure modes in composite laminates. This paper examines the propagation of delaminations in a beam under pure bending. A pre-developed analytical model to predict the critical buckling moment of a thin sub-laminate is extended to account for propagation prediction, using mixed-mode fracture analysis. Fractography analysis is performed to distinguish between mode I and mode II contributions to the final failure of specimens. Comparison between experimental results and analysis shows agreement to within 5 per cent in static propagation moment for two different materials. It is concluded that static fracture is almost entirely driven by mode II effects. This result was unexpected because it arises from a buckling mode that opens the delamination. For this reason, and because of the excellent repeatability of the experiments, the method of testing may be a promising means of establishing the critical value of mode II fracture toughness, G(IIC), of the material. Fatigue testing on similar samples showed that buckled delamination resulted in a fatigue threshold that was over 80 per cent lower than the static propagation moment. Such an outcome highlights the significance of predicting snap-buckling moment and subsequent propagation for design purposes. PMID:22431757

Kinawy, Moustafa; Butler, Richard; Hunt, Giles W

2012-04-28

412

Bending response of polymer electrolyte actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To induce bending motion in a perfluorinated polymer electrolyte by electric stimuli in water or saline solution, plating with metal is required. To fabricate electrodes, a perfluorocarboxylic acid membrane was soaked in Au(III) di- chloro phenanthroline complex solution, and then any adsorbed Au(III) cation complex was reduced in aqueous sodium sulfite. Optimizing the motion response depends on control of the chemical plating procedure. By sequential adsorption/reduction cycling, a suitable pair of gold electrodes with a fractal-like structure have been grown. We illustrate the advantage of optimizing the interfacial area between electrode and membrane to enhance deformation response. To achieve this, gold deposits in the film are accumulated by sequential adsorption/reduction plating cycles. Actuator displacement increased with the number of plating gold deposition cycles up to roughly 6 times, but showed no clear improvement beyond. It is believed that with excessive plating, the interfacial area begins to decrease and/or the hardness of the electrode increases, thus countering any improvement in electrical conductance. Displacement rates were proportional to current. This high interfacial area between the electrodes and polymer electrolyte leads to larger deformation. The measured deformation progressively improves with cycling. Its motional response and versatility are illustrated by some examples.

Onishi, Kazuo; Sewa, Shingo; Asaka, Kinji; Fujiwara, Naoko; Oguro, Keisuke

2000-06-01

413

Bending fluidic actuator for smart structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel silicone-based, millimeter-scale, bending fluidic actuator (BFA). Its unique parallel micro-channel design enables, for the first time, operation at low working pressure while at the same time having a very limited thickness expansion during pressurization. It also enables the actuator to have the highest ratios of angular displacement over length and torque over volume among previously proposed BFAs. In this work, this parallel micro-channel design is implemented by embedding the BFA with an innovative single winding conduit, which yields a simple, single-component configuration suitable for low-cost production and reliable performance. The BFA design can be easily scaled down to smaller dimensions and can be adapted to applications in restricted space, particularly minimally invasive surgery. In this work, the actuator is manufactured in TC-silicone through poly(methyl methacrylate) molds obtained by using laser cutting technology. Repeated angular displacement measurements on multiple prototypes having different stiffness are carried out. The experimental results are compared with an analytical model, which accurately predicts the performance of the device.

Che-Ming Chang, Benjamin; Berring, John; Venkataram, Manu; Menon, Carlo; Parameswaran, M.

2011-03-01

414

The Effect of Nanobubbles on Microcantilever Bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomechanical cantilevers are very small and extremely sensitive force and mass sensors. Here, we report on the impact of the vertical component of surface energy on microcantilevers when nanobubbles form on their surfaces. Young's equation, which is commonly used to determine the contact angle of liquid drops on a solid surface, ignores the vertical component of the surface energy. Despite this force being extremely small and its effect on the solid can be ignored, it plays a significant role for flexible surfaces such as microcantilevers. A gold-coated silicon microcantilever and a dodecanethiol coated silicon microcantilever were used to detect real-time formation of nanobubbles on their surfaces when exposed to air-rich water. As air nanobubbles form on the surfaces of the cantilever, the cantilever undergoes bending and we relate this to the vertical component of surface energy in Young's equation. This implies that the vertical component of the surface tension should be considered for flexible solid surfaces, and the formation of nanobubbles should be avoided when cantilevers are used as sensors to avoid artifacts.

Jeon, Sangmin; Desikan, Ramya; Tian, Fang; Thundat, Thomas

2006-03-01

415

Effect of bending on ultrasonic preload measurements in bolts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasonic pulse/echo technique is used to measure tensile preload on the umbilical flange joint bolts of the space shuttle orbiter. The ultrasonic instrument measures the round trip pulse travel time through the length of bolt. The pulse travel time increases with the applied load. The umbilical bolts experience bending loads in addition to the tensile load. The bending load affects the preload readings. The paper provides simplified theoretical derivations to explain the effect of bending on ultrasonic measurements. The bending loads cause rotation and translation of the ultrasonic pulse reflecting face. The bending also causes stress gradient in bolts. These effects cause phase gradient and physical shift in the received ultrasonic beam across the face of transducer, distorting the ultrasonic signal and introducing errors in the preload readings. A number of experiments were performed on the bolt to study the effect of bending combined with variation in transducers, bolt end designs and configurations. The bolt end design of the operational bolts was modified to reduce error in the readings. The paper provides explanation of the effect of bending in ultrasonic preload measurements and suggests approaches to minimize their effect.

Koshti, Ajay M.

2001-07-01

416

Bending and torsion models of beams with induced-strain actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops one-dimensional pure bending, coupled bending and extension, and combined bending, extension and torsion models of isotropic beams with induced strain actuation. A finite thickness adhesive layer between the crystal and beam is included to incorporate shear lag effects. Experimental tests evaluate the accuracy and limitations of the models. The bending and coupled bending and extension models show acceptable correlation with static test results whereas the combined extension, bending, torsion model poorly predicts the system behavior and needs refinement.

Park, Chris; Walz, Curtis; Chopra, Inderjit

1993-09-01

417

Apparatus for remotely handling components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inventive apparatus for remotely handling barlike components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and ori...

G. A. Szkrybalo D. L. Griffin

1992-01-01

418

Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens having dogbone- or T-shaped end sections without introducing bending stresses in the specimens during the application of a dynamic tensile loading on the specimens is described. A pair of elongated pull rods disposed in a side-by-side relationship are used to grip the shoulders on each T-shaped end section. The pull rods are pivotally attached to a piston-displaceable, disk-shaped member so as to be longitudinally movable with respect to one another effecting the self-alignment thereof with the shoulders on the T-shaped end sections of the specimen to compensate for shoulders being located in different longitudinal positions.

Liu, Kenneth C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

419

Stored Energy of Plastic Deformation in Tube Bending Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an aproximate analytic method for determination of the stored energy of plastic deformation during cold bending of metal tubes at bending machines. Calculations were performed for outer points of the tube layers subjected to tension and compression (the points of maximum strains). The percentage of stored energy related to the plastic strain work was determined and the results were presented in graphs. The influence and importance of the stored energy of plastic deformation on the service life of pipeline bends are discussed.

?loderbach, Z.; Paj?k, J.

2013-03-01

420

Horizontal drilling method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for drilling a highly deviated well into a petroleum formation the apparatus comprising a drill pipe extending from a surface location to a down-hole drilling assembly through a curved wellbore. It comprises a down-hole motor attached to a bit at a first end, the down-hole motor having a bent housing; a bent sub in the

W. A. Rehm; T. D. Trunk; T. D. Baseflug; S. L. Cromwell; G. A. Hickman; R. D. Nickel; M. S. Lyons

1991-01-01

421

Oil recovery apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged

Lowe

1981-01-01

422

Clutch pressure control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A clutch pressure control apparatus is described which comprises: (a) a first function generator for generating a clutch pressure control signal in accordance with a first function such that a clutch pressure control signal P/sub c1/ is definitely determined as a function of an engine rotational speed signal and an accelerator pedal stroke signal; (b) a controller including a second function generator for providing a second clutch pressure control signal P/sub c2/ in accordance with a second function such that when actual engine speed at an initial clutch engagement phase at which a clutch is entering a half-clutch state exceeds a predetermined engine speed limit, which does not provide shock when the clutch is engaged, the second clutch pressure control signal is first set to a temporary low value corresponding to an engine speed not exceeding the predetermined engine speed limit and then in accordance with the second function is allowed to approach a value determined by the first function according to the actual engine speed signal; and (c) a start switch for detecting accelerator pedal stroke and transmission shift position and outputting a start signal to start to operate the controller when transmission is shifted to a running position and the accelerator stroke meets a condition for start.

Koori, Y.; Mitsui, T.

1989-01-24

423

Apparatus for coating powders  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

424

Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

Okandan, Murat (NE Albuquerque, NM)

2009-06-02

425

Fireplace heat transfer apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Fireplace heat transfer apparatus includes a main inner panel assembly adapted to be positioned across any opening to a fireplace and an auxiliary outer panel assembly piotally mounted to the main assembly. The main assembly includes an inner transparent plate of glass and the auxiliary assembly includes an outer transparent plate of glass. The outer glass plate is thicker than the inner glass plate. The mounting relationship of the auxiliary frame to the main frame maintains the outer plate of glass in a spaced relationship to the inner plate of glass so as to define a heat transfer chamber between them. The auxiliary and main assemblies have respective frame structures which closes the chamber at its sides but provides the chamber with an open top and bottom for communicating the chamber with ambient air in the room surrounding the fireplace. By pivoting the auxiliary assembly about an axis defined across its lower end and relative to the main assembly the volume of the chamber may be changed in order to change the rate of convective thermosiphon flow of heated ambient air up through the chamber.

Taylor, Th. E.

1985-05-28

426

Pneumatic clutch apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A pneumatic clutch apparatus is described comprising: a pneumatic clutch disposed at the rear of a transmission and including a pneumatic actuator for engaging and disengaging the clutch, a rotary passage adapted to rotate together with the clutch and connected to the actuator; a stationary passage stationary with respect to the clutch and connected to a pneumatic pressure control mechanism disposed outside the clutch; and a rotary joint including a connecting passage for connecting the rotary passage and the stationary passage together; the rotary joint having a rotary portion to which the rotary passage is fixed and a stationary portion to which the stationary passage is fixed, and the stationary portion being fixed to a housing of the transmission and rotatably supporting the rotary portion. A cylindrical intermediate member is disposed between the rotary portion and the stationary portion of the rotary joint. Air passages in the stationary portion and the rotary portion are connected together through an air passage in the intermediate member. The intermediate member is rotatably fitted to the rotary portion and the stationary portion through seals which seal the air passage. A connecting mechanism is operable to connect the intermediate member to the rotary portion when the intermediate member and the rotary portion occupy a predetermined relative angular position.

Kamio, T.

1987-03-03

427

Belt conveyor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Bogart, Rex L. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

428

Navigation apparatus for automobile  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a navigation apparatus including: distance-traveled detection means for detecting the distance traveled by a vehicle, direction detection means for detecting the direction of travel of the vehicle, and data memory means for holding map data. It also includes a signal calculation processing means for calculating the present position of the vehicle from signals received from the distance-traveled detection means and the direction detection means, and for outputting display signals for the present position and display signals for map data read out from the data memory means corresponding to a map area including the present position. A display means displays the display signals. The signal calculation processing means includes means for updating the map data to a different map area according to the movement of the vehicle as indicated by the calculated present position of the vehicle when the position of the vehicle is heading into the different map area. A means is included for initiating operation of the updating means when the present position of the vehicle reaches a point which is spaced from the boundary of the map area by an amount determined by the speed of the vehicle.

Tsujii, F.; Matsuoka, Y.; Endo, A.; Takezaki, J.; Shirai, H.

1987-01-06

429

Automobile fuel feed apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An automobile fuel feed apparatus is described comprising: an electromagnetic injection valve mounted upstream or downstream from a throttle valve of an engine intake pipe for injecting a measured amount of fuel. An ultrasonic vibrator is disposed in the engine intake pipe and supported on the wall of the engine intake pipe. A tubular trembler vibrates at a characteristic resonant frequency and is held on the ultrasonic vibrator so as to be disposed in the engine intake pipe for atomizing the fuel therein. The electromagnetic injection valve and the ultrasonic vibrator are disposed substantially orthogonal to the axis of the tubular trembler, and the tubular trembler is disposed almost on the center axis in the engine intake pipe. A fuel passing-through hole is formed in a wall of the tubular trembler, the electromagnetic injection valve having a fuel jet tip with a single nozzle disposed outside of the tubular trembler and facing the fuel passing-through hole so as to jet fuel divergently against an inside wall of the tubular trembler through the fuel passing-through hole of the tubular trembler.

Manaka, T.; Atago, T.; Yamauchi, T.

1987-05-19

430

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO/sub x/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in the first and second walls for admitting the inlet air to the burner region and for entraining and mixing with the inlet air portion of the exhaust gas stream. In a preferred embodiment the ejectors are arranged around the periphery of a cylindrical burner region and oriented to admit the air/exhaust gas mixture tangentially to promote mixing. In another preferred embodiment a single annular ejector surrounds and feeds the air/exhaust gas mixture to a cylindrical burner region. The annular ejector includes an annular plate with radially-directed flow passages to provide an even distribution of the air/exhaust gas mixture to the burner region.

Egnell, R.A.; Hansson, B.L.

1981-07-14

431

Subsea wellhead apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a subsea wellhead apparatus for use at a bottom of a sea and the like and with a floating drilling rig with a subsea blowout preventer stack for permitting injection of a waste fluid containing noxious, or toxic, substances into a fractured formation penetrated by a drilled borehole while drilling and including: a. strings of conduit suspended in a borehole penetrating subterranean formations below the bottom defining respective annular spaces therebetween and having conventional drilling strings of conduit operable for drilling, and b. a wellhead and accessories disposed above the bottom and sealingly connected with the plurality of strings of conduit so as to prevent unwanted invasion of fluids into the annular spaces. The improvement described here comprises: c. a first communicating aperture communicating with a first annular space intermediate a pair of strings of conduit; d. additional conduit means for fluid flow connected with the first communicating aperture and defining a sealed path for flow of the waste fluid; e. remotely operable, high pressure flow control valve means interposed in the additional conduit means of element d. for controlling flow of the fluid to the annular space; and f. remote control means for controlling the flow control valve; the remote control means being operably connected to the flow control valve and operable to open and shut the flow control valve responsive to a remote signal, whereby the waste fluid can be injected into the annular space without having to transport the waste fluid back to a disposal site.

Schuh, F.J.; Karish, J.

1986-12-30

432

Apparatus for diffusion separation  

DOEpatents

1. A diffuser separator apparatus which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage, each of said channels having an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports, at least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels being a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels having a different cross sectional area, means for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series, a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area.

Nierenberg, William A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1976-08-10

433

Flow cytometry apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an apparatus for orienting cells in a sheath fluid in a otometer/sorter. It comprises: flow chamber; means for flowing the sheath fluid through the flow chamber along a direction of flow; means for obstructing the flow of the sheath fluid in the flow chamber with a first dimension, which extends substantially across the flow chamber and is substantially perpendicular to the direction of flow and with a thickness perpendicular to the first dimension of the obstructing means wherein the sheath fluid flows around the thickness so that the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension at the downstream edge of the means for obstructing; and means for introducing the cells through the means for obstructing the flow to the region where the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension in the sheath fluid to orient the cells, with an aperture wherein as the cells pass from the means for introducing the cells to the region where the sheath fluid converges the cells pass through the aperture with a cross-sectional length substantially less than or equal to the thickness of the means for obstructing the flow.

Pinkel, D.

1991-01-29

434

Thermal energy storage apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

Thoma, P.E.

1980-04-22

435

Apparatus for measuring RRR  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of purity and thermal conductivity at liquid Helium temperatures of the Niobium to be used in the fabrication of superconducting RF cavities is normally done by measuring the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of a sample of the material. The relationship between the thermal and the electrical conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz Law) simplifies the task by leading to the measurement of electrical instead of thermal resistance. The RRR is the ratio between the resistances of the sample at room temperature and at the operating temperature of the cavity. A more precise definition is discussed later. The conductivity at low temperatures depends on lattice defects and impurities. Impurities are also important for cavities in a direct way as affecting the RF properties of its surface when exposed by chemical etching. The following describes the experimental apparatus for RRR measurements developed at Fermilab's Beams Division. Part 2 contains a description of the sample-holder and measurement hardware. Part 3 contains a discussion on definition, measurements and errors. Part 4 gives a step-by-step description of the measurement procedure. Finally, Part 5 gives an example of results obtained recently on a Niobium sample for CKM cavities.

Kuchnir Moyses and Pierre Bauer

2003-02-21

436

Tangent Stiffness Method for Biaxial Bending of Reinforced Concrete Columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical formulations and procedures are developed for computing moment-thrust-curvature relations for reinforced concrete column sections in biaxial bending. The cross section is partitioned by a rectangular grid into a large number of small elemental ...

W. F. Chen M. T. Shoraka

1972-01-01

437

Interaction Curves for Biaxial Bending of Plastic Columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple method to obtain the exact interaction relationships of general sections which are composed of rectangular elements is presented. The section may be unsymmetric and the loads are combination of axial force and biaxial bending moments. The exactne...

W. F. Chen T. Atsuta

1972-01-01

438

Magnetostrictive bending micro-actuator using iron gallium-alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a micro bending actuator based on unimorph, lamination of Galfenol (Iron-gallium alloy) and non-magnetic material. Galfenol C-shape yoke bonded with stainless plates (lamination) is wound coils, and is composed close magnetic loop with connected an iron plate. The magnetostriction in longitude direction is constrained by the stainless, thus, the laminations yield bending deformation with the current flowing. The advantage of the actuator is simple, compact and ease of assembling including winding coil, and high tolerance against bending, tensile and impact. We machined the yoke from a plate of 1mm thickness of polycrystalline Galfenol (Fe81.4Ga18.6 Research grade) using ultra high precision cutting technique. The prototype, thickness of 1mm and length of 10mm, was observed the displacement 13?m and 1st resonance at 1.6 kHz, and the high bending (tensile) tolerance withstanding suspended weight of 500g.

Ueno, Toshiyuki; Higuchi, Toshiro

2007-04-01

439

Evaluation of Slot Line Bends at S-Band Frequencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to utilize the slot-transmission-line in microwave integrated circuit applications, a basic knowledge concerning the performance of various bends is necessary to implement practical circuit configurations. The report presents experimental data co...

E. A. Mariani

1971-01-01

440

Thickness-dependent bending modulus of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.  

PubMed

Bending modulus of exfoliation-made single-crystalline hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) with thicknesses of 25-300 nm and sizes of 1.2-3.0 microm were measured using three-point bending tests in an atomic force microscope. BNNSs suspended on an SiO(2) trench were clamped by a metal film via microfabrication based on electron beam lithography. Calculated by the plate theory of a doubly clamped plate under a concentrated load, the bending modulus of BNNSs was found to increase with the decrease of sheet thickness and approach the theoretical C(33) value of a hexagonal BN single crystal in thinner sheets (thickness<50 nm). The thickness-dependent bending modulus was suggested to be due to the layer distribution of stacking faults which were also thought to be responsible for the layer-by-layer BNNS exfoliation. PMID:19713592

Li, Chun; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Huang, Yang; Golberg, Dmitri

2009-08-28

441

The Stabilizing Effect of Bending-Under-Tension  

SciTech Connect

A well know effect is that work hardening can stabilize tension processes, as can be shown by the so-called maximum force condition. It is not well known that bending-under-tension can have a similar effect, namely that it can create a situation where the tension force increases with elongation therefore stabilizing the process. This happens in situations where the bending is so severe that the fibers at the inner side are in compression. This mechanism is explained. In cases where the bending radius is constant, for example determined by a tool, the created stable elongation is proportional to the thickness of the material. In cases where the radius is not constant but results from an equilibrium between pulling force and bending moment the situation is more complex. The situations are analyzed by a simple model and successfully verified with experimental results.

Emmens, W. C.; Boogaard, A. H. van den [University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2011-05-04

442

Photonic bandgap Bragg fiber sensors for bending/displacement detection.  

PubMed

We demonstrate an amplitude-based bending/displacement sensor that uses a plastic photonic bandgap Bragg fiber with one end coated with a silver layer. The reflection intensity of the Bragg fiber is characterized in response to different displacements (or bending curvatures). We note that the Bragg reflector of the fiber acts as an efficient mode stripper for the wavelengths near the edge of the fiber bandgap, which makes the sensor extremely sensitive to bending or displacements at these wavelengths. Besides, by comparison of the Bragg fiber sensor to a sensor based on a standard multimode fiber with similar outer diameter and length, we find that the Bragg fiber sensor is more sensitive to bending due to the presence of a mode stripper in the form of a multilayer reflector. Experimental results show that the minimum detection limit of the Bragg fiber sensor can be as small as 3 ?m for displacement sensing. PMID:24085096

Qu, Hang; Brastaviceanu, Tiberius; Bergeron, Francois; Olesik, Jonathan; Pavlov, Ivan; Ishigure, Takaaki; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

2013-09-01

443

DESIGN MANUAL: SWIRL AND HELICAL BEND POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

This design manual contains descriptions of design procedures and operating experience to date, including results obtained, for secondary flow pollution control devices. Two types of combined sewer overflow regulators are described: the swirl and the helical bend regulator/separa...

444

26. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BEND DUE NORTH OF STONE MILL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BEND DUE NORTH OF STONE MILL Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

445

On the Elastic Buckling and Bending of Sandwich Plates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A governing differential equation for the buckling and bending of sandwich plates with orthotropic cores is derived from a system of differential equations which is developed by means of a variational theorem. Solution of this resultant equation may be re...

S. Cheng N. Al-Rubayi

1966-01-01

446

Strength and Stiffness of Reinforced Concrete Columns under Biaxial Bending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The strength and stiffness behavior of reinforced concrete columns subjected to biaxial bending and compression was investigated. In order to provide data points on biaxial interaction surfaces, nine rectangular cross section columns and fifteen partial c...

V. Mavichak R. W. Furlong

1976-01-01

447

Apparatus for ammonia synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for the synthesis of ammonia, comprising: a first vertical synthesis reactor comprising a first reactor shell and a first catalyst bed contained in a first catalyst holder positioned within and spaced apart from the first reactor shell to provide a first annulus between the first catalyst holder and the first reactor shell to allow feed gas to enter the first catalyst bed; a second vertical synthesis reactor comprising a second reactor shell and a second catalyst bed contained in a second catalyst holder positioned within and spaced apart from the second reactor shell to provide a second annulus between the second catalyst holder and second reactor shell to allow feed gas to enter the second catalyst bed; a gas-gas heat exchanger; a first coupling means for coupling the bottom end of the first reactor to the gas-gas heat exchanger, the first coupling means having a first conduit between the fist annulus and the gas-gas heat exchanger for passage of feed to the first catalyst bed and a second conduit to pass effluent from the first catalyst bed to the gas-gas heat exchanger; a second heat exchanger comprising an exchanger shell having disposed therein a first tube bundle and a second tube bundle disposed in an interior portion of the exchanger shell inside of the first tube bundle; a second coupling means for coupling the bottom end of the second reactor to the second heat exchanger, the second coupling means having a third conduit between the second annulus and the outlet of the first tube bundle for passage of feed to the second catalyst bed and a fourth conduit to pass effluent from the second catalyst bed to the second tube bundle; and a fifth conduit to pass effluent from the gas-gas heat exchanger to the inlet of the first tube bundle.

Grotz, B.J.

1993-08-17

448

Models for oscillation and bend propagation by flagella.  

PubMed

A computer program for simulating the movement of model flagella containing a four-state cross-bridge cycle provides a powerful tool for examining hypotheses about the control mechanisms involved in producing particular patterns of propagated bending. As learned previously with simpler models, a simple control of cross-bridge activity by curvature is sufficient to generate spontaneous oscillation and bend propagation, but fails to reproduce many important features of the behaviour of real flagella. The process of bend initiation can be isolated by studying the movement of demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella broken to lengths of 3-4 microns, and by studying the movement of the distal end of a flagellum when most of the length of the flagellum becomes stuck to a surface. In order to simulate the movement seen in these situations, at least one major modification of the control of cross-bridge activity appears to be necessary. When a new bend is forming, the active sliding of cross-bridges causing the bend to form can be turned off when the curvature of the bend reaches a critical value, as in the earlier models. However, the active sliding of cross-bridges in the opposite direction, which will cause propagation of the bend, does not appear to be turned on at the same time. The mechanisms which trigger this delayed activation of cross-bridges almost simultaneously throughout the length of a newly formed bend have not yet been identified. They are presumably the same as those involved in activating sliding throughout most of the length of a flagellum at the beginning of its effective stroke. PMID:6223398

Brokaw, C J

1982-01-01

449

Bending strength and toughness of heat-treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The load-deflection curve for static bending and the force-time curve for impact bending of heat-treated wood were examined\\u000a in detail. The effect of oxygen in air was also investigated. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carr.) was heated for 0.5–16.0h at a temperature of 160°C in nitrogen gas or air. The dynamic Young's modulus was measured\\u000a by the free-free flexural vibration test,

Yoshitaka Kubojima; Takeshi Okano; Masamitsu Ohta

2000-01-01

450

Localized bending waves in a transversely isotropic plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of bending waves localized near the free edge of a transversely isotropic plate is investigated using the Ambartsumian higher-order plate theory which takes account of the transverse shears generated by flexural deformation. Unlike the first-order Reissner–Mindlin theory, which also takes account of transverse shears, Ambartsumian's analysis does not demand that plane normal cross-sections remain plane during bending. Within

G. T. Piliposian; M. V. Belubekyan; K. B. Ghazaryan

2010-01-01

451

Localized bending waves in a transversely isotropic plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of bending waves localized near the free edge of a transversely isotropic plate is investigated using the Ambartsumian higher-order plate theory which takes account of the transverse shears generated by flexural deformation. Unlike the first-order Reissner-Mindlin theory, which also takes account of transverse shears, Ambartsumian's analysis does not demand that plane normal cross-sections remain plane during bending. Within

G. T. Piliposian; M. V. Belubekyan; K. B. Ghazaryan

2010-01-01

452

Nonlinear bending of simply supported rectangular sandwich plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, fundamental equations and boundary conditions of the nonlinear bending theory for a rectangular sandwich plate\\u000a with a soft core are derived by means of the method of calculus of variations. Then the nonlinear bending for a simply supported\\u000a rectangular sandwich plate under the uniform lateral load is investigated by use of the perturbation method and a quite

Liu Ren-huai; Chen Zhen-qiang

1993-01-01

453

Writer Identification Using Finger-Bend in Writing Signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In sign authentication, some feature parameters such as pen position, pen pressure and pen inclination are combined to get\\u000a better performance. Considering that these features are results of individual contraction of muscles with different shape\\u000a of skeletons, it is meaningful to measure time sequences of finger-bends for authenticating individuals. In this paper, we\\u000a show the individuality in the bend of

Seiichiro Hangai; Takeshi Higuchi

2004-01-01

454

ACHRO: A program to help design achromatic bends  

SciTech Connect

ACHRO is a very simple 2000-line. FORTRAN code that provides help for the designer of the achromatic bend. Given a beam momentum, the program calculates the required drift lengths and dipole parameters which it will apply to any one of several different types of achromats. The types of achromats that the code helps to design include the Enge dual-270,'' the Brown 2-dipole, the Leboutet 3-dipole, and the Enge 4-dipole, as well as the periodic systems which can be designed to any order in symmetric, nonsymmetric and stair-step varieties. Given the dimensions into which a bend must fit, ACHRO will calculate the geometrical parameters in an X-Y plane for a single or multiple achromat, and for achromatic S-bend'' configurations where possible. ACHRO makes it very easy to optimize a bend with respect to drift lengths and magnet parameters by allowing the user to change parameter values and see the resulting calculation. Used in conjunction with a beam-transport code, ACHRO makes it possible for a designer to consider various types of achromatic bends in the same beamline layout in order to compare important bend characteristics such as dispersion, Isochronicity, sensitivity, geometric and chromatic aberrations, aperture requirements, space for diagnostics, etc., all of which are largely a function of the geometry and the type of achromat selected.

Rusthoi, D.

1993-01-01

455

ACHRO: A program to help design achromatic bends  

SciTech Connect

ACHRO is a very simple 2000-line. FORTRAN code that provides help for the designer of the achromatic bend. Given a beam momentum, the program calculates the required drift lengths and dipole parameters which it will apply to any one of several different types of achromats. The types of achromats that the code helps to design include the Enge dual-270,`` the Brown 2-dipole, the Leboutet 3-dipole, and the Enge 4-dipole, as well as the periodic systems which can be designed to any order in symmetric, nonsymmetric and stair-step varieties. Given the dimensions into which a bend must fit, ACHRO will calculate the geometrical parameters in an X-Y plane for a single or multiple achromat, and for achromatic ``S-bend`` configurations where possible. ACHRO makes it very easy to optimize a bend with respect to drift lengths and magnet parameters by allowing the user to change parameter values and see the resulting calculation. Used in conjunction with a beam-transport code, ACHRO makes it possible for a designer to consider various types of achromatic bends in the same beamline layout in order to compare important bend characteristics such as dispersion, Isochronicity, sensitivity, geometric and chromatic aberrations, aperture requirements, space for diagnostics, etc., all of which are largely a function of the geometry and the type of achromat selected.

Rusthoi, D.

1993-03-01

456

Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in a liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature, and it diverges at the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the behavior as a function of temperature, applied electric field and interaction parameters, and to determine the orientational distribution of the mesogenic molecules.

Shamid, Shaikh; Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan

2013-03-01

457

77 FR 36012 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant Combined License Application; Notice of Intent...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intent To Conduct a Supplemental Scoping Process on the Revised Site Layout AGENCY: Nuclear...public comment for the supplemental scoping process for the Bell Bend combined license (COL...considered in the supplemental scoping process, written comments must be...

2012-06-15

458

[A new pocket-type flicker apparatus].  

PubMed

A small, light and inexpensive pocket flicker (P.F.) apparatus for measuring fatigue was designed, fabricated and tested. The apparatus, being composed of a light emitting diode and a variable resistor with a scale, is so compact that it can be carried in a shirt pocket. Thus, critical fusion frequency (CFF) values can be easily determined at a working place and the load involved is small when compared to other physical fatigue measurements and earlier CFF apparatuses. Moreover, the apparatus is so inexpensive that it can be widely used. To compare the performance of the P.F. apparatus with earlier apparatuses, the following experiments were performed. CFF values were measured at the same time with the pocket type apparatus, blinking type apparatus and sector type apparatus and the results were compared. The subjects were 13 males and 5 females with their age ranging from 21 to 52 years. The total number of measurements was 132. The CFF values measured with these three apparatuses showed a significant correlation. The correlation coefficient between the CFF values measured with the sector type apparatus and blinking type apparatus was high, but the slope of the regression line was not one. Hence, in comparing the values measured with another apparatus, we should be aware of the differences between these data. The correlation coefficients between the CFF values measured with P.F. apparatus and with sector type apparatus or blinking type apparatus were not higher than those between the CFF values measured with sector type apparatus and blinking type apparatus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2585810

Hosokawa, T; Makizuka, T; Nakai, K; Saito, K

1989-09-01

459

Complex estimation of bending elasticity of hemp woven fabric after washing treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the elasticity of hemp woven fabric under action of bending force, before and after washing treatment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Bending elasticity was monitored in three different ways: through the value of bending modulus, on the basis of fabric's resistance to creasing expressed through the value of quality number, and through the value of bending

T. V. Mihailovic

2006-01-01

460

Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

Fyfe, R.W.; Sanchez, A. Jr.

1989-09-12

461

Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

Fyfe, Richard W. (Las Vegas, NV); Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo (Las Vegas, NV)

1990-01-01

462

Apparatus for physical vapor deposition  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus for physical vapor deposition comprising a vacuum casing one end of which is open; a sealing member provided at the opening of the casing; an electrode for physical vapor deposition, such as a target electrode or an electrode for heating evaporation, which is provided in the casing; and an exhaust hole for exhausting gases in the casing, which is provided at a predetermined wall portion of the casing. The apparatus may also be provided with a gas introducing hole and a bias electrode. The casing is integrally fitted to a body to be treated at the opening end portion thereof by means of the sealing member to form a vacuum chamber therein. This apparatus is compact and enables the surface treatment of a large or immovable body without moving the body.

Shimada; Hisashi (Nagoya, JP); Arai; Tohru (Toyoake, JP); Endo; Junji (Nagoya, JP)

1985-04-30

463

Leak detection method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus are described for using sulfur hexafluoride to detect leaks in fluid processing systems. Leak detection can be performed with the processing system continuing in operation. This apparatus detects leakage through a partition separating a portion of a first path from portion of a second path in a fluid processing system, while operation of the system is continued. The apparatus comprises a combination of 1) means for introducing a known quantity of sulfur hexafluoride into fluid flowing in the first path upstream of a partition; 2) means for continuously removing a sample of fluid flowing in the second path at a locus downstream of the partition; 3) means for removing normally liquid components from the sample; 4) means for testing the sample to determine the presence of sulfur hexafluoride; and 5) means for indicating the amount of sulfur hexafluoride in the sample. 2 claims.

Fries, B.A.

1982-05-11

464

Bend-imitating models of abruptly bent electron waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamentals of bend-imitating approach regarding the one-electron quantum mechanics in abruptly bent ideal electron waveguides are given. In general, the theory allows to model each particular circularlike bend of a continuous quantum wire as some effective multichannel scatterer being pointlike in longitudinal direction. Its scattering ability is determined by the bending angle, mean bending radius, lateral coordinate (or coordinates) in wire cross section, time (or electronic energy), and possibly by the applied magnetic field. In an equivalent formulation, the theory gives rise to rather simple matching rules for the electron wave function and its longitudinal derivative affecting only the straight parts of a wire and thereby permitting to bypass a detailed quantum mechanical consideration of elbow domains. The proposed technique is applicable for the analytical investigation of spectral and transport electronic properties related to the ideal abruptly bent 3D wirelike structures of fixed cross section and is adaptable to the 2D wirelike structures as well as to the wirelike structures subjected to the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of wire bending. In the framework of bend-imitating approach, the investigation of electron scattering in a singly bent 2D quantum wire and a doubly bent 2D quantum wire with S-like bend has been made and the explicit dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients on geometrical parameters of respective structure as well as on electron energy have been obtained. The total suppression of mixing between the scattering channels of S-like bent quantum wire is predicted.

Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.

2011-07-01

465

Apparatus for control of mercury  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

2001-01-01

466

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

467

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

468

Apparatus for blending small particles  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment. (auth)

Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

1975-08-26

469

Mode conversion of longitudinal and torsional guided modes due to pipe bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes recent work aimed at improving the understanding of Lamb wave propagation through pipes with bends. A series of pipes with different bend radii were investigated experimentally and with numerical simulation (Finite Element). With both longitudinal and torsional excitation, numerical and experimental tests performed showed mode conversion due to the presence of the bend. The influence of both the bend radius and the bend length on the transmission of the incident wave is shown. .

Demma, A.; Cawley, P.; Lowe, M. J. S.

2001-04-01

470

A Simultaneous DTA-Gea-MSA Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic apparatus for the simultaneous determination of the DTA-GED-MSA of a compound is described. The use of the apparatus is illustrated by the thermal dissociation of potassium methylsulfate. (Author)

W. W. Wendlandt T. M. Southern J. R. Willaims

1965-01-01

471

Adaptable Spring Force Clamping Apparatus and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptable spring force clamping apparatus and methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes at least one elongated member adapted to be positioned proximate to a surface of a work piece. The elongated member includes first and second end...

C. A. Oberlee J. G. Buchheit L. F. Murray

2006-01-01

472

The Contribution of Transient Counterion Imbalances to DNA Bending Fluctuations  

PubMed Central

A two-sided model for DNA is employed to analyze fluctuations of the spatial distribution of condensed counterions and the effect of these fluctuations on transient bending. We analyze two classes of fluctuations. In the first, the number of condensed counterions on one side of the DNA remains at its average value, while on the other side, counterions are lost to bulk solution or gained from it. The second class of fluctuations is characterized by movement of some counterions from one side of the DNA to the other. The root-mean-square fluctuation for each class is calculated from counterion condensation theory. The amplitude of the root-mean-square fluctuation depends on the ionic strength as well as the length of the segment considered and is of the order 5–10%. Both classes of fluctuation result in transient bends toward the side of greater counterion density. The bending amplitudes are ?15% of the total root-mean-square bends associated with the persistence length of DNA. We are thus led to suggest that asymmetric fluctuations of counterion density contribute modestly but significantly toward the aggregate of thermalized solvent fluctuations that cause bending deformations of DNA free in solution. The calculations support the idea that counterions may exert some modulating influence on the fine structure of DNA.

Manning, Gerald S.

2006-01-01

473

How do spin waves pass through a bend?  

PubMed

Spin-wave devices hold great promise to be used in future information processing. Manipulation of spin-wave propagation inside the submicrometer waveguides is at the core of promoting the practical application of these devices. Just as in today's silicon-based chips, bending of the building blocks cannot be avoided in real spin-wave circuits. Here, we examine spin-wave transport in bended magnonic waveguides at the submicron scale using micromagnetic simulations. It is seen that the impact of the bend is relevant to the frequency of the passing spin wave. At the lowest frequencies, the spin wave continuously follows the waveguide in the propagation process. At the higher frequencies, however the bend acts as a mode converter for the passing spin wave, causing zigzag-like propagation path formed in the waveguide behind the bend. Additionally, we demonstrate a logic-NOT gate based on such a waveguide, which could be combined to perform logic-NAND operation. PMID:24129823

Xing, Xiangjun; Yu, Yongli; Li, Shuwei; Huang, Xiaohong

2013-10-16

474

Pressure Drop in Capsule Transporting Bends Carrying Spherical Capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important parameters in designing a capsule transporting pipeline is the pressure drop in the pipes carrying capsules and associated pipe fittings such as bends etc. Capsules are hollow containers with typically cylindrical or spherical shapes flowing in the pipeline along with the carrier fluid. The dynamic behavior of a long train of capsules depends on the behavior of each capsule in the train and the hydrodynamic influence of one capsule on another. Researchers so far have used rather simplified empirical and semi-empirical correlations for pressure drop calculations, the range and application of which are fairly limited. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based techniques have been used to analyze the effect of the presence of solid phase in hydraulic bends. A steady state numerical solution has been obtained from the equations governing turbulent flow in pipe bends carrying spherical capsule train consisting of one to four capsules. The bends under consideration are of 45° and 90° with an inner diameter of 0.1m. The investigation was carried out in the practical range of 0.2 <=Vb>= 1.6 m/sec. The computationally obtained data set over a wide range of flow conditions has been used to develop a rigorous model for pressure drop calculations. The pressure drop along the pipe bends, in combination with the pressure drop along the pipes, can be used to calculate the pumping requirements and hence design of the system.

Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Ido, Itoro; Ubbi, Kuldip

2012-05-01

475

Vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus comprising: a cylinder defining a combustion chamber, the cylinder having an inlet end for receipt of combustion air, a first flange surrounding the inlet end and an outlet end for exhausting gaseous combustion products; means for introducing the fuel into the combustion chamber and ignition means exposed to the combustion chamber

Y. Kimijima; K. Kikuchi

1986-01-01

476

Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly

1983-01-01

477

Impinging air jet combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combustion liner for a gas turbine combustion apparatus or the like has a head wall and a side wall extending downstream to an outlet for combustion products. A reaction zone is contained within the upstream end of the side wall and a dilution zone downstream. A barrier ring extends inwardly from the side wall to provide a constricted path

J. R. Arvin; A. J. Verdouw

1976-01-01

478

Apparatus for burning waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for burning material and utilizing the heat of burning has a primary combustion chamber with an upper portion vented to the atmosphere, the material being fed into the primary combustion chamber. A secondary combustion chamber is in communication with a lower portion of the primary combustion chamber, and air is supplied into the secondary combustion chamber. A fan draws

McKinlay

1984-01-01

479

Resolution Enhanced Sound Detecting Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The acuity of an acoustic mirror and microphone system is increased in order to precisely detect the location of a noise source, such as that created by an airframe in a wind tunnel, or by machinery. The apparatus which includes mirror which reflects soun...

J. M. Kendall

1977-01-01

480

Apparatus for charged particle spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Charged-particle spectroscopy apparatus for the chemical analysis of a sample in which an apertured plate receives charged particles emitted from the sample and transmits them to an analyzer for analyzing the energies of the particles, the aperture of the plate being such as to restrict the particles passing therethrough to a pencil beam of particles from a selected area of the sample.

Barrie, A.; Herd, Q.C.

1981-03-10

481

Power transmission apparatus for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a power transmission apparatus for a vehicle comprising: an output shaft for transmitting power from a power unit to the front and rear wheels of the vehicle; a front wheel driving device for driving the vehicle front wheel; a rear wheel driving device for driving the vehicle rear wheel; a driving shaft operatively driven by the output

Oka

1987-01-01

482

Ultrahigh Vacuum Twist Compression Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new apparatus is described which is used for bonding of metals in ultrahigh vacuum by the twist compression technique. It is shown that adhesion between hard metal specimens can be readily measured in ultrahigh vacuum after some initial mechanical abrasion of the surfaces, while adhesion tests in air at atmospheric pressure do not yield measurable adhesion coefficients. Experimental results

J. M. Bradford; K. B. Wear; M. E. Sikorski

1970-01-01

483

Continuous shear wave logging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for continuous shear wave logging of a borehole consisting of a sonde instrument having retractable, expandable coupling arms for rigidly engaging the borehole wall to exert repetitive torqueing action while continuously moving uphole. The sonde includes spaced detector coupling arms in continual contact with the borehole wall and polarized for detection of the repetitive propagated shear waves.

Brown, G. L.

1985-10-29

484

Apparatus for treating radioactive concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is provided for treating various radioactive concentrates having a liquid component, such as suspensions and salt solutions, which are present separately in a processing plant from evaporation systems, resin bead ion exchange filters, and from at least one further separating stage provided with, for example, mechanical filters, sedimentation basins and\\/or powdered resin ion exchange filters. The filter concentrates

O. Meichsner; H. Queiser

1981-01-01

485

Precipitation Process and Apparatus Therefor  

DOEpatents

This invention concerns an apparatus for remotely-controlled precipitation and filtration operations. Liquid within a precipitation chamber is maintained above a porous member by introducing air beneath the member; pressure beneath the porous member is reduced to suck the liquid through the member and effect filtration.

Stang, L.C. Jr.

1950-10-31

486

Gearshift apparatus for an automobile  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gearshift apparatus for an automobile with an electromagnetic clutch and a transmission operatively connected to the clutch and having four forward gear trains and an output shaft. This apparatus consists of a first synchronizing means for selectively engaging a second speed gear train and a fourth speed gear train respectively with transmission output shaft. The second speed gear train has a gear ratio such that sufficient torque is produced to start the automobile on an ordinary road. Another feature of the apparatus is a second synchronizing means for selectively engaging a first speed gear train and a third speed gear train respectively with the output shaft. The first gear has a gear ratio producing sufficient torque to start the automobile on an uphill and heavy road. A shift lever means for operating the first and second synchronization means is characterized in the patent. This shaft lever is described as being rotated to a first or second plane for the operation of the respective synchronizing means and as being responsive a means elucidated in the patent for holding it in the respective plane for proper operation. The last component of the apparatus described is a gear select means including a select lever specifically operationally engageable with one of the synchronizing means by rotation of the shift lever to the respective plane and an actuating rod connecting it to the proper shift lever for respective synchronization device operation.

Makita, F.

1986-01-21

487

Duplex sampling apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus is provided for sampling a gaseous mixture and for measuring mixture components. The apparatus includes two sampling containers connected in series serving as a duplex sampling apparatus. The apparatus is adapted to independently determine the amounts of condensable and noncondensable gases in admixture from a single sample. More specifically, a first container includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a sample source and a second port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a second container. A second container also includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from the second port of the first container and a second port capable of either selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a differential pressure source. By cooling a mixture sample in the first container, the condensable vapors form a liquid, leaving noncondensable gases either as free gases or dissolved in the liquid. The condensed liquid is heated to drive out dissolved noncondensable gases, and all the noncondensable gases are transferred to the second container. Then the first and second containers are separated from one another in order to separately determine the amount of noncondensable gases and the amount of condensable gases in the sample.

Brown, Paul E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lloyd, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

488

Well control method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus is disclosed for controlling a well drilled from a floating drilling vessel during the time that the marine riser is removed and conductor casing is being lowered and cemented into the well. An annular blowout preventer having a bore substantially equal to that of the structural casing is provided in a stackabove the structural casing wellhead.

J. H. Hynes; H. L. Elkins

1984-01-01

489

Casing hanger and running apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for supporting a tubular string extending into a well bore from a surrounding wellhead, which consists of: a hanger body adapted to be located in the wellhead and having internal and external threads thereon and at least one sealing surface; a running tool connectable to a running string; means releasably connecting the hanger body to the running tool to enable the hanger body to be lowered into the wellhead; and packoff means. A method of lowering and sealing a casing hanger in a wellhead is described comprising the steps of: attaching apparatus onto a running tool which has a casing hanger and a packoff assembly thereon; connecting the running tool and apparatus onto a means for lowering and rotating the running tool into a wellhead located subsea; positioning the casing hanger in the wellhead, the casing hanger being adapted for that purpose; rotating the running tool to release the casing hanger and the packoff assembly from the running apparatus and the packoff assembly to become connected to the casing hanger and to seal the casing hanger with respect to the wellhead.

Goris, G.A.; Pettit, J.

1986-09-16

490

Soil-gas sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for soil-gas sampling is described, comprising: (a) at least one passive vapor collector comprising an assembly which contains sorbent materials, and (b) a means for protecting, inserting and retrieving the vapor collector from in-ground locations comprising at least one liquid water penetration resistant vapor-permeable porous flexible expanded polytetrafluoroethylene containers which encloses the passive vapor collector (a).

Bailey, C.E.; Stutman, M.B.

1993-08-17

491

Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support

Shirey; Ray A

1983-01-01

492

Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support

Shirey

1983-01-01

493

Water cooled bipolar battery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery apparatus is provided which includes a plurality of modules which are mounted end-to-end in a stacked pile configuration. Each module contains a plurality of bipolar electrodes. One end of each module has a flexible bladder for storing an electrolyte. The bladders in a collapsed condition provide spacing between the modules for cooling. Each module has a passageway for

J. F. McCartney; W. H. Shipman

1979-01-01

494

Manual or hydraulic gearshifting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle transmission control apparatus is described which consists of: a plurality of shift members for operating a vehicle transmission; a lever adapted for linear movement into a plurality of positions, one each of the lever being operatively coupled to a different one of the shift members in each of the positions; the lever being further adapted for pivotal movement

H. Ishida; Y. Kojima

1986-01-01

495

Acoustical vibration generation control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been found that the application of pressure pulsations to the drilling fluid improves the penetration rate of the rock bit. An apparatus is described which generates acoustical pressure fluctuations through utilization of control means that prevents cavitation and improves efficiency. Pressure fluctuations of large magnitude are generated by pumping fluid through a first conduit to drive an acoustical

Galle

1974-01-01

496

Valving apparatus for downhole tools  

SciTech Connect

A valving apparatus supplies increased fluid pressure to a downhole tool having fluid pressure actuated expandable packing elements. The valving apparatus includes upper and lower annular sealing surfaces and a shuttle valve which, in its normal spring surfaces and a shuttle valve which, in its normal spring biased position, engages the upper sealing surface and maintains a connection between the bore of the downhole tool and the casing annulus, thereby equalizing pressure therebetween. When pressure in the work string is increased through dropping of a ball on a seat contained in the valving apparatus, the increased fluid pressure is bypassed around the ball valve to impinge upon a piston surface incorporated on the shuttle valve, moving the shuttle valve downwardly into sealing engagement with the lower annular sealing surface and thus transmitting increased pressure to the downhole tool. Upon release of the increased pressure, The shuttle valve returns to its normal position in sealing engagement with the upper annular sealing surface and opens the fluid flow connection between the interconnected bores of the valving apparatus and the downhole tool and the casing annulus.

Speller, D.J.

1984-12-04

497

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

498

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01

499

Apparatus for Igniting Solid Propellants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apparatus is provided for igniting a tubular mass of solid propellant. A measured quantity of hypergolic fluid is injected into an opening in the tubular mass. This fluid is directed against predetermined portions of the walls of the opening. An injector ...

H. Allen C. C. Ciepluch E. A. Fletcher

1965-01-01

500

A HIGH TEMPERATURE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY APPARATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-temperature, steady-state thermal conductivity apparatus is ; described. This apparatus was used to measure the conductivity of diverse ; materials, such as graphite, metals, carbides, oxides, and liquid Cu. ; Measurements were made at 200 to 2500 deg C. The procedures used, difficulties ; encountered, limitations, and accuracy are discussed. Results previously ; obtained with this apparatus on graphite,

1962-01-01