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1

Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.

Calomino, Anthony; Bubsey, Raymond; Ghosn, Louis J.

1994-01-01

2

Testing Laminated Swedish Fir in Four Point Bending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laminated Swedish fir has been tested in four point bending. Three different types of specimens were manufactured, one with scarf joints on the outer layers, one with glass fiber weave in between the layers and one with continuous veneers. The three diffe...

M. Poppen

1991-01-01

3

Fully articulated four-point-bend loading fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully articulated four-point bend loading fixture for Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and fracture toughness specimens utilizes an upper loading plate in combination with a lower loading plate. The lower plate has a pair of spring loaded ball bearings which seat in V-shaped grooves located in the upper plate. The ball bearings are carried in the arms of the lower plate. A load is applied to the specimen through steel rollers, one large roller and one smaller roller each located on both the upper and lower plates. The large rollers have needle roller bearings which enable a single loading roller to rotate relative to the plate to which it is attached.

Calomino, Anthony M. (inventor)

1991-01-01

4

Four-point-bend fatigue of AA 2026 aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-cycle fatigue tests were carried out on a newly developed high-strength AA 2026 Al alloy, which was in the form of extrusion bars with square and rectangular cross sections, using a self-aligning four-point-bend rig at room temperature, 15 Hz, and R = 0.1, in lab air. The fatigue strength of the square and rectangular bars was measured to be 85 and 90 pct of their yield strength, respectively, more than twice that of the predecessor to the 2026 alloy (the AA 2024 Al alloy). Fatigue cracks were found to be always initiated at large ?' (Al7Cu2(Fe,Mn)) particles and to propagate predominantly in a crystallographic mode in the AA 2026 alloy. The fatigue fractographies of the square and rectangular extrusion bars were found to be markedly different, due to their different grain structures (fibril and layered, respectively). Fracture steps on the crack face were found in both of these extrusion bars. Since the 2026 alloy was purer in terms of Fe and Si content, it contained much less coarse particles than in a 2024 alloy. This partially accounted for the superior fatigue strength of the 2026 alloy.

Li, J. X.; Zhai, T.; Garratt, M. D.; Bray, G. H.

2005-09-01

5

Four-point bending evaluation of dentin-composite interfaces with various stresses.  

PubMed

Fracture properties of composite-dentin beams bonded with a self-etching adhesive were tested following short term pretreatments to simulate potential degradation mechanisms (thermal cycling, immersion in 5% NaOCl, or fatigue cycling). Beams of rectangular cross-section were shaped to a size of approximately 0.87 x 0.87 x 10 mm and placed in a four-point bending apparatus, with the loading points 1.8 and 7.2 mm apart, with the interface centered between the inner rollers. Testing was performed in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution at 25 degrees C. Solid dentin and solid composite beams [n = 6] had bending strengths of 164.4 and 164.6 MPa, respectively, under monotonically increasing loads. Bonded beams [n = 6] had strengths of 56.3 MPa. Thermo-cycling (5 degrees to 55 degrees C), NaOCl solution immersion, or 105 of pre-fatigue cycles did not decrease the strength. Conclusion: Thermal stress, exposure to NaOCL, or 105 cycles of mechanical stress does not decrease bond strength of composite bonded to dentin as tested in four-point bending. PMID:18167488

Staninec, Michal; Nguyen, Harrison; Kim, Paul; Marshall, Grayson W; Rithchie, R O; Marshall, Sally J

2008-01-01

6

Modeling board-level four-point bend fatigue and impact drop tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, modeling and simulation of board-level four-point bend fatigue and impact tests were investigated for 7 mm times 7 mm VQFN (48 I\\/O) assembly and 15 mm times 15 mm FBGA (324 I\\/O) assembly with Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder and OSP board surface finish. For cyclic bending fatigue, four-point bend cyclic loading at room temperature (25degC) and at high

Chea FX; J. H. L. Pang

2006-01-01

7

Modeling of magnetostrictive Galfenol sensor and validation using four point bending test  

SciTech Connect

A magnetomechanical bending model has been developed to predict the magnetic induction, elastic, and magnetostrictive strain and bending stress in a magnetostrictive member subjected simultaneously to bending load and dc magnetic bias field. This model was obtained by coupling Euler-Bernoulli beam theory with an energy-based statistical model. The bending model predictions were within 10% of the experimental results obtained from a uniquely devised four point bending test of Galfenol (nominal composition of 84 at. % Fe and 16 at. % Ga) performed under different magnetic bias fields.

Datta, Supratik; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Flatau, Alison B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2007-05-01

8

Evaluation of the induction healing effect of porous asphalt concrete through four point bending fatigue test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the induction healing effect of steel wool reinforced porous asphalt concrete. The four point bending fatigue resistance of the beams was first studied. It was found that the fatigue resistance of these steel wool reinforced beams was quite good compared with the references in the literature. Then, fatigue life extension ratio and

Quantao Liu; Erik Schlangen; Martin van deVen; Gerbert van Bochove; Jo van Montfort

9

Novel shear strength evaluation of MEMS materials using asymmetrical four-point bending technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel shear testing technique for MEMS materials based on an asymmetrical four-point bending (AFPB) method (Izumi and Ping, 2005). This research has newly developed a shear tester and a AFPB test specimen that are able to apply simple shear stress loading to a micro single crystal silicon (SCS) specimen with \\

Masato Ogawa; Yoshitada Isono

2007-01-01

10

Mechanical behavior of solder joints under dynamic four-point impact bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of solder joints under drop impact loading is important to mobile electronic products. In this paper, dynamic four-point impact bending tests of board level electronic packages are carried out to investigate mechanical behavior of solder joints. In the test, strain gauges, a high speed camera and the digital image correlation method are used to acquire strain and deflection of

Tong An; Fei Qin; Jiangang Li

2011-01-01

11

Four-point bend adhesion measurements of copper and permalloy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four-point bend split-beam method is used to quantitatively determine the interfacial fracture resistance and crack velocity as a function of mechanical energy release rate of the weakest interface in a thin film stack. Various interfaces of importance to magnetic storage devices are studied, including copper or nickel–iron (permalloy) on silicon oxynitride with additional adhesion promoters. The dynamics and kinetics

Michael P. Hughey; Dylan J. Morris; Robert F. Cook; Steven P. Bozeman; Brian L. Kelly; Srinivas L. N. Chakravarty; David P. Harkens; Laura C. Stearns

2004-01-01

12

Acoustic emission of steel-fiber concrete under four-point bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the AE behavior of concrete under four-point bending. Different contents of steel fibers were included to investigate their influence on the load-bearing capacity and on the fracture mechanisms. The AE waveform characteristics revealed that, although tension was the dominant mechanism of fracture for the plain material, the increase in the fiber content resulted in extension of the shear failure due to improvement of the weak tensile properties of concrete. Appropriate AE indices employed for early warning prior to macroscopic failure can lead to more suitable design of the reinforcement, in order to withstand the specific stresses.

Aggelis, D. G.; Soulioti, D.; Barkoula, N. M.; Paipetis, A. S.; Matikas, T. E.; Shiotani, T.

2009-03-01

13

Determination of piezo-optic coefficients of crystals by means of four-point bending.  

PubMed

A technique developed recently for determining piezo-optic coefficients (POCs) of isotropic optical media, which represents a combination of digital imaging laser interferometry and a classical four-point bending method, is generalized and applied to a single-crystalline anisotropic material. The peculiarities of measuring procedures and data processing for the case of optically uniaxial crystals are described in detail. The capabilities of the technique are tested on the example of canonical nonlinear optical crystal LiNbO3. The high precision achieved in determination of the POCs for isotropic and anisotropic materials testifies that the technique should be both versatile and reliable. PMID:23759855

Krupych, Oleg; Savaryn, Viktoriya; Krupych, Andriy; Klymiv, Ivan; Vlokh, Rostyslav

2013-06-10

14

Compression After Impact Testing of Sandwich Structures Using the Four Point Bend Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many composite laminated structures, the design is driven by data obtained from Compression after Impact (CAI) testing. There currently is no standard for CAI testing of sandwich structures although there is one for solid laminates of a certain thickness and lay-up configuration. Most sandwich CAI testing has followed the basic technique of this standard where the loaded ends are precision machined and placed between two platens and compressed until failure. If little or no damage is present during the compression tests, the loaded ends may need to be potted to prevent end brooming. By putting a sandwich beam in a four point bend configuration, the region between the inner supports is put under a compressive load and a sandwich laminate with damage can be tested in this manner without the need for precision machining. Also, specimens with no damage can be taken to failure so direct comparisons between damaged and undamaged strength can be made. Data is presented that demonstrates the four point bend CAI test and is compared with end loaded compression tests of the same sandwich structure.

Nettles, Alan T.; Gregory, Elizabeth; Jackson, Justin; Kenworthy, Devon

2008-01-01

15

The Role of Crack Formation in Chevron-Notched Four-Point Bend Specimens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The failure sequence following crack formation in a chevron-notched four-point bend 1 specimen is examined in a parametric study using the Bluhm slice synthesis model. Premature failure resulting from crack formation forces which exceed those required to propagate a crack beyond alpha (min) is examined together with the critical crack length and critical crack front length. An energy based approach is used to establish factors which forecast the tendency of such premature failure due to crack formation for any selected chevron-notched geometry. A comparative study reveals that, for constant values of alpha (1) and alpha (0), the dimensionless beam compliance and stress intensity factor are essentially independent of specimen width and thickness. The chevron tip position, alpha (0) has its primary effect on the force required to initiate a sharp crack. Small values for alpha (0) maximize the stable region length, however, the premature failure tendency is also high for smaller alpha (0) values. Improvements in premature failure resistance can be realized for larger values of alpha (0) with only a minor reduction in the stable region length. The stable region length is also maximized for larger chevron based positions, alpha (1) but the chance for premature failure is also raised. Smaller base positions improve the premature failure resistance with only minor decreases in the stable region length. Chevron geometries having a good balance of premature failure resistance, stable region length, and crack front length are 0.20 less than or equal to alpha (0) is less than or equal to 0.30 and 0.70 is less than or equal to alpha (1) is less than or equal to 0.80.

Calomino, Anthony M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

1994-01-01

16

Experiences in the determination of TMF, LCF and creep life of CMSX-4 in four-point bending experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF), low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep life of rectangular flat specimen were evaluated by means of four-point bending tests. Experiments were performed on the single crystal superalloy CMSX-4 mainly in the orientation ?001?, but also orientations ?011? and ?111?. While the TMF-Tests were performed in the temperature ranges from 250 to 750°C, 450–950°C and 550–1050°C with

Afred Scholz; Andreas Schmidt; Hans Christian Walther; Mathias Schein; Michael Schwienheer

2008-01-01

17

Experimental investigation of fatigue behavior of carbon fiber composites using fully-reversed four-point bending test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) have become an increasingly notable material for use in structural engineering applications. Some of their advantages include high strength-to-weight ratio, high stiffness-to-weight ratio, and good moldability. Prediction of the fatigue life of composite laminates has been the subject of various studies due to the cyclic loading experienced in many applications. Both theoretical studies and experimental tests have been performed to estimate the endurance limit and fatigue life of composite plates. One of the main methods to predict fatigue life is the four-point bending test. In most previous works, the tests have been done in one direction (load ratio, R, > 0). In the current work, we have designed and manufactured a special fixture to perform a fully reversed bending test (R = -1). Static four-point bending tests were carried out on three (0°/90°)15 and (± 45°)15 samples to measure the mechanical properties of CFRP. Testing was displacement-controlled at the rate of 10 mm/min until failure. In (0°/90°)15 samples, all failed by cracking/buckling on the compressive side of the sample. While in (± 45°)15 all three tests, no visual fracture or failure of the samples was observed. 3.4 times higher stresses were reached during four-point static bending test of (0° /90°)15 samples compared to (± 45°)15. Same trend was seen in literature for similar tests. Four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out on (0° /90°)15 sample with stress ratio, R = -1 and frequency of 5 Hz. Applied maximum stresses were approximately 45%, 56%, 67%, 72% and 76% of the measured yield stress for (0° /90°)15 samples. There was visible cracking through the thickness of the samples. The expected downward trend in fatigue life with increasing maximum applied stress was observed in S-N curves of samples. There appears to be a threshold for ‘infinite’ life, defined as 1.7 million cycles in the current work, at a maximum stress of about 200 MPa. The decay in flexural modulus of the beam as it goes under cyclic loading was calculated and it was seen that flexural modulus shows an exponential decay which can be expressed as: E = E0e AN. Four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out on three (±45°)15 samples with stress ratio, R = -1 and frequency of 5 Hz. Maximum applied stress was 85% of the measured yield stress of (±45°)15 samples. None of the samples failed, nor any sign of crack was seen. Tests were stopped once the number of cycles passed 1.7×106. In general, current study provided additional insight into the fatigue and static behavior of polymer composites and effect of fiber orientation in their mechanical behavior.

Amiri, Ali

18

Modeling of delamination in carbon/epoxy composite laminates under four point bending for damage detection and sensor placement optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminated carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) possess very high specific strength and stiffness and this has accounted for their wide use in structural applications, most especially in the aerospace industry, where the trade-off between weight and strength is critical. Even though they possess much larger strength ratio as compared to metals like aluminum and lithium, damage in the metals mentioned is rather localized. However, CFRPs generate complex damage zones at stress concentration, with damage progression in the form of matrix cracking, delamination and fiber fracture or fiber/matrix de-bonding. This thesis is aimed at performing; stiffness degradation analysis on composite coupons, containing embedded delamination using the Four-Point Bend Test. The Lamb wave-based approach as a structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is used for damage detection in the composite coupons. Tests were carried-out on unidirectional composite coupons, obtained from panels manufactured with pre-existing defect in the form of embedded delamination in a laminate of stacking sequence [06/904/0 6]T. Composite coupons were obtained from panels, fabricated using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), a liquid composite molding (LCM) process. The discontinuity in the laminate structure due to the de-bonding of the middle plies caused by the insertion of a 0.3 mm thick wax, in-between the middle four (4) ninety degree (90°) plies, is detected using lamb waves generated by surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) actuators. From the surface mounted piezoelectric sensors, response for both undamaged (coupon with no defect) and damaged (delaminated coupon) is obtained. A numerical study of the embedded crack propagation in the composite coupon under four-point and three-point bending was carried out using FEM. Model validation was then carried out comparing the numerical results with the experimental. Here, surface-to-surface contact property was used to model the composite coupon under simply supported boundary conditions. Theoretically calculated bending stiffness's and maximum deflection were compared with that of the experimental case and the numerical. After the FEA model was properly benchmarked with test data and exact solution, data obtained from the FEM model were used for sensor placement optimization.

Adu, Stephen Aboagye

19

Shear deformation in Sn3.5Ag and Sn3.6Ag1.0Cu solder joints subjected to asymmetric four-point bend tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shear deformation behavior of two lead-free solder compositions, Sn-3.5Ag (wt.%) and Sn-3.6Ag-1.0Cu (wt.%), both on copper substrates, was studied using an asymmetric four point bend technique. Four test joints were obtained from one master specimen of each composition, and each joint was subject to progressive loading, up to the maximum shear strength of the joint. One unstressed bar from

B. A. Cook; I. E. Anderson; J. L. Harringa; R. L. Terpstra; J. C. Foley; Ö. Ünal; F. C. Laabs

2001-01-01

20

Shear deformation in Sn3.5Ag and Sn3.6Ag1.0Cu solder joints subjected to asymmetric four-point bend tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shear deformation behavior of two lead-free solder compositions, Sn-3.5Ag (wt.%) and Sn-3.6Ag-1.0Cu (wt.%), both on copper\\u000a substrates, was studied using an asymmetric four point bend technique. Four test joints were obtained from one master specimen\\u000a of each composition, and each joint was subject to progressive loading, up to the maximum shear strength of the joint. One\\u000a unstressed bar from

B. A. Cook; I. E. Anderson; J. L. Harringa; R. L. Terpstra; J. C. Foley; Ö. Ünal; F. C. Laabs

2001-01-01

21

Mixed-Mode-Bending Delamination Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixed-mode-bending delamination apparatus generates two types of delamination stress simultaneously in specimen from single externally applied point load. In technique, indivial mode I and mode II contributions to delamination in specimen analyzed by use of simple beam-theory equations, eliminating need for time-consuming, difficult numerical analysis. Allows wider range of mode I/mode II ratios than possible with many other methods. Mixed-mode delamination testing of interest in all fields utilizing composite materials, used mostly in aerospace field, but also used in automobiles, lightweight armored military vehicles, boats, and sporting equipment. Useful in general lumber, plywood, and adhesive industries, as well.

Crews, John H., Jr.; Reeder, James R.

1991-01-01

22

Precise determination of full matrix of piezo-optic coefficients with a four-point bending technique: the example of lithium niobate crystals.  

PubMed

A recently proposed technique representing a combination of digital imaging laser interferometry with a classical four-point bending method is applied to a canonical nonlinear optical crystal, LiNbO?, to precisely determine a full matrix of its piezo-optic coefficients (POCs). The contribution of a secondary piezo-optic effect to the POCs is investigated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. Based on the POCs thus obtained, a full matrix of strain-optic coefficients (SOCs) is calculated and the appropriate errors are estimated. A comparison of our experimental errors for the POCs and SOCs with the known reference data allows us to claim the present technique as the most precise. PMID:24787189

Krupych, Oleg; Savaryn, Viktoriya; Vlokh, Rostyslav

2014-04-01

23

The effect of contact stresses in four-point bend testing of graphite/epoxy and graphite/PMR-15 composite beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model, for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with the increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.

Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.

1992-01-01

24

Effect of contact stresses in four-point bend testing of graphite/epoxy and graphite/PMR-15 composite beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.

Binienda, W. K.; Roberts, G. D.; Papadopoulos, D. S.

1992-01-01

25

Four Points on Quality Assurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the paper is to give arguments for introducing outcome-oriented, quality-assurance procedures into our health care systems. The paper addresses the following four points related to quality assurance: (1) Where the health care system is head...

W. McClure

1973-01-01

26

Evaluation of bending strength of five interdental fixation apparatuses applied to canine mandibles.  

PubMed

Strength in bending was determined for interdental fixation apparatuses applied to hemimandibles obtained from 24 canine cadavers. Hemimandibles were osteotomized perpendicular to the long axis between the third and fourth premolars, and segments were stabilized with 1 of 5 interdental fixation apparatuses: Erich arch bar (EAB, n = 6); Stout loop (SL, n = 6); acrylic (A, n = 6); Stout loop and acrylic (SLA, n = 24); and Erich arch bar and acrylic (EABA, n = 6). Ultimate strengths (mean +/- SEM) of EAB, SL, A, SLA, and EABA were 395 +/- 48; 523 +/- 57; 1,106 +/- 102; 1,306 +/- 156; and 2,707 +/- 504 N.m, respectively. Stiffness (mean +/- SEM) of EAB, SL, A, SLA, and EABA were 2,944 +/- 357; 6,322 +/- 2,201; 16,010 +/- 5,017; 15,777 +/- 1,026; and 27,079 +/- 5,576 N.m/radian, respectively. Yield strengths (mean +/- SEM) of EAB, SL, A, SLA, and EABA were 66 +/- 6; 264 +/- 19; 911 +/- 126; 1,114 +/- 159; and 1,855 +/- 401 N.m, respectively. There were no significant differences in acrylic weight, cross-sectional area of the acrylic, or area moment of inertia of acrylic at the osteotomy site among A, SLA, and EABA; and there were no significant differences in osteotomy surface area and area moment of inertia at the osteotomy site among all apparatuses (P > 0.05). The EABA apparatus had significantly higher mean ultimate strength, mean stiffness, and mean yield strength compared to other interdental fixation apparatuses. There were no significant differences in the mean ultimate strength, mean stiffness, or mean yield strength between EAB and SL (P > 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8368617

Kern, D A; Smith, M M; Grant, J W; Rockhill, A D

1993-07-01

27

Bends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vocabulary, resources, and activities to teach about scuba diving and the effects of water pressure. Includes information on why divers get the bends and air embolisms, their symptoms, and how they are prevented.

28

A simple, versatile miniaturized disk-bend test apparatus for quantitative yield-stress measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniaturized disk-bend test (MDBT) apparatus for testing specimens 3 mm in diameter and a range of thicknesses is described. It incorporates several features not generally found in previous designs, including direct measurement of specimen displacement, noncritical alignment, and the flexibility to conduct tests on clamped or undamped samples. The test is similar to a microbulge test in that the load is applied through a ball bearing 1 mm in diameter. Displacement of the center of the specimen is measured using a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), the core of which is attached to a rod maintained in contact with the specimen through the use of a weak spring. Results on four materials are presented, with sample thicknesses ranging from 25 to 250 ?m: annealed OFHC copper, fine-grained Ni3Al, irradiated and unirradiated Zr3Al, and an amorphous Fe78Si9B13 alloy ribbon. A simple procedure for measuring the contact area at yielding between the ball bearing and the specimen is described. It enables accurate values of the yield stress to be calculated from equations for the elastic deformation of clamped specimens; previously, measurements of the yield stress from the MDBT relied on a finite element model. The accuracy was confirmed by tests on fine-grained specimens of Ni3Al which were cut from the grip sections of previously tested tensile samples. The effects of varying the clamping force on the load-displacement curves are described, and the sensitivity of the apparatus to near-surface microstructural effects is demonstrated by comparison of the results on two of the materials tested: Zr3Al, the irradiated samples of which are affected microstructurally only within 2 ?m from the surface, and Fe78Si9B13, in which the loads at fracture depend on which surface of the ribbon experiences tensile loading during the test.

Li, H.; Chen, F. C.; Ardell, A. J.

1991-09-01

29

Four-point properties and norm postulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper exhibits and exploits for the frist time the relations between two problems that arose about forty years ago, attracted numerous investigators, and continue to be studied, mostly without reference to their inter-connections. Those problems are (i) to determine conditions on the six mutual distances of four points of a complete, metrically convex ahd externally convex metric space (denoted

Leonard M. Blumenthal

30

Systematic error in mechanical measures of damage during four-point bending fatigue of cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone specimens is commonly measured by a modulus or stiffness degradation after normalizing tissue heterogeneity by the initial modulus or stiffness of each specimen measured during a preloading step. In the first experiment, the initial specimen modulus defined using linear elastic beam theory (LEBT) was shown to be nonlinearly dependent on the preload level,

Matthew D. Landrigan; Ryan K. Roeder

2009-01-01

31

Four point probe geometry modified correction factor for determining resistivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four-point probe technique is well known for its use in determining sheet resistance and resistivity (or effective resistivity) of thin films. Using a standard four-point probe setup, relatively large area samples are required. The convention is that the distance from any probe in the probe arrangement should be at least ten times the probe spacing from the sample boundary in order to use the fixed correction factor. In this paper we show, using computer modelling, how accurate measurements can be made using appropriate correction factors for samples that are either small or of any thickness. For the significant extent of variations used, the correction factor does not vary significantly.

Algahtani, Fahid; Thulasiram, Karthikram B.; Nasir, Nashrul M.; Holland, Anthony S.

2013-12-01

32

Bending Strength of Alumina at High Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the targets of the innovative research project 'Advanced Ceramics Testing and Design' is to validate numerical models for failure probability calculations of ceramic components. The report describes three and four point bending tests performed at 6...

B. J. De Smet

1992-01-01

33

Prehensile apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized.

Smith, Christopher M. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

34

Young's Modulus of Thermal Barrier Coating and Oxidation Resistant Coating Bonded to Stainless Substrate by Four-Point Bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young's modulus of thermal barrier coating (TBC) is one of the most essential mechanical properties on the designing of high performance TBC system. This paper describes one of the round-robin test results of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization's (NEDO's) project titled ``the survey-research of standardization on testing methods for thermo-mechanical performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings'', for the

Hiroyuki Waki; Hidenori Fujioka; Yoshio Harada; Masakazu Okazaki; Akira Kawasaki

2010-01-01

35

An evaluation of the sandwich beam in four-point bending as a compressive test method for composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental phase of the study included compressive tests on HTS/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, and 5052 aluminum honeycomb at room temperature, and tensile tests on graphite/polyimide at room temperature, -157 C, and 316 C. Elastic properties and strength data are presented for three laminates. The room temperature elastic properties were generally found to differ in tension and compression with Young's modulus values differing by as much as twenty-six percent. The effect of temperature on modulus and strength was shown to be laminate dependent. A three-dimensional finite element analysis predicted an essentially uniform, uniaxial compressive stress state in the top flange test section of the sandwich beam. In conclusion, the sandwich beam can be used to obtain accurate, reliable Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio data for advanced composites; however, the ultimate compressive stress for some laminates may be influenced by the specimen geometry.

Shuart, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.

1978-01-01

36

Bending Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, bend water with the help of static electricity. Discover how a comb can cause water flowing out of a faucet to bend in a unique direction. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-02-25

37

Four-Point Mounting Configuration for Resonators Subjected to Severe Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AT-cut quartz plate resonators are usually edge mounted. For precision applications, and especially where ruggedness is required, a four-point mount is necessary. This report investigates those mounts consisting of two pairs of diametric attachments. For ...

A. Ballato

1977-01-01

38

28 CFR 552.24 - Use of four-point restraints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL...four-point restraints, qualified health personnel shall initially assess...the supervision of qualified health personnel. Mental health and qualified health...

2013-07-01

39

Characterization of Semiconductor Surface Conductivity by Using Microscopic Four-Point Probe Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four-point probe characterization is a standard method for studying the electrical properties of solids and thin films. The probe spacing in four-point probe technique has to be reduced to micro-scale to obtain expected surface sensitivity and spatial resolution. Therefore, microscopic four-point probes (M4PPs) need to be combined with some microscopy techniques. Two types of M4PPs systems have been developed in the past few years, which are monolithic micro-four-point probe and four-point scanning tunneling microscopy probe approaches. This paper reviews the latest development of M4PPs including probe structure and principle measuring theories. The probe fabrication approaches are discussed in detail. It is shown that focused ion beam lithography is a promising method to fabricate probes with sub-50 nm spacing. This approach has advantages of high precision and maskless nanoscale fabrication. Probe life and sample surface damage are the other two main challenges for microscopic four-point probe technique. To deal with such problems, we can use flexible cantilevers as the probe and keep a certain angle between the probe and the sample surface.

Li, J. C.; Wang, Y.; Ba, D. C.

40

Eddy Current Testing and Four-Point Probe Measurement of - and Macromaterials Enhanced Polymeric Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano- and macromaterials are being engineered into polymeric composites to enhance the electrical conductivity for lightning strike protection purposes. Electrical conductivity can be measured using a four-point probe method. Eddy current methods can provide a more localized measure of conductivity on the surface of a component. In this study, engineered composites containing both macro- and nanomaterials have been fabricated. Eddy current measurements were made on these specimens to quantify the sensitivity of this method to the relevant variables. Eddy current results in the sub-MHz frequency range agreed well with the electrical conductivity data from four-point probe measurements.

Ko, Ray T.; Gibson, Thao; Fielding, Jennifer

2010-02-01

41

The four point explicit decoupled group (EDG) Method: a fast poisson solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to introduce a four point explicit decoupled group (EDG) iterative method as a new Poisson solver. The method is shown to be very much faster compared to existing explicit group (EG) methods due to D. J. Evans and M. J. Biggins (1982) and W. Yousif and D. J. Evans (1985). Some numerical experiments are

Abdul Rahman Abdullah

1991-01-01

42

Two-particle correlations in high-energy collisions and the gluon four-point function  

SciTech Connect

We derive the rapidity evolution equation for the gluon four-point function in the dilute regime and at small x from the JIMWLK functional equation. We show that beyond leading order in N{sub c} the mean field (Gaussian) approximation where the four-point function is factorized into a product of two-point functions is violated. We calculate these factorization breaking terms and show that they contribute at leading order in N{sub c} to correlations of two produced gluons as a function of their relative rapidity and azimuthal angle, for generic (rather than back-to-back) angles. Such two-particle correlations have been studied experimentally at the BNL-RHIC collider and could be scrutinized also for pp (and, in the future, also AA) collisions at the CERN-LHC accelerator.

Dumitru, Adrian [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, CUNY, 17 Lexington Avenue, New York, New York 10010 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Jalilian-Marian, Jamal [Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, CUNY, 17 Lexington Avenue, New York, New York 10010 (United States); Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

2010-05-01

43

Conductivity of individual particles measured by a microscopic four-point-probe method  

PubMed Central

We introduce a technique for measuring the conductivity of individual hybrid metal, semiconducting core-shell and full-metal conducting particles by a microscopic four-point probe (?-4PP) method. The four-point probe geometry allows for minimizing contact resistances between electrodes and particles. By using a focused ion beam we fabricate platinum nanoleads between four microelectrodes on a silicon chip and an individual particle, and determine the particle's conductivity via sensitive current and voltage measurements. Up to sixteen particles can be taken up by each chip, which allows for multiple conductivity measurements by simply multiplexing the electric contacts connected to a multimeter. Although, for demonstration, we used full Au (conducting) and Ag-coated latex particles (semiconducting) of a few micrometers in diameter, the method can be applied to other types of conducting or semiconducting particles of different diameters.

Sun, Ling; Wang, Jianjun; Bonaccurso, Elmar

2013-01-01

44

Universal formula for the stress-tensor contribution to scalar four-point functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We illustrate the power and efficiency of a recently uncovered Mellin-space approach to AdS/CFT correlation functions by providing a universal formula for the four-scalar graviton-exchange Witten diagram for arbitrary CFT-dual scaling dimensions. Our result keeps the space-time dimension generic as well, and is expressed as a combination of just 11 hypergeometric functions. Such hypergeometric functions are related to scalar-exchange diagrams. In particular, if reverse engineered in terms of D functions, this might be viewed as a first step toward proving a long-standing conjecture by Dolan, Nirschl and Osborn pertaining to four-point correlators of chiral primary operators at strong coupling. Most importantly, the technology developed herein marks an additional development toward the long-anticipated computation of the four-point function of the N=4 sYM stress tensor.

Giecold, Gregory

2012-11-01

45

Conductivity of individual particles measured by a microscopic four-point-probe method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a technique for measuring the conductivity of individual hybrid metal, semiconducting core-shell and full-metal conducting particles by a microscopic four-point probe (?-4PP) method. The four-point probe geometry allows for minimizing contact resistances between electrodes and particles. By using a focused ion beam we fabricate platinum nanoleads between four microelectrodes on a silicon chip and an individual particle, and determine the particle's conductivity via sensitive current and voltage measurements. Up to sixteen particles can be taken up by each chip, which allows for multiple conductivity measurements by simply multiplexing the electric contacts connected to a multimeter. Although, for demonstration, we used full Au (conducting) and Ag-coated latex particles (semiconducting) of a few micrometers in diameter, the method can be applied to other types of conducting or semiconducting particles of different diameters.

Sun, Ling; Wang, Jianjun; Bonaccurso, Elmar

2013-06-01

46

Lattice Algorithms and Direct Calculation of Weak Four-Point Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lattice Monte Carlo algorithms for the calculation of quenched gauge configurations and quark propagators are described and compared. As an application of these algorithms, a method for directly computing four-point functions is presented, and the {rm K^{o}}topi^+pi ^- Delta{rm I} = 3\\/2 amplitude is computed. This result is compared with an older method that used Chiral Perturbation Theory to connect

George Malcolm Hockney

1987-01-01

47

Four-point correlation functions in the AdS/CFT correspondence.  

SciTech Connect

We examine correlation functions within the correspondence between gauged supergravity on anti-de Sitter space and N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in Minkowski space. The imaginary parts of four-point functions in momentum space are computed, in addition to particular examples of three-point functions. Exchange diagrams for gravitons are included. The results indicate additional structure in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong 't Hooft coupling and in the large N limit.

Chalmers, G.; Schalm, K.

1999-02-09

48

Manifest Ultraviolet Behavior in the Three-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=8 Supergravity  

SciTech Connect

Using the method of maximal cuts, we obtain a form of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude of N = 8 supergravity in which all ultraviolet cancellations are made manifest. The Feynman loop integrals that appear have a graphical representation with only cubic vertices, and numerator factors that are quadratic in the loop momenta, rather than quartic as in the previous form. This quadratic behavior reflects cancellations beyond those required for finiteness, and matches the quadratic behavior of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. By direct integration we confirm that no additional cancellations remain in the N = 8 supergravity amplitude, thus demonstrating that the critical dimension in which the first ultraviolet divergence occurs at three loops is D{sub c} = 6. We also give the values of the three-loop divergences in D = 7, 9, 11. In addition, we present the explicitly color-dressed three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Johansson, H.; /UCLA; Roiban, R.; /Penn State U.

2008-09-03

49

Is Abdominal Muscle Activity Different from Lumbar Muscle Activity during Four-Point Kneeling?  

PubMed

Background: Stabilization exercises can improve the performance of trunk and back muscles, which are effective in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The four-point kneeling exercise is one of the most common types of stabilization exercises. This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate and compare the level of activation between abdominal and lumbar muscles in the different stages of the four-point kneeling exercise. Methods: The present study was conducted on 30 healthy women between 20 and 30 years old. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and multifidus muscles with an electromyography (EMG) device during the different stages of the four-point kneeling exercise. All the collected EMG data were normalized to the percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. The repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results: A comparison between mean muscle activation in right arm extension and left leg extension showed that left internal oblique and left transverse abdominis muscles produced greater activation during left leg extension (P<0.05). The comparison of mean muscle activation between right arm extension and the bird-dog position showed that, except for the right internal oblique, all the muscles produced higher activation in the bird-dog stage (P<0.05). In comparison to the bird-dog stage, the left multifidus showed high activation during left leg extension (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the activity of all the above-mentioned muscles during quadruped exercise can provide stability, coordination, and smoothness of movements. PMID:24293787

Pirouzi, Soraya; Emami, Farahnaz; Taghizadeh, Shohreh; Ghanbari, Ali

2013-12-01

50

Four-point vertices from the 2PI and 4PI effective actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a symmetric scalar theory with quartic coupling in two and three dimensions and compare the self-consistent four-point vertex obtained from the four-particle-irreducible effective action with the Bethe-Salpeter 4-vertex from the two-particle-irreducible effective action. At zero external momenta the two vertices agree well with each other when the coupling strength is small, but differences between them become more and more pronounced as the coupling strength is increased. We also study the momentum dependence of the two vertices and show that for certain momentum configurations they are almost identical but differ for general momentum arguments.

Carrington, M. E.; Fu, Wei-Jie; Mikula, P.; Pickering, D.

2014-01-01

51

Conformal partial wave expansions for N=4 chiral four-point functions  

SciTech Connect

The conformal partial wave analysis of four-point functions of 12-BPS operators belonging to the SU(4) [0,p,0] representation is undertaken for p=2,3,4. Using the results of N=4 superconformal Ward identities the contributions from protected short and semi-short multiplets are identified in terms of the free-field theory. In the large N limit, contributions corresponding to long multiplets with twist up to 2p-2 are absent. The anomalous dimensions for twist two singlet multiplets are found to order g{sup 4} and agree with other perturbative calculations. Results for twist four and six are also found.

Dolan, F.A. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: fad20@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Osborn, H. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ho@damtp.cam.ac.uk

2006-03-15

52

Evaluation of crystalline silicon solar cells by current-modulating four-point-probe method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current-modulating four-point-probe method (CMR) is proposed as a method to determine the conversion efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells. This technique was implemented based on the comprehensive consideration of multiple problems or factors that are present in crystalline Si wafers and the subsequent thermal processes during solar cell fabrication, rather than employ conventional lifetime mapping or diffusion length mapping. A single parameter measurement of Ith-Is from the CMR method reflects the effective resistivity or minority carriers of an entire wafer, to quickly characterize the quality or conversion efficiency of all kinds of crystalline Si.

Pan, Wugen; Fujiwara, Kozo; Uda, Satoshi

2013-07-01

53

Noncommutative GUT inspired theories and the UV finiteness of the fermionic four point functions  

SciTech Connect

We show at one loop and first order in the noncommutativity parameters that in any noncommutative GUT inspired theory the total contribution to the fermionic four point functions coming only from the interaction between fermions and gauge bosons, though not UV finite by power counting, is UV finite at the end of the day. We also show that this is at odds with the general case for noncommutative gauge theories - chiral or otherwise - defined by means of Seiberg-Witten maps that are the same - barring the gauge group representation - for left-handed spinors as for right-handed spinors. We believe that the results presented in this paper tilt the scales to the side of noncommutative GUTS and noncommutative GUT inspired versions of the standard model.

Martin, C. P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tamarit, C. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106-4030 (United States)

2009-09-15

54

Fast and direct measurements of the electrical properties of graphene using micro four-point probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of the electronic properties of graphene using a repositionable micro four-point probe system, which we show here to have unique advantages over measurements made on lithographically defined devices; namely speed, simplicity and lack of a need to pattern graphene. Measurements are performed in ambient, vacuum and controlled environmental conditions using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results are comparable to previous results for microcleaved graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO2). We observe a pronounced hysteresis of the charge neutrality point, dependent on the sweep rate of the gate voltage; and environmental measurements provide insight into the sensor application prospects of graphene. The method offers a fast, local and non-destructive technique for electronic measurements on graphene, which can be positioned freely on a graphene flake.

Klarskov, M. B.; Dam, H. F.; Petersen, D. H.; Hansen, T. M.; Löwenborg, A.; Booth, T. J.; Schmidt, M. S.; Lin, R.; Nielsen, P. F.; Bøggild, P.

2011-11-01

55

Modeling of transient two-component flow using a four-point implicit method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The four-point, centered implicit scheme that is extensively used in open channel flow simulation is shown to be applicable to rapid and slow pressure transient problems in conduits with nearly single phase and two-phase flows. It is only necessary to choose the proper weighting factor value, theta, of the Courant number. For rapid pressure transients such as waterhammer, the implicit method can yield reasonable results with limited numerical dispersion and attenuation if theta is only slightly greater than the critical value of 0.5. For slower pressure gradients in single and two-phase flows, reasonable numerical solutions may be achieved for Courant number values as high as 20.

Wiggert, D. C.; Martin, C. S.; Naghash, M.; Rao, P. V.

1983-01-01

56

Finite element analysis of resistivity measurement with four point probe in a diamond anvil cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using finite element analysis, we studied the steady current field distribution under the configuration of four point probe method for resistivity measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Based on the theoretical analysis, we made a correction to the formula by Valdes [L. B. Valdes, Proc IRE, 42, 420 (1958)]. The results show that our formula provides more accurate determination of sample resistivity, especially when the sample thickness is less than the probe spacing. We found that finite size of the electrode could lead to significant errors in resistivity measurement for semiconducting samples. We also found that the probe spacing is a key factor in the resistivity measurement accuracy for samples in DAC. When the sample thickness t is close to the probe spacing s, the error becomes larger and reaches a maximum.

Huang, Xiaowei; Gao, Chunxiao; Li, Ming; He, Chunyuan; Hao, Aimin; Zhang, Dongmei; Yu, Cuiling; Wang, Yue; Sang, Chong; Cui, Xiaoyan; Zou, Guangtian

2007-03-01

57

Four-point correlators with higher weight superconformal primaries in the AdS/CFT correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four-point correlation function of two 1/2 BPS primaries of conformal weight ? = 2 and two 1/2-BPS primaries of conformal weight ? = n is calculated in the large ?, large N limit. These operators are dual to Kaluza-Klein supergravity fields sk with masses m2 = -4 and m2 = n(n-4). Given that the existing formalism for evaluating sums of products of SO(6) tensors that determine the effective couplings is only suitable for primaries with small conformal dimensions, we make us of an alternative formalism based on harmonic polynomials introduced by Dolan and Osborn. We then show that the supergravity lagrangian relevant to the computation is of ?-model type (i.e., the four-derivative couplings vanish) and that the final result for the connected amplitude splits into a free and an interacting part, as expected on general grounds.

Uruchurtu, Linda I.

2009-03-01

58

Analytical calculation of four-point correlations for a simple model of cages involving numerous particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of a one-dimensional system of Brownian particles with short-range repulsive interaction (diameter ?) is studied with a liquid-theoretical approach. The mean square displacement, the two-particle displacement correlation, and the overlap-density-based generalized susceptibility are calculated analytically by way of the Lagrangian correlation of the interparticulate space, instead of the Eulerian correlation of density that is commonly used in the standard mode-coupling theory. In regard to the mean square displacement, the linear analysis reproduces the established result on the asymptotic subdiffusive behavior of the system. A finite-time correction is given by incorporating the effect of entropic nonlinearity with a Lagrangian version of mode-coupling theory. The notorious difficulty in derivation of the mode-coupling theory concerning violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is found to disappear by virtue of the Lagrangian description. The Lagrangian description also facilitates analytical calculation of four-point correlations in the space-time, such as the two-particle displacement correlation. The two-particle displacement correlation, which is asymptotically self-similar in the space-time, illustrates how the cage effect confines each particle within a short radius on one hand and creates collective motion of numerous particles on the other hand. As the time elapses, the correlation length grows unlimitedly, and the generalized susceptibility based on the overlap density converges to a finite value which is an increasing function of the density. The distribution function behind these dynamical four-point correlations and its extension to three-dimensional cases, respecting the tensorial character of the two-particle displacement correlation, are also discussed.

Takeshi, Ooshida; Goto, Susumu; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Nakahara, Akio; Otsuki, Michio

2013-12-01

59

Complete four-loop four-point amplitude in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the complete four-loop four-point amplitude in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, for a general gauge group and general D-dimensional covariant kinematics, and including all nonplanar contributions. We use the method of maximal cuts—an efficient application of the unitarity method—to construct the result in terms of 50 four-loop integrals. We give graphical rules, valid in D dimensions, for obtaining various nonplanar contributions from previously-determined terms. We examine the ultraviolet behavior of the amplitude near D=11/2. The nonplanar terms are as well-behaved in the ultraviolet as the planar terms. However, in the color decomposition of the three- and four-loop amplitude for an SU(Nc) gauge group, the coefficients of the double-trace terms are better behaved in the ultraviolet than are the single-trace terms. The results from this paper were an important step toward obtaining the corresponding amplitude in N=8 supergravity, which confirmed the existence of cancellations beyond those needed for ultraviolet finiteness at four loops in four dimensions. Evaluation of the loop integrals near D=4 would permit tests of recent conjectures and results concerning the infrared behavior of four-dimensional massless gauge theory.

Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Dixon, L. J.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.

2010-12-01

60

In situ electron microscopy four-point electromechanical characterization of freestanding metallic and semiconducting nanowires.  

PubMed

Electromechanical coupling is a topic of current interest in nanostructures, such as metallic and semiconducting nanowires, for a variety of electronic and energy applications. As a result, the determination of structure-property relations that dictate the electromechanical coupling requires the development of experimental tools to perform accurate metrology. Here, a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) that allows integrated four-point, uniaxial, electromechanical measurements of freestanding nanostructures in-situ electron microscopy, is reported. Coupled mechanical and electrical measurements are carried out for penta-twinned silver nanowires, their resistance is identified as a function of strain, and it is shown that resistance variations are the result of nanowire dimensional changes. Furthermore, in situ SEM piezoresistive measurements on n-type, [111]-oriented silicon nanowires up to unprecedented levels of ?7% strain are demonstrated. The piezoresistance coefficients are found to be similar to bulk values. For both metallic and semiconducting nanowires, variations of the contact resistance as strain is applied are observed. These variations must be considered in the interpretation of future two-point electromechanical measurements. PMID:24115555

Bernal, Rodrigo A; Filleter, Tobin; Connell, Justin G; Sohn, Kwonnam; Huang, Jiaxing; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Espinosa, Horacio D

2014-02-01

61

Influence of four-point bending fatigue on the residual stress state of a pressure-rolled, particulate-reinforced metal matrix composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the influence of fatigue on the residual stress state of a pressure-rolled metal matrix composite has been investigated. The three-dimensional stress state measured in both matrix and reinforcement has been determined by X-ray diffraction. To estimate the efficiency of the pressure rolling treatment, Wöhler curves were derived for both the heat-treated (to maximum hardness) (T6) and further

Eric Hanus; Torsten Ericsson

1995-01-01

62

Existence of solutions for sequential fractional differential equations with four-point nonlocal fractional integral boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the existence of solutions for a nonlinear boundary value problem of sequential fractional differential equations with four-point nonlocal Riemann-Liouville type fractional integral boundary conditions. We apply Banach's contraction principle and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem to establish the existence of results. Some illustrative examples are also presented.

Ahmad, Bashir; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Al-Hutami, Hana

2013-10-01

63

Apparatus for measuring fluid flow  

DOEpatents

Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

Smith, Jack E. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, David G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

64

A Preliminary Study of Bending Stiffness Alteration in Shape Changing Nitinol Plates for Fracture Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitinol is a promising biomaterial based on its remarkable shape changing capacity, biocompatibility, and resilient mechanical\\u000a properties. Until now, very limited applications have been tested for the use of Nitinol plates for fracture fixation in orthopaedics.\\u000a Newly designed fracture-fixation plates are tested by four-point bending to examine a change in equivalent bending stiffness\\u000a before and after shape transformation. The goal

Gavin Olender; Ronny Pfeifer; Christian W. Müller; Thomas Gösling; Stephan Barcikowski; Christof Hurschler

2011-01-01

65

Experimental and analytical study of three point bend specimen and throughwall circumferentially cracked straight pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferability of the specimen J–R\\/J–T curve to the component level is an important issue in the field of fracture mechanics. Towards this goal, fracture experiments have been carried out on three point bend (TPB) specimen and throughwall circumferentially cracked straight pipe of 219 and 406mm outer diameter under four point bending load. The pipe material is SA333Gr6 and TPB specimens

J Chattopadhyay; B. K Dutta; H. S Kushwaha

2000-01-01

66

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

67

Worldsheet two- and four-point functions at one loop in AdS3/CFT2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we study worldsheet two- and four-point functions at the one-loop level for the type IIA superstring in AdS3×S3×M4. We first address the regularization ambiguity that appears in the dispersion relation derived from integrability. We demonstrate that only the regulator treating all fields equally respects worldsheet supersymmetry. This is done in an implicit regularization scheme where all divergent terms are collected into master tadpole-type integrals. We then investigate one-loop two-body scattering on the string worldsheet and verify that a recent proposal for the dressing phase reproduces explicit worldsheet computations. All calculations are done in a near-BMN like expansion of the Green-Schwarz superstring equipped with quartic fermions.

Sundin, Per

2014-06-01

68

Thermal conductivity measurements of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires by the four-point-probe 3-? technique at low temperatures.  

PubMed

We have successfully investigated the thermal conductivity (?) of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires (BiNWs) with [110] growth direction, via a straightforward and powerful four-point-probe 3-? technique in the temperature range 10-280 K. The BiNWs, which are well known as the most effective material for thermoelectric (TE) device applications, were synthesized by compressive thermal stress on a SiO2/Si substrate at 250-270 °C for 10 h. To understand the thermal transport mechanism of BiNWs, we present three kinds of experimental technique as follows, (i) a manipulation of a single BiNW by an Omni-probe in a focused ion beam (FIB), (ii) a suspended bridge structure integrating a four-point-probe chip by micro-fabrication to minimize the thermal loss to the substrate, and (iii) a simple 3-? technique system setup. We found that the thermal transport of BiNWs is highly affected by boundary scattering of both phonons and electrons as the dominant heat carriers. The thermal conductivity of a single BiNW (d ~ 123 nm) was estimated to be ~2.9 W m(-1) K(-1) at 280 K, implying lower values compared to the thermal conductivity of the bulk (~11 W m(-1) K(-1) at 280 K). It was noted that this reduction in the thermal conductivity of the BiNWs could be due to strongly enhanced phonon-boundary scattering at the surface of the BiNWs. Furthermore, we present temperature-dependent (10-280 K) thermal conductivity of the BiNWs using the 3-? technique. PMID:23575254

Lee, Seung-Yong; Kim, Gil-Sung; Lee, Mi-Ri; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Lee, Sang-Kwon

2013-05-10

69

Micromachine friction test apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

70

Backed Bending Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bending actuators of a proposed type would partly resemble ordinary bending actuators, but would include simple additional components that would render them capable of exerting large forces at small displacements. Like an ordinary bending actuator, an actuator according to the proposal would include a thin rectangular strip that would comprise two bonded layers (possibly made of electroactive polymers with surface electrodes) and would be clamped at one end in the manner of a cantilever beam. Unlike an ordinary bending actuator, the proposed device would include a rigid flat backplate that would support part of the bending strip against backward displacement; because of this feature, the proposed device is called a backed bending actuator. When an ordinary bending actuator is inactive, the strip typically lies flat, the tip displacement is zero, and the force exerted by the tip is zero. During activation, the tip exerts a transverse force and undergoes a bending displacement that results from the expansion or contraction of one or more of the bonded layers. The tip force of an ordinary bending actuator is inversely proportional to its length; hence, a long actuator tends to be weak. The figure depicts an ordinary bending actuator and the corresponding backed bending actuator. The bending, the tip displacement (d(sub t)), and the tip force (F) exerted by the ordinary bending actuator are well approximated by the conventional equations for the loading and deflection of a cantilever beam subject to a bending moment which, in this case, is applied by the differential expansion or contraction of the bonded layers. The bending, displacement, and tip force of the backed bending actuator are calculated similarly, except that it is necessary to account for the fact that the force F(sub b) that resists the displacement of the tip could be sufficient to push part of the strip against the backplate; in such a condition, the cantilever beam would be effectively shortened (length L*) and thereby stiffened and, hence, made capable of exerting a greater tip force for a given degree of differential expansion or contraction of the bonded layers. Taking all of these effects into account, the cantilever-beam equations show that F(sub b) would be approximately inversely proportional to d(sup 1/2) for d less than a calculable amount, denoted the transition displacement (dt). For d less than d(sub t), part of the strip would be pressed against the backplate. Therefore, the force F(sub b) would be very large for d at or near zero and would decrease as d increases toward d(sub t). At d greater than d(sub t), none of the strip would be pressed against the backplate and F(sub b) would equal the tip force F of the corresponding ordinary bending actuator. The advantage of the proposal is that a backed bending actuator could be made long to obtain large displacement when it encountered little resistance but it could also exert a large zero-displacement force, so that it could more easily start the movement of a large mass, throw a mechanical switch, or release a stuck mechanism.

Costen, Robert C.; Su, Ji

2004-01-01

71

Vibration damping method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Barney, Patrick S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parker, Gordon G. (Hougton, MI); Smith, David A. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01

72

Vibration damping method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof. 38 figs.

Redmond, J.M.; Barney, P.S.; Parker, G.G.; Smith, D.A.

1999-06-22

73

Nanometer-Scale Four-Point Probe Resistance Measurements of Individual Nanowires by Four-Tip STM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review of our recent results about transport properties of nanowires measured by a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) installed with metal-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) tips. We first present our custom-made apparatus (with UNISOKU Co.) as well as CNT tips, and then some case studies with two different samples, Co-silicide nanowires self-assembled on Si(110) surface and Cu nanowires made by damascene processes used in LSI industry. It is shown that the four-tip STM with CNT tips is versatile and powerful for measuring the conductivity of individual nanostructures.

Hasegawa, S.; Hirahara, T.; Kitaoka, Y.; Yoshimoto, S.; Tono, T.; Ohba, T.

74

Analysis of Stresses in Aluminum Particles Embedded Inside Unidirectional and Woven Graphite\\/Polyimide Composites Subjected to Large Bending Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of large bending loads on strains and stresses inside aluminum particles embedded in unidirectional and woven eight harness satin (8HS) graphite\\/PMR-15 composites has been examined. The stresses and strains in the particles were determined by performing X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. It has been shown in this work that when the composites are subjected to large four-point bending loads,

B. Benedikt; M. Kumosa; D. Armentrout; L. Kumosa; J. K. SUTTER; P. K. PREDECKI

2004-01-01

75

Collapse of Composite Cylinders in Bending  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the results of a numerical and experimental study of the collapse behavior of small-scale graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells subjected to overall bending loads, and in one case, an initial internal pressure. Shells with quasi-isotropic and orthotropic inplane stiffness properties are studied. Numerical results from geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses and results from experiments using a specially-built apparatus indicate that extensive stable postbuckling responses occur. Orthotropy influences the buckling values and the extent to which the bending moment decreases after buckling. Material damage is observed to initiate in the vicinity of the nodal lines of the postbuckled deflection patterns. Numerical results indicate that the magnitudes of the shear stress resultants are greatest in these nodal regions. Failure of the internally pressurized cylinder is catastrophic.

Fuchs, Hannes P.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Hyer, Michael W.

1998-01-01

76

Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

Ellis, J. M.

1986-01-01

77

Occipital bending in depression.  

PubMed

There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. PMID:24740986

Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

2014-06-01

78

Centrifuge Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus for operating a continuous flow blood separation centrifuge are provided. The hematocrit of the entrant whole blood is continuously maintained at an optimum constant value by the addition of plasma to the entrant blood. The hematocr...

W. K. Sartory J. W. Eveleigh

1976-01-01

79

Measuring graphene's bending stiffness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene's unusual combination of in-plane strength and out-of-plane flexibility makes it promising for mechanical applications. A key value is the bending stiffness, which microscopic theories and measurements of phonon modes in graphite put at ?0=1.2 eV.^1 However, theories of the effects of thermal fluctuations in 2D membranes predict that the bending stiffness at longer length scales could be orders of magnitude higher.^2,3 This macroscopic value has not been measured. Here we present the first direct measurement of monolayer graphene's bending stiffness, made by mechanically lifting graphene off a surface in a liquid and observing both motion induced by thermal fluctuations and the deflection caused by gravity's effect on added weights. These experiments reveal a value ?eff=12 keV at room temperature --- four orders of magnitude higher than ?0. These results closely match theoretical predictions of the effects of thermally-induced fluctuations which effectively thicken the membrane, dramatically increasing its bending stiffness at macroscopic length scales. [1] A. Fasolino et al., Nat. Mater. (2007) [2] D. R. Nelson and L. Peliti, J Physique (1987) [3] F. L. Braghin and N. Hasselmann, Phys Rev B (2010)

Blees, Melina; Barnard, Arthur; Roberts, Samantha; Kevek, Joshua W.; Ruyack, Alexander; Wardini, Jenna; Ong, Peijie; Zaretski, Aliaksandr; Wang, Siping; McEuen, Paul L.

2013-03-01

80

Palmetto Bend Project, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction is proposed of the Palmetto Bend Dam on the Navidad River, Edna, Texas. The project will change land use on about 18,400 acres, of which 11,300 acres will be inundated. Nine families will be displaced. The project will change the fresh-water ...

1972-01-01

81

Control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

82

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

83

ConcepTest: Pencil Bend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A pencil will bend if you push down on both ends and push up in the middle. If you stop pushing, the pencil will return to its original shape. The bending is an example of ___________ behavior. a) elastic b) ...

84

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1980-01-01

85

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

86

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

87

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments and apparatus to: (1) allow astronomy students to test resolution limit of their eyes at several wavelengths; (2) analyze laser mode phases by interferometry; (3) demonstrate a Cartesian diver with an overhead projector; and (4) generate conical beams of light for smoke-chamber demonstrations. (JN)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1981-01-01

88

Doctoring Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related to a multiple-bladed doctor apparatus for doctoring a product from a rotating drum or a moving belt. In order to be economically feasible, a vacuum belt drying process for producing milk powder must be operated continuously for ma...

W. K. Heiland

1973-01-01

89

Thermoforming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

Perryman, L.M.

1984-07-31

90

Sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-22

91

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

92

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four short articles on: a power supply for the measurement of the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron; a modified centripetal force apparatus; a black box electronic unknown for the scientific instruments laboratory; and a simple scaling model for biological systems. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1977-01-01

93

Next-next-to-extremal four point functions of mathcal{N} = 4 1/2-BPS operators in the AdS/CFT correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four point functions of general mathcal{N} = 4 1/2-BPSprimaryfields,satisfyingthe next-next-to-extremality condition ?1 + ?2 + ?3 - ?4 = 4 are studied at large N and strong coupling. We apply new techniques to evaluate the effective couplings in supergravity, and confirm that the four derivative couplings arising in the five-dimensional supergravity vanish on-shell. We then show that the four point amplitude resulting from supergravity naturally splits into a "free" and an interactive part which resembles an effective quartic interaction. The precise structure agrees with superconformal symmetry and supports the conjecture formulated by Dolan, Osborn and Nirschl regarding the strongly coupled form off our point correlators of chiral primary operators. We also evaluate the amplitude in large N free field SYM theory and discuss the results in the context of the correspondence.

Uruchurtu, Linda I.

2011-08-01

94

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

1989-07-18

95

Hyperthermia apparatus  

DOEpatents

A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

96

Thymine dimers bend DNA.  

PubMed Central

A 32-base-pair DNA fragment containing a thymine photodimer was constructed and ligated head-to-tail to obtain multimers of this sequence in which thymine dimers were in phase with the helix screw axis (approximately equal to 3 turns apart). The ligation products were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative electron microscopy. These analyses show that the thymine photodimer introduces a bend of approximately equal to 30 degrees in DNA, which causes anomalously slow migration of DNA fragments in polyacrylamide gels and facilitates the formation of small covalent circles. Repair of thymine dimers by DNA photolyase abolishes the anomalous migration. Images

Husain, I; Griffith, J; Sancar, A

1988-01-01

97

Bending the Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saturn's rings appear strangely warped in this view of the rings seen through the upper Saturn atmosphere.

The atmosphere acts like a lens in refracting (bending) the light reflected from the rings. As the rings pass behind the overexposed limb (edge) of Saturn as seen from Cassini, the ring structure appears to curve downward due to the bending of the light as it passes through the upper atmosphere.

This image was obtained using a near-infrared filter. The filter samples a wavelength where methane gas does not absorb light, thus making the far-off rings visible through the upper atmosphere.

By comparing this image to similar ones taken using filters where methane gas does absorb, scientists can estimate the vertical profile of haze and the abundance of methane in Saturn's high atmosphere.

The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on April 14, 2005, through a filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 938 nanometers and at a distance of approximately 197,000 kilometers (123,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 820 meters (2,680 feet) per pixel.

2005-01-01

98

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

99

Monitoring apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for monitoring the temperature inside a refrigeration unit that experiences periodic defrost cycles of a known duration, the apparatus including a temperature sensor located within the refrigeration unit for providing an electrical output signal indicative of the temperature level inside the unit, a comparator means for comparing the sensor output signal level with a preset signal level and providing a first output signal when the sensed temperature level is above the preset level and a second output signal when the sensed temperature level is below the preset level, a timer means connected to the output of the comparator means which is enabled when the comparator means produces the first output signal whereby the timer means generates a continuous chain of timing pulses and is disabled when the comparator means produces the second output signal, counter means being coupled to the timer means for counting the number of pulses generated by the timer means and producing a counter output signal when a preset count is reached. The duration of the counter means cycle is greater than the duration of the defrost cycle, and an audio means coupled to the output of both the timer means and the counter means. An audio transducer means provides a first audible alert signal any time the timer means is enabled and a second audible alarm signal when the counter means reaches the preset count.

Adams, W.H.

1986-12-23

100

Bend propagation drives central pair rotation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella.  

PubMed

Regulation of motile 9+2 cilia and flagella depends on interactions between radial spokes and a central pair apparatus. Although the central pair rotates during bend propagation in flagella of many organisms and rotation correlates with a twisted central pair structure, propulsive forces for central pair rotation and twist are unknown. Here we compared central pair conformation in straight, quiescent flagella to that in actively beating flagella using wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and mutants that lack radial spoke heads. Twists occur in quiescent flagella in both the presence and absence of spoke heads, indicating that spoke--central pair interactions are not needed to generate torque for twisting. Central pair orientation in propagating bends was also similar in wild type and spoke head mutant strains, thus orientation is a passive response to bend formation. These results indicate that bend propagation drives central pair rotation and suggest that dynein regulation by central pair--radial spoke interactions involves passive central pair reorientation to changes in bend plane. PMID:15337779

Mitchell, David R; Nakatsugawa, Masako

2004-08-30

101

Four point function of R-currents in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the Regge limit at weak coupling  

SciTech Connect

We compute, in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, the four point correlation function of R-currents in the Regge limit in the leading logarithmic approximation at weak coupling. Such a correlator is the closest analog to photon-photon scattering within QCD, and there is a well-defined procedure to perform the analogous computation at strong coupling via the AdS/CFT correspondence. The main result of this paper is, on the gauge theory side, the proof of Regge factorization and the explicit computation of the R-current impact factors.

Bartels, J.; Mischler, A.-M.; Salvadore, M. [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

2008-07-01

102

A computer program to calculate the resistivity of a thin film deposited on a conductive substrate from four-point probe measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of FORTRAN-77 programs is described which correct for the effect of a conducting substrate when a linear four-point probe is used to measure the resistivity of a thin film. The resistivity of the film is given in terms of the thicknesses of the film and substrate, the known resistivity of the substrate, and the measured delta V/I. A full development is given as well as a complete description of the operation of the programs. The programs themselves can be obtained through COSMIC, and are identified as LEW No. 14381.

Oberle, L. G.; Fralick, G. C.

1986-01-01

103

A comparative study of the mechanical properties of TiN coatings using the non-destructive surface acoustic wave method, scratch test and four-point bending test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an interesting non-destructive tool for thin film characterization. Measuring the surface wave phase velocity as a function of frequency enables the Young's modulus of the film material to be determined. In addition, the thickness and\\/or density of the film can be determined simultaneously, if the film thickness is larger than 1 urn and the bandwidth

H. Ollendorf; D. Schneider; Th. Schwarz; G. Kirchhoff; A. Mucha

1996-01-01

104

Transport apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Transport apparatus is disclosed comprising a drive unit and a slave unit movable in unison along a predetermined path. The slave unit is disposed beneath the drive unit to move along a tunnel with work stations located at intervals along the tunnel. The drive unit carries electromagnets which when energized levitate the slave unit within the tunnel, controls being provided to maintain the slave unit at a desired position relative to the drive unit. The roof of the tunnel is formed from a magnetically transparent material, such as glass. The slave unit is thereby physically isolated from the drive unit. As a result the drive unit is shielded from any hostile environment within the tunnel and resulting, for example, from the transport of radioactive or toxic materials by the slave units. This simplifies repair and maintenance operations on the drive unit.

Moody, B.R.; Lowe, D.B.; Lowe, D.W.

1983-07-12

105

Gameboard apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A gameboard apparatus picturing an advanced, economic, technological civilization throughout the solar system and beyond, a path of spaceships containing many contingency circumstances interspersed between man-made, unpurchaseable property containing many contingency circumstance, and eleven major types of purchaseable man-made properties containing many contingency circumstances. The indicia on color-coded leases describes the internal, external, vertical and horizontal development of real estate in over thirty ways, four decks of cards, Speed of Light Years Utility Service Card and Speed of Light Years Ticket Tokens color coded to work in conjunction with the path of spaceships which are path of the continuous open route with a starting point from Earth, the entire game being described by a set of rules.

1990-08-07

106

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

107

Acoustic emission characterization of steel fibre reinforced concrete during bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic emission (AE) behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete is studied in this paper. The experiments were conducted in four-point bending with concurrent monitoring of AE signals. The sensors used, were of broadband response in order to capture a wide range of fracturing phenomena. The results indicate that AE parameters undergo significant changes much earlier than the final fracture of the specimens, even if the AE hit rate seems approximately constant. Specifically, the Ib-value which takes into account the amplitude distribution of the recent AE hits decreases when the load reaches about 60-70 % of its maximum value. Additionally, the average frequency of the signals decreases abruptly when a fracture incident occurs, indicating that matrix cracking events produce higher frequencies than fibre pull-out events. It is concluded that proper study of AE parameters enables the characterization of structural health of large structures in cases where remote monitoring is applied.

Aggelis, D. G.; Soulioti, D. V.; Sapouridis, N.; Barkoula, N. M.; Paipetis, A. S.; Matikas, T. E.

2010-03-01

108

Sheet Bending using Soft Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most dominant output parameter, the product angle. The numerical analyses are used for the support of the experimental results.

Sinke, J.

2011-05-01

109

Ultrasonic vibration bending of metal plate specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic vibration bending of a thin metal plate using a 27-kHz-vibration V-type bending die is studied. The 27-kHz vibration die consists of a longitudinal-to-longitudinal vibration-direction converter, four bolt-clamped Langevin type PZT transducers of 50-mm diameter, and four stepped horns. The bending die vibrates vertically to the bending punch and specimen plate. The bending angle is about 90°. Bending-metal specimens used

J. Tsujino; T. Ueoka; H. Itoh

1989-01-01

110

Windmill apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A windmill apparatus is described comprising: a frame body structure adapted to be positioned on a flat top surface of a construction such as a building; a main shaft vertically fixed in a middle position of the frame body structure; a first main-shaft sleeve rotatably coupled with a lower portion of the main shaft for being driven to rotate around the main shaft; a belt pulley fixedly connected at a lower end of the first main-shaft sleeve for providing a driving force along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a rotating means having a revolving arrangement vertically disposed therein rotatably installed around the first main-shaft sleeve within a lower open portion of the frame body structure for being driven to rotate by wind along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a second main-shaft sleeve with a first gear fixed at a lower end thereof movably connected at an upper portion of the main shaft for providing gear transmission therefrom; a direction control means installed within an upper closed portion of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the rotating means through the second main-shaft sleeve for automatically adjusting the revolving arrangement according to wind direction; and a wind direction indicating means horizontally disposed on top of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the direction control means so as to relay wind direction change whereby, wind force can be effectively utilized with a simplified structure.

Chen, M.J.; Hwang, L.M.

1987-11-17

111

Modified split Hopkinson pressure bars for dynamic bending and shear tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic failures of concrete beams occur in different modes (bend, shear or coupled mode, ). In order to reproduce these different failure modes on a laboratory scale, an original apparatus, based on the split Hopkinson pressure bars principle is presented. We introduce the experimental setup, the way it works, the first experimental results we obtained with microconcrete test specimens

A. Pignon; G. Mathieu; S. Richomme; J. M. Margot; F. Delvare

2006-01-01

112

Flexi-Bend Corrugated Waveguide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates generally to the field of waveguides and more specifically to the field of waveguides suitable for providing low loss versatile bending of electromagnetic energy in the TE01 circular waveguide mode without generating unwanted...

J. M. Devan

1979-01-01

113

Bending stiffness of composite plates with delamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-ply GFRP circular plates have been impacted repeatedly at increasing input energies. The global bending stiffness of each plate was measured before and after each impact through quasi-static bending tests. The effects of local thickening as well as matrix cracking and delamination on global bending stiffness have been discussed. Approximate analytical solutions for bending of damaged and undamaged plates under

J. P. Hou; G. Jeronimidis

2000-01-01

114

Spontaneous Rupture Processes on a Bending Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

We simulated spontaneous rupture processes on vertical bending faults, using a 3-D finite-difference method. Since shear and normal stresses on the fault depend upon its angle to the principal stresses, rupture velocity and slip ahead of a bending point vary with strike change. Moreover, slip on a bending fault is less than one on a flat fault, since a bending

Y. Kase; S. M. Day

2004-01-01

115

Interpretation of bend strength increase of graphite by the couple-stress theory. [HTGR  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a continued evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress constitutive theory to graphite. The evaluation is performed by examining four-point bend and uniaxial tensile data of various sized cylindrical and square specimens for three grades of graphites. These data are superficially inconsistent and, usually, at variance with the predictions of classical theories. Nevertheless, this evaluation finds that they can be consistently interpreted by the couple-stress theory. This is compatible with results of an initial evaluation that considered one size of cylindrical specimen for H-451 graphite.

Tang, P.Y.

1981-05-01

116

Timing Apparatuur (Timing Apparatus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The apparatus required for bundle-synchronous timing is described. Bundle-synchronous timing signals are used along accelerators and in experimental stations. The apparatus consists of a trigger modulator, a trigger detector, a delayed pulse generator, an...

P. Timmer

1985-01-01

117

Compaction managed mirror bend achromat  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA) [Yorktown, VA

2005-10-18

118

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of articles from "The Physics Teacher" that deal with laboratory/demonstration apparatus and includes descriptions of new apparatus as well as discussions of innovative uses of standard, well-known equipment. Emphasis is on apparatus that is useful primarily in the introductory physics course.

2007-06-08

119

Apparatus for superheating steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for superheating steam. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the apparatus is provided with two banks of inclined tubes extending upwardly from an outlet header to respective inlet headers. The banks of tubes are disposed in the flow path of main steam through the apparatus and provide a flow of vapor for adding superheat to the main

Schluderberg

1985-01-01

120

Clay Mobility, Portuguese Bend, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The south slope of Palos Verdes Hills west of San Pedro, California, in the area known as Portuguese Bend contains an unusual landslide. The slide movement takes place in members of the Monterey Shale which contain bentonite; particularly the Portuguese T...

P. F. Kerr I. M. Drew

1967-01-01

121

Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

Krauss, Alan R. (24461 W. Blvd. De John, Naperville, IL 60564) [24461 W. Blvd. De John, Naperville, IL 60564

1999-01-01

122

Measuring the bending of asymmetric planar EAP structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric characterization of low-voltage dielectric electro-active polymer (EAP) structures, comprised of nanometer thickness but areas of square centimeters, for applications such as artificial sphincters requires methods with nanometer precision. Direct optical detection is usually restricted to sub-micrometer resolution because of the wavelength of the light applied. Therefore, we propose to take advantage of the cantilever bending system with optical readout revealing a sub-micrometer resolution at the deflection of the free end. It is demonstrated that this approach allows us to detect bending of rather conventional planar asymmetric, dielectric EAP-structures applying voltages well below 10 V. For this purpose, we built 100 ?m-thin silicone films between 50 nm-thin silver layers on a 25 ?m-thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate. The increase of the applied voltage in steps of 50 V until 1 kV resulted in a cantilever bending that exhibits only in restricted ranges the expected square dependence. The mean laser beam displacement on the detector corresponded to 6 nm per volt. The apparatus will therefore become a powerful mean to analyze and thereby improve low-voltage dielectric EAP-structures to realize nanometer-thin layers for stack actuators to be incorporated into artificial sphincter systems for treating severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

Weiss, Florian M.; Zhao, Xue; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Urwyler, Prabitha; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert

2013-04-01

123

Safe bending of boron/aluminum sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost procedure utilizing aluminum backing sheets protects boron/aluminum sheet from cracking during bending. Process utilizes inexpensive universal-brake bending dies rather than special hydroforming dies.

Liskay, G. G.; Yoshino, S. Y.

1980-01-01

124

Bending stiffness of catheters and guide wires.  

PubMed

An important property of catheters and guide wires to assess their pushability behavior is their bending stiffness. To measure bending stiffness, a new bending module with a new clamping device was developed. This module can easily be mounted in commercially available tensile testing equipment, where bending force and deflection due to the bending force can be measured. To achieve high accuracy for the bending stiffness, the bending distance has to be measured with even higher accuracy by using a laser-scan micrometer. Measurement results of angiographic catheters and guide wires were presented and discussed. The bending stiffness shows a significant dependence on the angle of the test specimen's rotation around its length axis. PMID:12451800

Wünsche, P; Werner, C; Bloss, P

2002-01-01

125

Least Squares Best Fit Method for the Three Parameter Weibull Distribution: Analysis of Tensile and Bend Specimens with Volume or Surface Flaw Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Material characterization parameters obtained from naturally flawed specimens are necessary for reliability evaluation of non-deterministic advanced ceramic structural components. The least squares best fit method is applied to the three parameter uniaxial Weibull model to obtain the material parameters from experimental tests on volume or surface flawed specimens subjected to pure tension, pure bending, four point or three point loading. Several illustrative example problems are provided.

Gross, Bernard

1996-01-01

126

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, M.J.; Brown, R.A.

2000-04-25

127

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

128

Bending waves in crumpled sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crumpled paper has recently emerged as a model for disordered media. Here we use wave propagation to probe aluminum foils crumpled into balls made by hand or into cylinders obtained by confinement in a container. Surprisingly, the raw dispersion relations appear to differ from sample to sample. They correspond to bending waves that follow an effective path that is shorter than the distance between the input and output points. This can be interpreted in terms of two modes of propagation: slow bending waves and a fast mode whose possible origin is discussed. In addition, the effective paths behave differently in spheres and in cylinders. These results enable the characterization of the sample structure and point toward the geometric rigidity of the configurations.

Seizilles, G.; Bayart, E.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Boudaoud, A.

2011-12-01

129

Putting River Bend to rest  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews recovery plan for Gulf States Utility and the need to resolve the unsettled rate treatment of the utilities investment in River Bend. The topics discussed include the structure of the plan, the logic of the plan, the financial impact of the plan, an assessment of the plan, and an evaluation of the impact to rates of this plan versus a cost-based rate structure.

Studness, C.M.

1991-08-15

130

An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters.  

PubMed

We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 °C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 °C to 250 °C. PMID:23387668

Kallaher, R L; Latham, C A; Sharifi, F

2013-01-01

131

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

132

9. VIEW OF SERVICE ENTRANCE TO NORTH BEND RANGER STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF SERVICE ENTRANCE TO NORTH BEND RANGER STATION LOOKING APPROXIMATELY EAST. BUILDING NO. 2230 IS IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. - North Bend Ranger Station, Building 2230, 42404 Southeast North Bend Way, North Bend, King County, WA

133

10. VIEW OF NORTH BEND RANGER STATION REAR PARKING AREA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF NORTH BEND RANGER STATION REAR PARKING AREA LOOKING APPROXIMATELY NORTHWEST. BUILDING NO. 2230 IS IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND. - North Bend Ranger Station, Building 2230, 42404 Southeast North Bend Way, North Bend, King County, WA

134

Pure Bending Loss in Nanowire Waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major concerns in designing waveguides is unavoidable bending that causes energy loss due to the distortion of modal field. Bending loss in nanowire waveguides has been studied while including substrate coupling loss. Pure bending loss unaffected by substrate coupling in nanowire waveguides still remains unclear. A challenging task in study of pure bending loss is to introduce bending on nanowire waveguides in the air and to tune the radius of bending. We report the characterization of pure bending loss in nanowire waveguides by bending a vertical freestanding nanowire in the air. Specifically, vertical freestanding active nanowire waveguides of MEH-PPV have been fabricated by our meniscus-guided method. To characterize pure bending loss, desired bending was remotely introduced by applying electrostatic force near the top end of the waveguide. Finite-difference-time-domain simulation was performed to confirm the experimental result. We show that the bending losses, by conventional experimental approaches of nanowires rested on substrates, were strongly overestimated attributed to the coupling of the enhanced evanescent field to the substrate. We suggest that our system could be also utilized for studying various intrinsic properties of nanowire waveguides.

Pyo, Jaeyeon; Kim, Ji Tae; Yoo, Jewon; Je, Jung Ho

2013-03-01

135

Modified split Hopkinson pressure bars for dynamic bending and shear tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic failures of concrete beams occur in different modes (bend, shear or coupled mode,??). In order to reproduce these different failure modes on a laboratory scale, an original apparatus, based on the split Hopkinson pressure bars principle is presented. We introduce the experimental setup, the way it works, the first experimental results we obtained with microconcrete test specimens as well as our first attempt to analyse the recorded signals.

Pignon, A.; Mathieu, G.; Richomme, S.; Margot, J. M.; Delvare, F.

2006-08-01

136

A continuous pure moment loading apparatus for biomechanical testing of multi-segment spine specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described that enables the application of continuous pure moment loads to multi-segment spine specimens. This loading apparatus allows continuous cycling of the spine between specified flexion and extension (or right and left lateral bending) maximum load endpoints. Using a six-degree-of-freedom load cell and three-dimensional optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry, characteristic displacement versus load hysteresis curves can be generated and analyzed

John T Lysack; James P Dickey; Genevieve A Dumas; David Yen

2000-01-01

137

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

138

Apparatus for handling ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ash-handling apparatus is described comprising: a container having a substantially planar surface formed therein, the container being filled with liquid for receiving ash when the apparatus is in operative condition; an elongate paddle element for sweeping across the planar surface thereby collecting such ash along the front thereof, the paddle element being pivotally mounted on the planar surface; means

D. W. Pressnall; M. R. Keller; R. E. Schwartz

1989-01-01

139

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1993-12-28

140

Bearing Lubrication Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent described apparatus for lubrication of anti-friction bearings which uses the oil bleeding characteristics of grease. The apparatus consists of a housing for attachment to a bearing and a grease reservoir wherein the grease is retained in a slop...

K. H. Warren

1970-01-01

141

Solar energy apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy apparatus for gathering and transmitting solar radiation to an energy storage area. Wide-angle lens apparatus is used to focus solar radiation on an end of an optical fiber bundle. The other end of the optical fiber bundle is placed in the energy storage area and has a radiating device attached thereto to more efficiently remove the solar

1977-01-01

142

Robot arm apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for co...

H. D. Nachbar

1990-01-01

143

Robot ARM Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for co...

H. D. Nachbar

1990-01-01

144

Apparatus for cleaning pipe  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for cleaning pipe having a pipe interior, the apparatus comprising: a rigid, longitudinally extending stem; a motor stationarily mounted on the stem; an outer body which surrounds the motor; drive means for connecting the motor to the outer body; a power coupling connected to the stem for supplying power to the motor.

Allison, A.; Tarsha, S.; McMillan, J.S.

1992-02-25

145

Minimum Membrane Bending Energies of Fusion Pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes fuse by forming highly curved intermediates, culminating in structures described as fusion pores. These hourglass-like\\u000a figures that join two fusing membranes have high bending energies, which can be estimated using continuum elasticity models.\\u000a Fusion pore bending energies depend strongly on shape, and the present study developed a method for determining the shape\\u000a that minimizes bending energy. This was first

Meyer B. Jackson

2009-01-01

146

Thermodynamics and bending energetics of toruslike micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-assembly of surfactants forming toruslike or toroidal micelles has been investigated from a theoretical point of view, in particular the structural behaviour and stability of tori in terms of the three bending elasticity constants spontaneous curvature (H0), bending rigidity (kc) and saddle-splay constant (k¯c). It is demonstrated that the size of toruslike micelles increases with an increasing bending rigidity,

L. Magnus Bergström

2008-01-01

147

DNA bending by small, mobile multivalent cations.  

PubMed Central

We propose a purely electrostatic mechanism by which small, mobile, multivalent cations can induce DNA bending. A multivalent cation binds at the entrance to the B-DNA major groove, between the two phosphate strands, electrostatically repelling sodium counterions from the neighboring phosphates. The unscreened phosphates on both strands are strongly attracted to the groove-bound cation. This leads to groove closure, accompanied by DNA bending toward the cationic ligand. We explicitly treat the dynamic character of the cation-DNA interaction using an adiabatic approximation, noting that DNA bending is much slower than the diffusion of nonspecifically bound, mobile cations. We make semiquantitative estimates of the free energy components of bending-electrostatic (with a sigmoidal distance-dependent dielectric function), elastic, and entropic cation localization-and find that the equilibrium state is bent B-DNA stabilized with a self-localized cation. This is a bending polaron, formation of which should be critically dependent on the strength of electrostatic interaction and the concentration of highly mobile cations available for self-localization. We predict that the resultant bend will be large (approximately 20-40 degrees), smooth (because it is spread over 6 bp), and infrequent. The stability of such a bend can be variable, from transient to highly stable (static) bending, observable with standard curvature-measuring techniques. We further predict that this bending mechanism will have an unusual sequence dependence: sequences with less binding specificity will be more bent, unless the specific binding site is in the major groove.

Rouzina, I; Bloomfield, V A

1998-01-01

148

Ovalization of Tubes Under Bending and Compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An empirical equation has been developed that gives the approximate amount of ovalization for tubes under bending loads. Tests were made on tubes in the d/t range from 6 to 14, the latter d/t ratio being in the normal landing gear range. Within the range of the series of tests conducted, the increase in ovalization due to a compression load in combination with a bending load was very small. The bending load, being the principal factor in producing the ovalization, is a rather complex function of the bending moment, d/t ratio, cantilever length, and distance between opposite bearing faces. (author)

Demer, L J; Kavanaugh, E S

1944-01-01

149

A preliminary study of bending stiffness alteration in shape changing nitinol plates for fracture fixation.  

PubMed

Nitinol is a promising biomaterial based on its remarkable shape changing capacity, biocompatibility, and resilient mechanical properties. Until now, very limited applications have been tested for the use of Nitinol plates for fracture fixation in orthopaedics. Newly designed fracture-fixation plates are tested by four-point bending to examine a change in equivalent bending stiffness before and after shape transformation. The goal of stiffness alterable bone plates is to optimize the healing process during osteosynthesis in situ that is customized in time of onset, percent change as well as being performed non-invasively for the patient. The equivalent bending stiffness in plates of varying thicknesses changed before and after shape transformation in the range of 24-73% (p values <0.05 for all tests). Tests on a Nitinol plate of 3.0 mm increased in stiffness from 0.81 to 0.98 Nm² (corresponding standard deviation 0.08 and 0.05) and shared a good correlation to results from numerical calculation. The stiffness of the tested fracture-fixation plates can be altered in a consistent matter that would be predicted by determining the change of the cross-sectional area moment of inertia. PMID:21286815

Olender, Gavin; Pfeifer, Ronny; Müller, Christian W; Gösling, Thomas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Hurschler, Christof

2011-05-01

150

A micrographic study of bending failure in five thermoplastic/carbon fiber composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The local deformation and failure sequences of five thermoplastic matrix composites were microscopically observed while bending the samples in a small fixture attached to a microscope stage. The themoplastics are polycarbonate, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfide, polyethersulfone, and polyetheretherketone. Comparison was made to an epoxy matrix composite, 5208/T-300. Laminates tested are (0/90) sub 2S, with outer ply fibers parallel to the beam axis. Four point bending was used at a typical span-to-thickness ratio of 39:1. It was found that all of the thermoplastic composites failed by abrupt longitudinal compression buckling of the outer ply. Very little precursory damage was observed. Micrographs reveal typical fiber kinking associated with longitudinal compression failure. Curved fracture surfaces on the fibers suggest they failed in bending rather than direct compression. Delamination was suppressed in the thermoplastic composites, and the delamination that did occur was found to be the result of compression buckling, rather than visa-versa. Microbuckling also caused other subsequent damage such as ply splitting, transverse ply shear failure, fiber tensile failure, and transverse ply cracking.

Yurgartis, S. W.; Sternstein, S. S.

1987-01-01

151

Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

Miller, Samuel Lee (Albuquerque, NM); McWhorter, Paul Jackson (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, Murray Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Edgewood, NM); Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08

152

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

153

Conduit grinding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

1991-01-01

154

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which is adapted to be mounted between the conventional support members in the wall or roof of a building, and which includes an outwardly facing dark collecting surface, and an opposite inner surface having fins integrally formed therein to facilitate transfer of heat to air passed therealong.

Mcarthur, W.H.

1980-01-22

155

Multilevel light bending in nanoplasmonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoplasmonic optical interconnects is proposed to mitigate challenges facing electronics integration. It provides fast and miniaturized data channel that overcome the diffraction limit. We present a three dimensional plasmonic coupler that vertically bends the light to multilevel circuit configurations. It exploits light guiding in nanoscale plasmonic slot waveguides (PSWs). A triangularly-shaped plasmonic slot waveguide rotator is introduced to attain such coupling with good efficiency over a wide bandwidth. Using this approach, light propagating in a horizontal direction is easily converted and coupled to propagate in the vertical direction and vice versa. The proposed configuration is further extended to the design of a multilayer power divider/combiner with ultra-compact footprint that guides the light to multiple channels. A detailed study of the triangular rotator is demonstrated with the analysis of multiple configurations. This structure is suitable for efficient coupling and splitting in multilevel nano circuit environment.

El Sherif, Mohamed H.; Ahmed, Osman S.; Bakr, Mohamed H.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

2014-03-01

156

Intrinsic bending of microtubule protofilaments.  

PubMed

The complex polymerization dynamics of the microtubule (MT) plus end are closely linked to the hydrolysis of the GTP nucleotide bound to the ?-tubulin. The destabilization is thought to be associated with the conformational change of the tubulin dimers from the straight conformation in the MT lattice to a curved conformation. It remains under debate whether this transformation is directly related to the nucleotide state, or a consequence of the longitudinal or lateral contacts in the MT lattice. Here, we present large-scale atomistic simulations of short tubulin protofilaments with both nucleotide states, starting from both extreme conformations. Our simulations indicate that both interdimer and intradimer contacts in both GDP and GTP-bound tubulin dimers and protofilaments in solution bend. There are no observable differences between the mesoscopic properties of the contacts in GTP and GDP-bound tubulin or the intradime and interdimer interfaces. PMID:21397191

Grafmüller, Andrea; Voth, Gregory A

2011-03-01

157

Doubly Adaptive CFAR Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The doubly adaptive constant false alarm rate (CFAR) apparatus uses a doubly adaptive detector which is based upon the use of an auxiliary parallel adaptive detector in addition to the conventional main adaptive detector. The auxiliary adaptive detector h...

L. G. Cole

1979-01-01

158

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Ward, Charles

2003-01-16

159

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration to initiate discussion about electrostatic effects. Also describes and evaluates a Magnetic Bubble Apparatus, a device which exhibits several phenomena related to magnetic domain formation. Includes manufacturer's response to the evaluation. (JN)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1982-01-01

160

Gas turbine sealing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

2013-03-05

161

Glucose Determination Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes an electrochemical apparatus especially applicable for clinical use in determining glucose concentrations in solutions. The invention monitors the reaction of glucose oxidase on a buffered solution of glucose in the presence of a quin...

D. L. Williams

1971-01-01

162

Target Discrimination Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The target discrimination apparatus utilizes logic circuit which is positioned between the detection window and the clutter averaging cells of a conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) radar detector to provide better estimation of the clutter avera...

P. W. Chen

1979-01-01

163

An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

Andrews, I. M.

1975-01-01

164

Simulated Oxygen Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A filter replaces the oxygen canister of an oxygen breathing apparatus and the air flow path is modified to provide a realistic simulation for training Personnel. in the use of closed circuit breathing units. (Author)

E. Swiatosz W. V. Dykes

1979-01-01

165

Roller Infusion Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is an infusion apparatus consisting of a housing containing an electric motor, the housing having a channel-shaped chassis integrally connected thereto and laterally offset therefrom. A toothed drive roller is transversely journalled in the ...

C. F. G. Dore G. R. Chambers

1983-01-01

166

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

167

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

168

Sound Attenuation Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus is disclosed for reducing acoustic transmission from mechanical or acoustic sources by means of a double wall partition, within which an acoustic pressure field is generated by at least one secondary acoustic source. The secondary acoustic so...

K. P. Shepherd M. W. A. F. Grosveld

1989-01-01

169

Spin coating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

170

Electric arc saw apparatus  

DOEpatents

A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

Deichelbohrer, P.R.

1983-08-08

171

Mining apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A mining apparatus and method for dislodging material from a mine face. The dislodged material is transported from the front to the rear of the mine for further handling. The apparatus has a lifting mechanism for raising cross beams to the roof of the mine wherein beam jacks are permitted to engage the cross beams to provide support to the mine roof. The temporary roof support permits advancement of miner as dislodged material is removed.

Hakes, G.A.; Mccracken, W.E.

1982-05-11

172

Battery formation charging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

Stewart, J.L.

1987-08-04

173

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

174

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

175

Cyclic Bending and Stationary Drawing Deformation of Metal Sheets : Experiments and Associated Numerical Simulations  

SciTech Connect

A simple bend-draw experimental device is employed to analyze the behavior of narrow strips submitted to a nearly cyclic bending deformation mode followed by a steady state drawing. In this bending-drawing experiment, the strip is firstly bent over a central bead and two lateral beads by applying a controlled holding load and then is pulled out of device throughout the bead radii by a drawing load. The apparatus is mounted in a standard tensile test machine where the holding and drawing loads are recorded with an acquisition data system. The specimen is a rectangular strip cut with 320 mm long and 7 mm wide. The longitudinal (1) and width (w) strip plastic strains are determined from two hardness marks 120 mm spaced whereas the corresponding thickness (t) strain is obtained by volume conservation. Previous experiments showed a correlation between the plastic strain ({epsilon}w/{epsilon}t)BD resulting from the bending-drawing and the Lankford R-values obtained from the uniaxial tensile test. However, previous 3D numerical simulations based upon Hill's quadratic and Ferron's yield criteria revealed a better correlation between the ({epsilon}w/{epsilon}t)BD and the stress ratio {sigma}PS/{sigma}({alpha}), where {sigma}PS stands for the plane-strain tension yield stress and {sigma}({alpha}) for the uniaxial yield stress in uniaxial tension along the drawing direction making an angle {alpha} with the rolling direction. In the present work, the behavior of an IF steel sheet is firstly evaluated by means of uniaxial tensile and drawing-bending experiments conducted at every 15 degrees with respect to the rolling direction. Afterwards, the bending-drawing experiment is investigated with the commercial finite element (FE) code ABAQUS/Standard in an attempt to assess the influence of cyclic loadings upon the bending-drawing strain-ratios.

Moreira, L.P.; Romao, E.C.; Vieira, L.C.A. [Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420, CEP 27 255 125, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Ferron, G. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Sampaio, A.P. [Gerencia de Desenvolvimento de Produtos, Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Rua 4, 33, CEP 27265-610, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

2005-08-05

176

On the strain gradient bending deformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bending deformations are reviewed in the context of strain gradient linear elasticity, considering the complete set of strain gradient components. It is well understood that conventional bending deformations depend on the collective uniaxial extension of axial fibers resulting in the dependence on the curvature of the neutral geometry of various (linear or surface) structures. Nevertheless, the deformation of each fiber depends not only on the local curvature of the neutral geometry but also on the distance of the fiber from the neutral axis. Hence, the strain gradient tensor of the conventional bending strain should include not only components along the neutral axis but also those on the transverse direction. The problems of bending and buckling, along with geometrically non-linear and post-critical behavior, are reviewed in the context of strain gradient elasticity considering not only conventional bending strain but also the complete components of the strain gradient.

Lazopoulos, Konstantinos A.; Lazopoulos, Anastasios K.

2013-04-01

177

Study of concrete's behavior under 4-point bending load using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) is an ultrasonic NDT method suitable for complex material such as concrete that can precisely measure small propagation velocity variation (10-2%). By measuring variation of propagation velocity in concrete caused by acoustoelasticity phenomena, CWI analysis can be used to monitor concrete's internal stress level. For the first time, CWI is used to measure propagation velocity variations due to a stress field in a concrete beam under four-points bending test, which contains simultaneously compressive and tensile stress. Embedded optical-fiber sensors, strain gauges are used in the experiment, in order to confirm and validate the CWI analysis result. Thermocouples are also embedded into concrete beams for monitoring internal temperature fluctuations.

Zhang, Y.; Abraham, O.; Chapeleau, X.; Cottineau, L.-M.; Tournat, V.; Le Duff, A.; Lascoup, B.; Durand, O.

2013-01-01

178

Bend Properties of Sapphire Fibers at Elevated Temperatures. 1; Bend Survivability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of temperature on the bend radius that a c-axis-oriented sapphire fiber can withstand was determined for fibers of various diameter. Bend stress rupture tests were performed for times of 1-100 h and temperatures of 300-1700 C. Fibers would survive the bend test undeformed, would fracture or would deform. The bend survival radius was determined to be the radius above which no fibers fractured or deformed for a given time-temperature treatment. It was found that the ability of fibers to withstand curvature decreases substantially with time and increasing temperature and that fibers of smaller diameter (46-83 micron) withstood smaller bend radii than would be expected from just a difference in fiber diameter when compared with the bend results of the fibers of large diameter (144 micron). This was probably due to different flaw populations, causing high temperature bend failure for the tested sapphire fibers of different diameters.

Morscher, Gregory N.; Sayir, Haluk

1995-01-01

179

Polarization Imaging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

2010-01-01

180

Hollow antiresonant fibers with low bending loss.  

PubMed

We first use numerical simulations to show that bending losses of hollow antiresonant fibers are a strong function of their geometrical structure. We then demonstrate this by fabricating a hollow antiresonant fiber which presents a bending loss as low as 0.25 dB/turn at a wavelength of 3.35 ?m and a bend radius of 2.5 cm. This fiber has a relatively low attenuation (<200 dB/km) over 600 nm mid-infrared spectral range. PMID:24787890

Belardi, Walter; Knight, Jonathan C

2014-04-21

181

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

182

Gas compression apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for transferring gas from a first container to a second container of higher pressure was devised. A free-piston compressor having a driving piston and cylinder, and a smaller diameter driven piston and cylinder, comprise the apparatus. A rod member connecting the driving and driven pistons functions for mutual reciprocation in the respective cylinders. A conduit may be provided for supplying gas to the driven cylinder from the first container. Also provided is apparatus for introducing gas to the driving piston, to compress gas by the driven piston for transfer to the second higher pressure container. The system is useful in transferring spacecraft cabin oxygen into higher pressure containers for use in extravehicular activities.

Terp, L. S. (inventor)

1977-01-01

183

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

184

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

185

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

186

Fuel assembly locking apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The fuel assembly locking apparatus comprises a rotatable plate capable of simultaneously and positively engaging all four legs of the bottom nozzle of a fuel assembly for uniformly holding the fuel assembly while the spent fuel rods are pulled from the fuel assembly. The rotatable plate has four notched corners arranged to be rotated over a ledge on each leg of the bottom nozzle of the fuel assembly thereby preventing movement of the fuel assembly. The rotatable plate is also capable of being rotated 45/sup 0/ so that the four corners of the plate are rotated clear of the legs of the bottom nozzle of the fuel assembly thereby allowing the fuel assembly to be placed on or removed from the locking apparatus. The locking apparatus is also provided with a torque actuator for remotely rotating the plate.

Tolino, R. W.; Toler Sr., C. E.

1984-10-02

187

Fissile solution measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

1984-06-11

188

Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

189

Current measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

2008-11-11

190

Thermally Activated Joining Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermally activated joining apparatus is provided for reversibly joining piping components of a fluid management system. The joining apparatus includes a thermally activated sealant layers for securing the components together in a leakage free manner. A thermal conductor includes a ring shaped contact portion disposed between the layers for transferring heat from one or more heating elements to the sealant layers. After the seal in place, the components can later be disconnected by supplying heat from the heating element or elements through the thermal conductor to the sealant layers to cause breaking of the seal and thereby enable separation of components.

Bryant, Melvin A., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

191

Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

1993-01-01

192

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

193

Bend loss in reduced cladding optical fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced cladding fibers (80 ?m vs. 125 ?m) are attractive for small form factor components. Experimental and modeling data are presented to show that fiber and\\/or coil needs redesigning when reducing cladding diameter because of bend loss effects.

U. Manyam; K. Tankala; D. Machewirth; J. Abramczyk; A. Carter; N. Jacobson

2003-01-01

194

Bending Waves on Inviscid Columnar Vortices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bending waves, perturbation modes leading to deflections of the vortex centreline, are considered for an infinitely long straight vortex embedded in an irrotational flow of unlimited extent. First establish the general form of the dispersion relation for ...

S. Leibovich S. N. Brown Y. Patel

1986-01-01

195

Planar Lightwave Circuit Waveguide Bends and Beamsplitters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A planar lightwave circuit has a waveguide having a bend and plurality of multiple trenches with parallel front and back interfaces. The trench and waveguide refractive indexes are different such that a refractive interface is defined between the waveguid...

J. Jiang J. M. English L. Li P. Nordin

2004-01-01

196

Initial Ares I Bending Filter Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares-I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for control system design. Software filtering of the inertial sensor output will be required to ensure control system stability and adequate performance. This paper presents a design methodology employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares-I bending filters. The filter design methodology was based on a numerical constrained optimization approach to maximize stability margins while meeting performance requirements. The resulting bending filter designs achieved stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency and hence phase stabilizing the first Ares-I flex mode. To minimize rigid body performance impacts, a priority was placed via constraints in the optimization algorithm to minimize bandwidth decrease with the addition of the bending filters. The bending filters provided here have been demonstrated to provide a stable first stage control system in both the frequency domain and the MSFC MAVERIC time domain simulation.

Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Robert; Norris, H. Lee; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

2007-01-01

197

Foam topology: bending versus stretching dominated architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular solids can deform by either the bending or stretching of the cell walls. While most cellular solids are bending-dominated, those that are stretching-dominated are much more weight-efficient for structural applications. In this study we have investigated the topological criteria that dictate the deformation mechanism of a cellular solid by analysing the rigidity (or otherwise) of pin-jointed frameworks comprising inextensional

V. S. Deshpande; M.F. Ashby; N. A. Fleck

2001-01-01

198

Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides.  

PubMed

We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory to qualitatively interpret the behavior observed in our simulation. Our results pave a promising way to realize ultra-compact devices operating in the terahertz region. PMID:23481806

Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

2013-02-11

199

Apparatus for Controlling Pressure Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for controlling fluid pressure recovery includes an elongated housing having an opening at a first end thereof, an opening at a second end thereof, an inner peripheral surface, and a fluid flow passageway therethrough. The apparatus further i...

S. A. Jordan

2001-01-01

200

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a low-cost apparatus for measuring moment of inertia utilizing an interval timer, induction coil, battery eliminator, and ball bearing mounted disk. Also provides a method for demonstrating vectors using a cardboard box and a piece of string. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1984-01-01

201

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

202

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the apparatus setup, experimental method, necessary formulas, and references for three measurement experiments: (1) "Determine the Magnetic Induction of a Coil with a Hall Element"; (2) "Measuring Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field of Small Permanent Magnets"; and (3) "Measurements of Sound Velocity by Means of PZT" (piezoelectric…

Connolly, Walter, Ed.

1990-01-01

203

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus and provides instructions to do relative index of refraction measurements/calculations and to show mathematical relationships betwen indices when light travels from one liquid to another. A listing of a computer program (in BASIC) which will analyze data is available from the author. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

204

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

205

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

206

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

207

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

208

Doctoring Apparatus and System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application is concerned with an apparatus and system comprised of a plurality of doctoring units, each of which is a pivotally supported combination doctor blade and V-shaped member. In each unit the leading edge of the doctor blade is paralle...

J. F. Sullivan R. P. Konstance

1976-01-01

209

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus for plotting electric fields using burglar alarm window tape for electrodes and carbonized electronic stencil paper as sheet resistance. Also describes a simple pentode modulator circuit which will modulate a typical helium-neon gas laser, providing an audio channel for demonstration purposes. (SK)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

210

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel control apparatus for calculating the quantity of fuel required for operating an internal combustion engines is described based on an output of a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air intake passage for the internal combustion engine. It supplies the optimum amount of the fuel to the engine by controlling a fuel control valve in

S. Shimomura; Y. Nishimura

1989-01-01

211

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fuel control apparatus comprising: (a) a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air intake passage for an internal combustion engine to detect the quantity of air passing therethrough; (b) a fuel control valve placed in the air intake passage to inject fuel into the air intake passage; (c) first means for actuating the

Shimomura

1988-01-01

212

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel control apparatus is described which comprises a fuel supplying means for supplying fuel to an internal combustion engine depending on the operation of a fuel control valve, a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air-intake passage for the internal combustion engine to detect the quantity of air passing therethrough, means for heating a hot wire

S. Shimomura; Y. Tada

1988-01-01

213

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

214

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

215

Improved Ultraviolet Microbeam Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultraviolet microbeam apparatus utilizing the principle of incident ; illumination has been developed for the irradiation of small parts of living ; cells or other microscopic objects. A reflecting microscope objective is used ; simultaneously in a visible light viewing-aiming system and in a bombardment ; system to focus a spot of ultraviolet light (as small as one micron

Robert B. Uretz; Robert P. Perry

1957-01-01

216

Improved Ultraviolet Microbeam Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultraviolet microbeam apparatus utilizing the principle of incident illumination has been developed for the irradiation of small parts of living cells or other microscopic objects. A reflecting microscope objective is used simultaneously in a visible light viewing-aiming system and in a bombardment system to focus a spot of ultraviolet light (as small as one micron in diameter) onto part

Robert B. Uretz; Robert P. Perry

1957-01-01

217

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a coriolis simulator which uses a carbon paper trace technique and a simple specific-heat apparatus, emphasizing instructional considerations. Also indicates that a variac and an ordinary electric drill can be used to wind coil if a lathe or coil winder are unavailable. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

218

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum.

Dellinger, Roger D. (Prosser, WA)

1997-01-01

219

Apparatus for Planting Seeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a process whereby seeds are punch planted by an apparatus comprising a disk equipped with a plurality of punches rotatably mounted on a frame. The punch disk is eccentrically driven to insure that the punches are perpendi...

D. E. Wilkins W. J. Conley

1979-01-01

220

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1985-06-19

221

Portable appliance security apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for securing a small computer, or other portable appliance, against theft is described. It is comprised of a case having an open back through which the computer is installed or removed. Guide members in the form of slots are formed in a rear portion of opposite walls of the case for receiving a back plate to cover the

J. J. Kerley

1981-01-01

222

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standing transverse waves in homogeneous strings have been demonstrated in lectures and used in experiments (called Melde's experiment). A variation to this experiment is discussed. Also discusses the use of the speed-of-sound resonance-tube apparatus to clean mercury. (Author/JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1983-01-01

223

Mobile lighting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

2013-05-14

224

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes making laboratory apparatus such as a heavy-duty turntable; a hand-held milk-carton accelerometer; an inverted air table; free-fall measurement with a solenoid as a starting device; and a bright point source. Presents an evaluation of "The Champ Universal Interface and Sensor Pack Software." (YP)

Connolly, Walter, Ed.

1989-01-01

225

Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

1969-01-01

226

Hydrogen-Detection Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus continuously monitors concentration of hydrogen, at level ranging from few parts per million to several percent, in mixture of gases. Simple and fast, providing high sensitivity and linear response. Used to alert technicians to potentially explosive concentrations of residual hydrogen.

Ross, H. Richard; Bourgeois, Chris M.

1995-01-01

227

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

228

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: how to measure index of refraction by the thickness method; how to teach the concept of torque using a torque wrench; how to produce a real image with a concave mirror; how to eliminate the interface effects of a Pyrex containers; and an apparatus to illustrate Bernoulli's Principle. (MLH)

Gottlieb, Herbert H.

1977-01-01

229

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This section presents new ideas with regard to apparatus for teaching physics. The following four ideas are presented: (1) measuring speed of light (2) a poor man's barometer, (3) center of mass of a rotating object, and (4) minimizing glass breakage. (HM)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

230

Holographic Animation Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

Johnston, Sean F.

1979-01-01

231

Wind-driven generator apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a wind-driven generator apparatus with variable pitch blades. The apparatus includes a yaw damping arrangement for resisting weathervaning rotation of a head assembly of the apparatus about a vertical axis and the apparatus further includes a pitch control mechanism for the blades which maintains the pitch substantially constant during normal operating r.p.m. of the blades but allows the

J. W. Carter Jr; J. W. Carter Sr

1985-01-01

232

Fluid flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend III three phase flow  

SciTech Connect

Three phase water/oil/air flow was studied around a vertical upward to horizontal 90 elbow bend of R/d = 0.654. The results were more complex than corresponding two phase data. The pressure drop recorded for the two tangent legs sometimes showed significant variations to the straight pipe data. In most cases this variation was caused by differences in the flow regimes between the two systems. The elbow bend tended to constrict the flow presented by the vertical inlet tangent leg while sometimes acting as a wave and droplet generator for the horizontal outlet tangent leg. It could be argued that the inclusion of the elbow bend altered the flow regime map transitional boundaries but it also is possible that insufficient settling length was provided in the apparatus design. The elbow bend pressure drop was best presented as l{sub e}/d the equivalent length to diameter ratio using the actual total pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent leg. Generally l{sub e}/d values rose with gas rate, but exhibited an increasingly complex relation with f{sub o} the oil to liquid volumetric ratio as liquid rate was increased. A significant maximum in l{sub e}/d was in evidence around the inversion from water dominated to oil dominated flows. Several models are presented to predict the data. (author)

Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E.; Crawford, N.M. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Ashby Building, Belfast BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15

233

Physical dimensions, torsional performance, bending properties, and metallurgical characteristics of rotary endodontic instruments. VI. Canal Master drills.  

PubMed

A laboratory study was performed on machine-driven Canal Master drills to determine their physical dimensions, torsional performance, bending properties, and metallurgical characteristics in fracture. Physical dimensions were determined for each of the available sizes (#50 to #100) of Canal Master drills from the manufacturer that distributes these instruments in the United States. Samples were also tested in clockwise torsion using a Maillefer memocouple. Bending properties of cantilever specimens were measured with a Tinius Olsen stiffness tester. Bending fatigue testing was performed on a unique laboratory apparatus. Scanning electron microscope examination confirmed visual observations that the stainless steel Canal Master drills exhibited ductile torsional fracture. This study is part of a continuing investigation to establish standards for all machine-driven rotary endodontic instruments. PMID:7673827

Luebke, N H; Brantley, W A; Sabri, Z I; Luebke, F L; Lausten, L L

1995-05-01

234

Discrete microfluidics: Reorganizing droplet arrays at a bend  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidic manipulation of densely packed droplet arrangements (i.e., gel emulsions) using sharp microchannel bends was studied as a function of bend angle, droplet volume fraction, droplet size, and flow velocity. Emulsion reorganization was found to be specifically dependent on the pathlength that the droplets are forced to travel as they navigate the bend under spatial confinement. We describe how bend-induced

Enkhtuul Surenjav; Stephan Herminghaus; Craig Priest; Ralf Seemann

2009-01-01

235

Bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness of single-layered graphene.  

PubMed

Bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness are the two key parameters that govern the rippling of suspended graphene-an unavoidable phenomenon of two-dimensional materials when subject to a thermal or mechanical field. A reliable determination about these two parameters is of significance for both the design and the manipulation of graphene morphology for engineering applications. By combining the density functional theory calculations of energies of fullerenes and single wall carbon nanotubes with the configurational energy of membranes determined by Helfrich Hamiltonian, we have designed a theoretical approach to accurately determine the bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness of single-layered graphene. The bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness of single-layered graphene are 1.44 eV (2.31 × 10(-19) N m) and -1.52 eV (2.43 × 10(-19) N m), respectively. The bending rigidity is close to the experimental result. Interestingly, the bending stiffness of graphene is close to that of lipid bilayers of cells about 1-2 eV, which might mechanically justify biological applications of graphene. PMID:23214980

Wei, Yujie; Wang, Baoling; Wu, Jiangtao; Yang, Ronggui; Dunn, Martin L

2013-01-01

236

The radon EDM apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

2014-01-01

237

Energy conversion apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for maintaining the speed of rotation of a windmill rotor at a fixed ratio to the free flow velocity of the driving wind. This arrangement permits the windmill rotor to rotate at the speed at which its power output is maximized. The apparatus includes a plurality of interleaved rotating and stationary friction discs which convert the rotational kinetic energy of the windmill rotor shaft into thermal energy. An anemometer shaft, which rotates with a velocity which is proportional to the ambient wind velocity, drives a gear train which increases or decreases the pressure on the friction discs so that the load on the rotor is increased or decreased, in an offsetting manner, as the wind velocity changes.

Fuchs, F.J.

1982-04-20

238

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. A plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1986-08-20

239

Wet atmospheric generation apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

Hamner, Richard M.; Allen, Janice K.

1990-03-01

240

Throttle valve controlling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for controlling an open degree of a throttle valve fixed to a throttle valve shaft for swing movement around an axis of the throttle valve shaft so as to control an air-fuel mixture flow to be supplied to an engine. The apparatus consists of: a motor including a rotor portion which is associated with the throttle valve shaft to swing the throttle valve; means for detecting an amount of swing movement of the throttle valve and for producing a signal corresponding to the opening degree of the throttle valve; a control unit for receiving and judging the signal from the detecting means and for outputting a command to the motor so as to swing the throttle valve in a desired opening degree; a one piece throttle valve shaft on which the throttle valve and the rotor portion of the motor are separately disposed; and wherein the rotor portion and the one piece shaft are molded together.

Ejiri, Y.; Kamifuji, H.

1986-07-22

241

Gas turbine sealing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

2013-02-19

242

Wet atmospheric generation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

Hamner, Richard M. (inventor); Allen, Janice K. (inventor)

1990-01-01

243

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

244

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

245

Fast shutter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

Zimmermann, Eugene L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kania, Don R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

246

Fast shutter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

Zimmermann, E.L.; Kania, D.R.

1984-06-27

247

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

248

Planar oscillatory stirring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to an apparatus for stirring materials using planar orthogonal axes oscillations. The apparatus has a movable slide plate sandwiched between two fixed parallel support plates. Pressurized air is supplied to the movable slide plate which employs a tri-arm air bearing vent structure which allows the slide plate to float and to translate between the parallel support plates. The container having a material to be stirred is secured to the upper surface of the slide plate through an aperture in the upper support plate. A motor driven eccentric shaft loosely extends into a center hole bearing of the slide plate to cause the horizontal oscillations. Novelty lies in the combination of elements which exploits the discovery that low frequency, orthogonal oscillations applied horizontally to a Bridgman crucible provides a very rigorous stirring action, comparable with and more effective by an order of magnitude than the accelerated crucible rotation technique.

Wolf, M. F. (inventor)

1985-01-01

249

Hollow cathode apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hollow cathode apparatus is described, which can be rapidly and reliably started. An ignitor positioned upstream from the hollow cathode, generates a puff of plasma that flows with the primary gas to be ionized through the cathode. The plasma puff creates a high voltage breakdown between the downstream end of the cathode and a keeper electrode, to heat the cathode to an electron-emitting temperature.

Aston, G. (inventor)

1984-01-01

250

Induction spray charging apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Induction charging apparatus for HVLP spray guns includes an air cap having a central fluid exit orifice for receiving the spray gun nozzle. The cap includes one or more charging electrodes surrounding the orifice and carrying a voltage sufficiently large to induce on the spray droplets charges of a polarity opposite to that on the electrodes. The cap includes a rotatable electrical connector to enable the cap to rotate 360.degree., while maintaining electrical connections between the electrodes and a power supply.

1995-04-25

251

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

252

Gas cleaning apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an apparatus and method for removing very finely divided alkali fumes and other particulate material from a coal-gasifier make-gas comprising the introduction of char granules into the constricted passage of a venturi-shaped gas duct to adsorb the very fine particulate from the make-gas flowing therethrough, and centrifugally separating the fume-laden char granules from the make-gas.

R. H. Boll; W. C. Lapple

1980-01-01

253

Gas cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of an apparatus and method for removing very finely divided alkali fumes and other particulate material from a coal-gasifier make-gas comprising the introduction of char granules into the constricted passage of a venturi-shaped gas duct to adsorb the very fine particulate from the make-gas flowing therethrough, and centrifugally separating the fume-laden char granules from the make-gas.

Boll, R.H.; Lapple, W.C.

1980-03-04

254

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

1987-01-01

255

Apparatus for photographing meteors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for photographing meteors in a selected area of the sky is described. A photomultiplier is pointed in the direction of the area. When a meteor passes through the area the signal output of the photomultiplier increases. Means are provided that activate a camera, pointed at the area, in response to an increased signal from the photomultiplier. Hence, the camera photographs the selected are only while meteors are likely to be passing through the area.

Harvey, G. A. (inventor)

1973-01-01

256

Micro coring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-coring apparatus for lunar exploration applications, that is compatible with the other components of the Walking Mobile Platform, was designed. The primary purpose of core sampling is to gain an understanding of the geological composition and properties of the prescribed environment. This procedure has been used extensively for Earth studies and in limited applications during lunar explorations. The corer is described and analyzed for effectiveness.

Collins, David; Brooks, Marshall; Chen, Paul; Dwelle, Paul; Fischer, Ben

1989-01-01

257

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01

258

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

259

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

260

Hummingbird feeding apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hummingbird feeding apparatus for use in providing feed formula to hummingbirds. This may be accomplished by providing a reservoir for holding ready to consume and preservative free nectar formula for hummingbirds. The reservoir may have an opening that is configured to couple to a dispensing member for delivering the formula to hummingbirds. The reservoir may have an attachment member on one end for placing the dispensing member in a hummingbird-accessible location.

2013-03-05

261

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

262

Demand illumination control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

1981-01-01

263

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

1987-12-22

264

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum. 16 figs.

Dellinger, R.D.

1997-12-09

265

Nonlinear analysis and redesign of the mixed-mode bending delamination test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mixed Mode Bending (MMB) test uses a lever to simultaneously apply mode I and mode II loading to a split beam specimen. An iterative analysis that accounts for the geometric nonlinearity of the MMB test was developed. The analysis accurately predicted the measured load displacement response and the strain energy release rate, G, of an MMB test specimen made of APC2 (AS4/PEEK). The errors in G when calculated using linear theory were found to be as large as thirty percent in some cases. Because it would be inconvenient to use a nonlinear analysis to analyze MMB data, the MMB apparatus was redesigned to minimize the nonlinearity. The nonlinear analysis was used as a guide in redesigning the MMB apparatus. With the redesigned apparatus, loads were applied through a roller attached to the level and loaded just above the midplane of the test specimen. The redesigned apparatuus has geometric nonlinearity errors of less than three percent, even for materials substantially tougher than APC2. This apparatus was demonstrated by measuring the mixed mode delamination fracture toughness of APC2.

Reeder, J. R.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

1991-01-01

266

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

267

Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas.1 Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than $100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

Shakerin, Said

2010-05-01

268

Characterization of bending EAP beam actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroactive polymers (EAP) are attractive actuation materials because of their large deformation, flexibility, and low density. The large deformation, especially in the bending mode, poses a challenge to the material and actuator characterization due to the geometric nonlinearity that is developed during the characterization. A CCD camera system was constructed to record the curved shapes of bending during the activation of EAP films and image-processing software was developed to digitize the bending curve s. A computer program was written to solve the inverse problem of cantilever EAP beams with a tip position limiter. Using the program and acquired curve images with and without a tip position limiter as well as the corresponding tip force, the performance of the beam under different applied voltages and tip force loads was determined. The experimental setup and the principles of the computer program are described and discussed in this paper.

Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart

2004-07-01

269

Asymmetry of the central apparatus defines the location of active microtubule sliding in Chlamydomonas flagella  

PubMed Central

Regulation of ciliary and flagellar motility requires spatial control of dynein-driven microtubule sliding. However, the mechanism for regulating the location and symmetry of dynein activity is not understood. One hypothesis is that the asymmetrically organized central apparatus, through interactions with the radial spokes, transmits a signal to regulate dynein-driven microtubule sliding between subsets of doublet microtubules. Based on this model, we hypothesized that the orientation of the central apparatus defines positions of active microtubule sliding required to control bending in the axoneme. To test this, we induced microtubule sliding in axonemes isolated from wild-type and mutant Chlamydomonas cells, and then used electron microscopy to determine the orientation of the central apparatus. Transverse sections of wild-type axonemes revealed that the C1 microtubule is predominantly oriented toward the position of active microtubule sliding. In contrast, the central apparatus is randomly oriented in axonemes isolated from radial spoke deficient mutants. For outer arm dynein mutants, the C1 microtubule is oriented toward the position of active microtubule sliding in low calcium buffer, but is randomly oriented in high calcium buffer. These results provide evidence that the central apparatus defines the position of active microtubule sliding, and may regulate the size and shape of axonemal bends through interactions with the radial spokes. In addition, our results indicate that in high calcium conditions required to generate symmetric waveforms, the outer dynein arms are potential targets of the central pair-radial spoke control system.

Wargo, Matthew J.; Smith, Elizabeth F.

2003-01-01

270

Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

Breeding, James D.

1993-01-01

271

Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

2003-01-01

272

UV - BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK TX  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 130 is located in Big Bend NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. of...

273

Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…

Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David

2012-01-01

274

Twisting and bending stress in DNA minicircles.  

PubMed

The interplay between bending of the molecule axis and appearance of disruptions in circular DNA molecules, with ?100 base pairs, is addressed. Three minicircles with different radii and almost equal contents of AT and GC pairs are investigated. The DNA sequences are modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian which describes the essential interactions in the helix at the level of the base pair and incorporates twisting and bending degrees of freedom. Helix unwinding and bubble formation patterns are consistently computed by a path integral method that sums over a large number of molecule configurations compatible with the model potential. The path ensembles are determined, as a function of temperature, by minimizing the free energy of the system. Fluctuational openings appear along the helix to release the stress due to the bending of the molecule backbone. In agreement with the experimental findings, base pair disruptions are found with larger probability in the smallest minicircle of 66 bps whose bending angle is ?6°. For this minicircle, a sizeable untwisting is obtained with the helical repeat showing a step-like increase at T = 315 K. The method can be generalized to determine the bubble probability profiles of open ends linear sequences. PMID:24791278

Zoli, Marco

2014-05-29

275

Size Optimization of Stiffeners in Bending Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for the modeling and optimization of bending stiffened plates is presented. Eight node elements are used in the proposed Finite Element model. The proposed element is hybrid in the sense that it can model both the base plate and the stiffeners, simultaneously. A sizing optimization model aiming at maximizing the natural frequencies of free vibrations at a

Adel Elsabbagh

2012-01-01

276

Resonant coupling in trenched bend-insensitive optical fiber.  

PubMed

We report in this Letter the resonant coupling mechanism in bending trenched bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). It is found that among the trench parameters, the core-trench distance is predominant for optimized BIF design. We reveal that resonant coupling is an intrinsic characteristic of bending trenched BIF, and resonant coupling between the fiber core and the innermost cladding would limit the ultimate bending loss of BIF under tight bend. Resonant coupling is also present in double-trenched BIF, and would impair its bending performance. PMID:23455297

Ren, Guobin; Lin, Zhen; Zheng, Siwen; Jian, Shuisheng

2013-03-01

277

Solder dross removal apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

278

Solder dross removal apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic dross removal apparatus is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade is positioned adjacent the solder bath which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit causes a motor to rotate the wiper arm one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller as a component approaches the solder bath.

Webb, Winston S. (inventor)

1990-01-01

279

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

280

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

281

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

282

Apparatus Impregnates Weak Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-cost apparatus developed for use in conventional drum winding machine to impregnate fibrous materials having very low tensile strengths. Fiber fitted onto freely-spinning unwinding creel. Unwinds from creel between two tension bars onto guide spools, aligns fiber so properly enters sealed reservoir of resin. Stainless-steel metering die at entrance to reservoir aligns fiber and seals reservoir. Beneficial results obtained by use of reservoir made of polyethylene. Composite material made from resin matrices reinforced by fibers have great potential for solving challenging and often critical problems in design of spacecraft, space structures, and terrestrial structures.

Stanfield, Clarence E.; Wilson, Maywood L.

1989-01-01

283

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

2001-01-01

284

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

2001-01-01

285

Nitrogen fixation apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA) [Walnut Creek, CA

1984-01-01

286

Critical current measurement with spatial periodic bending imposed by electromagnetic force on a standard test barrel with slots  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and validated a straightforward and fast method to investigate the response of technological superconducting strain sensitive wires (e.g., Nb{sub 3}Sn) to a spatial periodic bending strain. In the present concept of cabled superconductors for application in nuclear fusion reactors the wires are twisted and cabled in several stages. When subjected to transverse electromagnetic forces after charging the magnet, the individual strands are subjected to spatial periodic bending with wavelengths in the order of 5-10 mm. Several apparatuses are presently under development to study the effect of bending on the transport properties, i.e., the voltage-current transition in terms of critical current (I{sub c}) and n value. We propose a supplementary simple method to investigate the influence of bending strain by using a spatial periodic wire support on a broadly used standard I{sub c} measurement barrel in combination with a Lorentz force. The bending force (BI) is varied by changing the applied field B. The peak bending strain in the Nb{sub 3}Sn filaments is determined by the amplitude of the bending deflection, which is deduced from the mechanical axial tensile stress-strain properties of the wire. Three different spatial periodic wavelengths are applied and the results are in good agreement with the predictions. In addition we found a good agreement with results obtained by a more advanced experiment, named TARSIS, which is described briefly. The 'barrel-with-slots' method can be applied easily and straightforward with minor effort and cost in laboratories having a standard I{sub c} measurement facility for superconducting wire.

Nijhuis, A.; Wessel, W.A.J.; Ilyin, Y.; Ouden, A. den; Kate, H.H.J. ten [Low Temperature Division, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2006-05-15

287

Critical current measurement with spatial periodic bending imposed by electromagnetic force on a standard test barrel with slots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and validated a straightforward and fast method to investigate the response of technological superconducting strain sensitive wires (e.g., Nb3Sn) to a spatial periodic bending strain. In the present concept of cabled superconductors for application in nuclear fusion reactors the wires are twisted and cabled in several stages. When subjected to transverse electromagnetic forces after charging the magnet, the individual strands are subjected to spatial periodic bending with wavelengths in the order of 5-10 mm. Several apparatuses are presently under development to study the effect of bending on the transport properties, i.e., the voltage-current transition in terms of critical current (Ic) and n value. We propose a supplementary simple method to investigate the influence of bending strain by using a spatial periodic wire support on a broadly used standard Ic measurement barrel in combination with a Lorentz force. The bending force (BI) is varied by changing the applied field B. The peak bending strain in the Nb3Sn filaments is determined by the amplitude of the bending deflection, which is deduced from the mechanical axial tensile stress-strain properties of the wire. Three different spatial periodic wavelengths are applied and the results are in good agreement with the predictions. In addition we found a good agreement with results obtained by a more advanced experiment, named TARSIS, which is described briefly. The ``barrel-with-slots'' method can be applied easily and straightforward with minor effort and cost in laboratories having a standard Ic measurement facility for superconducting wire.

Nijhuis, A.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Ilyin, Y.; den Ouden, A.; Ten Kate, H. H. J.

2006-05-01

288

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01

289

Polarization imaging apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

2010-01-01

290

Hydraulic well pumping apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

Wright, C.P.

1987-03-03

291

Heat pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01

292

Percussive arc welding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

Hollar, Jr., Donald L. (Overland Park, KS)

2002-01-01

293

Valve tappet apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a valve tappet apparatus for use with an internal combustion engine having a plurality of valve members and cam means for causing reciprocating movement of the valve members, the apparatus comprising: a first tappet body associated with one of the valve members and with the cam means, at least a portion of the first tappet body having a curved outer circumference; a second tappet body associated with another of the valve members and with the cam means, at least a portion of the second tappet body having a curved outer circumference; an elongated, rigid link bar having a first end and a second end; a first attachment means attaching the first end of the link bar to the fist tappet body, and a second attachment means attaching the second end of the link bar to the second tappet body, the second attachment means including a screw for extending through at least a portion of the second tappet body, the second attachment means including a nut member for attaching the second end of the link bar to the distal end of the screw of the second attachment means, the nut member having a face side for engaging the outer circumference of the second tappet body, the face surface of the nut member having a concaved portion for engaging a portion of the outer circumference of the second tappet body.

Gerchow, J.R.; Russell, D.K.

1989-03-07

294

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

295

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

1995-03-21

296

MICROTUBULAR PATTERNS IN SPERMATOZOA OF COCCID INSECTS IN RELATION TO BENDING  

PubMed Central

Flagella-like motion occurs in filamentous spermatozoa of coccid insects, which have diameters (0.16–0.65 µ) and lengths (150–300 µ) similar to those of long flagella, but have no doublets or 9 + 2-like arrangements of microtubules. Light and electron microscope investigations of spermatozoa from 10 species reveal many bizarre patterns of microtubules and suggest some basic similarities to flagella. Detailed analyses of spermatozoa which are naturally bent in definable planes during their elongation in the male and their storage in the female provide evidence that a constant topographical relationship is maintained between their unorthodox patterns of microtubules, as viewed in transections, and the direction of bending. The configuration common to most coccid spermatozoa consists of an acentrically positioned crescent of microtubules surrounded by one to several concentric rings. A line drawn to connect the two ends of the crescent appears to remain perpendicular to the plane of bending, and it defines a plane in which bisection of the spermatozoon produces halves with unequal numbers of microtubules. Bisection of the 9 + 2 motile apparatus in a plane perpendicular to that of bending also appears to produce halves with unequal numbers of microtubules. Therefore, the indispensable elements for flagellar and flagella-like motion may be microtubules arranged in "asymmetric" patterns.

Robison, W. Gerald

1972-01-01

297

When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

298

49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General Construction Requirements for Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle...

2013-10-01

299

Collapse of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Pure Bending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Collapse of layered composite cylindrical shells under pure bending is investigated. The classical buckling assumption is used to estimate the critical bending moment for relatively short cylinders by means of Flugge type buckling equations. For longer sh...

A. Jamal E. Karyadi

1993-01-01

300

Wire line soil sampler apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire-line coring apparatus is described. The apparatus has a head assembly having a latch body with extendable latches for engaging the latch seat of a drill stem. A latch release member extends into the latch body to retract the latches. A fitting is mounted by the latch body. A locking ring axially movable on the fitting a limited amount

J. R. Cooper; W. W. Svendsen

1975-01-01

301

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an \\

David R. Koehler; Darren A. Hoke; Louis S. Weichman; George E. Vernon; Randy J. Shul; Michael H. Beggans

2008-01-01

302

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an \\

David R. Koehler; Darren A. Hoke; Louis S. Weichman; George E. Vernon; Randy J. Shul; Michael H. Beggans

2006-01-01

303

An Apparatus for Photochemical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus developed for photochemical studies, particularly those involving the fluorescence of halogenated acetones. The apparatus is constructed from equipment normally found in a moderately sized physical chemical laboratory. Also provides background information on some aspects of the photophysics of halogenated propanones. (JN)

Winter, M. J.; Winter, P. V.

1984-01-01

304

An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

1974-01-01

305

Grid crusher apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grid crusher apparatus and method are provided for a nuclear fuel rod consolidation system. Spacer grids are crushed within a basket which is then placed in a storage canister. The grid crusher apparatus has a ram assembly and a basket driving mechanism. The ram assembly has a sleeve ram and a central ram. The sleeve ram surrounds the central

McDaniels; J. D. Jr

1994-01-01

306

An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

1984-01-01

307

21 CFR 868.5830 - Autotransfusion apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autotransfusion apparatus. 868.5830 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5830 Autotransfusion apparatus. (a) Identification. An autotransfusion apparatus is a device used to...

2010-04-01

308

21 CFR 868.5830 - Autotransfusion apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Autotransfusion apparatus. 868.5830 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5830 Autotransfusion apparatus. (a) Identification. An autotransfusion apparatus is a device used to...

2009-04-01

309

Deformation and fracture behavior of beams composed of aluminum foam core and ceramic Al2O3 under monolithic bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation and fracture mechanisms of sandwich and multilayer beams composed of aluminum foam core and ceramic face sheets under four-point bending condition were investigated in situ by surface displacement analysis (SDA) software. The toughening mechanism of the beams was discussed and a model was given for the computation of the fracture energy of the beams. Beams containing foam core with 5-, 10-, and 20-mm thickness and Al2O3 face sheets of 0.5-and 1-mm thickness were prepared. The results show that collapse of the beams is by two basic modes, indentation (ID) and face plate failure (PF). The SDA results illustrated that indentation is localized compression on the portion of the beam adjacent to the loading rollers, where displacement and strain are at the maximum. In PF, the beam entirely bends. It is also found that before collapse of the beams with pure PF mode, the foam core undergoes uniform compressive deformation, which contributes most to the fracture energy of the beams. As for the beams with ID characteristic, the localized compressive deformation plays a key role rather than the uniform compressive deformation in the fracture energy of the beam. The total fracture energy W of a beam under bending condition is proposed as W= W UC+ W LC+ W CB+ W PF where W UCis the energy of uniform compressive deformation of the foam core, W LCis the energy of localized compression of the foam core and W CBand W PFare the bending fracture energy of the monolithic foam core and ceramic face sheet, respectively. For the beams with pure PF mode, W LCis zero. The estimated values of the fracture energy are in good agreement with the measured fracture energy of the beams.

Sha, J. B.; Yip, T. H.

2005-03-01

310

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

1999-08-01

311

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

1998-01-01

312

New Possibilities for Improved Bending of Vibration Damping Laminated Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bending of vibration damping laminated sheet metal has been presenting serious difficulties arising from time dependent material springback, undesired deformation of the long bending legs, and separation of the steel sheets. New methods of improving the bending behaviour of steel sheets have been established as a consequence from experiments and investigations on the viscoelastic-plastic core layer of composites. Considerable improvement

M. Kleiner; V. Hellinger

1999-01-01

313

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192.315 Transportation...and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that...

2013-10-01

314

Simulations of nanowire bend tests for extracting mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties of nickel nanowires are characterized based on the numerical simulations of bend tests performed with a customized atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nickel nanowire specimens are subjected to bending loads by the tip of the AFM cantilever. The experimental force versus bending displacement curves are compared against simulations from finite element analysis and peridynamic

E. Celik; I. Guven; E. Madenci

2011-01-01

315

Metal-bending brake facilitates lightweight, close-tolerance fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight, metal bending brake ensures very accurate bends. Features of the brake that adapt it for making complex reverse bends to close tolerances are a pronounced relief or cutaway of the underside of the bodyplate combined with modification in the leaf design and its suspension.

Ercoline, A. L.; Wilton, K. B.

1964-01-01

316

Fuel injection pumping apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A liquid fuel injection pumping apparatus is described comprising a rotary and axially movable fuel distributor member housed within a body, a reciprocable pumping plunger housed within a bore formed in the distributor member, cam means mounted in the body for effecting inward movement of the plunger as the distributor member rotates, passage means in the body and distributor member and stop means for limiting the extent of outward movement of the plunger. The extent of outward movement depends on the axial setting of the distributor member in the body, resilient means biasing the distributor member in one axial direction, a chamber defined in the body, means for controlling the fluid pressure in the chamber to control the axial setting of the distributor member.

Rouse, J.A.; Mowbray, D.F.

1987-10-13

317

Isotope separation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

1980-01-01

318

Micronized grinding apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for grinding coal to micron fineness having a grinding chamber with a grinding surface supported by a circumferential wall in the grinding chamber, a plurality of grinding rolls orbiting in the grinding chamber for grinding the coal, air supply bustle surrounding the grinding chamber, air flow restrictor means opening from the air supply bustle to the grinding chamber to create a back pressure in the air supply bustle for substantially evenly distributing the air supplied to the grinding chamber around the circumference of the grinding chamber, and wherein the restrictor means directs the air flow tangentially relative to the circumferential wall of the grinding chamber so that the coal particles are caught up in a cyclonic movement having a large initial horizontally directed force to maintain a body of coal particles in the orbit of the grinding rolls, which horizontal force gradually diminishes as the vertical force component of the air flow lifts the ground coal particles out of the grinding chamber.

Williams, R.M.

1985-06-11

319

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

320

Image forming apparatus  

DOEpatents

In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

1996-01-01

321

Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

2000-01-01

322

Packer locking apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for locking a packer in a run-in position and preventing premature actuation of the packer in a wellbore. It comprises: a sleeve connectable to an outer portion of the packer; mandrel means disposed in the sleeve for connecting to an actuating mandrel of the packer; a locking member having a portion adjacent to the sleeve. The locking member being longitudinally and rotatably fixed with respect to the mandrel means; a lug extending from one of the sleeve and locking member; lug receiving means on the other of the sleeve and locking member for receiving the lug therein when in a locked position such that relative longitudinal movement between the mandrel means and the sleeve is prevented; and lock disengaging means for disengaging the lug from the lug receiving means at a predetermined position in the wellbore, thereby allowing relative longitudinal movement between the mandrel means and the sleeve.

Burns, T.D.; Caskey, K.D.; Winslow, D.W.

1991-02-05

323

Thermal synthesis apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-08-18

324

Apparatus for dispensing material  

DOEpatents

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY) [Beach, NY; Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY) [Beach, NY

2011-07-05

325

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

326

Spine immobilization apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

1981-01-01

327

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

1983-01-04

328

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus is disclosed in which an absorption refrigeration system is operated directly by solar energy. One end of a heat pipe is thermally connected to the boiler of the absorption refrigeration system, and a solar collector is thermally coupled to the other remote end of the heat pipe. The heat pipe is a sealed, evacuated metal tube partially filled with water. The solar collector is a double walled glass vacuum tube with a central axial opening for accommodating the remote end of the heat pipe. Heat energy collected by the solar collector boils the water in the heat pipe to subsequently condense in the area of the boiler thus transferring heat energy along the heat pipe to the boiler. The heat pipe is installed sloping downwardly away from the boiler to permit the return of condensate down the pipe to the solar collector area thus permitting continuous operation.

Theakston, F.H.

1982-12-07

329

Fluid pumping apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2006-01-17

330

Laser dividing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A laser beam dividing apparatus (10) having a first beam splitter (14) with an aperture (16) therein positioned in the path of a laser beam (12) such that a portion of the laser beam (12) passes through the aperture (16) onto a second beam splitter (20) and a portion of the laser beam (12) impinges upon the first beam splitter (14). Both the first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) are, optionally, made from a dichroic material such that a green component (24) of the laser beam (12) is reflected therefrom and a yellow component (26) is refracted therethrough. The first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) further each have a plurality of facets (22) such that the components (24, 26) are reflected and refracted in a number equaling the number of facets (22).

English, Jr., R. Edward (Tracy, CA); Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA)

1995-01-01

331

Solar collector apparatus  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a solar collector apparatus comprising a rotatable platen supporting a solar collector, means for rotating the platen such that the solar collector follows the wandering of the sun, said solar collector comprising a plurality of elongated parallel sun radiation concentrators, each concentrator being associated with an elongated conduit which is arranged to be subjected to the radiation concentrated by the concentrator, and pump and control means for circulating a liquid through the conduits via a liquid magazine, the concentrators being located on the platen with their longitudinal axes aligned in the vertical plane of the solar direction, said means for rotating the platen being adapted to maintain such alignment of the concentrators.

Margen, P.H.; Roseen, R.A.; Zinko, H.

1980-10-14

332

Dilution air dispensing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dilution air dispensing apparatus for a double dome combustor. It comprises: a first dome combustor having an inlet opening and an exhaust opening, a first fuel nozzle operatively arranged in the inlet opening to dispense fuel to the first dome combustor, a second dome combustor having an inlet opening and an exhaust opening, a second fuel nozzle operatively arranged in the inlet opening to dispense fuel to the second dome combustor. The first and second dome combustor being joined towards their inlet ends to form a dilution air dispensing cavity therebetween. The dilution air dispensing cavity being formed by the inner adjacent walls of the first and second dome combustors. The dilution air dispensing cavity having a rearward portion which is located approximately one-third of the dome length from the inlets to the first and second dome combustors.

King, R.C.

1990-02-27

333

Wind turbine apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A wind turbine apparatus including a shaft, two wind turbines, and a two-piece alternator. The turbines and the alternator are mounted on the shaft. The alternator is located between the turbines. The alternator includes a circular permanent magnet component fixed to the first turbine, and a circular electrical winding component fixed to the second turbine so that, when an effective wind blows in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the shaft, the first turbine and the circular magnet component will rotate around the shaft in a first direction and the second turbine and the circular winding component will rotate around the shaft in a second direction opposite the first direction, thereby generating electrical energy.

2013-01-22

334

Exhaust emission control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

Eng, J.W.

1991-09-24

335

Multiparameter vision testing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

1975-01-01

336

Heat Treating Apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

2002-09-10

337

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOEpatents

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01

338

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

DOEpatents

Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

1983-10-25

339

Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

340

Monoclinal bending of strata over laccolithic intrusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary strata on top of some laccolithic intrusions are nearly horizontal and little deformed, but are bent into steeply dipping monoclinal flexures over the peripheries of these intrusions. This form of bending is not explained by previous theories of laccolithic intrusion, which predict either horizontal undeformed strata over the center and faulted strata around the periphery, or strata bent continuously into a dome. However, a slight generalization of these theories accomodates the observed form and contains the previous forms as special cases. A critical assumption is that the strength of contacts within a multilayered overburden is overcome locally by layer-parallel shear. If this strength is less than the strength of the layers themselves, then layers over the center remain bonded together and display negligible bending, whereas layers over the periphery slip over one another and are readily bent into a monoclinal flexure. ?? 1981.

Koch, F. G.; Johnson, A. M.; Pollard, D. D.

1981-01-01

341

Combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability. III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results generated by three, unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply reversed bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. AISI 4340 steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and 2.34, and Rockwell C hardness of 35/40 were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and stress-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one represents the data best. The effects of the groove, and of the various combined bending-torsion loads, on the S-N and Goodman diagrams are determined. Two design applications are presented which illustrate the direct useability and value of the distributional failure governing strength and cycles-to-failure data in designing for specified levels of reliability and in predicting the reliability of given designs.

Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Nolf, C. F., Jr.

1975-01-01

342

Alternating bending-steady torque fatigue reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results generated by three unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply alternating-bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. Six-inch long, AISI steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and Rockwell C 35/40 hardness were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and staircase-testing data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one best represents the data. The effect of the groove and of the various combined bending-torsion loads on the finite and endurance life strength of such components, as well as on the Goodman diagram, are determined. Design applications are presented.

Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Dodge, T. M.

1974-01-01

343

Characterization of radial bending properties of cork  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of cork under three point bending stress in the radial direction was evaluated in relation to porosity (range\\u000a 2.0–15.4%) and density (range 0.160–0.220 g?cm?3). The study was made using water-boiled cork planks of two commercial quality classes (good and poor quality) collected at\\u000a an industrial mill. Cork samples were cut with the largest dimension in two directions, axial and

Ofélia Anjos; Helena Pereira; Maria Emília Rosa

344

Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

1991-01-01

345

Axial and bending behavior of pipeline joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipeline joints (ductile-iron pipes with push-on rubber gaskets) of various diameters (100 mm [4 in.], 150 mm [6 in.], 200 mm [8 in.], and 250 mm [10 in.]) were tested to determine their structural behavior when subjected to static loading and reloading conditions. Pull-out and bending tests were performed on joints under buried, semiburied, and unburied conditions. The linear and

A. C. Singhal; J. C. Benavides

1983-01-01

346

Electron cooling device without bending magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scheme of an axisymmetric electron cooling device without bending magnets is proposed. Solutions for the most important elements, i.e., a gun and a recuperator, are considered. The main characteristics of the recuperator of the Faraday cup type having a reflector and a gun with a ring emitter are explored. In the gun, the beam is formed, the diameter of which is 40 mm and the dimension of a disturbance region is several millimeters.

Sharapa, A. N.; Shemyakin, A. V.

1993-11-01

347

Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as

1986-01-01

348

DESIGN OF THE TPS BENDING CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the design, manufacture and treatment of the bending vacuum chamber (B-chamber) of the 3-GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS). The B-chamber is a aluminium-alloy chamber ~5 m long with an antechamber on the near side of the beam duct. The design of the B-chamber is aimed to diminish the power density and the photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) induced by

C. K. Chan; G. Y. Hsiung; C. C. Chang; Y. B. Chen; C. Y. Yang; C. L. Chen; H. P. Hsueh

349

Forming and Bending of Metal Foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams.

Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven

2004-06-01

350

Emittance growth of bunched beams in bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Talman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1429 (1986)] has proposed a novel relativistic effect that occurs when a charged particle beam is bent in the magnetic field from an external dipole. The consequence of this effect is that the space-charge forces from the particles do not exhibit the usual inverse-square energy dependence and some part of them are, in fact, independent of energy. This led to speculation that this effect could introduce significant emittance growth for a bending electron beam. Subsequently, it was shown that this effect's influence on the beam's transverse motion is canceled for a dc beam by a potential depression within the beam (to first order in the beam radius divided by the bend radius). In this paper, we extend the analysis to include short bunch lengths (as compared to the beam pipe dimensions) and find that there is no longer the cancellation for forces both transverse to and in the direction of motion. We provide an estimate for the emittance growth as a function of bend angle, beam radius, and current, and for magnetic compression of an electron bunch.

Carlsten, Bruce E.; Raubenheimer, Tor O.

1995-02-01

351

Polarization dependence of bend loss for a standard singlemode fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization dependence of bend loss caused by the polymer coating layer for a standard singlemode fiber (SMF28) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Bend loss for SMF28 for both the TE and TM mode is calculated separately. Normalized polarization dependent loss is proposed for the characterization of the polarization sensitivity of bend loss for different bend radii. Corresponding experimental tests are presented, which agree with the theoretical results. Both the theoretical and experimental results show that the polymer coating layer has a significant influence on the polarization dependence of bend loss.

Wang, Qian; Rajan, Ginu; Wang, Pengfei; Farrell, Gerald

2007-04-01

352

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

353

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Placitas, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-30

354

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Sherwood, OR); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-06-10

355

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1991-06-18

356

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-06-18

357

Apparatus for measuring particle properties  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle's size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle's velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered.

Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Castaneda, Jaime N. (Albuquerque, NM); Grasser, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

358

Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.)  

PubMed Central

Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to “unfold” and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W.

2014-01-01

359

Integrated-magnetic apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosure is made of an integrated-magnetic apparatus, comprising: winding structure for insulatingly carrying at least two generally flat, laterally offset and spaced apart electrical windings of a power converter around an aperture; a core having a flat exterior face, an interior cavity and an un-gapped core-column that is located within the cavity and that passes through the aperture of the winding structure; flat-sided surface carried by the core and forming an interior chamber that is located adjacent to the flat face of the core and forming a core-column that has a gap and that is located within the chamber; and structure, located around the gapped core-column, for carrying a third electrical winding of the power converter. The first two electrical windings are substantially located within the cavity and are adapted to be transformingly coupled together through the core. The third electrical winding is adapted to be inductively coupled through the gapped core-column to the other electrical windings, and is phased to have the magnetic flux passing through the gapped core-column substantially in the same direction as the magnetic flux passing through the un-gapped core-column and to have substantially the same AC components of flux in the gapped core-column and in the un-gapped core-column.

Bloom, Gordon E. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

360

Flow cytometry apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an apparatus for orienting cells in a sheath fluid in a otometer/sorter. It comprises: flow chamber; means for flowing the sheath fluid through the flow chamber along a direction of flow; means for obstructing the flow of the sheath fluid in the flow chamber with a first dimension, which extends substantially across the flow chamber and is substantially perpendicular to the direction of flow and with a thickness perpendicular to the first dimension of the obstructing means wherein the sheath fluid flows around the thickness so that the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension at the downstream edge of the means for obstructing; and means for introducing the cells through the means for obstructing the flow to the region where the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension in the sheath fluid to orient the cells, with an aperture wherein as the cells pass from the means for introducing the cells to the region where the sheath fluid converges the cells pass through the aperture with a cross-sectional length substantially less than or equal to the thickness of the means for obstructing the flow.

Pinkel, D.

1991-01-29

361

Thermal energy storage apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

Thoma, P.E.

1980-04-22

362

Apparatus for coating powders  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

363

Apparatus for forming targets  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

Woerner, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

364

Fluid energy conversion apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A fluid energy conversion apparatus including a fluid path assembly having an outside guide assembly, a cylindrical wall inside surface and at least one inside guide assembly is provided. There is also a cylindrical partition wall which extends between the outside guide assembly and the inside guide assembly with its central axis set on the central axis of the cylindrical wall inside surface, the cylindrical wall inside surface of the outside guide assembly and the cylindrical partition wall defining an annular outside path therebetween and the outside peripheral surface of the inside guide assembly and the cylindrical partition wall defining an annular inside path therebetween. There is a plurality of support struts connecting the outside guide assembly, the inside guide assembly and the cylindrical partition wall. Also included is a first rotary member that include an annular hub located adjacent a first end portion of the inside guide assembly and a second rotary member having a second annular hub located adjacent a second end portion of said inside guide assembly. Also included are stator blades, a fluid pressurizing-accelerating device and exhaust nozzles formed in both sides of each of the first turbine rotor blades in a position adjacent to a trailing edge of each of the first turbine rotor blades.

1996-12-31

365

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

366

Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

Okandan, Murat (NE Albuquerque, NM)

2009-06-02

367

Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.

1997-04-01

368

Belt conveyor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Bogart, Rex L. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

369

Fluid driven recipricating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

1997-01-01

370

Influence of bending-twisting and extension-bending coupling on damping of laminated composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for characterizing the vibration coupling effects on damping of laminated composites was developed based on Hwang and Gibson (1987, 1990, 1991, 1992) and Mantena et al. (1989, 1990) strain energy method. The analysis was performed on graphite-epoxy laminated cantilever beams in two stacking sequences, 12-ply symmetric laminates (12(theta)) and 12-ply antisymmetric laminates (6(theta)/6(-theta)), making it possible to study the effects of vibration coupling between bending and twisting in symmetric laminates, and between extension and bending in antisymmetric laminates. It was found that the coupling effects on damping in flexural modes were more significant than those in torsional modes.

Hwang, S. J.; Gibson, R. F.

1993-01-01

371

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO) [Rolla, MO; Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR) [McMinnville, OR; Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO) [Rolla, MO; Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL) [Champaign, IL; Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO) [Trondheim, NO

2009-11-17

372

Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

Mills, Robert D.

1990-01-01

373

Pulse Generator Utilizing Superconducting Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High power, phase coherent pulses are generated by superconducting apparatus which includes a superconducting cavity resonator that is pumped by a low power microwave source while being isolated from a load. Switching of the cavity to an emitting mode is ...

D. B. Birx

1978-01-01

374

Filling Apparatuses, Chemical Land Mine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The engineering test procedure describes test methods and techniques for evaluating technical performance and characteristics of chemical land mine filling apparatuses. The evaluation is related to criteria established by applicable qualitative materiel r...

1970-01-01

375

Apparatus: The Beginning of Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrated and described is a convection box for classroom use to stimulate concept development in elementary school children. Other equipment and apparatus that may be used in open-ended science activites are listed. (CS)

Horak, Willis

1980-01-01

376

Bi-stem gripping apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

Sanders, Fred G. (inventor)

1988-01-01

377

Apparatus for photon excited catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

1977-01-01

378

Molecular separation method and apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for separating a gaseous mixture of chemically identical but physically different molecules based on their polarities. The gaseous mixture of molecules is introduced in discrete quantities into the proximal end of a po...

E. Villa-Aleman

1995-01-01

379

Bending of composite cylindrical lattice shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to a new class of composite structures developed to sustain intense compressive loads, i.e., cylindrical shells consisting of helical and annular ribs with coatings reinforced in the circumferential direction. Governing equations of a continuum model of the structures are based on a version of the asymmetric elasticity theory containing an independent vector of rotation. Constitutive equations take into account stiffness of the ribs in tension/compression, shear, and bending in normal and tangential planes and torsion. A solution for the cantilever shell is obtained on the basis of the membrane theory of shells.

Belousov, P. S.; Bunakov, V. A.

1992-04-01

380

Bending of Semiconducting Cantilevers Under Photothermal Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the elastic vibrations of semiconducting cantilevers, which were excited with a frequency-modulated uniform laser beam, were studied theoretically and experimentally. The three-dimensional distributions for the carrier density and temperature were obtained analytically using the Green function method. The elastic bending of a cantilever was given by the theory of a thin rectangular plate. Using an optical interferometric setup, the experimental photothermal signals were investigated near the first resonant frequency and the results showed that the theoretical calculation results were in good agreement with that of the experimental measurement.

Song, Yaqin; Todorovic, Dragan M.; Cretin, Bernard; Vairac, Pascal; Xu, Jie; Bai, Jintao

2014-02-01

381

Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.

Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.

1977-01-01

382

Multifiber optical bend sensor to aid colonoscope navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colonoscopy's near-blind navigation process frequently causes disorientation for the scope operator, leading to harm for the patient. Navigation can be improved if real-time colonoscope shape, location, and orientation information is provided by a shape-tracking aid, such as a fiber optic bend sensor. Fiber optic bend sensors provide advantages over conventional electromechanical shape-trackers, including low cost and ease of integration. However, current fiber optic bend sensors lack either the ability to detect both bending direction and curvature, or the ability to detect multiple localized bends. An inexpensive multifiber bend sensor was developed to aid users in navigation during colonoscopy. The bend sensor employs active-cladding optical fibers modified with fluorescent quantum dots, bandpass filters, and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imager as key components. Results from three-fiber sensors demonstrate the bend sensor's ability to measure curvature (error of 0.01 mm), direction (100% accuracy), and location (predetermined distance) of a bend in the fiber bundle. Comparison with spectroscopy data further confirmed the accuracy of the bending direction measurement for a three-fiber sensor. Future work includes improvements in fiber manufacturing to increase sensor sensitivity and consistency. An expanded 31 fiber bundle would be needed to track the full length of a colonoscope.

Kesner, Jessica E.; Gavalis, Robb M.; Wong, Peter Y.; Cao, Caroline G. L.

2011-12-01

383

Automatic transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

Hiketa, M.

1987-10-06

384

Precision Small Angle Bending of Sheet Metals Using Shear Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a new method to bend sheet metals at a small angle precisely, in which a sheet metal is slightly bent by shear deformation at negative punch-die clearance. Deformation behavior and key factors affecting on the bend angle were studied in detail with pure aluminum sheets. It was proved that the bend angle was changed in proportion to both punch penetration and negative punch-die clearance within a certain range. The same was true for high-strength steel and phosphor bronze, which are difficult to bend precisely by conventional methods due to large springback after unloading. By using this relationship as a control law, four kinds of sheet metals were precisely bent within a few degrees. This method was applied to correct the angular errors in U-bend products of high-strength steel and to bend leaf springs of phosphor bronze at an arbitrary small angle.

Hirota, Kenji; Mori, Yorifumi

385

Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens having dogbone- or T-shaped end sections without introducing bending stresses in the specimens during the application of a dynamic tensile loading on the specimens is described. A pair of elongated pull rods disposed in a side-by-side relationship are used to grip the shoulders on each T-shaped end section. The pull rods are pivotally attached to a piston-displaceable, disk-shaped member so as to be longitudinally movable with respect to one another effecting the self-alignment thereof with the shoulders on the T-shaped end sections of the specimen to compensate for shoulders being located in different longitudinal positions.

Liu, Kenneth C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

386

Nuclear reactor fuel assembly mixing vane repair apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for straightening a bent mixing vane of a grid in a fuel cell of a nuclear reactor is described, comprising: (a) an elongated member movable in and out of the fuel cell; (b) first means connected to the elongated member movable between a first open position extending out of the elongated member for contacting a bent mixing vane, and a second closed position substantially within the elongated member, (c) second movable means operated remotely from the first means for moving the first movable means between the first and second positions. When the elongated member is moved out of the fuel cell with the first means in the first position, the first means contacts and straightens the bend mixing vane and carries a reaction load to the grid.

Dailey, G.F.

1988-04-12

387

New options for improved steam generator U-bend integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary-side intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) has been noted in the U-bend region of first- and second-row Alloy 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor recirculating steam generators. The cracks have been found primarily at the apex and near the tangents of the bends on the extrados (outside bend radius) and in the sides near the small radius of the curvature

J. E. Gutzwiller; S. W. Glass

1987-01-01

388

Bending vibration measurement on rotors by laser vibrometry.  

PubMed

A new technique is proposed for noncontact measurement of bending vibration directly from a rotating component. This notoriously difficult and previously unattained measurement is a further development of laser Doppler vibrometry. Simultaneously the technique provides an accurate measure of shaft torsional vibration in situations in which measurements of torsional vibration have shown significant sensitivity to bending vibration. Experimental results validate the theory developed, and a conservative estimate of the minimum measurable bending vibration is made at 20 millidegrees. PMID:19865384

Miles, T; Lucas, M; Rothberg, S

1996-02-15

389

Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same  

DOEpatents

A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

Goldsmith, Robert L. (Wayland, MA)

2012-04-03

390

Wide range pure bending strains of Nb3Sn wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure bending behavior of Nb3Sn wire over a wide range of bending has been characterized. A previously developed test device designed to apply variable bending strains to Nb3Sn strands using a beam style sample holder was used. Based on finite element and experimental investigations, two sample holder beams were developed to cover pure bending strains up to 1.25% for ITER-type Nb3Sn wires. These newly designed beams were optimized to apply consistent and uniform pure bending strains to Nb3Sn strands over the entire bending range. Their performance was evaluated by testing two ITER-type Nb3Sn wires including one internal tin and one bronze route. The internal tin strands experienced around 55% critical current degradation at 1.25% bending strain while the critical current of the bronze route strands were only reduced by 40%. Upon removal of the bending load, the internal tin wires experienced significant permanent degradation whereas the bronze route wires were completely reversible. These critical current results were evaluated and explained using an existing integrated model accounting for neutral axis shift, current transfer length, filament breakage and uniaxial strain release under pure bending loads.

Allen, Nathaniel; Mallon, Philip; King, Joseph; Chiesa, Luisa; Takayasu, Makoto

2014-06-01

391

Hot bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For bending of brittle materials it is necessary to heat up the forming zone. This can be done with a fiber coupled solid state laser, whose beam is evenly distributed on the bending line with a beam splitter installed in the lower tool (die) of a bending press. With polarization optics the laser beam is divided there into partial beams that are evenly distributed on the bending line with lenses and prisms. A setup for a bending length of 200mm heated by a fiber-coupled 3kW Nd:YAG-laser shows the feasibility of the concept. Successful operation was shown for the Mg-alloy AZ31, which breaks during forming at room temperature, but can be well formed at temperatures in the range of 200-300°C. Other materials benefiting from this method are Ti-alloys, high-strength-Al-alloys, and high-strength-steels. Typical heating times are in the range of up to 5s and much of the heat input is generated during the bending operation where the laser continues to work. Laser Assisted Bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser is a straightforward way to perform the bending of brittle materials in a process as simple as cold bending.

Bammer, F.; Schumi, T.; Schuöcker, D.

2010-09-01

392

Bending Poisson Effect in Two-Dimensional Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the Poisson effect formulates, lateral strains in a material can be caused by a uniaxial stress in the perpendicular direction, but no net lateral strain should be induced in a thin homogeneous elastic plate subjected to a pure bending load. Here, we demonstrated by ab initio simulations that significant exotic lateral strains can be induced by pure bending in two-dimensional crystals, in which the lateral components of chemical bonds can respond to bending curvature directly. The bending Poisson ratio, defined as the ratio of lateral strain to the curvature, is a function of curvature depending on chemical constitution, bonding structure, and atomic interaction of the crystal, and is anisotropic.

Liu, Xiaofei; Pan, Douxing; Hong, Yuanzhou; Guo, Wanlin

2014-05-01

393

Fatigue life prediction in bending from axial fatigue information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bending fatigue in the low cyclic life range differs from axial fatigue due to the plastic flow which alters the linear stress-strain relation normally used to determine the nominal stresses. An approach is presented to take into account the plastic flow in calculating nominal bending stress (S sub bending) based on true surface stress. These functions are derived in closed form for rectangular and circular cross sections. The nominal bending stress and the axial fatigue stress are plotted as a function of life (N sub S) and these curves are shown for several materials of engineering interest.

Manson, S. S.; Muralidharan, U.

1982-01-01

394

Ultralow bending loss fibers with higher-order mode strippers.  

PubMed

We propose and demonstrate bend-insensitive fibers equipped with higher-order mode strippers. The mode stripper is realized by filling a section of air holes with epoxy to attenuate any higher-order modes that are excited at fiber junctions and are confined by the air holes surrounding the core. We found that the higher-order modes are well suppressed with 5 cm-long epoxy columns. An ultralow bending loss of 0.025 dB/turn at a bend diameter of 10 mm, together with single-modeness, is experimentally demonstrated in a bend-insensitive fiber with six air holes 16 ?m in diameter. PMID:20940841

Vu, Ngoc Hai; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jung, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Goo; Hwang, In-Kag

2010-09-13

395

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1998-06-23

396

Data transfer method and data transfer apparatus for image reading apparatus and image reading apparatus with data transfer apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A data transfer method and apparatus for an image reading apparatus suitably used with an image scanner is improved in that a transfer line apparatus is simplified in construction and produced with a reduced cost by an improved transferring technique of data. The data transfer apparatus is incorporated in an image reading apparatus including first and second optical image reading units and comprises a storage section for storing data from a first operating one of the first and second optical image reading units from which paper image information is to be read out later, a first data transfer section for successively transferring, by way of a data transfer line, data from the first operating image reading unit, and a second data transfer section for successively transferring, after the data from the first operating image reading unit have been transferred by the first data transfer means, the data from the other later operating image reading unit stored in the storage means at a rate higher than the data transfer rate at which data are transferred by the first data transfer means by way of the data transfer line.

1998-05-12

397

PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE MEASUREMENT BY BEAM BENDING  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and, quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. A performance property for Saltstone mixes that is important but not routinely measured is the liquid permeability or saturated hydraulic conductivity of the cured Saltstone mix. The value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity is an input into the Performance Assessment for the SRS Z-Area vaults. Therefore, it is important to have a method available that allows for an accurate and reproducible measurement of permeability quickly and inexpensively. One such method that could potentially meet these requirements for the measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the technique of beam bending, developed by Professor George Scherer at Princeton University. In order to determine the feasibility of this technique for Saltstone mixes, a summer student, David Feliciano, was hired to work at Princeton under the direction of George Scherer. This report details the results of this study which demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the beam bending method to measurement of permeability of Saltstone samples. This research effort used samples made at Princeton from a Modular Caustic side solvent extraction Unit based simulant (MCU) and premix at a water to premix ratio of 0.60. The saturated hydraulic conductivities for these mixes were measured by the beam bending technique and the values determined were of the order of 1.4 to 3.4 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with independently measured values of this property on similar MCU based mixes by Dixon and Phifer. These values are also consistent with the hydraulic conductivity of a generic Saltstone mix measured by Langton in 1985. The high water to premix ratio used for Saltstone along with the relatively low degree of hydration for MCU based mixes leads to high total and capillary porosities. These two conditions generally lead to higher permeabilities as has been well documented in the literature for typical cementitious pastes in water. Therefore, it is not unexpected that the hydraulic conductivities of these Saltstone mixes are relatively high.

Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Vickie Williams, V

2008-01-30

398

Strength tests of thin-walled elliptic duralumin cylinders in pure bending and in combined pure bending and torsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of the results of tests made by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on an investigation of the strength of thin-walled circular and elliptic cylinders in pure bending and in combined torsion and bending. In each of the loading conditions, the bending moments were applied in the plane of the major axis of the ellipse.

Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z

1942-01-01

399

Evaluation of limit load data for cracked pipe bends under opening bending and comparisons with existing solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing limit load solutions for cracked pipe bends under in-plane bending have been developed following the experimental work by Griffiths on bends with through-wall defects or by extrapolation of solutions developed for cracked straight pipes. No data exists for part-penetrating defects.This contribution summarises recently obtained experimental and finite element results from 13 tests on axially (at the crown) and

K. Yahiaoui; D. N. Moreton; D. G. Moffat

2002-01-01

400

Transverse bend testing of denture base polymers.  

PubMed

A test rig has been designed for transverse bend testing on the Instron machine. The rig is a robust, accurately machined piece of equipment that enables this test to be carried out with accuracy and ease. A range of denture base polymers has been tested under similar conditions to the ISO standard recommendations (ISO/R 1567, 1974), and in this series all the materials except 3 satisfied the criteria laid down in the standard. The specimens were tested in water after 1 month because it has been shown previously that the materials are almost fully saturated at that time (Stafford and Huggett, 1973). Nevertheless, this immersion in water may also weaken the material and this could account for the failure of some materials to pass the standards criteria. PMID:1059644

Stafford, G D; Handley, R W

1975-11-01

401

Separation of blood in microchannel bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (?TBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.

Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang

2003-12-01

402

Control system for glass bending platen  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A closed loop control system for a hydraulically actuated glass sheet press bending platen. Flow of fluid supplied to the cylinder operating the press platen is controlled through a servo solenoid valve. A linear motion transducer associated with the platen and sends appropriate signals to a programmable motion controller. The motion controller controls a position module operatively coupled to a servo solenoid valve which regulates the flow of hydraulic fluid from a pump to the cylinder. The motion controller utilizes data from the linear motion transducer for making necessary corrections to insure that the platen cycles precisely in accordance with a predetermined program. In a second embodiment of the invention, the closed loop control system for the hydraulically operated platen is combined with a precision control of a variable speed glass sheet conveyor means for improved registry of the glass sheet being bent with the platen member.

1998-02-10

403

Locking apparatus for gate valves  

DOEpatents

A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing futher movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

Fabyan, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Williams, Carl W. (Manteca, CA)

1988-01-01

404

Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

Fyfe, Richard W. (Las Vegas, NV); Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo (Las Vegas, NV)

1990-01-01

405

Apparatus for purifying polluted liquids  

SciTech Connect

The invention is an apparatus for purifying polluted liquids, especially water. The apparatus comprises a vessel with a relatively large length to width ratio including a reaction zone for contacting the liquid with a gas, separated from the rest of the vessel by a downflow-upflow wall, having a liquid inlet means for introducing a liquid into the reaction zone, the flotation zone connected with the reaction zone occupying the rest of the vessel and a skimmer disposed at the end of the flotation zone for skimming off the floating materials to a channel arranged transverse to the longitudinal axis of the vessel and means for removing the purifying liquid from the apparatus.

Fuchs, H.

1982-05-18

406

Rotating Apparatus for Isoelectric Focusing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remixing of separated fractions prevented. Improved isoelectric focusing apparatus helps to prevent electro-osmosis and convection, both of which cause remixing of separated fractions. Fractionating column segmented and rotated about horizontal axis: Only combined effects of both features fully effective in making good separations. Improved apparatus slowly rotated continuously or rocked (at rotational amplitude of at least 180 degrees) about its horizontal axis so average gravitational vector experienced by fluid is zero and convection is therefore suppressed. Electro-osmosis suppressed and convection further suppressed by separating column into disklike compartments along its length with filters. Experiments have shown dimensions of apparatus not critical. Typical compartment and column volumes are 2 and 40 ml, respectively. Rotation speeds lie between 3 and 30 rpm.

Bier, M.

1986-01-01

407

Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second-order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters. PMID:23767556

Shamid, Shaikh M; Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan V

2013-05-01

408

Sodium purification apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter.

Gould, Marc I. (Van Nuys, CA)

1980-01-01

409

Sodium purification apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal are disclosed. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter. 1 fig.

Gould, M.I.

1980-03-04

410

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

1987-05-12

411

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1987-05-12

412

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

413

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

414

Apparatus Splits Glass Tubes Longitudinally  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tubes split into half cylinders by hot-wire/thermal-shock method. Tube to be cut placed on notched jig in apparatus. Nichrome wire stretched between arms of pivoted carriage and oriented parallel to notch. Wire heated by electrical current while resting on tube. After heating for about 1 minute for each millimeter of thickness of glass, tube quenched in water and split by resulting thermal shock. Apparatus used to split tubes in sizes ranging from 3/8 in. in diameter by 1 in. long to 1 1/2 in. in diameter by 4 in. long.

Shaw, Ernest; Manahan, Robert O'neil

1993-01-01

415

Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus  

DOEpatents

The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

1983-06-16

416

Electron/Ion-Scattering Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In new apparatus, most of electrons scattered inelastically over wide range of angles measured simultaneously, with consequent increase in signal-to-noise ratio by factor of about 10 to 4th power. Beam of electrons and beam of ions aimed along low-intensity magnetic field between pair of electric-field plates. Crossed electric and magnetic fields hardly affect ions but cause electrons to drift toward ions by trochoidal motion. With modifications, apparatus used for measurements of excitation cross sections in neutral atoms, molecules, radicals, and excited states of atoms and molecules.

Chutjian, Ara

1989-01-01

417

Apparatus for control of mercury  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

2001-01-01

418

Pole pulling apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for removal of embedded utility-type poles which removes the poles quickly and efficiently from their embedded position without damage to the pole or surrounding structures. The apparatus includes at least 2 piston/cylinder members equally spaced about the pole, and a head member affixed to the top of each piston. Elongation of the piston induces rotation of the head into the pole to increase the gripping action and reduce slippage. Repeated actuation and retraction of the piston and head member will "jack" the pole from its embedded position.

McIntire, Gary L. (12 Honeybee La., Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1989-01-01

419

Compact Apparatus Grows Protein Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory apparatus provides delicately balanced combination of materials and chemical conditions for growth of protein crystals. Apparatus and technique for growth based on hanging-drop method for crystallization of macromolecules. Includes pair of syringes with ganged plungers. One syringe contains protein solution; other contains precipitating-agent solution. Syringes intrude into cavity lined with porous reservoir material saturated with 1 mL or more of similar precipitating-agent solution. Prior to activation, ends of syringes plugged to prevent transport of water vapor among three solutions.

Bugg, Charles E.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Suddath, Fred L.; Snyder, Robert S.; Herren, Blair J.; Carter, Daniel C.; Yost, Vaughn H.

1989-01-01

420

Influence of bending-twisting and extension-bending coupling on damping of laminated composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a three-dimensional finite element-strain energy method for characterizing vibration coupling effects on damping of laminated composites. The analysis was performed on graphite-epoxy laminated cantilever beams in two stacking sequences: (i) 12-ply symmetric laminates [12(?)], and (ii) 12-ply antisymmetric laminates [6(?)\\/6(-?)]. Thus, the effects of vibration coupling between bending and twisting in symmetric laminates, and between extension and

S. J. Hwang; R. F. Gibson

1993-01-01

421

Plastic collapse of pipe bends under combined internal pressure and in-plane bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic collapse of pipe bends with attached straight pipes under combined internal pressure and in-plane closing moment is investigated by elastic–plastic finite element analysis. Three load histories are investigated, proportional loading, sequential pressure–moment loading and sequential moment–pressure loading. Three categories of ductile failure load are defined: limit load, plastic load (with associated criteria of collapse) and instability loads. The results

Andrew Robertson; Hongjun Li; Donald Mackenzie

2005-01-01

422

Pipe handling apparatus for reel pipe laying system  

SciTech Connect

An offshore system for laying a continuous length of pipe on the sea bottom from a pipe-carrying reel adapted to be mounted on a carrier vessel having an improved pipe handling and conditioning apparatus for working on the unspooled pipe. The improved apparatus includes a pipe straightener for imparting a reverse plastic bending moment to the unspooled pipe passing therethrough , and which comprises at least two pairs of pipe support rollers, each pair being aligned along the pipe path and mounted for rotational movement about respective rotational axes normal to the pipe path and parallel to the plane of the deck of the carrier vessel, and for pivoting movement about a pivot axis located between and substantially parallel to the respective rotational axes. A straightener carriage mounts the pipe straightening means for movement (1) about a pivot axis substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the reel, (2) in a substantially vertical direction relative to the deck of the carrier vessel, and (3) in a direction substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the reel.

Brown, W.A.; Cha, J.H.; Weldon, H.P.; Whyte, D.G.

1981-01-06

423

36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

2013-07-01

424

Localized active-cladding optical fiber bend sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and fabrication of a novel fiber optic multiparameter bend sensor. Unlike current intrinsic fiber optic multiparameter bend sensors that depend on multiple cores or multiple fibers, the new sensor is based on three circumferential active-cladding point modifications on a single optical fiber at specific axial locations along the length of the fiber. A commercial 30-W CO2

Robb M. Gavalis; Peter Y. Wong; Jessica A. Eisenstein; Lothar Lilge; Caroline G. L. Cao

2010-01-01

425

COASTAL BEND BAYS & ESTUARIES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program, Inc. (CBBEP) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)organization. The CBBEP project area encompasses 12 counties coincident with the Coastal Bend Council of Governments and extends from the Land-Cut in the Laguna Madre, through the Corpus Christi Bay s...

426

View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

427

Extremal condition tests of cable bending for fiber optic closures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In article results of experimental researches of resistance to optical cable bends on an output from closure port are submitted. The test data optical cable with increased inflexibility in extreme conditions are resulted. Recommendations on increase of resistance to small radiuses bends for of optical cables on an output from closure at the lowered temperature are considered.

Alekhin, Nikolay I.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Bourdine, Anton V.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.

2008-05-01

428

Strength tests on paper cylinder in compression, bending and shear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static tests on paper cylinders were conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory at Langley Field, Virginia, to obtain qualitative information in connection with a study of the strength of stressed-skin fuselages. The effects of radius-thickness ratio and bulkhead spacing were investigated with the cylinders in compression, bending, combined bending and shear, and torsion.

Rhodes, Richard V; Lundquist, Eugene E

1931-01-01

429

A rotary ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducers.  

PubMed

A rotary ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducers is proposed. In each transducer, two orthogonal bending vibrations are superimposed and an elliptical trajectory is generated at the driving foot. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 58 rpm and maximum torque of 9·5 Nm under an exciting voltage of 200 V(rms). PMID:20889424

Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

2010-10-01

430

Simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature for LPG bending sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For an embedded LPG bending sensor, in which the its resonance coupling strength changes with bending curvature, cross-talk issues between temperature and bending curvature arises if it is to be deployed in non-controlled environments. A 2 x 2 matrix method was thus employed for simultaneous measurement of bending curvature and temperature for the embedded LPG bending sensor. The matrix is made up of bending and temperature coefficients from 2 different fiber-types LPG; one is H2-loaded and the other is Bo/Ge co-doped. To find out the percentage error, a random test has to be carried out and the matrix was deployed for calculation. From the test results, the percentage error achieved for curvature measurement yields less than 6%. For temperature measurement, the percentage error fluctuates between 1.56% and 5.4%. The use of simultaneous measurement of both bending curvature and temperature enables researchers and engineers to measure bending of structures more accurately.

Chan, Chi Chiu; Tan, Khay M.; Tay, Chia M.; Tjin, Swee C.

2004-12-01

431

Observation and Modeling of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Bend Junctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bends, with diameters from approx. 1.0 to 2.5 nm and bend angles from 18 deg. to 34 deg., are observed in catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons at 600 - 1200 C. An algorithm using molecular dynamics simulation (MD) techniques is developed to model these structures that are considered to be SWNT junctions formed by topological defects (i.e. pentagon-heptagon pairs). The algorithm is used to predict the tube helicities and defect configurations for bend junctions using the observed tube diameters and bend angles. The number and arrangement of the defects at the junction interfaces are found to depend on the tube helicities and bend angle. The structural and energetic calculations using the Brenner potential show a number of stable junction configurations for each bend angle with the 34 deg. bends being more stable than the others. Tight binding calculations for local density of state (LDOS) and transmission coefficients are carried out to investigate electrical properties of the bend junctions.

Han, Jie; Anantram, M. P.; Jaffe, R. L.; Kong, J.; Dai, H.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

432

BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, two elevations, sections, and details. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1 of 1. Various scales. December 15, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Bending Shop & Oven, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

433

On applications of generalized functions to beam bending problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a mathematical approach, this paper seeks an efficient solution to the problem of beams bending under singular loading conditions and having various jump discontinuities. For two instances, the boundary-value problem that describes beam bending cannot be written in the space of classical functions. In the first instance, the beam is under singular loading conditions, such as point forces and

Arash Yavari; Shahram Sarkani; E. Thomas Moyer

2000-01-01

434

Actuators Help Correct For Gravitational Bending Of Antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Force-actuator scheme devised to help correct for decrease, caused by gravitational bending, in gain of 34-m-diameter paraboloidal microwave antenna reflector used for tracking distant spacecraft and observing celestial radio sources. Also applicable to other antennas bending significantly under own weight, with consequent degradation of performance.

Levy, Roy; Strain, Douglas M.

1996-01-01

435

Bending and buckling of thin strain gradient elastic beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bending of strain gradient elastic thin beams is studied adopting Bernoulli-Euler principle. Simple linear strain gradient elastic theory with surface energy is employed. The governing beam equations with its boundary conditions are derived through a variational method. It turns out that new terms are introduced, indicating the importance of the cross-section area in bending of thin beams. Those terms are

K. A. Lazopoulos; A. K. Lazopoulos

2010-01-01

436

General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 inches - 1 ft, March 13th 1893, drawing number 15384 (photograph of drawing of rail bending machine held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

437

Performance of engine-driven rotary endodontic instruments with a superimposed bending deflection: V. Gates Glidden and Peeso drills.  

PubMed

A laboratory study was performed on Gates Glidden and Peeso drills to determine the incidence of shaft fracture when a bending deflection was superimposed on the rotating drills. Samples of sizes #1 to #6 stainless steel Gates Glidden drills, sizes #1 to #6 stainless steel and carbon steel-type P Peeso drills, and sizes #009 to #023 carbon steel-type B-1 Peeso drills from each of two manufacturers were evaluated with a unique apparatus that applied a 2-mm bending deflection while rotating the instruments. The apparatus did not restrict movement of the bur head during rotation. The test drills were rotated at 2500, 4000, and 7000 revolutions per minute, and the number of revolutions at failure was recorded. Scanning electron microscopic observations established that the stainless steel Gates Glidden and Peeso drills failed by ductile fracture, whereas the carbon steel Peeso drills failed by brittle fracture. Instrument fracture was always near the handpiece shank with this test, and the length of the fractured drills was measured from the working tip. It is recommended that this additional test be adopted to determine fatigue properties of engine-driven rotary endodontic instruments in establishing international performance standards. PMID:7931016

Brantley, W A; Luebke, N H; Luebke, F L; Mitchell, J C

1994-05-01

438

Apparatus for Producing Gaseous Vapor Baffle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses an apparatus that produces a gaseous vapor baffle that isolates an undersea sonar system from acoustic noise. The apparatus allows for craft carrying undersea sonar systems to travel at relatively high speeds while substa...

T. J. Gieseke

2004-01-01

439

Magnetic Resonance Detection Method and and Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus is described for detecting magnetic resonance of a sample. The apparatus uses an exceptionally stable tunnel diode rf oscillator incorporating a LC reentrant cavity resonator. The method entails measuring a magnetic resonance of the...

C. T. Van Degrift D. B. Utton

1977-01-01

440

Apparatus for Testing High Pressure Injector Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which ...

W. N. Myers E. M. Scott J. C. Forbes M. D. Shadoan

1993-01-01

441

Testing Apparatus for Airborne Missile System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to testing apparatus of the type which is especially useful in determining whether certain electronic equipment is operationally fit and particularly, to apparatus for testing the performance of an airborne missile control sy...

J. P. Tomany

1983-01-01

442

Fire Control Apparatus for a Laser Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenar...

R. H. Worsham

1985-01-01

443

Theoretical calculation of bending stiffness of alveolar wall.  

PubMed

The bending stiffness of the alveolar wall is theoretically analyzed in this study through analytical modeling. First, the alveolar wall facet and its characteristics were geometrically simplified and then modeled using known physical laws. Bending stiffness is shown to be dependent on alveolar wall thickness, density, Poisson's ratio and speed of the longitudinal wave. The normal bending stiffness of the alveolar wall was further determined. For the adult human, the normal bending stiffness is calculated to be 71.0-414.7 nNm, while for the adult mouse it is 1.9-30.0 nNm. The results of this study can be used as a reference for future pulmonary emphysema and fibrosis studies, as the bending stiffness of alveolar wall will be lower and higher, respectively; than the theoretically determined normal values. PMID:24121628

Jabaraj, D John; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhaimi

2013-12-01

444

Bending the ferroelectric domain wall by a bubble.  

PubMed

The shape of the ferroelectric domain wall mainly depends on the lattice structure and the pinning effect of random defects, but can we control it intentionally? Here we present a method to bend the domain wall by a bubble. A submillimeter bubble was put underneath a lithium niobate wafer inside a deionized water electrode to resist the propagation of the domain wall, and make the straight wall bend at an angle of 52°. The perpendicular surface screening field was considered to directly relate to the bending angle and the motion of the surface charged droplets in the bubble, and the detachment of droplets determined the bending of the domain wall. Further experiments succeeded in varying the bending angle from 52° to 0° by changing the ion concentration of the liquid electrode. PMID:21841230

Zeng, Hao; Kong, Yongfa; Sun, Xin; Chen, Shaolin; Sun, Tongqing; Xu, Jingjun

2011-08-12

445

Fiber-optic bend sensor using LP21 mode operation.  

PubMed

A novel fiber-optic bending sensor based upon the propagation of LP21 mode is demonstrated. The sensor, comprised of an S-bend fiber on an elastic film, measures LP21 mode specklegram rotation, which increments linearly with bending angle by the stress-optic effect. The sensor is capable of experimentally achieving a sensitivity as high as 4.13 rad/m(-1). The theoretical analysis of the sensor, which is a combination of fiber coupled-mode theory and elastic-optic theory, validates the accuracy of the sensor. The sensor is also shown to be temperature-immune, and can detect both bending direction and bending angle with a large dynamic range. Furthermore, the sensor implementation incorporates inexpensive single-mode fiber at 650 nm for few-mode operation, enabling low-loss transmission and compatibility with existing interfaces. PMID:23187468

Fan, Yuqiang; Wu, George; Wei, Wanting; Yuan, Yufeng; Lin, Feng; Wu, X

2012-11-19

446

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

447

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

448

Spine Immobilization Method and Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A spine immobilization apparatus which uses a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or microballoons is described. The beads form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump. T...

H. C. Vykukal K. H. Lambson

1979-01-01

449

A Precision Faraday Effect Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the improvements made in the Faraday Effect Apparatus as described, our results indicate an attainable precision of ±0.02 percent for visual measurements. Comparing this value with those reported by other investigators, indicates that a definite increase in precision has been achieved. As soon as our method for making measurements photoelectrically is fully developed, it is expected

Samuel Steingiser; George J. Rosenblit; Robert Custer; Chas. E. Waring

1950-01-01

450

Extended range chemical sensing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

1994-01-18

451

Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

1995-01-01

452

Thermoluminescence from the photosynthetic apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental discoveries of W. Arnold was the detection of thermally stimulated light emission from preilluminated photosynthetic material (Arnold and Sherwood (1957) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 43: 105–114). This phenomenon, called thermoluminescence (TL), is characteristic of a wide range of materials (semiconductors, minerals, inorganic and organic crystals, and complex biological systems such as the photosynthetic apparatus) which

Imre Vass; Govindjee

1996-01-01

453

Steam generation and reheat apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a steam generation and reheat apparatus comprising: a. means for evaporating water to form saturated steam; b. means for superheating the saturated steam for delivery to heat engine; c. at least one means for reheating exhaust steam from a heat engine for delivery to a lower pressure heat engine; d. economizer means for pre-heating water before delivery

Schluderberg

1986-01-01

454

Duplex sampling apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus is provided for sampling a gaseous mixture and for measuring mixture components. The apparatus includes two sampling containers connected in series serving as a duplex sampling apparatus. The apparatus is adapted to independently determine the amounts of condensable and noncondensable gases in admixture from a single sample. More specifically, a first container includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a sample source and a second port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a second container. A second container also includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from the second port of the first container and a second port capable of either selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a differential pressure source. By cooling a mixture sample in the first container, the condensable vapors form a liquid, leaving noncondensable gases either as free gases or dissolved in the liquid. The condensed liquid is heated to drive out dissolved noncondensable gases, and all the noncondensable gases are transferred to the second container. Then the first and second containers are separated from one another in order to separately determine the amount of noncondensable gases and the amount of condensable gases in the sample.

Brown, Paul E. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Lloyd, Robert (West Mifflin, PA) [West Mifflin, PA

1992-01-01

455

Wire detecting apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about

Kronberg

1991-01-01

456

Pipe laying apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and method are described for laying a pipeline on the bottom of an ocean wherein a wheel-like, buoyant body is adapted to carry a single, continuous length of pipe in the form of horizontal convolutions from a first site at which the pipe is wrapped on the body to a second site where the convolutions are moved into vertical

F. S. Ellers; N. R. Wallace

1981-01-01

457

Portable Pallet-Weighing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable apparatus intended for standard four-trunnion pallets readily adaptable to any large payload or other loads where shifting of cargo is to be avoided. Device lifts trunnion of pallet short distance above its resting place. Weight at trunnion applied to load cell. Similar units placed at all four trunnions.

Day, R. M.

1983-01-01

458

Material transport method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

459

Material transport method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

460

Resonant-fatigue cracking apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus produces controlled surface cracks in test specimens. It has been developed and is useful in production of surface cracks of controlled size and shape in fracture specimens. It consists of specially-designed stand-mounted clamping fixture, commercially available pneumatic actuator, and suitable sound-control mufflers.

Dorner, J. P.; Pierce, W. S.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

1980-01-01

461

Well cementing method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid slurry retaining apparatus is described for use on a wireline setting tool in a well, the setting tool being of the type having a power actuated outer sleeve and a cooperating inner tubular member, comprising: a retainer having external gripping and sealing means engageable with the setting tool outer sleeve for gripping and sealing the surrounding well bore

1987-01-01

462

Switch Card Apparatus and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Switch card apparatus are disclosed. In one embodiment, a circuit includes a first portion having a first switch adapted to be coupled to a first voltage, a second portion including a second switch, and a third portion including a third switch. The first ...

G. H. Smith H. N. Nguyen R. A. Kubinski T. T. Phan

2004-01-01

463

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and then into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and then to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste water

Arbabian

1985-01-01

464

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste hot water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and thence into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and thence to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste

Arbabian

1982-01-01

465

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste hot water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and then into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and then to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste

Arbabian

1984-01-01

466

Fluid Fill or Bleed Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes an apparatus which enables a towed oil-filled cable to be serviced from the fantail of a ship without laying a large section of the cable on the deck of a ship. The cables have spaced apart service points which have remova...

G. R. Cooke

1976-01-01

467

Continuous shear wave logging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for continuous shear wave logging of a borehole consisting of a sonde instrument having retractable, expandable coupling arms for rigidly engaging the borehole wall to exert repetitive torqueing action while continuously moving uphole. The sonde includes spaced detector coupling arms in continual contact with the borehole wall and polarized for detection of the repetitive propagated shear waves.

Brown, G. L.

1985-10-29

468

Fractional screen video enhancement apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for displaying two portions of an image at two resolutions. For example, the invention can display an entire image at a first resolution, and a subset of the image at a second, higher resolution. Two inexpensive, low resolution displays can be used to produce a large image with high resolution only where needed.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zimmerer, Daniel J. (Tijeras, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-07-19

469

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system, and an emergency off-ga...

R. C. W. Chang

1993-01-01

470

Range of Interaction between DNA-Bending Proteins is Controlled by the Second-Longest Correlation Length for Bending Fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a DNA molecule is stretched, the zero-force correlation length for its bending fluctuations—the persistence length A—bifurcates into two different correlation lengths—the shorter “longitudinal” correlation length ??(f) and the longer “transverse” correlation length ??(f). In the high-force limit, ??(f)=??(f)/2=kBTA/f/2. When DNA-bending proteins bind to the DNA molecule, there is an effective interaction between the protein-generated bends mediated by DNA elasticity and bending fluctuations. Surprisingly, the range of this interaction is not the longest correlation length associated with transverse fluctuations of the tangent vector along the polymer, but instead is the second longest longitudinal correlation length ??(f,?). The effect arises from the protein-bend contribution to the Hamiltonian having an axial rotational symmetry which eliminates its coupling to the transverse fluctuations.

Zhang, Houyin; Marko, John F.

2012-12-01

471

The Effect of Nanobubbles on Microcantilever Bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomechanical cantilevers are very small and extremely sensitive force and mass sensors. Here, we report on the impact of the vertical component of surface energy on microcantilevers when nanobubbles form on their surfaces. Young's equation, which is commonly used to determine the contact angle of liquid drops on a solid surface, ignores the vertical component of the surface energy. Despite this force being extremely small and its effect on the solid can be ignored, it plays a significant role for flexible surfaces such as microcantilevers. A gold-coated silicon microcantilever and a dodecanethiol coated silicon microcantilever were used to detect real-time formation of nanobubbles on their surfaces when exposed to air-rich water. As air nanobubbles form on the surfaces of the cantilever, the cantilever undergoes bending and we relate this to the vertical component of surface energy in Young's equation. This implies that the vertical component of the surface tension should be considered for flexible solid surfaces, and the formation of nanobubbles should be avoided when cantilevers are used as sensors to avoid artifacts.

Jeon, Sangmin; Desikan, Ramya; Tian, Fang; Thundat, Thomas

2006-03-01

472

Large deformation dynamic bending of composite beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 30 deg or 15 deg off-axis plies occured in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.

Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.

1986-01-01

473

Bending strength of delaminated aerospace composites.  

PubMed

Buckling-driven delamination is considered among the most critical failure modes in composite laminates. This paper examines the propagation of delaminations in a beam under pure bending. A pre-developed analytical model to predict the critical buckling moment of a thin sub-laminate is extended to account for propagation prediction, using mixed-mode fracture analysis. Fractography analysis is performed to distinguish between mode I and mode II contributions to the final failure of specimens. Comparison between experimental results and analysis shows agreement to within 5 per cent in static propagation moment for two different materials. It is concluded that static fracture is almost entirely driven by mode II effects. This result was unexpected because it arises from a buckling mode that opens the delamination. For this reason, and because of the excellent repeatability of the experiments, the method of testing may be a promising means of establishing the critical value of mode II fracture toughness, G(IIC), of the material. Fatigue testing on similar samples showed that buckled delamination resulted in a fatigue threshold that was over 80 per cent lower than the static propagation moment. Such an outcome highlights the significance of predicting snap-buckling moment and subsequent propagation for design purposes. PMID:22431757

Kinawy, Moustafa; Butler, Richard; Hunt, Giles W

2012-04-28

474

Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams tested were 23 in. by 2 in. and generally 30 plies thick. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity-driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 300 or 150 off-axis plies occurred in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. The compressive flexural moduli in some laminates was measured to be 1/2 the tensile flexural modulus. No simple relationship could be found among the measured ultimate failure strains of the different laminate types. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.

Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.

1986-01-01

475

Bending and torsion models of beams with induced-strain actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops one-dimensional pure bending, coupled bending and extension, and combined bending, extension and torsion models of isotropic beams with induced strain actuation. A finite thickness adhesive layer between the crystal and beam is included to incorporate shear lag effects. Experimental tests evaluate the accuracy and limitations of the models. The bending and coupled bending and extension models show acceptable correlation with static test results whereas the combined extension, bending, torsion model poorly predicts the system behavior and needs refinement.

Park, Chris; Walz, Curtis; Chopra, Inderjit

1993-09-01

476

Piezo films with adjustable anisotropic strain for bending actuators with tunable bending profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to produce in-plane polarized piezo films with a freely adjustable ratio of the strains in orthogonal in-plane directions. They can be used in piezo bending actuators with a tunable curvature profile. The strains are obtained as mean strains from a periodic polarization pattern produced by a suitable doubly interdigitated electrode structure. This mechanism is demonstrated for several examples using PZT sheets. We further discuss how this tuning and the parameters of the electrode layout affect the overall magnitude of the displacement.

Wapler, Matthias C.; Stürmer, Moritz; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike

2014-05-01

477

Integration of high power lasers in bending tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of high power lasers into bending tools creates a possibility to bend brittle materials with conventional presses. A diode laser, which is based on 200W-laser-bars and a solid state laser with 3 kW are used in this work. By heating the material within a narrow zone the ductility is increased and the forming process can be enabled. The assembly of the heat source within the bending tools is a prerequisite in order to feed energy into the workpiece before, during and after the forming process. As a result the heating and forming process can be optimized regarding any material.

Bammer, F.; Holzinger, B.; Humenberger, G.; Schuöcker, D.; Schumi, T.

478

Spontaneous bending of 2D molecular bottle-brush.  

PubMed

Using a scaling approach we consider a 2D comb copolymer brush under bending deformations. We show that the rectilinear brush is locally stable and can be characterized by a persistence length lambda increasing with the molecular weight of grafting side chains as lambda approximately M3. A bending instability due to redistribution of the side chains appears in the non-linear regime where bending is strong. Arguments are presented that the brush conformations consist of alternating rectilinear and bent sections corresponding to the different free-energy minima. PMID:16733644

Subbotin, A; de Jong, J; ten Brinke, G

2006-05-01

479

Nonlocal membrane bending: a reflection, the facts and its relevance.  

PubMed

About forty years ago it was realized that phospholipid membranes, because they are composed of two layers, exhibit particular, and specific mechanical properties. This led to the concept of nonlocal membrane bending, often called area difference elasticity. We present a short history of the development of the concept, followed by arguments for a proper definition of the corresponding elastic constant. The effects of the nonlocal bending energy on vesicle shape are explained. It is demonstrated that lipid vesicles, cells and cellular aggregates exhibit phenomena that can only be described in a complete manner by considering nonlocal bending. PMID:24529971

Svetina, S; Zekš, B

2014-06-01

480

Computer simulation of high-speed bending deformation in copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to one suggested model, bending of a single crystal introduces edge dislocations of the same sign. In the present study, this model is examined by computer simulation using molecular dynamics. When a notch is present on the tension surface, Heidenreich-Shockley partial dislocations are created near the tip of the notch. In the compression surface, partial dislocations are created due to wrinkling of the crystal plane. The results of simulation shows that dislocations are more easily created in a compressive bending region than in a tension bending region or simple tension region.

Nozaki, T.; Doyama, M.; Kogure, Y.

2002-01-01

481

Stored Energy of Plastic Deformation in Tube Bending Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an aproximate analytic method for determination of the stored energy of plastic deformation during cold bending of metal tubes at bending machines. Calculations were performed for outer points of the tube layers subjected to tension and compression (the points of maximum strains). The percentage of stored energy related to the plastic strain work was determined and the results were presented in graphs. The influence and importance of the stored energy of plastic deformation on the service life of pipeline bends are discussed.

?loderbach, Z.; Paj?k, J.

2013-03-01

482

Synthesis gas method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

2013-01-08

483

Apparatus for H2 photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus is described for housing artificial photosynthesis processes. The apparatus is solar powered and employs two separate compartments for the respective oxidation and reduction reactions. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) partitions the two compartments and enables proton conduction therebetween. Faradic losses due to proton currents are minimized by use of a novel geometry. A zigzag design for the solar cell/electrode/PEM partition between the two compartments introduces large fringe fields which help drive proton current from one compartment to the other and reduce faradic losses by shortening the average proton conduction path. Facilitating proton current also improves the pH gradient and enhances water splitting reaction rates. The zigzag design also improves capture of solar flux by shading the PEM under the solar cells.

Lewis, Donald G.; Otto, Michael R.

2009-08-01

484

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

Schneider, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

485

Critical heat flux test apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

Welsh, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA); Doman, Marvin J. (McKeesport, PA); Wilson, Edward C. (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

486

Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

1999-10-05

487

X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

1996-01-01

488

Oil sweeper method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Oil sweeper method and apparatus including an elongated structural framework adapted to be towed transversely across the surface of water bearing an oil film contaminant, the framework supporting a pair of longitudinally extending, parallel vertical screens, wherein the forwardmost screen relative to the direction of sweeping motion is constituted of multiple panels pivotally attached to the framework for swinging movement about vertical swinging axes, and the rearward screen is water impervious. When the panels of the forwardmost screen are pivoted they define channels therebetween for diverting surface water and floating contamination such as oil in a lateral direction towards a skimmer disposed at one end of the sweeper apparatus. The rearward screen assists in further deflecting the water and oil towards the skimmer after they have traversed the channels between the pivotable panels.

De V. A.; Van W. P.

1982-04-20

489

Particle analyzing method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid chemical analysis of particles in aerosols can be accomplished using an apparatus which produces a controlled stream of individual particles from an environment, and another apparatus which vaporizes and ionizes the particles moving in free flight, for analysis by a mass spectrometer. The device for producing the stream of particles includes a capillary tube through which the air with suspended particles moves, a skimmer with a small opening spaced from an end of the capillary tube to receive particles passing through the tube, and a vacuum pump which removes air from between the tube and skimmer and creates an inflow of air and particles through the tube. The particles passing through the skimmer opening can be simultaneously vaporized and ionized while in free flight, by a laser beam of sufficient intensity that is directed across the path of the free flying particles.

Sinha, M. P.; Griffin, C. E.; Norris, D. D.; Friedlander, S. K. (inventors)

1980-01-01

490

Optical pressure sealing coupling apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is presented for optically coupling and pressure sealing sections of an instrument probe, one of the section being at a high pressure cryogenic environment and the other section being at ambient pressure. The apparatus includes a housing having a passageway within which elements are mounted for precisely locating a rigid optical fiber coupler and the probe sections so as to optically connect and maintain the ends of the probe sections together to permit signals to pass in both directions through the joint in two or more discrete channels. An adjustable positioning member acts to connect the external section of the probe to the housing in axial and rotation alignment with the interior section.

Irvin, Timothy B. (inventor); French, Richard E. (inventor)

1989-01-01

491

Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

492

Freeze chromatography method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.

1987-04-16

493

Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

1999-01-01

494

Tide operated power generating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An improved tide operated power generating apparatus is disclosed in which a hollow float, rising and falling with the ocean tide, transmits energy to a power generator. The improvement comprises means for filling the float with water during the incoming tide to provide a substantial increase in the float dead weight during the outgoing tide. Means are further provided to then empty the float before the outgoing tide whereby the float becomes free to rise again on the next incoming tide.

Kertzman, H. Z.

1981-02-03

495

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01

496

Wind powered grain drying apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to solar grain drying apparatus in general, and more specifically to a windmill powered grain circulating conveyor mechanism used in conjunction with a solar heat source to accomplish a slow uniform drying of the contents of a grain bin; and having a unique conveyor support and rotation imparting mechanism, that insures that the grain lifted from the bottom of the grain bin, will be uniformly distributed around the periphery of the bin to promote the drying process.

Ehlers, T. G.

1985-06-25

497

Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL) [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

1994-09-06

498

Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

1993-01-01

499

Rotor balancing apparatus and system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

1976-01-01

500

Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

1982-11-16