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1

Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.

Calomino, Anthony; Bubsey, Raymond; Ghosn, Louis J.

1994-01-01

2

Fully articulated four-point-bend loading fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully articulated four-point bend loading fixture for Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and fracture toughness specimens utilizes an upper loading plate in combination with a lower loading plate. The lower plate has a pair of spring loaded ball bearings which seat in V-shaped grooves located in the upper plate. The ball bearings are carried in the arms of the lower plate. A load is applied to the specimen through steel rollers, one large roller and one smaller roller each located on both the upper and lower plates. The large rollers have needle roller bearings which enable a single loading roller to rotate relative to the plate to which it is attached.

Calomino, Anthony M. (inventor)

1991-01-01

3

A four-point bending test for the bonding evaluation of composite pavement  

E-print Network

A four-point bending test for the bonding evaluation of composite pavement M. Hun1 , A. Chabot1 , F investigate the crack initiation and propagation at the interface between layers of composite pavements affects the durability of composite pavements made with asphalt and cement materials. Two main problems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

The Role of Crack Formation in Chevron-Notched Four-Point Bend Specimens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The failure sequence following crack formation in a chevron-notched four-point bend 1 specimen is examined in a parametric study using the Bluhm slice synthesis model. Premature failure resulting from crack formation forces which exceed those required to propagate a crack beyond alpha (min) is examined together with the critical crack length and critical crack front length. An energy based approach is used to establish factors which forecast the tendency of such premature failure due to crack formation for any selected chevron-notched geometry. A comparative study reveals that, for constant values of alpha (1) and alpha (0), the dimensionless beam compliance and stress intensity factor are essentially independent of specimen width and thickness. The chevron tip position, alpha (0) has its primary effect on the force required to initiate a sharp crack. Small values for alpha (0) maximize the stable region length, however, the premature failure tendency is also high for smaller alpha (0) values. Improvements in premature failure resistance can be realized for larger values of alpha (0) with only a minor reduction in the stable region length. The stable region length is also maximized for larger chevron based positions, alpha (1) but the chance for premature failure is also raised. Smaller base positions improve the premature failure resistance with only minor decreases in the stable region length. Chevron geometries having a good balance of premature failure resistance, stable region length, and crack front length are 0.20 less than or equal to alpha (0) is less than or equal to 0.30 and 0.70 is less than or equal to alpha (1) is less than or equal to 0.80.

Calomino, Anthony M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

1994-01-01

5

Experiences in the determination of TMF, LCF and creep life of CMSX-4 in four-point bending experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF), low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep life of rectangular flat specimen were evaluated by means of four-point bending tests. Experiments were performed on the single crystal superalloy CMSX-4 mainly in the orientation ?001?, but also orientations ?011? and ?111?. While the TMF-Tests were performed in the temperature ranges from 250 to 750°C, 450–950°C and 550–1050°C with

Afred Scholz; Andreas Schmidt; Hans Christian Walther; Mathias Schein; Michael Schwienheer

2008-01-01

6

Fracture toughness measurements of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings using a modified four-point bending method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the adhesion strength of thermal barrier coatings 8YSZ (ZrO2+8wt.% Y2O3) deposited on NiCrAlY bond coats by atmospheric plasma spraying is investigated experimentally. A modified four-point bending specimen that can generate a single interface crack to facilitate the control of crack growth was adopted for testing. The fracture surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope. Images show

P. F. Zhao; C. A. Sun; X. Y. Zhu; F. L. Shang; C. J. Li

2010-01-01

7

Modeling of delamination in carbon/epoxy composite laminates under four point bending for damage detection and sensor placement optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminated carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) possess very high specific strength and stiffness and this has accounted for their wide use in structural applications, most especially in the aerospace industry, where the trade-off between weight and strength is critical. Even though they possess much larger strength ratio as compared to metals like aluminum and lithium, damage in the metals mentioned is rather localized. However, CFRPs generate complex damage zones at stress concentration, with damage progression in the form of matrix cracking, delamination and fiber fracture or fiber/matrix de-bonding. This thesis is aimed at performing; stiffness degradation analysis on composite coupons, containing embedded delamination using the Four-Point Bend Test. The Lamb wave-based approach as a structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is used for damage detection in the composite coupons. Tests were carried-out on unidirectional composite coupons, obtained from panels manufactured with pre-existing defect in the form of embedded delamination in a laminate of stacking sequence [06/904/0 6]T. Composite coupons were obtained from panels, fabricated using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), a liquid composite molding (LCM) process. The discontinuity in the laminate structure due to the de-bonding of the middle plies caused by the insertion of a 0.3 mm thick wax, in-between the middle four (4) ninety degree (90°) plies, is detected using lamb waves generated by surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) actuators. From the surface mounted piezoelectric sensors, response for both undamaged (coupon with no defect) and damaged (delaminated coupon) is obtained. A numerical study of the embedded crack propagation in the composite coupon under four-point and three-point bending was carried out using FEM. Model validation was then carried out comparing the numerical results with the experimental. Here, surface-to-surface contact property was used to model the composite coupon under simply supported boundary conditions. Theoretically calculated bending stiffness's and maximum deflection were compared with that of the experimental case and the numerical. After the FEA model was properly benchmarked with test data and exact solution, data obtained from the FEM model were used for sensor placement optimization.

Adu, Stephen Aboagye

8

Mixed-Mode-Bending Delamination Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixed-mode-bending delamination apparatus generates two types of delamination stress simultaneously in specimen from single externally applied point load. In technique, indivial mode I and mode II contributions to delamination in specimen analyzed by use of simple beam-theory equations, eliminating need for time-consuming, difficult numerical analysis. Allows wider range of mode I/mode II ratios than possible with many other methods. Mixed-mode delamination testing of interest in all fields utilizing composite materials, used mostly in aerospace field, but also used in automobiles, lightweight armored military vehicles, boats, and sporting equipment. Useful in general lumber, plywood, and adhesive industries, as well.

Crews, John H., Jr.; Reeder, James R.

1991-01-01

9

Magic identities for conformal four-point integrals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an iterative procedure for constructing classes of off-shell four-point conformal integrals which are identical. The proof of the identity is based on the conformal properties of a subintegral common for the whole class. The simplest example are the so-called `triple scalar box' and `tennis court' integrals. In this case we also give an independent proof using the method

James M. Drummond; Johannes Henn; Vladimir A. Smirnov; Emery Sokatchev

2007-01-01

10

Four-point potential drop measurements for materials characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of measuring the voltage difference (potential drop) between two of the four electrodes of a four-point probe, in order to determine conductivity or surface resistivity of a test piece, is well established in the direct-current (dc) or quasi-dc regime. The technique finds wide usage in the semiconductor industry for the purpose of measuring surface resistivity of semiconductors, and also in the measurement of conductivity of metals, particularly of ferromagnetic metals for which conductivity cannot be easily measured using eddy-current nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In these applications, the conductivity of the test piece is deduced from an analytic formula that depends on the geometry of the probe and test piece. Such a formula requires, as an input, the measured value of the potential drop. Several analytical expressions exist for a variety of test-piece geometries and probe arrangements. Recently, it has been shown that broadband measurements of the potential drop, known as 'alternating current potential drop' (ac PD) measurements, can be used not only to obtain the conductivity of a test piece, but also its linear permeability ?. The beauty of this measurement is that the two parameters are completely decoupled in the quasi-static regime. In fact, ? does not appear in the quasi-static expression for ?. Hence, ? may be obtained from low-frequency ac PD measurements and then ? may be deduced as the frequency increases beyond the quasi-static regime, once ? is known. In this review, both dc and ac solutions that are useful in determining the conductivity of metals and semiconductors, and the permeability of ferromagnetic conductors, are summarized. In particular, flat test pieces with arbitrary thickness are considered. At the next level of complexity, a solution for a half-space coated with a surface layer is given, along with a discussion of the use of the four-point potential drop method for determining thickness of a surface layer, such as exists as the result of a surface-hardening process. Recent literature on the topic of surface crack sizing using dc and ac PD is briefly summarized and simple formulas for determining the depth of a long surface crack from ac PD measurements are given. The review also includes four-point potential drop data measured on surface-hardened steel rods and points toward how those data may be used to determine the depth of surface hardening.

Bowler, Nicola

2011-01-01

11

Apparatus for studying the thermomechanical properties of refractories under four-point flexural loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals have been investigated in this manner for a long time, and modern construction work, technology and production processes are based on experimental data accumulated over 100 years. It is a historic fact that until recently refractories were used as lining materials which remained unexposed to the action of significant loads of any kind so that it was enough to

D. N. Poluboyarinov; V. M. Gulaev; V. S. Levi; V. S. Bakunov; E. A. Voshchakin; K. I. Ryabtsev

1975-01-01

12

Characterization of acoustic emission signals from particulate filled thermoset and thermoplastic polymeric coatings in four point bend tests  

E-print Network

1 Characterization of acoustic emission signals from particulate filled thermoset and thermoplastic were conducted on two previously characterized particulate filled thermoplastic and thermoset polymeric filled thermoset and thermoplastic coatings. In this study the AE technique was used to examine in

Quartly, Graham

13

An evaluation of the sandwich beam in four-point bending as a compressive test method for composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental phase of the study included compressive tests on HTS/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, and 5052 aluminum honeycomb at room temperature, and tensile tests on graphite/polyimide at room temperature, -157 C, and 316 C. Elastic properties and strength data are presented for three laminates. The room temperature elastic properties were generally found to differ in tension and compression with Young's modulus values differing by as much as twenty-six percent. The effect of temperature on modulus and strength was shown to be laminate dependent. A three-dimensional finite element analysis predicted an essentially uniform, uniaxial compressive stress state in the top flange test section of the sandwich beam. In conclusion, the sandwich beam can be used to obtain accurate, reliable Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio data for advanced composites; however, the ultimate compressive stress for some laminates may be influenced by the specimen geometry.

Shuart, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.

1978-01-01

14

Cyclooxygenase2 Inhibition Delays the Attainment of Peak Woven Bone Formation following Four-Point Bending in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture healing is retarded in the presence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, demonstrating an important role of COX-2\\u000a in trauma-induced woven bone adaptation. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of COX-2 inhibition on\\u000a the remodeling and consolidation of nontraumatic woven bone produced by mechanical loading. A periosteal woven bone callus\\u000a was initiated in the right tibia of

L. S. Gregory; M. R. Forwood

2007-01-01

15

Restraining Bends and Releasing Bends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use gestures to re-create the motion of fault blocks adjacent to restraining bends and releasing bends. They then answer a few questions about a map view of the San Andreas Fault and two of its bends.

Ormand, Carol

16

Graviton exchange and complete four-point functions in the AdS\\/CFT correspondence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graviton exchange diagram for the correlation function of arbitrary scalar operators is evaluated in anti-de Sitter space, AdSd+1. This enables us to complete the computation of the four-point amplitudes of dilaton and axion fields in IIB supergravity on AdS5×S5. By the AdS\\/CFT correspondence, we obtain the four-point functions of the marginal operators Tr(F2+…) and Tr(FF?+…) in N=4, d=4 SU(N)

Eric D'Hoker; Daniel Z. Freedman; Samir D. Mathur; Alec Matusis; Leonardo Rastelli

1999-01-01

17

Conductivity of individual particles measured by a microscopic four-point-probe method  

PubMed Central

We introduce a technique for measuring the conductivity of individual hybrid metal, semiconducting core-shell and full-metal conducting particles by a microscopic four-point probe (?-4PP) method. The four-point probe geometry allows for minimizing contact resistances between electrodes and particles. By using a focused ion beam we fabricate platinum nanoleads between four microelectrodes on a silicon chip and an individual particle, and determine the particle's conductivity via sensitive current and voltage measurements. Up to sixteen particles can be taken up by each chip, which allows for multiple conductivity measurements by simply multiplexing the electric contacts connected to a multimeter. Although, for demonstration, we used full Au (conducting) and Ag-coated latex particles (semiconducting) of a few micrometers in diameter, the method can be applied to other types of conducting or semiconducting particles of different diameters. PMID:23771149

Sun, Ling; Wang, Jianjun; Bonaccurso, Elmar

2013-01-01

18

Two-particle correlations in high-energy collisions and the gluon four-point function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the rapidity evolution equation for the gluon four-point function in the dilute regime and at small x from the JIMWLK functional equation. We show that beyond leading order in Nc the mean field (Gaussian) approximation where the four-point function is factorized into a product of two-point functions is violated. We calculate these factorization breaking terms and show that they contribute at leading order in Nc to correlations of two produced gluons as a function of their relative rapidity and azimuthal angle, for generic (rather than back-to-back) angles. Such two-particle correlations have been studied experimentally at the BNL-RHIC collider and could be scrutinized also for pp (and, in the future, also AA) collisions at the CERN-LHC accelerator.

Dumitru, Adrian; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

2010-05-01

19

Four-point correlation functions in the AdS/CFT correspondence.  

SciTech Connect

We examine correlation functions within the correspondence between gauged supergravity on anti-de Sitter space and N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in Minkowski space. The imaginary parts of four-point functions in momentum space are computed, in addition to particular examples of three-point functions. Exchange diagrams for gravitons are included. The results indicate additional structure in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong 't Hooft coupling and in the large N limit.

Chalmers, G.; Schalm, K.

1999-02-09

20

Four point function of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ stress-tensor multiplet at strong coupling  

E-print Network

In this short note we use the flat space limit and the relation between the 4-pt correlation function of the bottom and top components of the stress tensor multiplet to constraint its stringy corrections at strong coupling in the planar limit. Then we use this four point function to compute corrections to the anomalous dimension of double trace operators of the Lagrangian density and to compute energy-energy correlators at strong coupling.

Vasco Gonçalves

2014-11-06

21

Manifest Ultraviolet Behavior in the Three-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=8 Supergravity  

SciTech Connect

Using the method of maximal cuts, we obtain a form of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude of N = 8 supergravity in which all ultraviolet cancellations are made manifest. The Feynman loop integrals that appear have a graphical representation with only cubic vertices, and numerator factors that are quadratic in the loop momenta, rather than quartic as in the previous form. This quadratic behavior reflects cancellations beyond those required for finiteness, and matches the quadratic behavior of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. By direct integration we confirm that no additional cancellations remain in the N = 8 supergravity amplitude, thus demonstrating that the critical dimension in which the first ultraviolet divergence occurs at three loops is D{sub c} = 6. We also give the values of the three-loop divergences in D = 7, 9, 11. In addition, we present the explicitly color-dressed three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Johansson, H.; /UCLA; Roiban, R.; /Penn State U.

2008-09-03

22

A four-point surface conductivity probe suitable for in situ ultrahigh vacuum conductivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple design for a four-point probe suitable for precision surface conductivity measurements is described. Our design makes use of small, commercially available spring contact probes which are mounted in a custom built MACOR ceramic probe head. The design is suitable for use in ultrahigh vacuum applications, and the custom-built parts can be fabricated in any machine shop. Very reproducible values were obtained using this probe for surface conductivity measurements on a MoS2(0001) model catalyst, a sputter deposited indium-tin oxide thin film and a doped silicon wafer.

Wiegenstein, Christopher G.; Schulz, Kirk H.

1997-04-01

23

A Four Point Guidance to Analyse Ethical Issues in Serious Game Development Vivekananda-Schmidt, P1  

E-print Network

for computer science ethical dilemmas The four quadrant framework2 for ethical analysis in medicine outlinesA Four Point Guidance to Analyse Ethical Issues in Serious Game Development Vivekananda-Schmidt, P1.Romano@Sheffield.ac.uk. Abstract This paper presents a four point guidance to analyse the ethical issues in the development

Romano, Daniela

24

Noncommutative GUT inspired theories and the UV finiteness of the fermionic four point functions  

SciTech Connect

We show at one loop and first order in the noncommutativity parameters that in any noncommutative GUT inspired theory the total contribution to the fermionic four point functions coming only from the interaction between fermions and gauge bosons, though not UV finite by power counting, is UV finite at the end of the day. We also show that this is at odds with the general case for noncommutative gauge theories - chiral or otherwise - defined by means of Seiberg-Witten maps that are the same - barring the gauge group representation - for left-handed spinors as for right-handed spinors. We believe that the results presented in this paper tilt the scales to the side of noncommutative GUTS and noncommutative GUT inspired versions of the standard model.

Martin, C. P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tamarit, C. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106-4030 (United States)

2009-09-15

25

Dynamics of graphite fiber intercalation: In situ resistivity measurements with a four point probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of ferric chloride intercalation of single graphite fibers were studied, in situ, using a four point dc bridge. Measurements before, during and after the intercalation showed that the intercalation occurred within minutes at 200 C. Changes in fiber resistivity after exposure to air suggested hydration of the graphite intercalation compound. Deintercalation of the ferric chloride was initiated at temperatures in excess of 400 C. cycling the intercalant into and out of the graphite fiber gave no improvements in fiber resistivity. The activation energy of the ferric chloride intercalation reaction was found to be 17 + or - 4 kcal/mol 1 consistent with the concept of a preliminary nucleation step in the intercalation reaction.

Jaworske, D. A.

1984-01-01

26

Nonequilibrium dynamics of four-point correlations of collective density fluctuations in a supercooled liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the four-point correlation function ?4 of collective density fluctuations in a nonequilibrium liquid. The equilibration is controlled by a modified stretched exponential behavior {exp[-(tw/?)?]} having the relaxation time ? dependent on the aging time tw. Similar aging behavior has been seen experimentally in supercooled liquids. The basic equations of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics are solved here numerically to obtain ?4 for equilibrium and non equilibrium states. We also identify a dynamic length scale ? from the equilibrated function. ? (T) grows with fall of temperature T. From a broader perspective, we demonstrate here that the characteristic signatures of dynamical heterogeneities in a supercooled liquid, observed previously in computer simulations of the dynamics of a small number of particles, are also present in the coarse grained equations of generalized hydrodynamics.

Sen Gupta, Bhaskar; Das, Shankar P.

2014-07-01

27

Analytical calculation of four-point correlations for a simple model of cages involving numerous particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of a one-dimensional system of Brownian particles with short-range repulsive interaction (diameter ?) is studied with a liquid-theoretical approach. The mean square displacement, the two-particle displacement correlation, and the overlap-density-based generalized susceptibility are calculated analytically by way of the Lagrangian correlation of the interparticulate space, instead of the Eulerian correlation of density that is commonly used in the standard mode-coupling theory. In regard to the mean square displacement, the linear analysis reproduces the established result on the asymptotic subdiffusive behavior of the system. A finite-time correction is given by incorporating the effect of entropic nonlinearity with a Lagrangian version of mode-coupling theory. The notorious difficulty in derivation of the mode-coupling theory concerning violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is found to disappear by virtue of the Lagrangian description. The Lagrangian description also facilitates analytical calculation of four-point correlations in the space-time, such as the two-particle displacement correlation. The two-particle displacement correlation, which is asymptotically self-similar in the space-time, illustrates how the cage effect confines each particle within a short radius on one hand and creates collective motion of numerous particles on the other hand. As the time elapses, the correlation length grows unlimitedly, and the generalized susceptibility based on the overlap density converges to a finite value which is an increasing function of the density. The distribution function behind these dynamical four-point correlations and its extension to three-dimensional cases, respecting the tensorial character of the two-particle displacement correlation, are also discussed.

Takeshi, Ooshida; Goto, Susumu; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Nakahara, Akio; Otsuki, Michio

2013-12-01

28

Analytical calculation of four-point correlations for a simple model of cages involving numerous particles.  

PubMed

Dynamics of a one-dimensional system of Brownian particles with short-range repulsive interaction (diameter ?) is studied with a liquid-theoretical approach. The mean square displacement, the two-particle displacement correlation, and the overlap-density-based generalized susceptibility are calculated analytically by way of the Lagrangian correlation of the interparticulate space, instead of the Eulerian correlation of density that is commonly used in the standard mode-coupling theory. In regard to the mean square displacement, the linear analysis reproduces the established result on the asymptotic subdiffusive behavior of the system. A finite-time correction is given by incorporating the effect of entropic nonlinearity with a Lagrangian version of mode-coupling theory. The notorious difficulty in derivation of the mode-coupling theory concerning violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is found to disappear by virtue of the Lagrangian description. The Lagrangian description also facilitates analytical calculation of four-point correlations in the space-time, such as the two-particle displacement correlation. The two-particle displacement correlation, which is asymptotically self-similar in the space-time, illustrates how the cage effect confines each particle within a short radius on one hand and creates collective motion of numerous particles on the other hand. As the time elapses, the correlation length grows unlimitedly, and the generalized susceptibility based on the overlap density converges to a finite value which is an increasing function of the density. The distribution function behind these dynamical four-point correlations and its extension to three-dimensional cases, respecting the tensorial character of the two-particle displacement correlation, are also discussed. PMID:24483387

Takeshi, Ooshida; Goto, Susumu; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Nakahara, Akio; Otsuki, Michio

2013-12-01

29

Self-consistent four-point closure for transport in steady random flows.  

PubMed

Ensemble averaging of advection-dispersion equations describing transport of a passive scalar in incompressible random velocity fields requires a closure approximation. Commonly used approaches, such as the direct interaction approximation and large-eddy simulations as well as equivalent renormalization schemes, employ so-called two-point (or one-loop) closures. These approaches have proven to be adequate for transport in zero-mean (unbiased) time-dependent random velocity fields with increasing accuracy for decreasing temporal coherence. In the opposite limit of steady velocity fields with finite bias, however, these schemes fail to predict effective transport properties both quantitatively and qualitatively, leading to an obvious inconsistency for transverse dispersion in two spatial dimensions. For this case, two-point closures predict that macroscopic transverse dispersion increases as the square root of the disorder variance while it has been proven rigorously that there is no disorder-induced contribution to macroscopic transverse dispersion for purely advective transport. Furthermore, two-point closures significantly underestimate the disorder-induced contribution to longitudinal dispersion. We derive a four-point closure for stochastically averaged transport equations that goes beyond classical one-loop schemes and demonstrate that it is exact for transverse dispersion and correctly predicts an increase of the longitudinal disorder-induced dispersion coefficient with the square of the variance of the strong disorder. The predicted values of asymptotic longitudinal dispersion coefficients are consistent with those obtained via Monte Carlo random walk simulations. PMID:18643371

Dentz, Marco; Tartakovsky, Daniel M

2008-06-01

30

Self-consistent four-point closure for transport in steady random flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble averaging of advection-dispersion equations describing transport of a passive scalar in incompressible random velocity fields requires a closure approximation. Commonly used approaches, such as the direct interaction approximation and large-eddy simulations as well as equivalent renormalization schemes, employ so-called two-point (or one-loop) closures. These approaches have proven to be adequate for transport in zero-mean (unbiased) time-dependent random velocity fields with increasing accuracy for decreasing temporal coherence. In the opposite limit of steady velocity fields with finite bias, however, these schemes fail to predict effective transport properties both quantitatively and qualitatively, leading to an obvious inconsistency for transverse dispersion in two spatial dimensions. For this case, two-point closures predict that macroscopic transverse dispersion increases as the square root of the disorder variance while it has been proven rigorously that there is no disorder-induced contribution to macroscopic transverse dispersion for purely advective transport. Furthermore, two-point closures significantly underestimate the disorder-induced contribution to longitudinal dispersion. We derive a four-point closure for stochastically averaged transport equations that goes beyond classical one-loop schemes and demonstrate that it is exact for transverse dispersion and correctly predicts an increase of the longitudinal disorder-induced dispersion coefficient with the square of the variance of the strong disorder. The predicted values of asymptotic longitudinal dispersion coefficients are consistent with those obtained via Monte Carlo random walk simulations.

Dentz, Marco; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

2008-06-01

31

Experimental method for determination of bending and torsional rigidities of advanced composite laminates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental method for the determination of the bending and torsional rigidities of advanced fiber composite laminates with the aid of laser holographic interferometry. The proposed method consists of a four-point bending test and a resonance test. The bending rigidity ratio (D{sub 12}/D{sub 22}) can be determined from the fringe patterns of the four-point bending test. The bending rigidities (D{sub 11} and D{sub 22}) and the torsional rigidity (D{sub 66}) are calculated from the natural frequencies of cantilever plates of the resonance test. The test specimens are carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates. The adequacy of the experimental method is confirmed by comparing the measured rigidities with the theoretical values obtained from classical lamination theory (CLT) by using the measured tensile properties. The results show that the present method can be used to evaluate the rigidities of orthotropic laminates with reasonably good accuracy.

Maeda, Takenori [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Institute of Engineering Mechanics

1995-11-01

32

On four-point functions and integrability in mathcal{N} = 4 SYM: from weak to strong coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using integrability techniques, we compute four-point functions of single trace gauge-invariant operators in mathcal{N} = 4 SYM to leading order at weak coupling. Our results are valid for operators of arbitrary size. In particular, we study the limit in which two of the four operators are taken to be much smaller than the others. We show that in this limit our weak coupling result matches with the strong coupling result in the Frolov-Tseytlin limit.

Caetano, João; Escobedo, Jorge

2011-09-01

33

A wide class of four point functions of BPS operators in N = 4 SYM at order g 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of a large family of four point functions of general BPS operators in N=4 SYM is reduced to the evaluation of colour contractions. For 12 BPS operators O? the explicit results at order g4 for the function ?OnO2OnO2? are given up to n=6. The OPE of the general result is performed up to the second order in the

Marco D'Alessandro; Luigi Genovese

2006-01-01

34

Model-based characterization of homogeneous metal plates by four-point alternating current potential drop measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the conductivity, relative permeability, and thickness of homogeneous metal plates from four-point measurements of alternating current potential drop (ACPD) over the frequency range 1 Hz to 10 kHz. We developed simple analytical expressions from which these parameters can be calculated. In the low-frequency regime, in which the measured voltage tends to a constant, real value, the relative permeability

Nicola Bowler; Yongqiang Huang

2005-01-01

35

D0C : A code to calculate scalar one-loop four-point integrals with complex masses  

E-print Network

We present a new Fortran code to calculate the scalar one-loop four-point integral with complex internal masses, based on the method of 't Hooft and Veltman. The code is applicable when the external momenta fulfill a certain physical condition. In particular it holds if one of the external momenta or a sum of them is timelike or lightlike and therefore covers all physical processes at colliders. All the special cases related to massless external particles are treated separately. Some technical issues related to numerical evaluation and Landau singularities are discussed.

Dao Thi Nhung; Le Duc Ninh

2009-02-02

36

Evaluating bending fatigue strength of aluminum honeycomb sandwich beams using local parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the four-point bending fatigue strengths of aluminum honeycomb sandwich beams with cores of various relative densities. The debonding of the adhesive between the face sheet and the core was identified to be the major failure mode. Several global parameters and local parameters were considered to evaluate the fatigue life of the studied sandwich structures. The finite element

Yi-Ming Jen; Li-Yen Chang

2008-01-01

37

Discovering Gee's Bend Quilts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…

Johnson, Ann

2008-01-01

38

Microhole Tubing Bending Report  

DOE Data Explorer

A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

Ken Oglesby

39

Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe.  

PubMed

The electrical performance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to insulating surfaces may be compromised by extended defects, including for instance grain boundaries, cracks, wrinkles, and tears. In this study, we experimentally investigate and compare the nano- and microscale electrical continuity of single layer graphene grown on centimeter-sized single crystal copper with that of previously studied graphene films, grown on commercially available copper foil, after transfer to SiO2 surfaces. The electrical continuity of the graphene films is analyzed using two noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 ?m, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows for measurement of the complex conductance response in the frequency range 1-15 terahertz, covering the entire intraband conductance spectrum, and reveals that the conductance response for the graphene grown on single crystalline copper intimately follows the Drude model for a barrier-free conductor. In contrast, the graphene grown on commercial copper foil shows a distinctly non-Drude conductance spectrum that is better described by the Drude-Smith model, which incorporates the effect of preferential carrier backscattering associated with extended, electronic barriers with a typical separation on the order of 100 nm. Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in contrast with those of the graphene grown on commercial copper foil, which we explain by the absence of extended defects on the microscale in CVD graphene grown on single crystalline copper. The presented results demonstrate that the graphene grown on single crystal copper is electrically continuous on the nanoscopic, microscopic, as well as intermediate length scales. PMID:25317778

Buron, Jonas D; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke S; Booth, Timothy J; Nielsen, Peter F; Hansen, Ole; Hilke, Michael; Whiteway, Eric; Jepsen, Peter U; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H

2014-11-12

40

Sublimation Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multiple sublimation apparatus is suitable for small batch laboratory use. It includes a pair of identical tubes arranged to be inserted partially within one another, and a plug which closes one end of the assembled tube. This apparatus may be enclose...

A. F. Armington, J. R. Weiner

1965-01-01

41

Vibration damping method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Barney, Patrick S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parker, Gordon G. (Hougton, MI); Smith, David A. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01

42

Worldsheet two- and four-point functions at one loop in AdS3/CFT2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we study worldsheet two- and four-point functions at the one-loop level for the type IIA superstring in AdS3×S3×M4. We first address the regularization ambiguity that appears in the dispersion relation derived from integrability. We demonstrate that only the regulator treating all fields equally respects worldsheet supersymmetry. This is done in an implicit regularization scheme where all divergent terms are collected into master tadpole-type integrals. We then investigate one-loop two-body scattering on the string worldsheet and verify that a recent proposal for the dressing phase reproduces explicit worldsheet computations. All calculations are done in a near-BMN like expansion of the Green-Schwarz superstring equipped with quartic fermions.

Sundin, Per

2014-06-01

43

Comparing dynamic correlation lengths from an approximation to the four-point dynamic susceptibility and from the picosecond vibrational dynamics  

E-print Network

Recently a new approach to the determination of dynamic correlation lengths, {\\xi}, for supercooled liquids, based on the properties of the slow (picosecond) vibrational dynamics, was carried out [L. Hong, V.N. Novikov, and A.P. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. E 83, 061508 (2011)]. Although these vibrational measurements are typically conducted well below the glass transition temperature, Tg, the assumption is that the structure of the liquid is frozen at Tg, so that the {\\xi} characterize dynamic heterogeneity in the supercooled liquid state. We compare {\\xi} from this method to values calculated using an approximation to the four-point dynamic susceptibility. For 26 different materials we find good correlation between the two measures; moreover, the pressure dependences are consistent within the large experimental error. However, {\\xi} from Boson peak measurements above Tg have a different, and unrealistic, temperature dependence.

D. Fragiadakis; R. Casalini; C. M. Roland

2011-09-01

44

Backed Bending Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bending actuators of a proposed type would partly resemble ordinary bending actuators, but would include simple additional components that would render them capable of exerting large forces at small displacements. Like an ordinary bending actuator, an actuator according to the proposal would include a thin rectangular strip that would comprise two bonded layers (possibly made of electroactive polymers with surface electrodes) and would be clamped at one end in the manner of a cantilever beam. Unlike an ordinary bending actuator, the proposed device would include a rigid flat backplate that would support part of the bending strip against backward displacement; because of this feature, the proposed device is called a backed bending actuator. When an ordinary bending actuator is inactive, the strip typically lies flat, the tip displacement is zero, and the force exerted by the tip is zero. During activation, the tip exerts a transverse force and undergoes a bending displacement that results from the expansion or contraction of one or more of the bonded layers. The tip force of an ordinary bending actuator is inversely proportional to its length; hence, a long actuator tends to be weak. The figure depicts an ordinary bending actuator and the corresponding backed bending actuator. The bending, the tip displacement (d(sub t)), and the tip force (F) exerted by the ordinary bending actuator are well approximated by the conventional equations for the loading and deflection of a cantilever beam subject to a bending moment which, in this case, is applied by the differential expansion or contraction of the bonded layers. The bending, displacement, and tip force of the backed bending actuator are calculated similarly, except that it is necessary to account for the fact that the force F(sub b) that resists the displacement of the tip could be sufficient to push part of the strip against the backplate; in such a condition, the cantilever beam would be effectively shortened (length L*) and thereby stiffened and, hence, made capable of exerting a greater tip force for a given degree of differential expansion or contraction of the bonded layers. Taking all of these effects into account, the cantilever-beam equations show that F(sub b) would be approximately inversely proportional to d(sup 1/2) for d less than a calculable amount, denoted the transition displacement (dt). For d less than d(sub t), part of the strip would be pressed against the backplate. Therefore, the force F(sub b) would be very large for d at or near zero and would decrease as d increases toward d(sub t). At d greater than d(sub t), none of the strip would be pressed against the backplate and F(sub b) would equal the tip force F of the corresponding ordinary bending actuator. The advantage of the proposal is that a backed bending actuator could be made long to obtain large displacement when it encountered little resistance but it could also exert a large zero-displacement force, so that it could more easily start the movement of a large mass, throw a mechanical switch, or release a stuck mechanism.

Costen, Robert C.; Su, Ji

2004-01-01

45

Laser bending of silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are going to present a new technology for laser machining of silicon developed at the Laser Institute of Mittweida by a suggestion and in cooperation with the Technical University of Chemnitz, Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology. It allows the laser induced bending of microstructural silicon elements prepared by anisotropic wet etching. Bending of the element toward the incident laser beam occurs as a result of the laser induced thermal stresses in the material. We investigated the influence of various process parameters on the bending angle. There is only a small range of laser power to generate bendings in silicon. We will show a variety of examples including multiple and also continuous bendings. There are several essential advantages compared to conventional bending technologies: Laser bending is a contactless process without using additional tools or external forces. Because of the local laser treatment the heat flux to neighbouring material can be minimized so that the technology is suitable for machining of already finished microsystems. This new technology opens up a new field of applications in microsystem technologies. It is possible to generate a clip-chip-mechanism to clip a chip in a holder. Other examples are the exact positioning of optical mirrors or other components, the production of electrostatic drives and sliding chips for micro optical benches.

Loeschner, Udo; Exner, Horst; Gaertner, Eva; Fruehauf, Joachim

2003-07-01

46

Moling apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A moling apparatus comprises a housing having a head for penetrating ground, an anvil in the housing connected to the head, and a hammer in the housing and spaced therefrom by a spring. A vibrator unit is spaced from the hammer and arranged to transfer vibration to the housing and the hammer. In a first mode of the apparatus, vibration transmitted to the housing causes fluidization of the surrounding ground to allow progressive penetration of the apparatus. In a second mode, the braking effect of the ground on the head causes the hammer to move against the spring and impact the anvil thereby driving the head through the ground, the apparatus being operable at or between each mode.

1998-12-22

47

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1976-01-01

48

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1982-01-01

49

Collapse of Composite Cylinders in Bending  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the results of a numerical and experimental study of the collapse behavior of small-scale graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells subjected to overall bending loads, and in one case, an initial internal pressure. Shells with quasi-isotropic and orthotropic inplane stiffness properties are studied. Numerical results from geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses and results from experiments using a specially-built apparatus indicate that extensive stable postbuckling responses occur. Orthotropy influences the buckling values and the extent to which the bending moment decreases after buckling. Material damage is observed to initiate in the vicinity of the nodal lines of the postbuckled deflection patterns. Numerical results indicate that the magnitudes of the shear stress resultants are greatest in these nodal regions. Failure of the internally pressurized cylinder is catastrophic.

Fuchs, Hannes P.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Hyer, Michael W.

1998-01-01

50

Temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of 1D semiconducting nanowires via four-point-probe 3-? method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a systematic study of the thermal transport characteristics of both as-grown zinc oxide and gallium nitride nanowires (NWs) via the four-point-probe 3-? method in the temperature range 130-300 K. Both as-grown NWs were synthesized by a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism, and show clear n-type semiconducting behavior without any defects, which enables both the NWs to be promising candidates for thermoelectric materials. To measure the thermal conductivities of both NWs with lower heat loss and measurement errors, the suspended structures were formed by a combination of an e-beam lithography process and a random dispersion method. The measured thermal conductivities of both NWs are greatly reduced compared to their bulk materials due to the enhanced phonon scattering via the size effect and dopants (impurities). Furthermore, we observed that the Umklapp peaks of both NWs are shifted to a higher temperature than those of their bulk counterparts, indicating that phonon-boundary scattering dominates over other phonon scattering due to the size effect.

Lee, Seung-Yong; Lee, Mi-Ri; Park, No-Won; Kim, Gil-Sung; Choi, Heon-Jin; Choi, Tae-Youl; Lee, Sang-Kwon

2013-12-01

51

Catalytic hydrocarbon conversion process and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process and apparatus is claimed for hydrocarbon conversion, such as fluid catalytic cracking, in which finely divided catalyst is circulated from a catalyst regeneration vessel through a standpipe connected by an angle bend to a vertically inclined conduit which in turn is connected to a straight vertical transferline riser reaction zone into a gas-solids disengaging and stripping vessel without the

E. C. Luckenbach; A. C. Worley

1975-01-01

52

Nanometer-Scale Four-Point Probe Resistance Measurements of Individual Nanowires by Four-Tip STM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review of our recent results about transport properties of nanowires measured by a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) installed with metal-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) tips. We first present our custom-made apparatus (with UNISOKU Co.) as well as CNT tips, and then some case studies with two different samples, Co-silicide nanowires self-assembled on Si(110) surface and Cu nanowires made by damascene processes used in LSI industry. It is shown that the four-tip STM with CNT tips is versatile and powerful for measuring the conductivity of individual nanostructures.

Hasegawa, S.; Hirahara, T.; Kitaoka, Y.; Yoshimoto, S.; Tono, T.; Ohba, T.

53

Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

Ellis, J. M.

1986-01-01

54

Occipital bending in depression.  

PubMed

There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. PMID:24740986

Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

2014-06-01

55

Control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

56

Matrix cracking and bending stiffness reduction in composite laminates  

E-print Network

Axial Tests 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4. 1 [0/90s], Laminate 4. 1. 1 0 j'901 ], Experimental Results 4. 1. 2 0/90s], Analytical Results 4. 1. 3, 0/90s], Analytical ? Experimental Comparison 4. 2 [90s/Oq, Laminate 4. 2. 1, '90'/Oq], Experimental... OF FIGURES Fig. 1 Equilibrium Element Used in Euler ? Bernoulli Development Fig. 2 Laminate Moment Equilibrium Element Fig. 3 Laminate Representative Volume Fig. 4 Bending and Shear Deformations Fig. 5 Timoshenko Equilibrium Element Fig. 6 Four Point...

Frailey, James Alan

2012-06-07

57

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

58

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

59

Thermoforming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

Perryman, L.M.

1984-07-31

60

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

61

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

62

Measuring graphene's bending stiffness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene's unusual combination of in-plane strength and out-of-plane flexibility makes it promising for mechanical applications. A key value is the bending stiffness, which microscopic theories and measurements of phonon modes in graphite put at ?0=1.2 eV.^1 However, theories of the effects of thermal fluctuations in 2D membranes predict that the bending stiffness at longer length scales could be orders of magnitude higher.^2,3 This macroscopic value has not been measured. Here we present the first direct measurement of monolayer graphene's bending stiffness, made by mechanically lifting graphene off a surface in a liquid and observing both motion induced by thermal fluctuations and the deflection caused by gravity's effect on added weights. These experiments reveal a value ?eff=12 keV at room temperature --- four orders of magnitude higher than ?0. These results closely match theoretical predictions of the effects of thermally-induced fluctuations which effectively thicken the membrane, dramatically increasing its bending stiffness at macroscopic length scales. [1] A. Fasolino et al., Nat. Mater. (2007) [2] D. R. Nelson and L. Peliti, J Physique (1987) [3] F. L. Braghin and N. Hasselmann, Phys Rev B (2010)

Blees, Melina; Barnard, Arthur; Roberts, Samantha; Kevek, Joshua W.; Ruyack, Alexander; Wardini, Jenna; Ong, Peijie; Zaretski, Aliaksandr; Wang, Siping; McEuen, Paul L.

2013-03-01

63

Bending the rules of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational norms of emotional expression are open to negotiation through improvised performances, as employees may bend or break emotion rules to gain more leeway in expressiveness and participate in the development of their own role identities in the workplace. In this ethnographic study, a dramaturgical perspective is used to analyze the processes and outcomes of emotional improvisation as observed among

Jayne Morgan; Kathleen Krone

2001-01-01

64

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

65

Four-point measurements of n-and p-type two-dimensional systems fabricated with cleaved-edge overgrowth  

E-print Network

Four-point measurements of n- and p-type two-dimensional systems fabricated with cleaved measurements of cleaved-edge overgrown two-dimensional electron and hole systems. By lithographically patterning and etching a bulk-doped surface layer, finger-shaped leads are fabricated, which contact the two

Grayson, Matthew

66

Analysis of current directions in the bends of an ephemeral river and its geological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment transport directions in four point bars of an ephemeral meandering river Usri, India, were measured from sedimentary\\u000a structures and compared with the flow directions of the adjacent river-channel flow. As the bars were crescentic in shape,\\u000a each bar has been divided into several sectors along with the adjacent river-channel bend. Vector means of sediment transport\\u000a directions in each sector

Barendra Purkait

2010-01-01

67

Monitoring apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for monitoring the temperature inside a refrigeration unit that experiences periodic defrost cycles of a known duration, the apparatus including a temperature sensor located within the refrigeration unit for providing an electrical output signal indicative of the temperature level inside the unit, a comparator means for comparing the sensor output signal level with a preset signal level and providing a first output signal when the sensed temperature level is above the preset level and a second output signal when the sensed temperature level is below the preset level, a timer means connected to the output of the comparator means which is enabled when the comparator means produces the first output signal whereby the timer means generates a continuous chain of timing pulses and is disabled when the comparator means produces the second output signal, counter means being coupled to the timer means for counting the number of pulses generated by the timer means and producing a counter output signal when a preset count is reached. The duration of the counter means cycle is greater than the duration of the defrost cycle, and an audio means coupled to the output of both the timer means and the counter means. An audio transducer means provides a first audible alert signal any time the timer means is enabled and a second audible alarm signal when the counter means reaches the preset count.

Adams, W.H.

1986-12-23

68

Reflections, bendings, and pentagons  

E-print Network

We study relations between reflections in (positive or negative) points in the complex hyperbolic plane. It is easy to see that the reflections in the points q_1,q_2 obtained from p_1,p_2 by moving p_1,p_2 along the geodesic generated by p_1,p_2 and keeping the (dis)tance between p_1,p_2 satisfy the bending relation R(q_2)R(q_1)=R(p_2)R(p_1). We show that a generic isometry F\\in SU(2,1) is a product of 3 reflections, F=R(p_3)R(p_2)R(p_1), and describe all such decompositions: two decompositions are connected by finitely many bendings involving p_1,p_2/p_2,p_3 and geometrically equal decompositions differ by an isometry centralizing F. Any relation between reflections gives rise to a representation H_n->PU(2,1) of the hyperelliptic group H_n generated by r_1,...,r_n with the defining relations r_n...r_1=1, r_j^2=1. The theorem mentioned above is essential to the study of the Teichmuller space TH_n. We describe all nontrivial representations of H_5, called pentagons, and conjecture that they are faithful and di...

Anan'in, Sasha

2012-01-01

69

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

70

Well apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus comprising: a well packer having at least two flow ways therethrough, a conduit providing a first control pressure, vent valve means connected to the conduit and controlling one of the flow ways and having a flow member reciprocal in both directions between open and closed positions for multiple cycles in response to a first control pressure in the conduit. The valve means remains closed in the absence of first control pressure and when subjected to a second ambient pressure less than a selected value, and kill valve means associated with the packer and vent valve and in combination with one of the flow ways, the kill valve means opening in response to a second ambient pressure above the selected value.

Echols, R.H.; Patel, B.H.; Renfroe, J.B. Jr.

1986-11-25

71

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1981-01-01

72

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01

73

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

1992-09-01

74

Bending to fly  

E-print Network

Wing flexibility governs the flying performance of flapping wing flyers. Here we use a self-propelled flapping-wing model mounted on a "merry-go-round" to investigate the effect of wing compliance on the propulsive efficiency of the system. Our measurements show that the elastic nature of the wings can lead not only to a substantial reduction of the consumed power, but also to an increment of the propulsive force. A scaling analysis using a flexible plate model for the wings points out that, for flapping flyers in air, the time-dependent shape of the elastic bending wing is governed by the wing inertia. Based on this prediction, we define the ratio of the inertial forces deforming the wing to the elastic restoring force that limits the deformation as the 'elasto-inertial number'. Our measurements with the self-propelled model confirm that it is the appropriate structural parameter to describe flapping flyers with flexible-wings.

Thiria, Benjamin

2010-01-01

75

Drive apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A drive apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft operatively connected to an engine; an output shaft operatively connected to travelling means; a transmission line operatively interconnected between the input and output shafts, the line including first and second intermediate shafts; clutch means disposed between the first and second intermediate shafts for operatively interconnecting and disconnecting the first and second intermediate shafts; change speed means including at least one change speed shift means for effecting speed changes between the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft. The shift means includes synchro shift means and a first hydraulic switch valve moveable between neutral, first and second change speed positions, the change speed means further including a shift selector for selective operation of the first switch valve; the clutch means being responsive to the neutral position of the shift means for effecting the operative disconnection, and responsive to the change speed positions of the shift means for effecting the operative interconnection of the first and second intermediate shafts; a source of pressurized fluid, the shift selector and clutch means being hydraulically connected in parallel to the source of pressurized fluid; and a first pilot fluid operated switch valve hydraulically connected between the fluid source and clutch means.

Hasegawa, S.; Fukui, T.

1987-01-20

76

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23

77

Bending instabilities in stellar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the physics of bending instabilities in inhomogeneous stellar systems and propose a simple criterion for stability. We derive the bending modes of a family of thin disk models and show that long-wavelength modes in thin systems with realistic density profiles are not always stabilized by gravity, in contrast to an infinite sheet. We also present the results of

David Merritt; J. A. Sellwood

1994-01-01

78

Flexural effects of sandwich beam with a plate insert under in-plane bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local stress concentrations in sandwich beam with a plate insert under in-plane bending are concerned in the study. An improved six-step phase shifting method in digital photoelasticity is employed to calculate the whole-field shear stress.The shear load transfer is realized by shear bands which connect the top and bottom sheet faces through adhesively-bonded interfaces. The plate insert plays a role in load transfer in the sandwich structure, and the fact that debonding might occur at more sites of the interfaces may also leads to the failure of the structure. The local stress concentrations at the insert end change with the load under three-point bending loads, while they remain as the initial residual shear stress under four-point bending loads. The local stress concentration effects generated by the plate insert is essentially caused by the mismatch of elastic properties of the core materials and the irrational geometry of the insert.

Zhenkun, Lei; Wei, Qiu; Libo, Deng

2012-07-01

79

A computer program to calculate the resistivity of a thin film deposited on a conductive substrate from four-point probe measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of FORTRAN-77 programs is described which correct for the effect of a conducting substrate when a linear four-point probe is used to measure the resistivity of a thin film. The resistivity of the film is given in terms of the thicknesses of the film and substrate, the known resistivity of the substrate, and the measured delta V/I. A full development is given as well as a complete description of the operation of the programs. The programs themselves can be obtained through COSMIC, and are identified as LEW No. 14381.

Oberle, L. G.; Fralick, G. C.

1986-01-01

80

Acoustic emission characterization of steel fibre reinforced concrete during bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic emission (AE) behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete is studied in this paper. The experiments were conducted in four-point bending with concurrent monitoring of AE signals. The sensors used, were of broadband response in order to capture a wide range of fracturing phenomena. The results indicate that AE parameters undergo significant changes much earlier than the final fracture of the specimens, even if the AE hit rate seems approximately constant. Specifically, the Ib-value which takes into account the amplitude distribution of the recent AE hits decreases when the load reaches about 60-70 % of its maximum value. Additionally, the average frequency of the signals decreases abruptly when a fracture incident occurs, indicating that matrix cracking events produce higher frequencies than fibre pull-out events. It is concluded that proper study of AE parameters enables the characterization of structural health of large structures in cases where remote monitoring is applied.

Aggelis, D. G.; Soulioti, D. V.; Sapouridis, N.; Barkoula, N. M.; Paipetis, A. S.; Matikas, T. E.

2010-04-01

81

Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

82

Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.

delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

83

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which

Mcarthur

1980-01-01

84

Solar energy conversion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for converting solar energy to useful energy principally for home use. The apparatus provides a complete system for receiving solar energy over a large area, e.g. 1,000 square feet; concentrating the energy; and directing the energy toward a target of a few square feet at an extremely high temperature. The receiving, concentrating and transmitting apparatus consists of

Thompson

1983-01-01

85

Inelastic bending of a nickel beam at several temperatures: experiment and prediction  

SciTech Connect

The results of an experiment on the bending response of a nickel prismatic beam under four point loading at 25/sup 0/C, 200/sup 0/C, and 300/sup 0/C are described. The specimens have been subjected to histories of steady applied moment with a sequence of step changes both positive and negative. The measured results are compared with predictions based on Hart's constitutive equations. The experimental conditions and procedures are described. The experiment and the predictions are compared with prior studies.

Mautz, J.A.; Hart, E.E.

1980-07-01

86

Interpretation of bend strength increase of graphite by the couple-stress theory. [HTGR  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a continued evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress constitutive theory to graphite. The evaluation is performed by examining four-point bend and uniaxial tensile data of various sized cylindrical and square specimens for three grades of graphites. These data are superficially inconsistent and, usually, at variance with the predictions of classical theories. Nevertheless, this evaluation finds that they can be consistently interpreted by the couple-stress theory. This is compatible with results of an initial evaluation that considered one size of cylindrical specimen for H-451 graphite.

Tang, P.Y.

1981-05-01

87

Bending rules for animal propulsion.  

PubMed

Animal propulsors such as wings and fins bend during motion and these bending patterns are believed to contribute to the high efficiency of animal movements compared with those of man-made designs. However, efforts to implement flexible designs have been met with contradictory performance results. Consequently, there is no clear understanding of the role played by propulsor flexibility or, more fundamentally, how flexible propulsors should be designed for optimal performance. Here we demonstrate that during steady-state motion by a wide range of animals, from fruit flies to humpback whales, operating in either air or water, natural propulsors bend in similar ways within a highly predictable range of characteristic motions. By providing empirical design criteria derived from natural propulsors that have convergently arrived at a limited design space, these results provide a new framework from which to understand and design flexible propulsors. PMID:24548870

Lucas, Kelsey N; Johnson, Nathan; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Cathcart, Eric; Tirrell, Gregory; Colin, Sean P; Gemmell, Brad J; Dabiri, John O; Costello, John H

2014-01-01

88

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

89

The correlation function for density perturbations in an expanding universe. III The three-point and predictions of the four-point and higher order correlation functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher-order correlation functions for the large-scale distribution of galaxies in space are investigated. It is demonstrated that the three-point correlation function observed by Peebles and Groth (1975) is not consistent with a distribution of perturbations that at present are randomly distributed in space. The two-point correlation function is shown to be independent of how the perturbations are distributed spatially, and a model of clustered perturbations is developed which incorporates a nonuniform perturbation distribution and which explains the three-point correlation function. A model with hierarchical perturbations incorporating the same nonuniform distribution is also constructed; it is found that this model also explains the three-point correlation function, but predicts different results for the four-point and higher-order correlation functions than does the model with clustered perturbations. It is suggested that the model of hierarchical perturbations might be explained by the single assumption of having density fluctuations or discrete objects all of the same mass randomly placed at some initial epoch.

Mcclelland, J.; Silk, J.

1978-01-01

90

Bending behavior of lapped plastic ehv cables  

SciTech Connect

One of the factors delaying the development of lapped polymeric cables has been their reputed poor bending characteristics. Complementary programs were begun at BNL several years ago to mathematically model the bending of synthetic tape cables and to develop novel plastic tapes designed to have moduli more favorable to bending. A series of bend tests was recently completed to evaluate the bending performance of several tapes developed for use in experimental superconducting cables. The program is discussed and the results of the bend tests are summarized.

Morgan, G H; Muller, A C

1980-01-01

91

Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending

Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.

92

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

93

Measuring the bending of asymmetric planar EAP structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric characterization of low-voltage dielectric electro-active polymer (EAP) structures, comprised of nanometer thickness but areas of square centimeters, for applications such as artificial sphincters requires methods with nanometer precision. Direct optical detection is usually restricted to sub-micrometer resolution because of the wavelength of the light applied. Therefore, we propose to take advantage of the cantilever bending system with optical readout revealing a sub-micrometer resolution at the deflection of the free end. It is demonstrated that this approach allows us to detect bending of rather conventional planar asymmetric, dielectric EAP-structures applying voltages well below 10 V. For this purpose, we built 100 ?m-thin silicone films between 50 nm-thin silver layers on a 25 ?m-thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate. The increase of the applied voltage in steps of 50 V until 1 kV resulted in a cantilever bending that exhibits only in restricted ranges the expected square dependence. The mean laser beam displacement on the detector corresponded to 6 nm per volt. The apparatus will therefore become a powerful mean to analyze and thereby improve low-voltage dielectric EAP-structures to realize nanometer-thin layers for stack actuators to be incorporated into artificial sphincter systems for treating severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

Weiss, Florian M.; Zhao, Xue; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Urwyler, Prabitha; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert

2013-04-01

94

Bending stiffness of catheters and guide wires.  

PubMed

An important property of catheters and guide wires to assess their pushability behavior is their bending stiffness. To measure bending stiffness, a new bending module with a new clamping device was developed. This module can easily be mounted in commercially available tensile testing equipment, where bending force and deflection due to the bending force can be measured. To achieve high accuracy for the bending stiffness, the bending distance has to be measured with even higher accuracy by using a laser-scan micrometer. Measurement results of angiographic catheters and guide wires were presented and discussed. The bending stiffness shows a significant dependence on the angle of the test specimen's rotation around its length axis. PMID:12451800

Wünsche, P; Werner, C; Bloss, P

2002-01-01

95

Bend ductility of tungsten heavy alloys  

SciTech Connect

A bend ductility test is used to indicate the formability of tungsten heavy alloys sheet. The primary test bends a notchless Charpy impact specimen to a bend angle of approximately 100C. This can be augmented by a bend-completion test. Finite element modeling as well as strain-gaged bend specimens elucidate the strain distribution in the specimen as a function of material thickness and bend angle. The bend ductilities of 70%W, 807.W and 90%W alloys are characterized. As expected, decreasing thickness or tungsten content enhances bend ductility. Oxidation is not detrimental; therefore, controlled atmosphere is not required for cooling. The potentially detrimental effects of mechanical working (e.g., rolling, roller-leveling, grit blasting, and peening) and machining (e.g., cutting and sanding) are illustrated.

Gurwell, W.E.; Garnich, M.R.; Dudder, G.B.; Lavender, C.A.

1992-11-01

96

An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters  

SciTech Connect

We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 Degree-Sign C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 Degree-Sign C to 250 Degree-Sign C.

Kallaher, R. L.; Latham, C. A.; Sharifi, F. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6204 (United States)

2013-01-15

97

CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD AND APPARATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic scanning and recording apparatus is designed for scanning a ; chromatographic strip for radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a sealable ; chamber, scanning means within the chamber, a drum for carrying a spirally wound ; chromatographic strip, means for moving the drum to align successive portions of ; the strip with the scanner, detection means, and means for evacuating

E. B. Fowler; W. A. Rhinehart

1962-01-01

98

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried

R. L. Hallman Jr.; R. L. Jr

1991-01-01

99

Mobile drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inventiond discloses a drilling apparatus mounted on a self-propelled base quipped with a joint to permit use on uneven terrain and drilling at various angles with respect to the terrain surface; embodiments of the invention feature suction apparatus for removing drill cuttings, and foldable masts.

C. C. Brown; J. R. Brown

1978-01-01

100

Least Squares Best Fit Method for the Three Parameter Weibull Distribution: Analysis of Tensile and Bend Specimens with Volume or Surface Flaw Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Material characterization parameters obtained from naturally flawed specimens are necessary for reliability evaluation of non-deterministic advanced ceramic structural components. The least squares best fit method is applied to the three parameter uniaxial Weibull model to obtain the material parameters from experimental tests on volume or surface flawed specimens subjected to pure tension, pure bending, four point or three point loading. Several illustrative example problems are provided.

Gross, Bernard

1996-01-01

101

The Nature of Magnetohydrodynamic Fluctuations in the Solar Wind as Determined from Four-Point Measurements of Magnetic Field and (Electron) Plasma Velocity on Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of the Cluster mission is to use large spacecraft separations (? 10,000 km) to examine the three-dimensional structure of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind. Pioneering work using the magnetometer data has been done in recent years. Analyses have included use of k-filtering or wave telescope, and correlation techniques (e.g., see, Glassmeier et al., 2001; Sahraoui et al., 2003; Matthaeus et al., 2005). The plasma properties of these fluctuations have not been examined due primarily to the lack of four-point measurements of the plasma velocity. We have examined the possibility of using velocity moments computed from high-resolution three-dimensional distribution functions obtained during burst mode from the PEACE experiment on all four Cluster spacecraft. Preliminary analysis suggests that for fluctuations with periods below about 10 sec, spectra of Elsässer variables have spectral indices close to the Kolmogorov value of -5/3 seen in fluid turbulence and known to be characteristic of solar wind turbulence when proton velocities are used. The spectra using PEACE data compare well with spectra for the same time intervals computed using proton velocity moments from the CIS experiment on C1. For some intervals, the PEACE spectra show the presence of highly compressible waves in the Earth's foreshock with periods of ? 30 sec. We will report on progress using multi-spacecraft techniques (e.g., the wave telescope) to identify the wave modes present at times when the spacecraft are in the solar wind at separations as large as 10,000 km. Glassmeier, K. H. et al. (2001), Cluster as a wave telescope--first results from the fluxgate magnetometer, Ann. Geophys., 19, 1439-1447. Sahraoui, F. et al. (2003), Ulf wave identification in the magnetosheath: K-filtering technique applied to Cluster II data, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1335. Matthaeus, W. H. et al. (2005), Spatial correlation of solar-wind turbulence from two-point measurements, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95.

Goldstein, M. L.; Fazakerley, A.; Narita, Y.; Parks, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Glassmeier, K.; Le, G.

2006-12-01

102

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

103

Mirror plasma apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

104

WHERE THE GRANULAR FLOWS BEND  

SciTech Connect

Based on IMaX/SUNRISE data, we report on a previously undetected phenomenon in solar granulation. We show that in a very narrow region separating granules and intergranular lanes, the spectral line width of the Fe I 5250.2 A line becomes extremely small. We offer an explanation of this observation with the help of magneto-convection simulations. These regions with extremely small line widths correspond to the places where the granular flows bend from upflow in granules to downflow in intergranular lanes. We show that the resolution and image stability achieved by IMaX/SUNRISE are important requisites to detect this interesting phenomenon.

Khomenko, E.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 C/VIa Lactea, s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Solanki, S. K.; Gandorfer, A.; Barthol, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Del Toro Iniesta, J. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Domingo, V. [Grupo de AstronomIa y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Knoelker, M., E-mail: khomenko@iac.e [High Altitude Observatory (NCAR), Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

2010-11-10

105

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Ward, Charles

2003-01-16

106

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

107

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

108

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

109

Vacuum pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

110

Light bending by a black body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the velocity shift of light when the vacuum is modified by the finite temperature quantum electrodynamic effect. Within the geometric optics formalism, we calculate the bending angle of a light ray when the index of refraction has a gradient caused by black-body radiation. We find the trajectories and the bending angles for two simplified toy model cases. Assuming a neutron star to be an isothermal black body, we estimate the order of magnitude for the bending angle and compared it with the bending angle caused by a magnetic field.

Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Taekoon

2014-09-01

111

Electroviscous resistance of nanofluidic bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis tools that quantify the pressure and potential changes occurring over pressure-driven electrokinetic device elements are necessary for the design of optimal laboratory-on-a-chip devices. In this study, the resistance of a nanofluidic silica channel with negatively charged walls containing a 90? bend to the electroviscous flow of a potassium chloride salt solution is quantified in terms of two equivalent lengths using numerical analysis. One equivalent length is based on the excess pressure drop and the other on the excess potential rise. Over the entire range of simulations conducted, these equivalent lengths are relatively independent of salt concentration, flow velocity, channel size, and surface charge, remaining within the approximate ranges of 1.3-1.5 for the pressure equivalent length and 0.8-1.05 for the potential equivalent length.

Berry, J. D.; Foong, A. E.; Lade, C. E.; Biscombe, C. J. C.; Davidson, M. R.; Harvie, D. J. E.

2014-10-01

112

A micrographic study of bending failure in five thermoplastic/carbon fiber composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The local deformation and failure sequences of five thermoplastic matrix composites were microscopically observed while bending the samples in a small fixture attached to a microscope stage. The themoplastics are polycarbonate, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfide, polyethersulfone, and polyetheretherketone. Comparison was made to an epoxy matrix composite, 5208/T-300. Laminates tested are (0/90) sub 2S, with outer ply fibers parallel to the beam axis. Four point bending was used at a typical span-to-thickness ratio of 39:1. It was found that all of the thermoplastic composites failed by abrupt longitudinal compression buckling of the outer ply. Very little precursory damage was observed. Micrographs reveal typical fiber kinking associated with longitudinal compression failure. Curved fracture surfaces on the fibers suggest they failed in bending rather than direct compression. Delamination was suppressed in the thermoplastic composites, and the delamination that did occur was found to be the result of compression buckling, rather than visa-versa. Microbuckling also caused other subsequent damage such as ply splitting, transverse ply shear failure, fiber tensile failure, and transverse ply cracking.

Yurgartis, S. W.; Sternstein, S. S.

1987-01-01

113

Polarization Imaging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

2010-01-01

114

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

115

Thermal energy test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

Audet, N. F.

1991-10-01

116

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

117

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

118

Service Option Advantages / Disadvantages Fort Bend Shuttle  

E-print Network

(Operated by FBC) Option 2 Westwood Route 262 Extension to FB Park & Ride (Operated by METRO) Fort Bend Park & Ride (Operated by FBC) Fort Bend Park & Ride (Operated by METRO) ~700 Trips ~1,700 Trips ~1 improvement of service? Advantages · Increases Option 1 passenger capacity for transfers from FBC to METRO

119

Grating polarizers in waveguide miter bends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectangular grooved gratings have been fabricated on mirrors of waveguide miter bends. When the HE11 mode was propagated in corrugated waveguide with diameter equal to approximately 12 wavelengths, these gratings performed in the same manner as predicted using plane wave theory. Two gratings with different groove depths in successive miter bends are sufficient to generate a rather wide range of

John L. Doane; General Atomics

1992-01-01

120

Gravitational Bending of Light with Frequency Shifts  

E-print Network

Non-static gravitational fields generally introduce frequency shifts when bending light. In this paper, I discuss the frequency shifts induced in the bending of light by moving masses. As examples, I treat the recently discovered high-velocity pulsar PSR 2224+65 and a typical Einstein ring.

P. D. Morley

1993-11-15

121

Visual examination apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (inventors)

1973-01-01

122

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

123

Bending Elasticity of Anti-Parallel ?-Sheets  

PubMed Central

Using a coarse-grained elastic model, we examine the bending properties of anti-parallel ?-sheets comprised of uniform amino-acid residues in vacuum as well as in explicit solvent. By comparing the conformational probability of the ?-sheet from molecular dynamics simulations with the same quantities obtained from the coarse-grained model, we compute the elastic bending constant, ?. Equilibrium fluctuations of the ?-sheet and its response to external forces are well reproduced by a model with a uniform isotropic bending constant. An anisotropic bending model is also investigated, although the computed anisotropy is relatively weak and most of the observed properties are well described by an isotropic model. The presence of explicit solvent also lowers the bending constant. The sequence dependence of our result and its implications in protein conformational dynamics are discussed. PMID:17114232

Choe, Seungho; Sun, Sean X.

2007-01-01

124

Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

Colozza, Anthony

2010-01-01

125

Flexible film waveguides with excellent bending properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a film waveguide which has excellent bending properties. The waveguide can be fabricated by existing exposure/development processes and facilities with a core and a cladding dry film. Based on the bending loss simulation results, we fabricated the film waveguides of which the core-cladding index difference (relative index difference) of the waveguide was 3.1% and were evaluated transmission and bending properties. The propagation loss measured by a cut-back method was 0.15dB/cm at wavelength of 850nm. There was little change in optical loss on a 360-degree bend test with a 2mm radius of curvature. No loss increase and no damage to the film waveguide were observed after MIT folding endurance test more than one hundred thousand times with a 2mm bending radius of curvature at -30, 23 and 85 °C. The film waveguide demonstrated good folding endurance over a wide range of temperatures.

Maeda, Y.; Hashiguchi, Y.

2008-02-01

126

Bending of light in conformal Weyl gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reexamine the bending of light issue associated with the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution of Weyl gravity discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas (1989). To this end we employ the procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background. In earlier studies the term ?r in the metric led to the paradoxical result of a bending angle proportional to the photon impact parameter, when using the usual formalism appropriate to asymptotically flat space-times. However, employing the approach of light bending of Rindler and Ishak we show that the effects of this term are in fact insignificant, with the discrepancy between the two procedures attributed to the definition of the bending angle between the asymptotically flat and nonflat spaces.

Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes

2010-06-01

127

On the process parameter of laser tube bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser tube bending is a process in which the laser irradiates the tube surface to induce the thermal stress and bend the tubes. As no hard tooling or external forces is needed during, laser tube bending is a flexible forming process and has potential to deal with materials difficult to bend or thin wall tubes. A formula for bending angle

Nanhai Hao

2010-01-01

128

Method and apparatus for fragmenting asphalt  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for laterally severing an asphalt layer to form a ribbon, separating the asphalt ribbon from an underlying base, elevating the separated asphalt ribbon, and fracturing the elevated asphalt ribbon by bending same. A cutting member having a leading edge which is insertable between the asphalt ribbon and base provides separation thereof along a lateral line. A ramp and elevating structure elevatingly guide the separated asphalt ribbon into a pair of breaker drums which are rotatable in opposite circumferential directions. Each breaker drum has protruding teeth which are arranged in laterally separated circumferential rows with the teeth in adjacent circumferential rows being preferably arcuately offset. Corresponding circumferential rows on the opposed breaker drums are laterally aligned and the teeth in those rows engage opposite surfaces of the asphalt ribbon during rotation of the breaker drums. The teeth in corresponding rows on the respective breaker drums alternately engage opposite surfaces of the asphalt ribbon at longitudinally spaced locations to bend and fracture the asphalt ribbon by displacing it in generally opposite transverse directions at the engaged locations.

Eftefield, L. G.; Simmons, G. P.; Stone, G. L.

1985-12-24

129

Structural basis for DNA bending.  

PubMed Central

We report proton NMR studies on DNA oligonucleotides that contain A tracts of lengths known to produce various degrees of bending. Spectra of duplexes in the series 5'-(GGCAnCGG).(CCGTnGCC) (n = 3, 4, 5, 7, 9) reveal substantial structural changes within the An.Tn tract as its length is increased. Chemical-shift comparisons show that A tracts with fewer than about seven members do not contain regions of uniform [or poly(dA).poly(dT)-like] structure. Long An tracts (n greater than or equal to 7) appear to consist of an internal segment of homopolymeric conformation flanked by regions of transitional structure that occupy about four A.T pairs on the 5' side and two A.T pairs perhaps the directly adjacent G.C pair on the 3' side. In shorter duplexes (n less than 7), these two transitional regions overlap and an apparent mutual incompatibility causes length-dependent changes that are most pronounced near the 3' end. Throughout the series, there is a striking monotonic relationship between the location of an A.T pair in the A tract and the relative position of its ThyH3 resonance. The direction of the chemical-shift dispersion is opposite to that expected from consideration of ring-current effects alone; this discrepancy suggests a gradual decrease in ThyH3...N1Ade hydrogen-bond length as one moves from the 5' to the 3' end of the A tract and from short to long A tracts. Nuclear Overhauser effect measurements reveal that the interproton distances AdeH2...H1'Ade and AdeH2...H1'Thy vary along each A tract, except in the central regions of the longer ones where they are fairly constant and in good agreement with the poly(dA).poly(dT) structure proposed by Lipanov, A.A. & Chuprina, V. P. [(1987) Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 5833-5844]. This model features a substantial negative base-pair tilt, which has been suggested previously as the source of A-tract bending. In contrast, the nuclear Overhauser effect distances are inconsistent with at least one known crystallographic A-tract structure [DiGabriele, A. D., Sanderson, M. R. & Steitz, T. A. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 1816-1820], which lacks appreciable base-pair tilt. PMID:2704739

Nadeau, J G; Crothers, D M

1989-01-01

130

Gravitropic bending of fruit bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fruit bodies of basidiomycetes exhibit a unique mechanism of gravitropic bending, related to their specific architecture. The gravisensitive region of the stipe directly below the cap coincides with the bending zone. The hyphae of this region are equipped with the ability to generate positional information and translate it into differential growth. A model is introduced with the fundamental characteristics of agent-based modeling as it is applied in robotics and artificial intelligence. The hyphae are equivalent to autonomous decision-making agents on the basis of a simple set of rules. Repetitive interactions between the agents, i.e. the hyphae, permit the correct adjustment of the fruit body independent from its relative position in space. This model is based on the following structural as well as biochemical data derived from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. A statolith-mediated mechanism in each individual hypha of the gravisensitive region accounts for graviperception. Cell nuclei with a density of 1.22 g cm-3 are considered the most likely candidates for gravity-induced sedimentation (statoliths). The number of nuclei in this zone is increased from 2 to up to 10 individual nuclei within each hyphal compartment. The nuclei are suspended in a web of actin filaments anchored in the plasma membrane. Any shift from the vertical position is converted into a change in the gravitational pull exerted on the plasma membrane. This leads to a functional distinction of the upper and lower flanks of each hypha. Each hypha is equipped with the ability to generate and amplify a positional signal perpendicular to the axis of the gravisensitive zone. This signal coordinates different hyphal extension of the upper and lower flank of the stipe: upper flank hyphae grow slower than lower flank hyphae. Hyphal growth requires continued turgor pressure and depends on the expansion of the vacuolar compartment. This vacuolation is conspicuously increased in lower flank transition zone hyphae of a horizontally oriented stipe. Cells undergoing fast vacuolation have electron-translucent regions around their vacuoles. These regions are composed of small, light vesicle-like structures (microvesicles). They apparently fuse with the vacuole increasing their volume by subsequent osmotic water intake. Subcellular changes in response to a gravistimulus are already observed after 30 min.

Hock, Bertold

131

Bend Properties of Sapphire Fibers at Elevated Temperatures. 1; Bend Survivability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of temperature on the bend radius that a c-axis-oriented sapphire fiber can withstand was determined for fibers of various diameter. Bend stress rupture tests were performed for times of 1-100 h and temperatures of 300-1700 C. Fibers would survive the bend test undeformed, would fracture or would deform. The bend survival radius was determined to be the radius above which no fibers fractured or deformed for a given time-temperature treatment. It was found that the ability of fibers to withstand curvature decreases substantially with time and increasing temperature and that fibers of smaller diameter (46-83 micron) withstood smaller bend radii than would be expected from just a difference in fiber diameter when compared with the bend results of the fibers of large diameter (144 micron). This was probably due to different flaw populations, causing high temperature bend failure for the tested sapphire fibers of different diameters.

Morscher, Gregory N.; Sayir, Haluk

1995-01-01

132

Suspension apparatus for vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suspension apparatus is described for a vehicle provided between a pair of left and right wheels of the vehicle and the vehicle body, comprising: telescopic members integrally connected to suspension springs and expanded and contracted by means of fluid pressure, fluid passages for feeding fluid pressurized by a pump to the telescopic members and discharging the fluid from the

H. Fujita; K. Honma; M. Ogawa

1987-01-01

133

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a coriolis simulator which uses a carbon paper trace technique and a simple specific-heat apparatus, emphasizing instructional considerations. Also indicates that a variac and an ordinary electric drill can be used to wind coil if a lathe or coil winder are unavailable. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

134

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "no-cost" apparatus designed to demonstrate rotational inertia. Also describes and evaluates a microprocessor-based instrument (Versatile Laboratory Aid) that performs a large variety of timing and data acquisition tasks encountered in introductory and advanced physics laboratories. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1984-01-01

135

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus and provides instructions to do relative index of refraction measurements/calculations and to show mathematical relationships betwen indices when light travels from one liquid to another. A listing of a computer program (in BASIC) which will analyze data is available from the author. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

136

Oil skimming apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for removing a film of oil from a large body of water consists of a pair of generally similar funnel assemblies, one positioned behind and in the wake of the other with a harness for towing them along their common central axis. Each funnel assembly has an impermeable cover with spaced floats to support its wide leading edge above

H. J. Fitzgerald; E. H. Koepf

1971-01-01

137

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

138

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1985-01-01

139

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

140

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

141

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

142

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

143

Gait-locomotor apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The gait-locomotor apparatus of the present invention is a device for overcoming impeded locomotion in humans and is aimed at enabling people with handicapped lower limbs to walk. The gait-locomotor apparatus that is wore on a disabled user comprises a brace having a plurality of jointed segments that are adapted to fit the lower body of the disabled user and propulsion means that is adapted to provide relative movement between the plurality of jointed segments. The gait-locomotor apparatus further comprises at least one sensor adapted to monitor the angular position of at least one of the plurality of jointed segments and a control unit that is adapted to supervise the propulsion means and to receive feedback information from the sensors so as to facilitate the brace to perform walking patterns. The disabled user that wears the gait-locomotor apparatus of the present invention is able to steadily stand in a stance position supported by the brace, and is able to walk in various walking patterns using the control unit while fully participating in the process.

2006-12-26

144

Hydrogen-Detection Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus continuously monitors concentration of hydrogen, at level ranging from few parts per million to several percent, in mixture of gases. Simple and fast, providing high sensitivity and linear response. Used to alert technicians to potentially explosive concentrations of residual hydrogen.

Ross, H. Richard; Bourgeois, Chris M.

1995-01-01

145

Fluidized coal pyrolysis apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method and apparatus are claimed for pyrolyzing agglomerative coals. The method comprises introducing a fluidized bed of hot char particles into a pyrolysis chamber or reactor, and injecting upwardly into the chamber a high velocity jet of agglomerative coal particles in a carrier gas, the fluidized hot char particles surrounding the high velocity coal jet and heating the coal particles

1982-01-01

146

Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and\\/or recycled for subsequent

R. W. Bussard; B. Coppi

1982-01-01

147

Transient detector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient detector apparatus utilizing peak and slope detectors to determine the presence of transient signal in a logic signal. Individual slope measurements of the input signal are compared with a logic criteria to establish the occurrence of a transient. The peak voltage and pulse width of a transient are digitized in order to time tag or isolate a transient

Lapeyrolerie

1985-01-01

148

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

149

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

150

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

151

A two-mode fiber optic-bending sensor  

E-print Network

relating the bending sensitivity to the shape of the profile's asymmetry are discussed. A temperature and strain compensated bending sensor for bending over arbitrary paths is demonstrated as an application of this technology. Some alternate two...

Covington, Charles Eric

2012-06-07

152

Contactless laser bending of silicon microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are going to present a new technology for laser bending of silicon microstructures based upon a suggestion of and carried out in cooperation with Prof. Dr. J. Fr'hauf from the Technical University Chemnitz (see acknowledgement). We investigated the influence of various laser process parameters on the bending angle and its reproducibility. Bending of the silicon element as a result of the laser induced thermal stresses in the material occurs toward the incident laser beam. The bending angle depends on a lot of laser process and material parameters. In particular we found that the irra-diation regime is well suited to control the bending angle. First substantial FEM based calculations of laser induced temperature fields using a moving laser heat source show the temperature field propagation in the material and reveal some regions of complicated overheating. As a result of our experiments we show a variety of examples including mul-tiple and also continuous bendings. There are several essential advantages compared to conventional bending technologies with this new method: Laser bending is contactless without using additional tools or external forces. Because of the local laser treatment the heat flux to the neighbouring material is minimized. The laser beam can be applied through windows of glass that means to al-most hermetically sealed micro devices. So laser technology is suitable for machining of already finished microsystems. It opens up a wide field of applications in micro system technologies: clip-chip-mechanism or sliding chips for micro optical benches, the adjustment of optical mirrors or other components or the ability of continuous bending for electro-static drives and so on.

Exner, Horst; Loschner, Udo

2003-04-01

153

DNA bending by small, mobile multivalent cations.  

PubMed

We propose a purely electrostatic mechanism by which small, mobile, multivalent cations can induce DNA bending. A multivalent cation binds at the entrance to the B-DNA major groove, between the two phosphate strands, electrostatically repelling sodium counterions from the neighboring phosphates. The unscreened phosphates on both strands are strongly attracted to the groove-bound cation. This leads to groove closure, accompanied by DNA bending toward the cationic ligand. We explicitly treat the dynamic character of the cation-DNA interaction using an adiabatic approximation, noting that DNA bending is much slower than the diffusion of nonspecifically bound, mobile cations. We make semiquantitative estimates of the free energy components of bending-electrostatic (with a sigmoidal distance-dependent dielectric function), elastic, and entropic cation localization-and find that the equilibrium state is bent B-DNA stabilized with a self-localized cation. This is a bending polaron, formation of which should be critically dependent on the strength of electrostatic interaction and the concentration of highly mobile cations available for self-localization. We predict that the resultant bend will be large (approximately 20-40 degrees), smooth (because it is spread over 6 bp), and infrequent. The stability of such a bend can be variable, from transient to highly stable (static) bending, observable with standard curvature-measuring techniques. We further predict that this bending mechanism will have an unusual sequence dependence: sequences with less binding specificity will be more bent, unless the specific binding site is in the major groove. PMID:9635768

Rouzina, I; Bloomfield, V A

1998-06-01

154

78 FR 77724 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption From the Requirement To Submit an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption From the Requirement...constructed and operated as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP), in Luzerne County...for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3...

2013-12-24

155

Increased shoe bending stiffness increases sprint performance.  

PubMed

The purposes of this investigation were to determine if increasing the bending stiffness of sprint shoes increases sprinting performance and to determine whether simple anthropometric factors can be used to predict shoe bending stiffness for optimal performance. Thirty-four athletes were tested using four different shoe conditions--a standard condition consisting of their currently used footwear and three conditions where the bending stiffness was increased systematically. The sprinters performed maximal effort 40 m sprints and their sprint times were recorded from 20 to 40 m. On average, increasing the shoe bending stiffness increased sprint performance. The stiffness each athlete required for his or her maximal performance was subject specific but was not related to subject mass, height, shoe size or skill level. It is speculated that individual differences in the force-length and force-velocity relationships of the calf muscles may influence the appropriate shoe stiffness for each athlete to obtain their maximal performance. PMID:15079988

Stefanyshyn, Darren; Fusco, Ciro

2004-01-01

156

Program to research emittance growth in bends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research program to explore the phenomenon of emittance growth in bends due to noninertial space-charge effects has been defined and initiated. The program combines theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations. This paper summarizes the motiv...

C. L. Bohn

1995-01-01

157

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, D.

1984-06-05

158

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

159

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

Brandt, D.

1985-12-31

160

The radon EDM apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

2014-01-01

161

Image display apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An image display apparatus includes: a display displaying an image with a predetermined number of pixels; an image holding unit holding an original image composed of a number of pixels larger than a number of pixels that is displayable on the display; and an object judgment unit judging whether or not an object is included in the original image held in the image holding unit, and generating object information related to the object in a case where the object is included in the original image. The image display apparatus also includes a display image generation unit extracting at least a part of an object area from the original image based on the original image specified by the user as well as on the object information corresponding to the original image, and generating a display image composed of a number of pixels corresponding to the number of pixels that is displayable on the display.

2008-12-23

162

Ophthalmic method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for removing material and components such as the lens from an eye is described. High speed rotary cutting members at one end of a rod macerate the lens while an annular tubing disposed around the cutting members vibrates ultrasonically to coact with the cutting members in macerating the lens. At the same time, a liquid is supplied to the chamber behind the cornea of the eye. Spiral grooves extending along the rotating rod from the cutting members evacuate the liquid and the macerated material from the eye. An alternate embodiment of the apparatus includes a tube through which liquid is supplied to the operative site of the ultrasonically vibrating tube and the cutting members in the area of the lens.

Evvard, J. C.; Mcgannon, W. J.; Vargo, D. J. (inventors)

1973-01-01

163

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

164

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

165

Oil recovery apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An oil spill recovery method and apparatus is disclosed. The method of recovery involves the pumping of an oil/water mixture from a concentration area to the submerged portion of a vertically oriented cylinder, open at both ends, and the separation of the oil from the water in the cylinder. Oil floats to and accumulates on the surface of the water in the cylinder and uncontaminated water flows out through the lower open end of the cylinder. The apparatus includes a collection unit which defines the concentration area within three walls thereof, a recovery unit which follows the collection unit and mounts the cylinder therein, and a submerged pumping unit which carries an oil/water mixture from the concentration area in the collection unit to the cylinder in the recovery unit. There is very little emulsification of the oil in the cylinder and hence there is very efficient separation onf the oil from the water.

Wylie, M. M.

1985-04-09

166

Rock bending creep and disturbance effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bending creep and its disturbance effects of red sandstone rock beam and oil shale rock beam were studied by adopting\\u000a the self-developed gravitation level style rock creep test machine and bending creep test system, and the constitutive equations\\u000a were established. It is found that fracture morphology of rock beams under no disturbance load is regular, cracking position\\u000a of fractures

Zhi-liang Fu; Ying-ren Zheng; Yuan-xue Liu

2008-01-01

167

Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides.  

PubMed

We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory to qualitatively interpret the behavior observed in our simulation. Our results pave a promising way to realize ultra-compact devices operating in the terahertz region. PMID:23481806

Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

2013-02-11

168

Grating polarizers in waveguide miter bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rectangular grooved gratings have been fabricated on mirrors of waveguide miter bends. When the HE11 mode was propagated in corrugated waveguide with diameter equal to approximately 12 wavelengths, these gratings performed in the same manner as predicted using plane wave theory. Two gratings with different groove depths in successive miter bends are sufficient to generate a rather wide range of polarizations. These gratings are particularly convenient in waveguide, which offers ease of alignment, compact transverse dimensions, and the possibility of vacuum operation.

Doane, John L.

1992-11-01

169

Visual examination apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location including a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli. A response switch enables him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system thereby provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (inventors)

1976-01-01

170

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

171

Kinesimetric method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

1980-01-01

172

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

173

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

1987-12-22

174

Demand illumination control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

1981-01-01

175

Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

1991-01-01

176

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

177

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

178

Wellbore fluid sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for capturing a sample of fluid from a wellbore characterized by: an elongated generally tubular body member, the body member including means for connecting the apparatus to means for lowering the apparatus into a wellbore; the body member including means defining a generally cylindrical bore and port means in the body member opening into the bore for conducting a flow of fluid to be sampled into the bore; piston means disposed in the bore and dividing the bore into first and second chambers, the first chamber being operable to be in flow communication with the port means for receiving the fluid sample through the port means, and the second chamber being filled with a displacement fluid to prevent displacement of the piston means to increase the volume of the first chamber; valve means in communication with the second chamber for selectively valving displacement fluid from the second chamber to permit the piston means to increase the volume of the first chamber; and closure means for the first chamber for closing off communication of the first chamber with the port means when the first chamber has received the fluid sample.

Petermann, S.G.

1988-08-30

179

Tensile testing apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved mechanical extensometer is described for use with a constant load creep test machine. The dead weight of the extensometer is counterbalanced by two pairs of weights connected through a pulley system and to rod extension and leading into the furnace where the test sample is undergoing elevated temperature (above 500 F.) tensile testing. Novel gripper surfaces, conical tip and flat surface are provided in each sampling engaging platens to reduce the grip pressure normally required for attachment of the extensometer to the specimen and reduce initial specimen bending normally associated with foil-gage metal testing.

Blackburn, L. B.; Ellingsworth, J. R.

1985-08-01

180

Tensile testing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved mechanical extensometer is described for use with a constant load creep test machine. The dead weight of the extensometer is counterbalanced by two pairs of weights connected through a pulley system and to rod extension and leading into the furnace where the test sample is undergoing elevated temperature (above 500 F.) tensile testing. Novel gripper surfaces, conical tip and flat surface are provided in each sampling engaging platens to reduce the grip pressure normally required for attachment of the extensometer to the specimen and reduce initial specimen bending normally associated with foil-gage metal testing.

Blackburn, L. B.; Ellingsworth, J. R. (inventors)

1985-01-01

181

Arbitrary angle waveguide bends based on zero-index metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, efficient arbitrary angle bends based on impedance-matched zero-index metamaterials (ZIMs) are proposed. Numerical simulations on ZIM-based bends are carried out in waveguide systems. The results show clearly that electromagnetic waves can tunnel through the ZIM-based bends with high transmittance at any bending angles. Moreover, a realistic ZIM-based bends are designed and fabricated on microstrip transmission line. Both simulated and experimental results confirm well the low loss and arbitrary angle bending effects in a system hiring ZIM-based microstrip ring resonator as bending corners.

Li, Y. H.; Zhang, L. H.; Chen, Y. Q.; Feng, T. H.; Jiang, H. T.; Chen, H.

2014-08-01

182

Running head: On chip bending tests for polysilicon ON-CHIP ELECTROSTATICALLY ACTUATED BENDING TESTS  

E-print Network

on a large plate with holes. It constitutes with the substrate a parallel plate capacitor movingRunning head: On chip bending tests for polysilicon ON-CHIP ELECTROSTATICALLY ACTUATED BENDING designed electrostatically actuated microsystems are here used in order to determine experimentally

Corigliano, Alberto

183

Computer simulation of pipe-bending processes with small bending radius using local induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through analyzing the stress state and deformation of pipe bending using local induction heating with small bending radius, a computer simulation system has been developed based on the FEM software ANSYS and finite strain elasto–plastic theory. The results, such as the thinning and thickening ratio of the pipe wall thickness, the pushing force with or without a reverse moment acting

Z Hu; J. Q Li

1999-01-01

184

Mixing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

Green, Norman W. (Redwood City, CA)

1982-06-15

185

Energy efficient apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient apparatus is described suitable for use in hot arid climates wherein a source of water is available, comprising in combination: (A) a wheel member having a hub portion and a rim portion, the wheel portion being submerged within the water to a depth sufficient to more than immerse the wheel member hub portion, the wheel member having a plurality of spoke means equally disposed of about the circumference of the hub portion disposed between the hub portion and the rim portion.

Suroff, H.

1986-09-02

186

Sonic levitation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sonic levitation apparatus is disclosed which includes a sonic transducer which generates acoustical energy responsive to the level of an electrical amplifier. A duct communicates with an acoustical chamber to deliver an oscillatory motion of air to a plenum section which contains a collimated hole structure having a plurality of parallel orifices. The collimated hole structure converts the motion of the air to a pulsed. Unidirectional stream providing enough force to levitate a material specimen. Particular application to the production of microballoons in low gravity environment is discussed.

Dunn, S. A.; Pomplum, A. R.; Paquette, E. G.; Ethridge, E. C.; Johnson, J. L. (inventors)

1984-01-01

187

Combustion Experiment Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

188

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

189

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

190

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

191

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

192

Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

2003-01-01

193

Guided wave travel time tomography for bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography has been developed to map the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. The method has been demonstrated to work well for straight pipes. The extension of this method to bends is not straightforward because natural focusing that occurs due to geometrical path differences. This yields a phase jump, which complicates travel time picking. Because ray-tracing is no longer sufficient to predict the travel times a recursive wave field extrapolation has been developed. The method uses a short spatial convolution operator to propagate a wave field through a bend. The method allows to calculate the wave field at the detector ring, including the phase jump as a consequence of the natural focusing. The recursive wave field extrapolation is done in the space-frequency domain. Therefore dispersion effects can be included easily in the forward modeling. Comparison with measurements shows the accuracy of the method. An improved tomographic inversion scheme has been implemented using the extrapolation method as forward modeling kernel. The results show that is it possible to reconstruct defects independent of their location on the bend. The method is not limited to 90° bends but works on any bend angle, including straight pipes.

Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim

2013-01-01

194

Thermodynamics and bending energetics of toruslike micelles.  

PubMed

The self-assembly of surfactants forming toruslike or toroidal micelles has been investigated from a theoretical point of view, in particular the structural behaviour and stability of tori in terms of the three bending elasticity constants spontaneous curvature (H(0)), bending rigidity (k(c)) and saddle-splay constant (k(c)). It is demonstrated that the size of toruslike micelles increases with an increasing bending rigidity, but is independent of both spontaneous curvature and saddle-splay constant. Similar to conventional micelles, toruslike micelles are found to be stable over bilayers as the spontaneous curvature times the surfactant layer thickness exceeds 1/4. Moreover, it is shown that toruslike micelles, in general, are favoured at the expense of long spherocylindrical micelles as a result of elimination of the unfavourable end-caps. However, conventional micelles that are able to grow with respect to both width and length (tablets) may be stable over tori as well as spheres in much wider regimes of different bending elasticity constants. As a result, toruslike micelles are predicted to be stable over conventional micelles, including rods, at large values of the effective bending constant k(eff) identical with 2k(c)+k(c), i.e. in the same region where infinite cylinders are expected to be observed. This result is consistent with the fact that toruslike micelles have usually been observed to coexist with large networks of branched cylinders. PMID:18771780

Bergström, L Magnus

2008-11-01

195

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented.

Hallman, R. L., Jr.

1991-06-01

196

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

Hallman, R.L. Jr.

1991-01-01

197

Polarization imaging apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

2010-01-01

198

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01

199

Agitation apparatus. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

1982-03-12

200

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

201

Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to accommodate all eight tendons at the same diameter along the arm. The threaded links have central bores through which power and video wires can be strung (1) from a charge-coupled-device camera mounted on the tip of the arms (2) back along the interior of the arm into the housing and then (3) from within the housing to an external video monitor.

Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

2010-01-01

202

Well perforating apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for perforating a well casing and surrounding formation are disclosed. The perforating apparatus includes a laser source for projecting a high intensity laser beam transversely through the well bore and surrounding formation and a nozzle assembly for injecting exothermically reactive gas along the path of the laser beam. The gas stream shields the output lens of

1980-01-01

203

Twin tower gas fractionation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for adsorptive fractionation of a gaseous mixture. The apparatus is a twin tower fractionator or dryer including a pair of sorbent beds. A filter and valve assembly directs a flow of the gaseous mixture from a source thereof to one of the beds for removing a gaseous component of said mixture while simultaneously directing a flow of purge

R. A. Null; L. C. laughlin; M. L. Goldberg

1985-01-01

204

An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

1974-01-01

205

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2013-10-01

206

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2012-10-01

207

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2011-10-01

208

Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-12-12

209

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

1998-01-01

210

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOEpatents

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01

211

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

212

Image forming apparatus  

DOEpatents

In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

1996-01-01

213

Apparatus for flaring gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for flaring gas. It comprises: flare stack means, having a base, for flaring gas; fluid pit means for storing fluid; gooseneck pipe means, coupled to the base of the flare stack means and to the fluid pit means. The gooseneck pipe means being configured to maintain a reservoir of fluid therein at a predetermined level; high pressure inlet means for introducing a first combination of waste gas and liquid of a first predetermined pressure or greater, into the flare stack means; low pressure inlet means for introducing a second combination of waste gas and liquid, of a second predetermined pressure less than that of the first predetermined pressure, into the flare stack means; and means for routing the liquid separated from the first and second combination of waste gas and liquid into the gooseneck pipe.

Zimmiond, L.

1990-01-09

214

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus is described including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion. The reflector portion includes a generally dish-shaped reflective member. The reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface. The collector portion is disposed at the focal point of the reflective member, and it includes a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal sections and therewith form an enclosed chamber, inlet and outlet members communicating with the chamber. The fluid transfer portion includes a conduit member connected to the inlet and outlet members of the collector portion and mechanism associated with said conduit member for circulating fluid to heat storage or heat dissipating members.

Strickland, B.W.

1981-09-29

215

Multiparameter vision testing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

1975-01-01

216

Spine immobilization apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

1981-01-01

217

Apparatus for dispensing material  

DOEpatents

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

2011-07-05

218

Isotope separation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

1980-01-01

219

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

220

Thermal synthesis apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-08-18

221

UV - BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK TX  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 130 is located in Big Bend NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. of...

222

Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending  

PubMed Central

Sharp bending of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) plays an essential role in genome structure and function. However, the elastic limit of dsDNA bending remains controversial. Here, we measured the opening rates of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths ranging between 40 and 200 bp using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. The relationship of loop lifetime to loop size revealed a critical transition in bending stress. Above the critical loop size, the loop lifetime changed with loop size in a manner consistent with elastic bending stress, but below it, became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softened dsDNA. The critical loop size increased from ?60 bp to ?100 bp with the addition of 5 mM magnesium. We show that our result is in quantitative agreement with the kinkable worm-like chain model, and furthermore, can reproduce previously reported looping probabilities of dsDNA over the range between 50 and 200 bp. Our findings shed new light on the energetics of sharply bent dsDNA. PMID:25122748

Le, Tung T.; Kim, Harold D.

2014-01-01

223

Bending rigidity of SOPC membranes containing cholesterol.  

PubMed

Bilayer membranes in the fluid state exhibit a large resistance to changes in surface area, negligible resistance to surface shear deformation, and a small but finite resistance to bending. The presence of cholesterol in the membrane is known to increase its resistance to area dilation. In this report, a new method for measuring bilayer membrane bending stiffness has been used to investigate the effect of cholesterol on the bending rigidity of SOPC (1,stearoyl-2,oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membranes. The curvature elasticity (kc) for membranes saturated with cholesterol was measured to be 3.3 x 10(-19) J, approximately 3-fold larger than that the modulus for cholesterol-free SOPC membrane. These findings are consistent with previous measurements of bending stiffness based on thermal fluctuations, which showed a similar approximately 3-fold increase in the modulus with cholesterol addition (Evans and Rawicz, 1990, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64:2094) and provide further substantiation of the important contribution that cholesterol makes to membrane cohesion and stability. PMID:8369417

Song, J; Waugh, R E

1993-06-01

224

Bending rigidity of SOPC membranes containing cholesterol.  

PubMed Central

Bilayer membranes in the fluid state exhibit a large resistance to changes in surface area, negligible resistance to surface shear deformation, and a small but finite resistance to bending. The presence of cholesterol in the membrane is known to increase its resistance to area dilation. In this report, a new method for measuring bilayer membrane bending stiffness has been used to investigate the effect of cholesterol on the bending rigidity of SOPC (1,stearoyl-2,oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membranes. The curvature elasticity (kc) for membranes saturated with cholesterol was measured to be 3.3 x 10(-19) J, approximately 3-fold larger than that the modulus for cholesterol-free SOPC membrane. These findings are consistent with previous measurements of bending stiffness based on thermal fluctuations, which showed a similar approximately 3-fold increase in the modulus with cholesterol addition (Evans and Rawicz, 1990, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64:2094) and provide further substantiation of the important contribution that cholesterol makes to membrane cohesion and stability. PMID:8369417

Song, J; Waugh, R E

1993-01-01

225

Bending rate damping in elastic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of an investigation of the bending rate damping model for elastic structures are presented. A model for which the internal damping term is physically plausible and which can accomodate cantilevered boundary conditions is discussed. The model formulation and mathematical foundations are given, and numerical results are discussed.

Banks, H. T.; Wang, Y.; Fabiano, R. H.

1989-01-01

226

Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending  

E-print Network

Many structures inside the cell such as nucleosomes and protein-mediated DNA loops contain sharply bent double-stranded (ds) DNA. Therefore, the energetics of strong dsDNA bending constitutes an essential part of cellular thermodynamics. Although the thermomechanical behavior of long dsDNA is well described by the worm-like chain (WLC) model, the length limit of such elastic behavior remains controversial. To investigate the energetics of strong dsDNA bending, we measured the opening rate of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths of 40-200 bp using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). From the measured relationship of loop stability to loop size, we observed a transition between two separate bending regimes at a critical loop size below 100 bp. Above this loop size, the loop lifetime decreased with decreasing loop size in a manner consistent with an elastic bending stress. Below the critical loop size, however, the loop lifetime became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softening of the doub...

Le, Tung T

2014-01-01

227

DNA Bending by Small, Mobile Multivalent Cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a purely electrostatic mechanism by which small, mobile, multivalent cations can induce DNA bending. A multivalent cation binds at the entrance to the B-DNA major groove, between the two phosphate strands, electrostatically repelling sodium counterions from the neighboring phosphates. The unscreened phosphates on both strands are strongly attracted to the groove-bound cation. This leads to groove closure, accompanied

Ioulia Rouzina; Victor A. Bloomfield

1998-01-01

228

Linear and bending actuation of bucky gel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003 Takuzo Aida and coworkers reported that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SW-CNTs), when ground with imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs), create a physical gel, named "bucky gel"1. This gel was used to prepare bimorph electrochemical actuators using a polymer-supported internal IL electrolyte layer2. These actuators can operate in air at low voltage showing improved frequency response and strain. Usual bucky gel actuators rely on a bimorph configuration where the electrodes are used alternatively as cathode and anode thus producing a bending motion. This kind of motion is limiting the possible applications, especially when, like in artificial muscles, linear strain and motion are required. We present a new design for bucky gel actuators capable of both linear and bending motion that uses a three electrode configuration with two active electrodes and a third passive one, made from a metal spring (serpentine shaped), acting as counter plate. We have built such a device and report here its linear and bending actuation performance. In these preliminary experiments we have obtained a linear strain of 0.6% and a bending strain difference between two bucky gel electrodes of 0.25%.

Biso, Maurizio; Ansaldo, Alberto; Vintera, Veronica; Ricci, Davide

2011-04-01

229

Twisting and Bending Stress in DNA Minicircles  

E-print Network

The interplay between bending of the molecule axis and appearance of disruptions in circular DNA molecules, with $\\sim 100$ base pairs, is addressed. Three minicircles with different radii and almost equal content of AT and GC pairs are investigated. The DNA sequences are modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian which describes the essential interactions in the helix at the level of the base pair and incorporates twisting and bending degrees of freedom. Helix unwinding and bubble formation patterns are consistently computed by a path integral method that sums over a large number of molecule configurations compatible with the model potential. The path ensembles are determined, as a function of temperature, by minimizing the free energy of the system. Fluctuational openings appear along the helix to release the stress due to the bending of the molecule backbone. In agreement with the experimental findings, base pair disruptions are found with larger probability in the smallest minicircle of \\textit{66-bps} whose bending angle is $\\sim 6^{o} $. For this minicircle, a sizeable untwisting is obtained with the helical repeat showing a step-like increase at $\\tau =\\,315K$. The method can be generalized to determine the bubble probability profiles of open ends linear sequences.

Marco Zoli

2014-03-25

230

Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.

1976-01-01

231

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

232

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Sherwood, OR); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-06-10

233

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Placitas, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-30

234

When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

235

Tube bending with axial pull and internal pressure  

E-print Network

under various loading conditions. Results from both the FEA and analytical model indicated that at the intrados the increase in thickness for bending with internal pressure and bending with combined axial pull and internal pressure was nearly the same...

Agarwal, Rohit

2004-09-30

236

Suspension apparatus for vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A suspension apparatus is described for a vehicle provided between a pair of left and right wheels of the vehicle and the vehicle body, comprising: telescopic members integrally connected to suspension springs and expanded and contracted by means of fluid pressure, fluid passages for feeding fluid pressurized by a pump to the telescopic members and discharging the fluid from the telescopic members, controlling valves provided in the fluid passages, each valve having a cylindrical inner valve member, a cylindrical outer valve member rotatably fitted on the inner valve member and a main body containing and supporting the inner and outer valve members for rotation respectively, means for connecting each inner valve member to a steering mechanism to rotate the inner valve member in accordance with the movement of the steering mechanism, and means for connecting each outer valve member to one of the telescopic members to rotate the outer valve member in accordance with the movement of the telescopic member relative to the vehicle body, whereby the controlling valves are connected to the steering mechanism and to the telescopic members to control the valves not only with respect to the steering but also with respect to the movement of the telescopic members relative to the vehicle body so that the vehicle body is caused to decline toward turning center side due to telescopic movement of the telescopic members in accordance with a steering operation.

Fujita, H.; Honma, K.; Ogawa, M.

1987-04-21

237

Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to license its Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses. Designed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, these patented technologies (U.S. Patent Numbers: Cryostat 1 - 6,742,926, Cryostat 2 - 6,487,866, and Cryostat 4 - 6,824,306) allow manufacturers to fabricate and test cryogenic insulation at their production and/or laboratory facilities. These new inventions allow for the thermal performance characterization of cylindrical and flat specimens (e.g., bulk-fill, flat-panel, multilayer, or continuously rolled) over the full range of pressures, from high vacuum to no vacuum, and over the full range of temperatures from 77K to 300K. In today's world, efficient, low-maintenance, low-temperature refrigeration is taking a more significant role, from the food industry, transportation, energy, and medical applications to the Space Shuttle. Most countries (including the United States) have laws requiring commercially available insulation materials to be tested and rated by an accepted methodology. The new Cryostat methods go beyond the formal capabilities of the ASTM methods to provide testing for real systems, including full-temperature differences plus full-range vacuum conditions.

Berman, Brion

2005-01-01

238

Belt conveyor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Bogart, Rex L. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

239

Integrated-magnetic apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosure is made of an integrated-magnetic apparatus, comprising: winding structure for insulatingly carrying at least two generally flat, laterally offset and spaced apart electrical windings of a power converter around an aperture; a core having a flat exterior face, an interior cavity and an un-gapped core-column that is located within the cavity and that passes through the aperture of the winding structure; flat-sided surface carried by the core and forming an interior chamber that is located adjacent to the flat face of the core and forming a core-column that has a gap and that is located within the chamber; and structure, located around the gapped core-column, for carrying a third electrical winding of the power converter. The first two electrical windings are substantially located within the cavity and are adapted to be transformingly coupled together through the core. The third electrical winding is adapted to be inductively coupled through the gapped core-column to the other electrical windings, and is phased to have the magnetic flux passing through the gapped core-column substantially in the same direction as the magnetic flux passing through the un-gapped core-column and to have substantially the same AC components of flux in the gapped core-column and in the un-gapped core-column.

Bloom, Gordon E. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

240

Flow cytometry apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an apparatus for orienting cells in a sheath fluid in a otometer/sorter. It comprises: flow chamber; means for flowing the sheath fluid through the flow chamber along a direction of flow; means for obstructing the flow of the sheath fluid in the flow chamber with a first dimension, which extends substantially across the flow chamber and is substantially perpendicular to the direction of flow and with a thickness perpendicular to the first dimension of the obstructing means wherein the sheath fluid flows around the thickness so that the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension at the downstream edge of the means for obstructing; and means for introducing the cells through the means for obstructing the flow to the region where the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension in the sheath fluid to orient the cells, with an aperture wherein as the cells pass from the means for introducing the cells to the region where the sheath fluid converges the cells pass through the aperture with a cross-sectional length substantially less than or equal to the thickness of the means for obstructing the flow.

Pinkel, D.

1991-01-29

241

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion; the reflector portion including a generally dish-shaped reflective member, the reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface, the reflective member including a fixed base section concentric with the axis of the reflective member, a plurality of movable curved segments extending from the fixed base section to the free edge of the open face of the reflective member, the end of each segment adjacent to the fixed base section being pivotally connected thereto; the collector portion being disposed along the axis and the focal point of the reflective member, the collector portion including a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal conductive metal sections joined at their edges, the cross section of the longitudinal sections forming a generally star-shaped configuration, the concave longitudinal sections being disposed substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the reflective member, end sections affixed to the free edges of the concave longitudinal sections and therewith forming an enclosed chamber, a central conduit extending from one of the end sections to a point adjacent the other end section but spaced therefrom, a plurality of discrete longitudinal baffles disposed within the chamber around the central conduit, an inlet and an outlet communicating with the chamber.

Strickland, B.W.

1983-12-27

242

Exhaust gas reflux apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas reflux apparatus is described comprising: EGR regulating valve means for controlling a reflux amount of an exhaust gas which is refluxed into an intake system of an internal combustion engine; having at least two operating states; sensing means for sensing the operating state of the engine; first control means responsive to the sensing means for detecting the start of a predetermined one of the operating states of the engine, in which the temperature of the exhaust gas becomes high; timer means responsive to detection by the first control means of the start of the predetermined operating state for measuring a time delay, and time delay beginning immediately after and only in response to the detection of the start of the predetermined operating state and expiring a predetermined time interval thereafter; and second control means responsive to the timer means for controlling the EGR regulating valve means to stop the reflux of the exhaust gas immediately after expiration of the predetermined time interval.

Osada, A.

1988-01-19

243

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

244

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface  

DOEpatents

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

1985-11-21

245

Light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface  

DOEpatents

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Sweatt, William (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

246

Elasticity of Twist-Bend Nematic Phases  

E-print Network

The ground state of twist-bend nematic liquid crystals is a heliconical molecular arrangement in which the nematic director precesses uniformly about an axis, making a fixed angle with it. Both precession senses are allowed in the ground state of these phases. When one of the two \\emph{helicities} is prescribed, a single helical nematic phase emerges. A quadratic elastic theory is proposed here for each of these phases which features the same elastic constants as the classical theory of the nematic phase, requiring all of them to be positive. To describe the helix axis, it introduces an extra director field which becomes redundant for ordinary nematics. Putting together helical nematics with opposite helicities, we reconstruct a twist-bend nematic, for which the quadratic elastic energies of the two helical variants are combined in a non-convex energy.

Epifanio G. Virga

2014-03-01

247

Alternating bending-steady torque fatigue reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results generated by three unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply alternating-bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. Six-inch long, AISI steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and Rockwell C 35/40 hardness were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and staircase-testing data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one best represents the data. The effect of the groove and of the various combined bending-torsion loads on the finite and endurance life strength of such components, as well as on the Goodman diagram, are determined. Design applications are presented.

Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Dodge, T. M.

1974-01-01

248

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

2009-11-17

249

Apparatus for photon excited catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

1977-01-01

250

Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

1996-01-01

251

Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

1991-01-01

252

Asset Management of Power Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the details and difficulties on asset management process of power apparatus used in power network. The\\u000a actual condition of power apparatus is far more important than its age. The regulatory and market forces in the current competitive\\u000a energy market that are challenging the electric utility require more proactive methods of utility asset management. The utilities\\u000a try to

S. Birlasekaran; G. Ledwich

253

First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration  

PubMed Central

By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the ‘diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)’, which featured sub-nm?rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 1022 and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3?GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ?x = 0.5?nm?rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400?m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6?m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce >?5?h beam lifetime at 100?mA stored beam current. PMID:25177977

Einfeld, Dieter; Plesko, Mark; Schaper, Joachim

2014-01-01

254

First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration.  

PubMed

By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the `diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)', which featured sub-nm?rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 10(22) and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3?GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ?x = 0.5?nm?rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400?m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6?m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce >?5?h beam lifetime at 100?mA stored beam current. PMID:25177977

Einfeld, Dieter; Plesko, Mark; Schaper, Joachim

2014-09-01

255

A Mixed-Approach Analysis of Deformations in Pipe Bends. Part 2. Three-Dimensional Bending with Internal Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a problem of determination of stressed state and flexibility of a pipe bend under a combined action of internal pressure and bending moments applied both in and out of plane of the bend curvature. This problem is referred to as a geometrically nonlinear one where an increase in internal pressure brings about a decrease in ovalization stresses induced

I. V. Orynyak; S. A. Radchenko

2004-01-01

256

Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.  

PubMed

Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures. PMID:21427469

Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

2011-05-01

257

Characterization of bending loss in hollow flexible terahertz waveguides.  

PubMed

Attenuation characteristics of hollow, flexible, metal and metal/dielectric coated polycarbonate waveguides were investigated using an optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser at 215 µm. The bending loss of silver coated polycarbonate waveguides were measured as a function of various bending angles, bending radii, and bore diameters. Minimal propagation losses of 1.77, 0.96 dB/m were achieved by coupling the lowest loss TE11 mode into the silver or gold coated waveguide, and HE11 mode into the silver/polystyrene coated waveguides respectively. The maximal bending loss was found to be less than 1 dB/m for waveguides of 2 to 4.1 mm bore diameters, with a 6.4 cm bend radius, and up to 150° bending angle. The investigation shows the preservation of single laser mode in smaller bore waveguides even at greater bending angles. PMID:23038558

Doradla, Pallavi; Joseph, Cecil S; Kumar, Jayant; Giles, Robert H

2012-08-13

258

Damage type and strain mode associations in human compact bone bending fatigue.  

PubMed

When compact bone is subjected to fatigue loading, it develops matrix microdamage, which reduces the tissue's ability to resist fracture. The relative influence of different strain modes on damage and strength in compact bone has not been characterized, to our knowledge. In this study, the nonuniform strain field produced by four-point bending was used to introduce fatigue damage into tibial bending beam specimens from men 40-49 years old. The specimens were then bulk-stained with basic fuchsin to mark damage surfaces and were examined histologically and with confocal microscopy to describe damage morphologies and position relative to tension and compression-strained regions of the specimen. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the amounts of different types of bone microdamage. Three major types were observed. In regions subjected to tensile strains, the bone had focal regions of diffusely increased basic fuchsin staining (i.e., diffuse microdamage). Confocal microscopy of these regions showed them to be composed of extensive networks of fine, ultrastructural-level cracks. In compressive strain regions, the tissue developed linear microcracks in interstitial areas similar to those originally described by Frost. Fine, tearing-type (wispy-appearing) cracks were observed near and in the plane of the neutral axis. The paths of these fine cracks were not influenced by microstructural boundaries. Other minor damage morphologies (sector-stained osteons, delamination of regions of lamellae, and intraosteonal cracking) were observed, but their distribution was unrelated to local strain field. Thus. in fatigue of human compact bone, the principal mechanisms of matrix failure (i.e., linear microcrack, diffuse damage foci, and tearing-type damage) are strongly dependent on local strain type. PMID:9671927

Boyce, T M; Fyhrie, D P; Glotkowski, M C; Radin, E L; Schaffler, M B

1998-05-01

259

Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.)  

PubMed Central

Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to “unfold” and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head. PMID:25018734

Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W.

2014-01-01

260

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1998-06-23

261

Static Fatigue of Optical Fibers in Bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While delayed fracture, or static fatigue, of optical fibers is well known, it is not well understood, and the prediction of the time to failure under a given set of conditions can be problematic. Unlike short term fracture, which is quite well understood and quantified in terms of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, the long term strength remains empirical. The goal of this study is to determine the design criteria for optical fibers subjected to long term applied mechanical loads. One difficulty in making lifetime predictions, as pointed out by Matthewson (Reference 1) and others, is that predictions made from data taken in tension and in bending do not agree. Another difficulty is the statistical nature of the fracture of glass. In making lifetime predictions it becomes important therefore that one (a) have ample data for statistical analysis and (b) have data for the loading configuration of interest. This is the purpose of our work. Since there is less data available in bending, and since several applications (such as wiring in aircraft and missiles) require bending, the data are taken in that configuration. The most significant finding in our work so far is the very large difference in static fatigue behavior between buffer coatings. Chandan and Kalish (Reference 2) and others have reported static fatigue curves, log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress), which are not linear, but rather bimodal. Our study confirms this result, but so far only for acrylate coated fibers. Silicone coated fibers show unimodal behavior. That is, the log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress) curve is linear, at least on the time scale studied so far. Data for acrylate coated fibers at 80°C in water are linear only for time scales of about one day, where a pronounced "knee" is observed. Data for silicone coated fibers under the same conditions are linear up to at least 6 months. Longer time scale tests and tests on fibers with other buffer materials are in progress.

Roberts, D.; Cuellar, E.; Middleman, L.; Zucker, J.

1987-02-01

262

Big Bend sees big environmental push  

SciTech Connect

The 1800 MW Big Bend Power Station is a coal-fired facility in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA owned by Tampa Electric. It has four pulverized coal- fired steam units equipped with FGD scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Currently the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems is under consideration. The Unit 4 SCR retrofit was completed in June 2007; the remaining three systems are scheduled for completion by 2010. Boiler draft systems will be modified to a balance draft design to accommodate the increased pressure drop of the new systems. 3-D computer models were developed to determine constructability due to the tight clearance at the site. 1 photo.

Blankinship, S.

2007-10-15

263

Bending of Light in Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

We consider the scattering of light-like matter in the presence of a heavy scalar object (such as the sun or a black hole). By treating general relativity as an effective field theory we directly compute the non-analytic parts of the one-loop gravitational amplitude for the scattering of massless scalars or photons from an external massive scalar field. These results allow a semi-classical computation of the bending angle for light-rays grazing the sun, including long-range $\\hbar$ contributions. We discuss implications of this computation, in particular the violation of some classical formulations of the equivalence principle.

Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

2014-01-01

264

Nonlinear bending theories for non Euclidean plates  

E-print Network

Thin growing tissues (such as plant leaves) can be modelled by a bounded domain $S\\subset R^2$ endowed with a Riemannian metric $g$, which models the internal strains caused by the differential growth of the tissue. The elastic energy is given by a nonlinear isometry-constrained bending energy functional which is a natural generalization of Kirchhoff's plate functional. We introduce and discuss a natural notion of (possibly non-minimising) stationarity points. We show that rotationally symmetric immersions of the unit disk are stationary, and we give examples of metrics $g$ leading to functionals with infinitely many stationary points.

Peter Hornung

2014-11-03

265

Parallel interacting edge cracks under pure bending  

E-print Network

of the singularity 1//r is, therefore, also demonstrated. Photoelastic means are used to achieve a video image of the distribution of shear stresses around the crack tip through a fringe pattern. The stress intensity factors, K, and K?, describe the stresses... at any point of the fringe pattern. The non-singular term c in the elastic equations assumes the value 0 in the case of pure bending. The results are compared to those achieved by other methods such as the boundary collocation or the fourth power...

Moran, Ivan

2012-06-07

266

Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.

Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.

1977-01-01

267

The design of an agent to bend DNA.  

PubMed Central

An artificial DNA bending agent has been designed to assess helix flexibility over regions as small as a protein binding site. Bending was obtained by linking a pair of 15-base-long triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) by an adjustable polymeric linker. By design, DNA bending was introduced into the double helix within a 10-bp spacer region positioned between the two sites of 15-base triple helix formation. The existence of this bend has been confirmed by circular permutation and phase-sensitive electrophoresis, and the directionality of the bend has been determined as a compression of the minor helix groove. The magnitude of the resulting duplex bend was found to be dependent on the length of the polymeric linker in a fashion consistent with a simple geometric model. Data suggested that a 50-70 degrees bend was achieved by binding of the TFO chimera with the shortest linker span (18 rotatable bonds). Equilibrium analysis showed that, relative to a chimera which did not bend the duplex, the stability of the triple helix possessing a 50-70 degrees bend was reduced by less than 1 kcal/mol of that of the unbent complex. Based upon this similarity, it is proposed that duplex DNA may be much more flexible with respect to minor groove compression than previously assumed. It is shown that this unusual flexibility is consistent with recent quantitation of protein-induced minor groove bending. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8901543

Akiyama, T; Hogan, M E

1996-01-01

268

Bending response of 3-D woven and braided preform composite materials  

SciTech Connect

Three dimensional textile carbon-epoxy composites exhibit general anisotropy. Further, these materials may possess different modulus in uniaxial tension than that in compression. In an earlier material characterization effort, the tension, compression, and shear properties of these composites were determined. In this paper, theoretical modeling of flexure of the textile composites and experimental correlation are presented. Four point bending tests were conducted according to STM D709 standards to determine the load to mid-span deflection relationships for typical textile composites. The results of experimental analysis are compared with classical beam theory, theory of elasticity solutions considering material orthotropy and shear deflection, and finite element analysis considering material orthotropy and finite deformation/rotations. The derivation of a harmonic function, required for the theory of elasticity solution, is described in the paper. Homogeneous orthotropic elastic properties are assumed for the 3-D textile composites, which is a reasonable approximation for specimens considerably larger than the repeated geometric unit of the fiber preform. The so called ``flex modulus`` is determined from the experimental data.

Pochiraju, K.; Parvizi-Majidi, A.; Chou, T.W. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shah, B. [Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company, Marietta, GA (United States)

1994-12-31

269

Locking apparatus for gate valves  

DOEpatents

A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing futher movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

Fabyan, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Williams, Carl W. (Manteca, CA)

1988-01-01

270

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

271

Apparatus for control of mercury  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

2001-01-01

272

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1987-05-12

273

Dynamics of the process of impact testing in concentrated bending. Report 2. Three-point bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.A computational model is proposed, and a general solution is obtained for equations describing the process of the impact testing of specimens in concentrated bending in the presence of supports, where the effect of the striker and support on the specimen is represented as the reaction of springs with flexibilities ß and\\u000a

A. Ya. Krasovskii; I. V. Orynyak; A. V. Naumov; V. N. Krasiko

1989-01-01

274

Micro-arcsecond light bending by Jupiter  

E-print Network

The detectors designed for Gaia, the next ESA space astrometry mission to be launched in 2011, will allow to observe repeatedly stars very close to Jupiter's limb. This will open a unique opportunity to test General Relativity by performing many Eddington-like experiments through the comparison between the pattern of a starfield observed with or without Jupiter. We have derived the main formulas relevant for the monopole and quadrupole light deflection by an oblate planet and developed a simulator to investigate the processing of the Gaia astrometric observation in the vicinity of the planet. The results show that such an experiment carried out with the Gaia data will provide a new fully independent determination of the PPN parameter gamma by means of differential astrometric measurements and, more importantly, for the first time will evidence the bending effect due to the quadrupole moment with a 3-sigma confidence level. Given the accuracy of the experiment for the monopole deflection, this will permit to test alternative modelling of the light bending by moving masses.

MT Crosta; F Mignard

2005-12-14

275

Bending the Bolivian orocline in real time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global positioning system (GPS) data from the central Andes record vertical axis rotations that are consistently counterclockwise in Peru and Bolivia north of the bend in the mountain belt, and clockwise to the south in southern Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile. These geologically instantaneous rotations have the same sense as rotations that have accrued over millions of years and are recorded by paleomagnetic and geologic indicators. The change in sign of the rotation at both decadal and million-year time scales occurs across the axis of topographic symmetry that defines the Bolivian orocline. When extrapolated to a common time interval, the magnitudes of rotation from geologic features and from GPS are surprisingly similar, given that a significant part of the instantaneous deformation field is probably elastic and due to interseismic locking of the plate boundary. Some of the interseismic deformation field must reflect permanent deformation, and/or some of the current elastic deformation will be converted to upper-plate permanent deformation over time rather than be recovered by elastic rebound during interplate earthquakes. We suggest that the spatial patterns of the elastic and the permanent modes of bending are similar because they are driven by the same stress field.

Allmendinger, Richard W.; Smalley, Robert, Jr.; Bevis, Michael; Caprio, Holly; Brooks, Benjamin

2005-11-01

276

Dielectric elastomer bending actuator: experiment and theoretical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric elastomer is a kind of smart soft material that has many advantages such as large deformation, fast response, light weight and easy synthesis. Subject to a high voltage, dielectric elastomer film will deform sustainably. These features make dielectric elastomer a suitable material for actuators. This paper discussed a spring-roll bending actuator of dielectric elastomer. An actuator based on dielectric elastomer that could bend when applied a high voltage was fabricated. Based on thermodynamics theories, a theoretical model of dielectric elastomer bending actuator was established and the initial deformation and bending deformation of bending actuator was formulated. Most parameters used in formulas could be obtained from fabrication process or test data and theoretical prediction with these parameters explained the experimental phenomena well. Also, the allowable area of bending actuator is determined considering several failure models including electromechanical instability, electrical breakdown and tensile rupture.

Li, Jinrong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2014-03-01

277

The mechanics of gravitropic bending in leafy dicot stems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism of the gravitropic bending in stems of the cocklebur and castor bean are investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrate the quick stopping of growth and the increased tensions on the upper layer of a horizontal stem. It is suggested that bending apparently occurs as the resistance of the upper surface layers is extended to the inner cells below. A model of stem bending is developed which can explain the asymmetry of the stem-cell response.

Salisbury, F. B.; Mueller, W. J.; Blotter, P. T.; Harris, C. S.; White, R. G.; Gillespie, L. S.; Sliwinski, J. E.

1982-01-01

278

Hydrodynamic processes in sharp meander bends and their morphological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migration rate of sharp meander bends exhibits large variance and indicates that some sharply curved bends tend to stabilize. These observations remain unexplained. This paper examines three hydrodynamic processes in sharp bends with fixed banks and discusses their morphological implications: secondary flow saturation, outer-banks cells, and inner-bank flow separation. Predictions from a reduced-order hydrodynamic model show that nonlinear hydrodynamic

K. Blanckaert

2011-01-01

279

Influence from bends on a pressure-time measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the criteria for using the pressure-time method is that there is a straight pipe between the measurement cross sections. If the physical influences from a bend were known the method could be expanded for use over bends and hence on more power plants. At the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) a test rig suited for experiments on the pressure-time method has been built. In addition to earlier experiments performed on straight pipe and double 90 degree bend, experiments on double 45 degree bend has been performed. This is done in order to try to find out if there is a clear relationship between bend geometry and its influence on the pressure time curve. To further develop the knowledge a full scale test in the field has been conducted on a 5 MW 58 meter head machine with a vertical penstock and a 90 degree bend. In the laboratory a double 90 degree bend caused an underestimation of the flow of about 1 % compared to a straight pipe, while for a double 45 degree bend a conclusion can not be found as the spread around the mean and uncertainty bands is within the range for the straight pipe. The field measurements with a 90 degree bend showed that the underestimation became 8.5%. When measuring pressure difference over bends the resulting calculation will give an underestimation of the flow. This should imply that the measured transient pressure is damped. (Regardless if this is the correct term it is here chosen to call this damping.) The question is if the damping is caused by friction or kinetic effects. The rapid deceleration of the water masses will give transient friction. How transient friction behaves is a topic of interest in hydraulic research. Bends will also cause skewed velocity and pressure profile on inlet and outlet of the bend as well as secondary flows. How this affects the transient pressure is also an interesting parameter.

Ramdal, J.; Jonsson, P.; Nielsen, T.

2010-08-01

280

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2012-04-01

281

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2013-04-01

282

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2014-04-01

283

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2011-04-01

284

Thermal-cycling creep apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constant load creep testing machine has been designed and built for operation under high frequency (1 to 10?2 S?1) thermal cycling conditions. The apparatus can be operated at loads up to 7 kg with temperatures up to 1000°C, and under vacuum to better than 10 ?torr. A twin creep stage enables differential creep measurements. Preliminary results on foil specimens

D. Eylon; N. Kushnir; A. Rosen

1970-01-01

285

Material transport method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

286

A comprehensive thermal analysis apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparatus enables both thermal gravimetric analyses and differential thermal analyses to be carried out in inert or oxidizing atmospheres, but as completely independent operations. It is fully automatic and is built in three compact sections from readily available commercial units, with the exception of the specifically designed furnaces. A vacuum pump and all necessary gas supply controls are included.

A. A. Hodgson

1963-01-01

287

Heavy oil catalytic cracking apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for the fluidized catalytic cracking of a heavy hydrocarbon feed comprising hydrocarbons having a boiling point above about 650° F to lighter products by contact the feed with catalytic cracking catalyst. It comprises a catalytic cracking reactor means; a separation means connective with the reactor outlet; a primary stripping means comprising an inlet for a

1992-01-01

288

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01

289

Soil-gas sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for soil-gas sampling is described, comprising: (a) at least one passive vapor collector comprising an assembly which contains sorbent materials, and (b) a means for protecting, inserting and retrieving the vapor collector from in-ground locations comprising at least one liquid water penetration resistant vapor-permeable porous flexible expanded polytetrafluoroethylene containers which encloses the passive vapor collector (a).

Bailey, C.E.; Stutman, M.B.

1993-08-17

290

Gav generation apparatuses and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for generating combustible gas mixtures and liquid gasoline from coal is described comprising, in operative combination, a retort assembly, a washer assembly, a condenser assembly, a pump and storage assembly, and a heating assembly. The retort assembly comprises a gas-tight retort tank and a hood; the gas-tight retort tank comprises a horizontally extending rigid imperforate cylindrical wall and

Patton

1974-01-01

291

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

292

Apparatus in a drill string  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill

David R. Hall; Scott Dahlgren; Hall Jr. Tracy H; Joe Fox; David S. Pixton

2007-01-01

293

Energy storage and transmission apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an apparatus for storing and transmitting mechanical energy which utilizes a flywheel having a plurality of flywheel magnets located about the periphery thereof. An actuator is disengagably coupled to the flywheel for supplying rotary kinetic energy thereto. A plurality of coacting magnets are spaced about the circumference of the flywheel for interacting with the flywheel magnets. A

Gray

1978-01-01

294

Duplex sampling apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus is provided for sampling a gaseous mixture and for measuring mixture components. The apparatus includes two sampling containers connected in series serving as a duplex sampling apparatus. The apparatus is adapted to independently determine the amounts of condensable and noncondensable gases in admixture from a single sample. More specifically, a first container includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a sample source and a second port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a second container. A second container also includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from the second port of the first container and a second port capable of either selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a differential pressure source. By cooling a mixture sample in the first container, the condensable vapors form a liquid, leaving noncondensable gases either as free gases or dissolved in the liquid. The condensed liquid is heated to drive out dissolved noncondensable gases, and all the noncondensable gases are transferred to the second container. Then the first and second containers are separated from one another in order to separately determine the amount of noncondensable gases and the amount of condensable gases in the sample.

Brown, Paul E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lloyd, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

295

Continuous shear wave logging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for continuous shear wave logging of a borehole consisting of a sonde instrument having retractable, expandable coupling arms for rigidly engaging the borehole wall to exert repetitive torqueing action while continuously moving uphole. The sonde includes spaced detector coupling arms in continual contact with the borehole wall and polarized for detection of the repetitive propagated shear waves.

Brown, G. L.

1985-10-29

296

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

297

Extended range chemical sensing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

298

Apparatus for washing drill cuttings  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

Lott, W. G.

1985-10-15

299

Programmable digital temperature controller apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programmable digital temperature controller apparatus utilizing a pair of binary-coded decimal units and a switching unit to generate a ten bit binary word which represents a pre-selected temperature in a temperature range is discussed. A pair of erasable programmable read only memory units store digital temperatures and temperature range information. The ten bit binary word determines which digital data

B. J. Veneklase

1984-01-01

300

Wide range pure bending strains of Nb3Sn wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure bending behavior of Nb3Sn wire over a wide range of bending has been characterized. A previously developed test device designed to apply variable bending strains to Nb3Sn strands using a beam style sample holder was used. Based on finite element and experimental investigations, two sample holder beams were developed to cover pure bending strains up to 1.25% for ITER-type Nb3Sn wires. These newly designed beams were optimized to apply consistent and uniform pure bending strains to Nb3Sn strands over the entire bending range. Their performance was evaluated by testing two ITER-type Nb3Sn wires including one internal tin and one bronze route. The internal tin strands experienced around 55% critical current degradation at 1.25% bending strain while the critical current of the bronze route strands were only reduced by 40%. Upon removal of the bending load, the internal tin wires experienced significant permanent degradation whereas the bronze route wires were completely reversible. These critical current results were evaluated and explained using an existing integrated model accounting for neutral axis shift, current transfer length, filament breakage and uniaxial strain release under pure bending loads.

Allen, Nathaniel; Mallon, Philip; King, Joseph; Chiesa, Luisa; Takayasu, Makoto

2014-06-01

301

Fatigue life prediction in bending from axial fatigue information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bending fatigue in the low cyclic life range differs from axial fatigue due to the plastic flow which alters the linear stress-strain relation normally used to determine the nominal stresses. An approach is presented to take into account the plastic flow in calculating nominal bending stress (S sub bending) based on true surface stress. These functions are derived in closed form for rectangular and circular cross sections. The nominal bending stress and the axial fatigue stress are plotted as a function of life (N sub S) and these curves are shown for several materials of engineering interest.

Manson, S. S.; Muralidharan, U.

1982-01-01

302

SRI CAT Section 1 bending magnet beamline description  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses: APS bending magnet source; beamline layout; beamline optical components; beamline operation; time-resolved studies station; polarization studies station; and commissioning and operational schedule.

Srajer, G.; Rodricks, B.; Assoufid, L.; Mills, D.M.

1994-03-10

303

Head movements while steering around bends.  

PubMed

In this study, the determinants of head motions (rotations) when driving around bends were investigated when drivers viewed the scene through a head-mounted display. The scene camera was either fixed or coupled to head motions along 2 or 3 axes of rotation. Eight participants drove around a triangular circuit and the range and speed of head rotations, the correlations between head rotations and lateral acceleration, and the coupling between the different axes of head rotation were calculated. Results showed that substantial head rotations were made even when head rotations had no influence on the direction of the camera, suggesting a strong motor coupling between steering actions and head motion. Head roll was determined, at least in part, by the gravito-inertial force, contradicting earlier results reported in the literature. PMID:22582678

van Erp, Jan B F; Oving, Arjen B

2012-02-01

304

Bending of Light in Ellis Wormhole Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent work by Dey and Sen derived the approximate light deflection angle ? by an Ellis wormhole in terms of proper radial distance ? that covers the entire spacetime. On the other hand, Bodenner and Will calculated the expressions for light bending in Schwarzschild geometry using various coordinates and showed that they all reduce to a single formula when re-expressed in the coordinate independent language of "circumferential radius" rC identified with the standard radial coordinate rS. We shall argue that the coordinate invariant language for two-way wormholes should be ? rather than rS. Hence here we find the exact deflection ? in Ellis wormhole geometry first in terms of ? and then in terms of rS. We confirm the latter expression using three different methods. We argue that the practical measurement scheme does not necessarily single out either ? or rS. Some errors in the literature are corrected.

Bhattacharya, Amrita; Potapov, Alexander A.

305

Bending Behavior of Simply Suppoted Metallic Sandwich Plates with Dimpled Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic sandwich plates are lightweight structural materials with load-bearing and multi-functional characteristics. Previous analytic studies have shown that the bendability of these plates increases as the thickness decreases. Due to difficulty in the manufacture of thin sandwich plates, dimpled cores (structures called egg-box cores) are employed as a sandwich core. High-precision dimpled cores are easily fabricated in a sectional forming process. The cores are then bonded with skin sheets by multi-point resistance welding. The bending characteristics of simply supported plates were observed by the defining measure, including the radius ratio of the small dimple, the thickness of a sandwich plate, and the pattern angle (0°/90°, 45°). Experimental results revealed that sandwich plates with a thickness of 2.2 mm and a pattern angle of 0°/90° showed good bendability as the punch stroke under a collapse load was longer than other cases. In addition, the gap between attachment points was found to be an important parameter for the improvement of the bendability. Finally, sandwich plates with dimpled cores were bent with a radius of curvature of 330 mm for the sheet thickness of 2.2 mm using an incremental bending apparatus.

Seong, Dae-Yong; Jung, Chang Gyun; Yang, Dong-Yol; Ahn, Dong Gyu

306

Bending elasticity of nonionic surfactant layers.  

PubMed

A novel approach to evaluate the bending elasticity of monolayers formed by nonionic surfactants with a rigid head group is introduced by means of considering head group repulsion as derived from the free energy of mixing rigid hydrophilic head groups with surrounding solvent molecules as well as contributions related to the hydrophobic tails. Explicit expressions for the spontaneous curvature (H0), bending rigidity (kc) and saddle-splay constant (kc) have been derived for the constraint of constant chemical potential of free surfactant (thermodynamically open layers) as well as the constraint of constant aggregation number (thermodynamically closed layers). Most interestingly, it is demonstrated that kc for thermodynamically open layers formed by a nonionic surfactant with rigid tail and head group always must be zero. However, kc for surfactants with a flexible tail as a function of the head group-to-tail volume ratio is found to go through a maximum at some large, positive value of kc and H0 approximately 0. Eventually, kc falls below zero as the head group volume increases above a certain value. Hence, we may conclude that nonionic surfactants with a rigid head group may form thermodynamically stable fluid layers or aggregates only insofar the hydrophobic part is flexible with respect to chain conformational degrees of freedom and the head group is not too voluminous. It is found that the head group repulsion contribution to kcH0 is always positive whereas the corresponding contribution to kc may be positive or negative depending on whether the hydrophobic layer of the film is thicker or thinner than the hydrophilic layer. PMID:19199752

Bergström, L Magnus

2009-02-17

307

SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points and clad configurations. The 2-ply sleeve samples show a higher bend momentum compared to those of the 1-ply sleeve samples. This is applicable to both the hybrid mock-up and bare SiC-CMC sleeve samples. Comparatively both the 1- and 2-ply hybrid mock-up samples showed a higher bend stiffness and strength compared with the standard Zr-4 mock-up sample. The characterization of the hybrid mock-up samples showed signs of distress and preliminary signs of fraying at the protective Zr-4 sleeve areas for the 1-ply SiC-CMC sleeve. In addition, the microstructure of the SiC matrix near the cracks at the region of highest compressive bending strain shows significant cracking and flaking. The 2-ply SiC-CMC sleeve samples showed a more bonded, cohesive SiC matrix structure. This cracking and fraying causes concern for increased fretting during the actual use of the design. Tomography was proven as a successful tool to identify open porosity during pre-test characterization. Although there is currently insufficient data to make conclusive statements regarding the overall merit of the hybrid cladding design, preliminary characterization of this novel design has been demonstrated.

IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

2013-09-01

308

Graviton Propagators, Brane Bending and Bending of Light in Theories with Quasi-Localized Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the graviton propagator on the brane for theories with quasi-localized gravity. In these models the ordinary 4D graviton is replaced by a resonance in the spectrum of massive Kaluza-Klein modes, which can decay into the extra dimension. We find that the effects of the extra polarization in the massive graviton propagator is exactly cancelled by the bending of

Csaba Csaki; Joshua Erlich; Timothy J. Hollowood

309

Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette  

DOEpatents

Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

2013-09-10

310

Actuators Help Correct For Gravitational Bending Of Antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Force-actuator scheme devised to help correct for decrease, caused by gravitational bending, in gain of 34-m-diameter paraboloidal microwave antenna reflector used for tracking distant spacecraft and observing celestial radio sources. Also applicable to other antennas bending significantly under own weight, with consequent degradation of performance.

Levy, Roy; Strain, Douglas M.

1996-01-01

311

Charged Particle Emission and Luminescence upon Bending Fracture of Granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charged particle emission and luminescence upon bending fracture of granite were investigated in a vacuum. In most cases, sharp peaks of charged particle emission and luminescence were observed at the very instant of final fracture, and continued for several seconds. However, it sometimes happened that the bending fracture needed about 10-20 ms, and a sharp peak of charged particle emission

Yoshizo Kawaguchi

1998-01-01

312

Micromechanical Models for Bending Behavior of Woven Composites  

E-print Network

Micromechanical Models for Bending Behavior of Woven Composites ¨O. Soykasap Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK Thin woven composites have laminates made from woven composites disagree with the estimates of bending stiffness and strains using CLT

Soykasap, Omer

313

View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

314

Heat transport in a four-perpendicularity-bend quantum waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the scattering matrix method, we investigate acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in a four-perpendicularity-bend quantum waveguide at low temperatures. The transmission spectrum of the quantum waveguide displays a series of resonant peaks and dips; and when one of the bend heights is larger than or equal to the minimum of the dimensions of the phonon channel in the

Ke-Min Li; Ling-Ling Wang; Wei-Qing Huang; Bing-Suo Zou; Qing Wan

2008-01-01

315

Acoustic phonon transport through a double-bend quantum waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, using the scattering matrix method, we have investigated the transmission coefficients and the thermal conductivity in a double-bend waveguide structure. The transmission coefficients show strong resonances due to the scattering in the midsection of a double-bend structure; the positions and the widths of the resonance peaks are determined by the dimensions of the midsection of the structure.

Y. Ming; Zhexian Wang; Zejun Ding

2006-01-01

316

Observation and Modeling of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Bend Junctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bends, with diameters from approx. 1.0 to 2.5 nm and bend angles from 18 deg. to 34 deg., are observed in catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons at 600 - 1200 C. An algorithm using molecular dynamics simulation (MD) techniques is developed to model these structures that are considered to be SWNT junctions formed by topological defects (i.e. pentagon-heptagon pairs). The algorithm is used to predict the tube helicities and defect configurations for bend junctions using the observed tube diameters and bend angles. The number and arrangement of the defects at the junction interfaces are found to depend on the tube helicities and bend angle. The structural and energetic calculations using the Brenner potential show a number of stable junction configurations for each bend angle with the 34 deg. bends being more stable than the others. Tight binding calculations for local density of state (LDOS) and transmission coefficients are carried out to investigate electrical properties of the bend junctions.

Han, Jie; Anantram, M. P.; Jaffe, R. L.; Kong, J.; Dai, H.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

317

Bendings and filters with single strip THz plasmonic waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, we present measurement results on THz Planar Strip Plasmonic (THz-PSP) structures based on Planar Goubau Lines (PGL). The first part will be dedicated to the study of bendings (90deg for example) and the second one to filters fabricated with a corrugated PGL. We demonstrate low loss bendings with highly confined electromagnetic waves. For the second part two

Tahsin Akalin; Emilien Peytavit; Jean-François Lampin

2007-01-01

318

Original article Bending properties of Norway spruce timber.  

E-print Network

Original article Bending properties of Norway spruce timber. Comparison between fast- and slow of this paper is to supplement previously published results in Wood Science and Technology. Bending strength and stiffness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from three stands in southern Sweden, two fast-grown and one slow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Classical dynamics of bend–stretch vibrational recurrence in HOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramolecular dynamics of HOD was investigated by the classical trajectory method and detailed mechanisms of vibrational energy exchange were studied. The time evolution of mode energies in each vibrational mode along the trajectories was calculated. A periodic energy exchange, that is, a vibrational recurrence between the bending and OD stretching modes, is observed. The centrifugal force by the angular bending

Myung Soo Kim; Sang Tae Park; Soon Young Kwon; Hong Lae Kim

2000-01-01

320

General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 inches - 1 ft, March 13th 1893, drawing number 15384 (photograph of drawing of rail bending machine held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

321

Statistical analysis of fiber failures under bending-stress fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed the failure data of a standard telecommunication optical fiber under static bending stress. Experimental data have been collected on a 468 day period, observing more than 7000 turns, with a bend radius ranging from 1.25 to 6 mm. The statistical analysis has been carried out by both the least-square and the maximum likelihood method. We have found

V. Annovazzi-Ledi; Silvano Donati; Sabina Merlo; Gianfranco Zapelloni

1997-01-01

322

Process for removing PCB's from electrical apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from an electrical apparatus comprising: (a) filling the electrical apparatus with a dielectric fluid in liquid state in which polychlorinated biphenyls are soluble, thereby providing adequate insulation during the operation of the electrical apparatus; (b) dissolving polychlorinated biphenyls contained within the electrical apparatus into the dielectric fluid to form a solution; (c) conducting the solution from the electrical apparatus to a cleansing means; (d) cleansing the solution to thereby separate polychlorinated biphenyls from the dielectric fluid so that the dielectric fluid is re-usable; and (e) recirculating the dielectric fluid back to the electrical apparatus for reuse, the steps effectively and substantially removing the polychlorinated biphenyls from the electrical apparatus so that the leaching of residual polychlorinated biphenyls into the dielectric fluid will not exceed 50 ppm.

Fowler, D.E.

1987-08-11

323

Fiber-optic bend sensor using LP21 mode operation.  

PubMed

A novel fiber-optic bending sensor based upon the propagation of LP21 mode is demonstrated. The sensor, comprised of an S-bend fiber on an elastic film, measures LP21 mode specklegram rotation, which increments linearly with bending angle by the stress-optic effect. The sensor is capable of experimentally achieving a sensitivity as high as 4.13 rad/m(-1). The theoretical analysis of the sensor, which is a combination of fiber coupled-mode theory and elastic-optic theory, validates the accuracy of the sensor. The sensor is also shown to be temperature-immune, and can detect both bending direction and bending angle with a large dynamic range. Furthermore, the sensor implementation incorporates inexpensive single-mode fiber at 650 nm for few-mode operation, enabling low-loss transmission and compatibility with existing interfaces. PMID:23187468

Fan, Yuqiang; Wu, George; Wei, Wanting; Yuan, Yufeng; Lin, Feng; Wu, X

2012-11-19

324

Electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes under pure bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes makes them prone to bending. To know how bending affects the tubes is therefore crucial for tube identification and for electrical component design. Very few studies, however, have investigated tubes under small bending well below the buckling limit, because of technical problems due to broken translational symmetry. In this Brief Report a cost-effective and exact modeling of singe-walled nanotubes under such small bending is enabled by revised periodic boundary conditions, combined with density-functional tight-binding. The resulting, bending-induced changes in electronic and optical properties fall in clear chirality-dependent trend families. While the correct trends require full structural relaxation, they can be understood by one general argument. To know these trends fills a fundamental gap in our understanding of the properties of carbon nanotubes.

Koskinen, Pekka

2010-11-01

325

Bending the ferroelectric domain wall by a bubble.  

PubMed

The shape of the ferroelectric domain wall mainly depends on the lattice structure and the pinning effect of random defects, but can we control it intentionally? Here we present a method to bend the domain wall by a bubble. A submillimeter bubble was put underneath a lithium niobate wafer inside a deionized water electrode to resist the propagation of the domain wall, and make the straight wall bend at an angle of 52°. The perpendicular surface screening field was considered to directly relate to the bending angle and the motion of the surface charged droplets in the bubble, and the detachment of droplets determined the bending of the domain wall. Further experiments succeeded in varying the bending angle from 52° to 0° by changing the ion concentration of the liquid electrode. PMID:21841230

Zeng, Hao; Kong, Yongfa; Sun, Xin; Chen, Shaolin; Sun, Tongqing; Xu, Jingjun

2011-08-12

326

Atmospheric Refractive Electromagnetic Wave Bending and Propagation Delay  

E-print Network

In this tutorial we summarize the physics and mathematics behind refractive electromagnetic wave bending and delay. Refractive bending and delay through the Earth's atmosphere at both radio/millimetric and optical/IR wavelengths are discussed, but with most emphasis on the former, and with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) applications in mind. As modern astronomical measurements often require sub-arcsecond position accuracy, care is required when selecting refractive bending and delay algorithms. For the spherically-uniform model atmospheres generally used for all refractive bending and delay algorithms, positional accuracies $\\lesssim 1^{\\prime\\prime}$ are achievable when observing at zenith angles $\\lesssim 75^\\circ$. A number of computationally economical approximate methods for atmospheric refractive bending and delay calculation are presented, appropriate for astronomical observations under these conditions. For observations under more realistic atmospheric conditions, for zenith angles $\\gtrsim 75^...

Mangum, Jeffrey G

2014-01-01

327

Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

1999-01-01

328

Freeze chromatography method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.

1987-04-16

329

Optical pressure sealing coupling apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is presented for optically coupling and pressure sealing sections of an instrument probe, one of the section being at a high pressure cryogenic environment and the other section being at ambient pressure. The apparatus includes a housing having a passageway within which elements are mounted for precisely locating a rigid optical fiber coupler and the probe sections so as to optically connect and maintain the ends of the probe sections together to permit signals to pass in both directions through the joint in two or more discrete channels. An adjustable positioning member acts to connect the external section of the probe to the housing in axial and rotation alignment with the interior section.

Irvin, Timothy B. (inventor); French, Richard E. (inventor)

1989-01-01

330

Micromachined patch-clamp apparatus  

DOEpatents

A micromachined patch-clamp apparatus is disclosed for holding one or more cells and providing electrical, chemical, or mechanical stimulation to the cells during analysis with the patch-clamp technique for studying ion channels in cell membranes. The apparatus formed on a silicon substrate utilizes a lower chamber formed from silicon nitride using surface micromachining and an upper chamber formed from a molded polymer material. An opening in a common wall between the chambers is used to trap and hold a cell for analysis using the patch-clamp technique with sensing electrodes on each side of the cell. Some embodiments of the present invention utilize one or more electrostatic actuators formed on the substrate to provide mechanical stimulation to the cell being analyzed, or to provide information about mechanical movement of the cell in response to electrical or chemical stimulation.

Okandan, Murat

2012-12-04

331

Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

332

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

Schneider, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

333

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

1998-01-13

334

X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

1996-01-01

335

Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

336

Critical heat flux test apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

Welsh, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA); Doman, Marvin J. (McKeesport, PA); Wilson, Edward C. (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

337

A simplified approach for evaluating bendability and springback in plastic bending of anisotropic sheet metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise predictions of springback after bending and bendability (the minimum bending radius) are the key to the design of the bending tool, to control of the bending process and to the assessing of the accuracy of part geometry. The effects of the normal anisotropic value R and the strain hardening exponent n on the pure bending of sheet metal have

Daw-Kwei Leu

1997-01-01

338

Apparatus for treating oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus for decomposing kerogen and recovering oil, high BTU gas and energy for the process are described, wherein a crushed oil shale is fed to a rotary preheater (300° to 350°F), hence into a rotary retort (850° to 1050°F) where the kerogen is decomposed and the oil evaporated, removed and condensed. From the retort the crushed shale

Reed; T. G. Jr

1977-01-01

339

Statistical Mechanics of Amplifying Apparatus  

E-print Network

We implement Feynman's suggestion that the only missing notion needed for the puzzle of Quantum Measurement is the statistical mechanics of amplifying apparatus. We define a thermodynamic limit of quantum amplifiers which is a classically describable system in the sense of Bohr, and define macroscopic pointer variables for the limit system. Then we derive the probabilities of Quantum Measurement from the deterministic Schroedinger equation by the usual techniques of Classical Statistical Mechanics.

Joseph Johnson

2005-02-08

340

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

1997-08-19

341

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19

342

Radiation scatter apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A radiation scatter gauge includes multiple detector locations for developing separate and independent sets of data from which multiple physical characteristics of a thin material and underlying substrate may be determined. In an illustrated embodiment, the apparatus and method of the invention are directed to determining characteristics of resurfaced pavement by nondestructive testing. More particularly, the density and thickness of a thin asphalt overlay and the density of the underlying pavement may be determined.

Molbert, J. L.; Riddle, E. R.

1985-06-25

343

Geothermal reboiler apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and method for handling geothermal brine containing high non-condensible gas concentrations. The brine is directed into a pre-flash chamber where a vapor fraction is separated from a liquid fraction, the vapor fraction including steam and a non-condensible gas. The vapor fraction is directed into and through a reboiler in countercurrent flow relationship to a condensate. This action causes the

L. Awerbuch; V. C. Vander Mast

1985-01-01

344

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01

345

Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

1994-09-06

346

A Mixed-Approach Analysis of Deformations in Pipe Bends. Part 1. Saint-Venant Three-Dimensional Bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for analysis of stress-strain state in elastic cylindrical toroidal shells is put forward, whereby forces and displacements are chosen as unknown functions. The method enables a study of the bend ovalization phenomenon that occurs when three-dimensional bending moments are applied. The authors have derived geometrical equations relating displacement components and strains, and introduced smallness hypothesis, which makes

I. V. Orynyak; S. A. Radchenko

2004-01-01

347

Analytical and numerical solution for a elastic pipe bend at in-plane bending with consideration for the end effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors proposed an analytical method for the analysis of the end effect in a pipe bend loaded by a bending moment with consideration for the action of internal pressure. The method is based on the use of simplifying hypotheses and is reduced to the solution of a system of fourth-order differential equations along the axial coordinate with respect to

I. V. Orynyak; S. A. Radchenko

2007-01-01

348

Application of response surface methodology for predicting bend force during air bending process in interstitial free steel sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, bend force has been modeled using response surface methodology for air bending operation of interstitial free\\u000a steel sheet. The process parameters considered in this investigation are punch travel (d), strain hardening exponent (n), punch radius (r), punch velocity (v), and width of the sheet (w). The experimental plan was based on the central composite design. The model

R. Narayanasamy; P. Padmanabhan

2009-01-01

349

Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 30 deg or 15 deg off-axis plies occured in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.

Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.

1986-01-01

350

Bending strength of delaminated aerospace composites.  

PubMed

Buckling-driven delamination is considered among the most critical failure modes in composite laminates. This paper examines the propagation of delaminations in a beam under pure bending. A pre-developed analytical model to predict the critical buckling moment of a thin sub-laminate is extended to account for propagation prediction, using mixed-mode fracture analysis. Fractography analysis is performed to distinguish between mode I and mode II contributions to the final failure of specimens. Comparison between experimental results and analysis shows agreement to within 5 per cent in static propagation moment for two different materials. It is concluded that static fracture is almost entirely driven by mode II effects. This result was unexpected because it arises from a buckling mode that opens the delamination. For this reason, and because of the excellent repeatability of the experiments, the method of testing may be a promising means of establishing the critical value of mode II fracture toughness, G(IIC), of the material. Fatigue testing on similar samples showed that buckled delamination resulted in a fatigue threshold that was over 80 per cent lower than the static propagation moment. Such an outcome highlights the significance of predicting snap-buckling moment and subsequent propagation for design purposes. PMID:22431757

Kinawy, Moustafa; Butler, Richard; Hunt, Giles W

2012-04-28

351

ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.

Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas

2014-07-01

352

Failure behavior of plasma-sprayed HAp coating on commercially pure titanium substrate in simulated body fluid (SBF) under bending load.  

PubMed

Four point bending tests with acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were conducted for evaluating failure behavior of the plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coat on commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) plate with and without mixed HAp/Ti bond coat. Effect of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on failure behavior of the coated specimen was also investigated by immersing the specimen in SBF. The AE patterns obtained from the bending test of the HAp coating specimens after a week immersion in SBF clearly showed the earlier stage of delamination and spallation of the coating layer compared to those without immersion in SBF. It was also found that the bond coating improved failure resistance of the HAp coating specimen compared to that without the bond coat. Four point bend fatigue tests under ambient and SBF environments were also conducted with AE monitoring during the entire fatigue test for investigating the influence of SBF environment on fatigue failure behavior of the HAp coating specimen with the mixed HAp/Ti bond coat. The specimens tested at a stress amplitude of 120 MPa under both ambient and SBF environments could survive up to 10? cycles without spallation of HAp coating layer. The specimens tested under SBF environment and those tested under ambient environment after immersion in SBF showed shorter fatigue life compared to those tested under ambient environment without SBF immersion. Micro-cracks nucleated in the coating layer in the early stage of fatigue life and then propagated into the cp-Ti substrate in the intermediate stage, which unstably propagated to failure in the final stage. It was found from the XRD analysis that the dissolution of the co-existing phases and the precipitation of the HAp phase were taken place during immersion in SBF. During this process, the co-existing phases disappeared from the coating layer and the HAp phase fully occupied the coating layer. The degradation of bending strength and fatigue life of the HAp coating specimens tested under SBF environment would be induced by dissolution of the co-existing phases from the coating layer during immersion in SBF. PMID:23032435

Laonapakul, Teerawat; Rakngarm Nimkerdphol, Achariya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

2012-11-01

353

Apparatus for recovery of sulfur  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for the recovery of sulfur from an underground sulfur formation. It comprises means for the injection of hot water into contact with the underground sulfur formation; means to permit the water and elemental sulfur to remain in contact, so as to melt at least a portion of the sulfur and form a mixture of molten sulfur and water; means for removing the mixture of molten sulfur and heated water to the surface; means for separating the water and sulfur mixture to recover molten sulfur and water; and means to recycle the water to the underground formation.

Peters, J.R.; Ramey, M.E.; Seyffert, A.E.; Canon, J.L.; Robinson, M.W.; Abercrombie, W.T.

1989-09-26

354

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

DOEpatents

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01

355

Rotating apparatus for isoelectric focusing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This disclosure is directed to an isoelectric focusing apparatus, wherein stabilization of the fluid containing the isolated proteins is achieved by carrying out the separation in a rotating cylinder with the separation cavity of the cylinder being segmented by means of filter elements. The filter elements are constituted of a material offering some degree of resistance to fluid convection, but allowing relatively free and unhindered passage of current and transport of proteins. The combined effect of segmentation and rotation has been found to be superior to either segmentation or rotation alone in maintaining the stability of the migrated fractions.

Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1986-01-01

356

Multispectral imaging method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

1999-07-06

357

Multispectral imaging method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

Sandison, David R. (Moriarty, NM); Platzbecker, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Vargo, Timothy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Lockhart, Randal R. (Lorain, OH); Descour, Michael R. (Tucson, AZ); Richards-Kortum, Rebecca (Austin, TX)

1999-01-01

358

Thruster sealing system and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thruster nozzle sealing system and apparatus is provided for protection of spacecraft thruster motors. The system includes a sealing plug, a sealing plug insertion tool, an outer cover, an outer cover attachment, and a ferry flight attachment. The sealing plug prevents moisture from entering the thruster engine so as to prevent valve failure. The attachments are interchangeably connectable with the sealing plug. The ferry flight attachment is used during air transportation of the spacecraft, and the outer cover attachment is used during storage and service of the spacecraft. The outer cover provides protection to the thruster nozzle from mechanical damage.

Svejkovsky, Paul A. (inventor)

1992-01-01

359

Versatile cold atom target apparatus.  

PubMed

We report on a compact and transportable apparatus that consists of a cold atomic target at the center of a high resolution recoil ion momentum spectrometer. Cold rubidium atoms serve as a target which can be operated in three different modes: in continuous mode, consisting of a cold atom beam generated by a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, in normal mode in which the atoms from the beam are trapped in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT), and in high density mode in which the 3D MOT is operated in dark spontaneous optical trap configuration. The targets are characterized using photoionization. PMID:22852676

Götz, Simone; Höltkemeier, Bastian; Hofmann, Christoph S; Litsch, Dominic; DePaola, Brett D; Weidemüller, Matthias

2012-07-01

360

The P?ANDA apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The P?ANDA experiment will make use of cooled antiproton beams of unprecedented quality that will be available at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The envisaged physics program includes: meson spectroscopy, baryon antibaryon production, baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclar physics, hadron properties in the nuclear medium and electromagnetic processes. This rich physics program asks for a general purpose apparatus. The design of the experiment is an advanced stage and the R&D phase is approaching its final phase, as resulted by most of the Technical Design Reports (TDRs) being already completed or under writing. In addition the production phase has already started for the electromagnetic calorimeter.

Calvo, D.

2014-03-01

361

Hydrocarbonaceous material processing methods and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus are disclosed for possibly producing pipeline-ready heavy oil from substantially non-pumpable oil feeds. The methods and apparatus may be designed to produce such pipeline-ready heavy oils in the production field. Such methods and apparatus may involve thermal soaking of liquid hydrocarbonaceous inputs in thermal environments (2) to generate, though chemical reaction, an increased distillate amount as compared with conventional boiling technologies.

Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

2011-07-12

362

Apparatus for injecting material into a wellbore  

SciTech Connect

Injector apparatus is disclosed which includes a sealed self-contained replaceable vessel containing an ejectable material to be injected into the wellbore during well logging operations. The vessel comprises a flexible-wall, collapsible tubular-like cartridge which can be removed from the mounting apparatus in the string of logging tools and replaced with a new cartridge. Motive force apparatus pressurizes the material in the cartridge and a valve device, which is actuated by a solenoid device, controls the flow of material exiting from the cartridge. Passageways and an orifice in the mounting apparatus directs the flow of material from the valve device to the wellbore.

Cain, R.W.

1983-12-20

363

DESIGN MANUAL: SWIRL AND HELICAL BEND POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

This design manual contains descriptions of design procedures and operating experience to date, including results obtained, for secondary flow pollution control devices. Two types of combined sewer overflow regulators are described: the swirl and the helical bend regulator/separa...

364

9. NORTH SIDE, FROM A BOAT. THE TWO BENDING SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. NORTH SIDE, FROM A BOAT. THE TWO BENDING SHOP AND OVEN BUILDINGS ARE VISIBLE AT THE RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

365

An acoustic bending waveguide designed by graded sonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic bending waveguide can be designed by engineering the index distribution in a bending structure. We employ a two-dimensional graded sonic crystal (GSC) to realize a graded index medium. The refractive indices of a graded index medium can be discretized and the discrete refractive indices are approximated by using GSCs. The effective refractive indices of the sonic crystals are obtained by using the plane wave expansion method. Simulations and transmission spectra of the bending waveguides with the continuous index variation and the GSC approximation are calculated by using the finite-element-method. The results show that the acoustic bending waveguide based on the GSC can be achieved in the low frequency limit and its operating frequency is broadband.

Wu, Liang-Yu; Chen, Lien-Wen

2011-12-01

366

Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

1996-01-01

367

Thru-thickness bending stress distribution at elevated temperatures  

E-print Network

the extreme fiber strains exceeded ten percent, which further adds to the increased risk of the flange plate cracking during fabrication. The highest residual stresses through the plate??s thickness occurred during cold bending. The residual stresses through...

Christian, Lee Conner

2005-08-29

368

Bend distortion in large-mode-area amplifier fiber design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As fibers with ever increasing mode area are used to enable high power fiber amplifiers and lasers, it important to use realistic models of bending in fiber design. The standard approach is to consider only the bend-induced losses and mode-coupling when designing an amplifier, even though changes in mode shape are well known in principle. But even coiling a fiber to fit into a reasonable package size produces large bend-induced distortion for fibers with large mode area. Here, several recent results are reviewed. Distortion significantly impacts amplifier performance by reducing the area, and can further degrade the interaction of light with the gain. Scaling rules for the distortion are derived from an intuitive sensitivity model. Bend distortion considerations lead to new strategies for large mode area fiber design, and cast existing strategies in a new light.

Fini, John M.

2007-11-01

369

Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide bends.  

PubMed

Design curves for insertion loss of multimode polymer waveguide 90 masculine bends are reported as a function of bend radius for several waveguide widths. For the first time, to our knowledge, in multimode rectangular waveguides the insertion loss is resolved into its components of transition, radiation and propagation loss, in order of decreasing strength, separating them from input and output coupling loss by calibration and comparison of experimentally measured and beam propagation method (BPM) modeled curves. We used the method of nested bends for the first time in multimode polymer waveguides to calculate the propagation loss on a small substrate without using destructive cut-back. The lowest loss of 0.74 dB occurred for a 50 mum square cross section, Deltan=0.0296, 13.5 mm radius waveguide bend. PMID:19532290

Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Wang, Kai; Selviah, David R; Fernández, F Aníbal

2007-01-22

370

Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design curves for insertion loss of multimode polymer waveguide 90º bends are reported as a function of bend radius for several waveguide widths. For the first time, to our knowledge, in multimode rectangular waveguides the insertion loss is resolved into its components of transition, radiation and propagation loss, in order of decreasing strength, separating them from input and output coupling loss by calibration and comparison of experimentally measured and beam propagation method (BPM) modeled curves. We used the method of nested bends for the first time in multimode polymer waveguides to calculate the propagation loss on a small substrate without using destructive cut-back. The lowest loss of 0.74 dB occurred for a 50 ?m square cross section, ?n=0.0296, 13.5 mm radius waveguide bend.

Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Wang, Kai; Selviah, David R.; Aníbal Fernández, F.

2007-01-01

371

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

372

Vehicle security apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle security apparatus for use in a motor vehicle, the apparatus comprising an optical key, a receptacle, a receiver and at least one optical fiber. The optical key has a transmitter having at least one first preprogrammed coded signal stored in a first electric circuit. The receptacle receives the optical key and at least one transmittable coded optical signal from the transmitter corresponding to the at least one preprogrammed coded signal stored in the first electric circuit. The receiver compares the at least one transmittable coded optical signal to at least one second preprogrammed coded signal stored in a second electric circuit and the receiver is adapted to trigger switching effects for at least one of enabling starting the motor vehicle and starting the motor vehicle upon determination that the at least one transmittable coded optical signal corresponds to the at least one second preprogrammed signal in the second electric circuit. The at least one optical fiber is operatively connected between the receptacle and the receiver for carrying the optical signal from the receptacle to the receiver. Also disclosed is a method for permitting only authorized use of a motor vehicle.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

1996-02-13

373

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

1987-01-01

374

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, P.R.

1985-06-21

375

Conveyor with rotary airlock apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for transferring objects from a first region to a second region, the first and second regions having differing atmospheric environments. The apparatus includes a shell having an entrance and an exit, a conveyer belt running through the shell from the entrance to the exit, and a horizontally mounted `revolving door` with at least four vanes revolving about its axis. The inner surface of the shell and the top surface of the conveyer belt act as opposing walls of the `revolving door`. The conveyer belt dips as it passes under but against the revolving vanes so as not to interfere with them but to engage at least two of the vanes and define thereby a moving chamber. Preferably, the conveyer belt has ridges or grooves on its surface that engage the edges of the vanes and act to rotate the vane assembly. Conduits are provided that communicate with the interior of the shell and allow the adjustment of the atmosphere of the moving chamber or recovery of constituents of the atmosphere of the first region from the moving chamber before they escape to the second region.

Kronbert, J.W.

1993-01-01

376

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

Chang, R.C.W.

1994-12-20

377

Calibration of combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability data reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability research machines are described. Three such machines are presently in operation. The calibration of these machines is presented in depth. Fatigue data generated with these machines for SAE 4340 steel grooved specimens subjected to reversed bending and steady torque loading are given. The data reduction procedure is presented. Finally, some comments are made about notch sensitivity and stress concentration as applied to combined fatigue.

Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.

1969-01-01

378

Surface zone hardening during the bending fatigue of nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue tests were performed on commercially pure nickel at room temperature, utilizing fully reversed bending, in the environments\\u000a of dry air and 2 vol pct nitric acid in water. It was found that the surface hardening from fatigue was the same for both\\u000a environments, at any given bending moment. A limiting surface Vickers hardness of ? 160 kgmm-2 occurred in

C. E. Price; J. A. Fila

1981-01-01

379

Structure-borne sound Flexural wave (bending wave)  

E-print Network

1 Structure-borne sound · Flexural wave (bending wave) »One dimensional (beam) +(/x)dx +(/x)dx = (/x) (/x)dx=(2/x2)dx Mz +(Mz/x)dx Mz vy Fy Fy +(Fy/x)dx Structure-borne sound · Bending wave ­ flexural wave #12;2 Structure-borne sound · Two obliquely propagating waves + - + + - + - Structure

Berlin,Technische Universität

380

Actuator participation in a bending mode identification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydraulic actuator designed for a thrust vector control system used as a shaker for a vehicle to determine the bending mode frequencies is described. The actuator is used as the prime mover and the frequency sensor for the flexible vehicle in a test tower. Advantages in using the actuator piston position with respect to a commanded position to obtain the bending mode frequencies are shown.

Thompson, Z.; Davis, P.

1972-01-01

381

Rotary powder feed through apparatus  

DOEpatents

A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

382

Bending of Light in Modified Gravity at Large Distances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss the bending of light in a recent model for gravity at large distances containing a Rindler type acceleration proposed by Grumiller. We consider the static, spherically symmetric metric with cosmological constant and Rindler-like term 2ar presented in this model, and we use the procedure by Rindler and Ishak. to obtain the bending angle of light in this metric. Earlier work on light bending in this model by Carloni, Grumiller, and Preis, using the method normally employed for asymptotically flat space-times, led to a conflicting result (caused by the Rindler-like term in the metric) of a bending angle that increases with the distance of closest approach r(sub 0) of the light ray from the centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution. However, when using the alternative approach for light bending in nonasymptotically flat space-times, we show that the linear Rindler-like term produces a small correction to the general relativistic result that is inversely proportional to r(sub 0). This will in turn affect the bounds on Rindler acceleration obtained earlier from light bending and casts doubts on the nature of the linear term 2ar in the metric

Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes

2012-01-01

383

Flexible top-emitting OLEDs for lighting: bending limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexible OLED light sources have great appeal due to new design options, being unbreakable and their low weight. Top-emitting OLED device architectures offer the broadest choice of substrate materials including metals which are robust, impermeable to humidity, and good thermal conductors making them promising candidates for flexible OLED device substrates. In this study, we investigate the bending limits of flexible top-emitting OLED lighting devices with transparent metal electrode and thin film encapsulation on a variety of both metal and plastic foils. The samples were subjected to concave and convex bending and inspected by different testing methods for the onset of breakdown for example visible defects and encapsulation failures. The critical failure modes were identified as rupture of the transparent thin metal top electrode and encapsulation for convex bending and buckling of the transparent metal top electrode for concave bending. We investigated influences from substrate material and thickness and top coating thickness. The substrate thickness is found to dominate bending limits as expected by neutral layer modeling. Coating shows strong improvements for all substrates. Bending radii <15mm are achieved for both convex and concave testing without damage to devices including their encapsulation.

Schwamb, Philipp; Reusch, Thilo C.; Brabec, Christoph J.

2013-09-01

384

A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer.  

PubMed

A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer was proposed in this paper. The proposed stator contains a cylinder and a bending vibration transducer. The two combining sites between the cylinder and the transducer locate at the adjacent wave loops of bending vibration of the transducer and have a distance that equal to the half wave length of bending standing wave excited in the cylinder. Thus, the bending mode of the cylinder can be excited by the bending vibration of the transducer. Two circular cone type rotors are pressed in contact to the end rims of the teeth, and the preload between the rotors and stator is accomplished by a spring and nut system. The working principle of the proposed motor was analyzed. The motion trajectories of teeth were deduced. The stator was designed and analyzed with FEM. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 165rpm and maximum torque of 0.45Nm at an exciting voltage of 200V(rms). PMID:21215980

Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

2011-07-01

385

Finite element simulation of laser tube bending: Effect of scanning schemes on bending angle, distortions and stress distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser forming has received considerable attention in recent years. Within laser forming, tube bending is an important industrial activity, with applications in critical engineering systems like micro-machines, heat exchangers, hydraulic systems, boilers, etc. Laser tube bending utilizes the thermal stresses generated during laser scanning to achieve the desired bends. The parameters to control the process are usually laser power, beam diameter, scanning velocity and number of scans. Recently axial scanning has been used for tube bending instead of commonly used circumferential scans. However the comparison between the scanning schemes has involved dissimilar laser beam geometries with circular beam used for circumferential scanning and a rectangular beam for the axial scan. Thermal stresses generated during laser scanning are strongly dependent upon laser beam geometry and scanning direction and hence it is difficult to isolate the contribution made by these two variables. It has recently been established at the Corrosion and Protection Centre, University of Manchester, that corrosion properties of material during laser forming are affected by the number of laser passes. Depending on the material, the corrosion behaviour is either adversely or favourably affected by number of passes. Thus it is of great importance to know how different scanning schemes would affect laser tube bending. Moreover, any scanning scheme which results in greater bending angle would eliminate the need for higher number of passes, making the process faster. However, it is not only the bending angle which is critical, distortions in other planes are also extremely important. Depending on the use of the final product, unwanted distortions may be the final selection criteria. This paper investigates the effect of scanning direction on laser tube bending. Finite-element modelling has been used for the study of the process with some results also validated by experiments.

Safdar, Shakeel; Li, Lin; Sheikh, M. A.; Zhu Liu

2007-09-01

386

COUPLED BENDING–BENDING–TORSION VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF ROTATING PRETWISTED BLADES: AN INTEGRAL FORMULATION AND NUMERICAL EXAMPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approximate method is presented for the analysis of the modal characteristics of straight, pretwisted non-uniform blades corresponding to the coupled flapwise bending, chordwise bending and torsion of both rotating and non-rotating blades. An integral approach is described based on the use of Green functions (structural influence functions), which are used to develop the equations of motion. A clamped–free

G. Surace; V. Anghel; C. Mares

1997-01-01

387

Apparatus For Tests Of Percussion Primers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test apparatus and method developed to measure ignition capability of percussion primers. Closely simulates actual conditions and interfaces encountered in such applications as in munitions and rocket motors. Ignitability-testing apparatus is small bomb instrumented with pressure transducers. Sizes, shapes, and positions of bomb components and materials under test selected to obtain quantitative data on ignition.

Bement, Laurence J.; Bailey, James W.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1991-01-01

388

Method and apparatus for PM filter regeneration  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for initiating regeneration of a particulate matter (PM) filter in an exhaust system in an internal combustion engine. The method and apparatus includes determining a change in pressure of exhaust gases passing through the PM filter, and responsively varying an opening of an intake valve in fluid communication with a combustion chamber.

Opris, Cornelius N. (Peoria, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL)

2006-01-03

389

New Apparatus Tests Pressure-Suit Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New apparatus measures applied torque and angle-of-flexure in pressurized flexible joints, such as those found in diving suits and flight suits. Torque and flexure are permanently recorded on x-y plotter. Family of curves can be taken as function of suit pressure or other variables. Apparatus could also measure torque-versus-angle in mechanical linkages.

Vykukal, H. C.; Webbon, B.

1982-01-01

390

Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors, III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2014-09-01

391

Solar energy absorber apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved apparatus and method for absorbing solar energy, the apparatus providing a sealed envelope having a transparent upper panel with a solar energy absorbing panel thermally isolated against convective and conductive heat losses by a partial vacuum in the sealed envelope. The transparent panel has an upwardly extending curvilinear surface which increases its strength characteristics against the pressure differential

Johnson

1982-01-01

392

Solar energy absorber apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved apparatus and method is presented for absorbing solar energy. The apparatus provides a sealed envelope having a transparent upper panel with a solar energy absorbing panel thermally isolated against convective and conductive heat losses by a partial vacuum in the sealed envelope. The transparent panel has an upwardly extending curvilinear surface which increases its strength characteristics against the

Johnson

1980-01-01

393

Apparatus and method for handheld sampling  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes an apparatus, and corresponding method, for taking a sample. The apparatus is built around a frame designed to be held in at least one hand. A sample media is used to secure the sample. A sample media adapter for securing the sample media is operated by a trigger mechanism connectively attached within the frame to the sample media adapter.

Staab, Torsten A. (Whiterock, NM)

2005-09-20

394

Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2014-01-01

395

Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

2011-01-01

396

Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell.

Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA); Bryan, Garry H. (Kennewick, WA); Geeting, John G. H. (West Richland, WA); Butner, R. Scott (Port Orchard, WA)

1998-01-01

397

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10

398

Apparatus for the catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for the fluidized catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons. Two independent transfer line reactors, each of which is associated with an independent cyclone separation system, and the cyclone separation systems are located within a common reactor vessel. The apparatus is suitable for use in the simultaneous fluidized catalytic cracking of dissimilar hydrocarbon feedstocks without commingling either the feedstocks

M. J. Clark; W. D. Ford

1981-01-01

399

21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

2010-04-01

400

21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

2013-04-01

401

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2010-01-01

402

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2013-01-01

403

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2012-01-01

404

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

...2014-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2014-01-01

405

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2011-01-01

406

Mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus is provided. The sample presentation apparatus has a complex bound to the surface of the sample presentation apparatus. This complex includes a molecule which may chemically modify a biomolecule.

Nelson, Randall W. (Phoenix, AZ)

2000-07-25

407

21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

2011-04-01

408

Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

Allen, J.J..

1999-09-28

409

Well control method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well apparatus adapted for use with a floating drilling vessel and adapted for connection to the structural casing string in a well bore established beneath the seabed comprising a conductor casing, a first wellhead connected to the structural casing string, a first conductor means for connecting a first conduit to the first wellhead, an annular blowout preventer connected to the first conduit providing a flow path between the bore of the wellhead and the bore of the annular blowout preventer when the blowout preventer is normally open, a valve disposed in a line connected to the first conduit between the blowout preventer and the first wellhead connector, a kill line extending between the line and the drilling vessel, and stripper and guidance means connected to the blowout preventer by a second connector for guiding the conductor casing through the blowout preventer and into the borehole and for stripping the conductor casing while it is being inserted therein.

Elkins, H.L.

1986-12-23

410

Shock attenuating apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for attenuating a shock in a tool string within a well, comprising a body in extensible under tension loading. It comprises means for connecting the body into the tool string; and undergoing plastic deformation in response to an explosive impact load for serially dissipating energy of a shock wave propagated in the body in response to the explosion impact load wherein the means for undergoing deformation and dissipating energy includes a wall of the body wherein a plurality of indentations are defined. This patent also describes a method of attenuating shock from an explosion in a well. It comprises lowering into the well an explosive connected to a shock attenuating member; detonating the explosive whereby an impact load with a shock wave is generated; and collapsing without severing the member in response to the impact load and dissipating energy of the shock wave from a plurality of surfaces of the member.

Navarette, M.; Walker, J.L.

1992-06-02

411

Heavy oil catalytic cracking apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for the fluidized catalytic cracking of a heavy hydrocarbon feed comprising hydrocarbons having a boiling point above about 650{degrees} F to lighter products by contact the feed with catalytic cracking catalyst. It comprises a catalytic cracking reactor means; a separation means connective with the reactor outlet; a primary stripping means comprising an inlet for a source of hot regenerated cracking catalyst, an inlet for spent catalyst, an inlet for a stripping gas, a vapor outlet for a primary stripping stage vapor and a solids outlet for discharge of stripped solids; a secondary stripping means; a catalyst regeneration means; a reactor catalyst recycle means; and a primary stripping zone catalyst recycle means having an inlet connective with the catalyst regeneration means and an outlet connective with the primary stripping zone.

Owen, H.

1992-07-07

412

Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes  

DOEpatents

An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature).

McMullen, John W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheeler, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Cullingford, Hatice S. (Houston, TX); Sherman, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

413

Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This diagram shows a cross sectrion of the fluid volume of an individual cell in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

2001-01-01

414

Apparatus for sequentially transporting containers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for transferring and manipulating a plurality of containers in a sequence is disclosed including a mechanical manipulator arm having a gripping device which automatically picks up a container at a fixed pickup position P and transfers it to a processing station. At a processing station X, the container is loaded with silicon wafers and thereafter returned by the arm to the fixed position P at the pickup and return station Y. A plurality of the containers may be processed in sequence from the fixed pickup position by providing a movable carriage upon which container pedestal platforms are supported, at least one of which is an elevator platform. The platforms include abutments for properly positioning the containers for accurate pickup by the manipulator arm.

Hudgins, J. L. (inventor)

1982-01-01

415

Voltammetric analysis apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described for electrochemical analysis of elements in solution. An auxiliary electrode, a reference electrode, and five working electrodes are positioned in a container containing a sample solution. The working electrodes are spaced apart evenly from each other and the auxiliary electrode to minimize any inter-electrode interference that may occur during analysis. An electric potential is applied between the auxiliary electrode and each of the working electrodes. Simultaneous measurements taken of the current flow through each of the working electrodes for each given potential in a potential range are used for identifying chemical elements present in the sample solution and their respective concentrations. Multiple working electrodes enable a more positive identification to be made by providing unique data characteristic of chemical elements present in the sample solution.

Almon, A.C.

1993-06-08

416

Voltametric analysis apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for electrochemical analysis of elements in solution. An auxiliary electrode 14, a reference electrode 18, and five working electrodes 20, 22, 26, 28, and 30 are positioned in a container 12 containing a sample solution 34. The working electrodes are spaced apart evenly from each other and auxiliary electrode 14 to minimize any inter-electrode interference that may occur during analysis. An electric potential is applied between auxiliary electrode 14 and each of the working electrodes 20, 22, 26, 28, and 30. Simultaneous measurements taken of the current flow through each of the working electrodes for each given potential in a potential range are used for identifying chemical elements present in sample solution 34 and their respective concentrations. Multiple working electrodes enable a more positive identification to be made by providing unique data characteristic of chemical elements present in the sample solution.

Almon, Amy C. (410 Waverly Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

1993-01-01

417

Apparatus in a drill string  

DOEpatents

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Alpine, UT); Hall, Jr., Tracy H. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Lehi, UT); Pixton, David S. (Provo, UT)

2007-07-17

418

Loop-bed combustion apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Slagle, Frank D. (Kingwood, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

419

Ultrasonic flow nozzle cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for a venturi flow measuring nozzle mounted in a pipe of a steam power plant and having an inlet, venturi throat, and an outlet, the pipe and nozzle having fluid flowing therethrough, the cleaning occurring while the fluid is flowing. It comprises first ultrasonic transducer means mounted to connect to the inside of the pipe, disposed adjacent the inlet of the venturi flow nozzle and the means being in direct contact with the fluid flowing through the pipe for transmitting ultrasonic waves directly into and thereby exciting the fluid flowing through the venturi flow nozzle; and control means coupled to the first ultrasonic transducer means for activating the first ultrasonic transducer means.

Fridsma, D.E.; Silvestri, G.J. Jr.; Twerdochlib, M.

1992-06-23

420

Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

Shirey, Ray A. (North Grafton, MA)

1983-06-14

421

Apparatus for molecular weight separation  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Liu, Chuanliang (Haverhill, MA)

2001-01-01

422

Dispersoid separation method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Improved separation of heavier material from a dispersoid of gas and heavier material entrained therein is taught by the method of this invention which advantageously uses apparatus embodied in an inertial separator having rotary partition means comprising wall members dividing a housing into a plurality of axially-extending through passages arranged in parallel. Simultaneously with the helical transit of a moving stream of the dispersoid through the parallel arrangement of axially-extending through passages at a constant angular velocity, the heavier material is driven radially to the collecting surfaces of the rotational wall members where it is collected while the wall members are rotating at the same angular velocity as the moving stream. The plurality of wall members not only provides an increased area of collecting surfaces but the positioning of each of the wall members according to the teaching of this invention also results in a shortened time-of-flight to the collecting surfaces.

Winsche, Warren E. (Bellport, NY)

1980-01-01

423

Apparatus for controlling electric cars  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for controlling electric cars comprising: d-c shunt-wound motors adapted to be connected to a d-c source and having armatures and field windings; first chopper circuit means connected in series with the armatures of the d-c shunt-wound motors and controlling the flow of armature currents in both directions upon receipt of timing signals; second chopper circuit means connected in series with the field windings of the d-c shunt-wound motors and controlling the flow of field currents in both directions upon receipt of timing signals; reactors having first and second coils, the first coils being connected in series with the armatures, and the second coils being connected in series with the field windings. The first coils and second coils and magnetically coupled together maintaining such a relation that the field currents decrease with the decrease in the armature currents.

Naruto, M.

1987-01-06

424

Apparatus for producing thin flakes  

DOEpatents

Compositions in accordance with the invention comprise a polymer and flake reinforcing material distributed throughout the polymer in an effective amount to structurally reinforce the polymer. Individual flakes of the flake material a) are less than or equal to 1,000 Angstroms in thickness, b) have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 100, and c) are preferably significantly randomly oriented throughout the polymer. A novel apparatus for shear grinding a platy solid material into such individual flakes comprises a cylindrical shearing drum and a shear grinder received therein. The shearing drum has a longitudinal axis and an internal surface formed about a first predetermined radius of curvature. The cylindrical drum is supported for rotation about its longitudinal axis. The shear grinder has an external surface formed about a second predetermined radius of curvature. The second radius of curvature is slightly less than the first radius of curvature.

Bunnell, Sr., Lee R. (Kennewick, WA)

1991-01-01

425

Programmable digital temperature controller apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A programmable digital temperature controller apparatus utilizing a pair of binary-coded decimal units and a switching unit to generate a ten bit binary word which represents a pre-selected temperature in a temperature range is discussed. A pair of erasable programmable read only memory units store digital temperatures and temperature range information. The ten bit binary word determines which digital data from the memory units will be applied to a D/A converter unit and a pair of multiplexer units. One multiplexer unit controls the voltage per bit within the D/A converter unit while the other multiplexer unit generates a starting voltage. The output voltage from the D/A converter unit and the starting voltage are summed together to provide a voltage output signal which represent the pre-selected temperature.

Veneklase, B. J.

1984-07-01

426

Complex estimation of bending elasticity of hemp woven fabric after washing treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the elasticity of hemp woven fabric under action of bending force, before and after washing treatment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Bending elasticity was monitored in three different ways: through the value of bending modulus, on the basis of fabric's resistance to creasing expressed through the value of quality number, and through the value of bending

T. V. Mihailovic

2006-01-01

427

Extreme sediment pulses generated by bend cutoffs along a large meandering river  

Microsoft Academic Search

In meandering rivers, bend cutoffs have long been recognized as an important mechanism of change in the path of the channel. Meander bend cutoffs can develop by the progressive migration of an elongated bend onto itself, which forms a neck cutoff, or by the erosion of a new channel across the neck of the bend, which is known as a

Jessica A. Zinger; Bruce L. Rhoads; James L. Best

2011-01-01

428

Design of a multi-layered optical bend loss sensor for pressure and shear sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-layered optical bend loss sensor for pressure and shear sensing is presented. This design is based on the characteristic of optical bend loss. When external forces applied to the sensor, the optical fibers will bend and cause the light to escape from the fiber. The amount of light attenuation depends on the amount of bending occurred on the fiber.

Chao-Shih Liu; Gia Wen Chou; Xin Liang; Per G. Reinhall; Wei-Chih Wang

2007-01-01

429

Propagation phenomena of wideband guided waves in a bended pipe.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic guided waves in pipes have been anticipated as a rapid screening technique for pipe inspection because of their long-range propagation due to low energy leakage. In this paper, the propagation phenomena of guided waves in a bended pipe were investigated using a wideband laser ultrasonic system. The laser ultrasonic system, together with wavelet transformation, is a powerful tool for observing the dispersive phenomena intrinsic to guided waves. Bended stainless steel (SUS304) pipes with 6-mm outer diameter and 1-mm wall thickness were used in the experiments. The bending angles of the pipes were set to 0 degrees (straight pipe), 10 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees. The radius of the bend was 12.5 mm in all the pipes. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was employed to generate the guided waves. The generated guided waves were detected with a heterodyne interferometer. The obtained time-domain signals and their wavelet coefficients indicated the following two conclusions: (1) The amplitude of the F(1,1) mode converted from the L(0,1) mode increased with the increase of the bending angle. (2) Mode conversions from the L(0,1) to F(1,1) modes and vice versa were clearly observed in the low-frequency range up to around 200 kHz. PMID:16806367

Nishino, Hideo; Yoshida, Kenichi; Cho, Hideo; Takemoto, Mikio

2006-12-22

430

Microstructural, electrical, and mechanical properties of graphene films on flexible substrate determined by cyclic bending test.  

PubMed

Three kinds of graphene/polyimide specimen were prepared via transfer with 3, 6, and 9 graphene layers, respectively. A self-designed bending tester was applied to carry out cyclic bending tests with various bending cycles and bending frequencies. The variations of electrical resistance of the specimens during the bending process and the rate of increase of electrical resistance with the number of bending cycles and bending frequency for various total graphene thicknesses were determined. The voids that form at the interfaces between any two adjacent layers increase in size, leading to a disconnection between graphene layers after a number of bending cycles. A reduction in the graphene thickness and increases in the number of bending cycles and bending frequency increase the rate of increase of electrical resistance. For specimens with a given graphene thickness, the ID/IG value of the Raman shift increases exponentially with increasing number of bending cycles and bending frequency. An increase in ID/IG is accompanied by increases in both the rate of increase of electrical resistance and the aspect ratio L1/L2 (where L1 and L2 are the half lengths of the long and short axes, respectively, of the selected-area electron diffraction pattern of graphene). The tilt angle formed in the top graphene layer of the specimen after bending tests increases with increasing graphene thickness for a given bending frequency. The rate of increase of the tilt angle is affected by the bending frequency. PMID:25322943

Nguyen, Ba-Son; Lin, Jen-Fin; Perng, Dung-Ching

2014-11-26

431

Equiangular spiral photonic crystal fibers with low bending loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leakage losses of a bent equiangular spiral photonic crystal fiber (ES-PCF) have been analyzed in this paper by employing a full-vectorial finite element method. The analysis shows that the confinement and bending losses of ES-PCF are several orders of magnitude less than that of the conventional hexagonal lattice PCF (H-PCF) with similar dimensions. Also, the bending loss increases less rapidly in ES-PCF than in H-PCF for similar bending radii. It has also been found that no mode degeneration between fundamental core mode and first cladding mode occurs in ES-PCF. The reason of higher field confinement in ES-PCF than its hexagonal counterpart is also discussed.

Asiful Islam, Md.; Shah Alam, M.

2013-10-01

432

Sound propagation in rigid bends: a multimodal approach.  

PubMed

The sound propagation in a waveguide with bend of finite constant curvature is analyzed using multimodal decomposition. Two infinite first-order differential equations are constructed for the pressure and velocity in the bend, projected on the local transverse modes. A Riccati equation for the impedance matrix is then derived, which can be numerically integrated after truncation at a sufficient number of modes. An example of validation is considered and results show the accuracy of the method and its suitability for the formulation of radiation conditions. Reflection and transmission coefficients are also computed, showing the importance of higher order mode generation at the junction between the bend and the straight ducts. The case of varying cross-section curved ducts is also considered using multimodal decomposition. PMID:11572343

Félix, S; Pagneux, V

2001-09-01

433

Real-time resilient focusing through a bending multimode fiber.  

PubMed

Multimode optical fibers are attractive for biomedical and sensing applications because they possess a small cross section and can bend over small radii of curvature. However, mode phase-velocity dispersion and random mode coupling change with bending, temperature, and other perturbations, producing scrambling interference among propagating modes; hence preventing its use for focusing or imaging. To tackle this problem we introduce a system capable of re-focusing light through a multimode fiber in 37ms, one order of magnitude faster than demonstrated in previous reports. As a result, the focus spot can be maintained during significant bending of the fiber, opening numerous opportunities for endoscopic imaging and energy delivery applications. We measure the transmission matrix of the fiber by projecting binary-amplitude computer generated holograms using a digital micro-mirror device controlled by a field programmable gate array. The system shows two orders of magnitude enhancements of the focus spot relative to the background. PMID:23736507

Caravaca-Aguirre, Antonio M; Niv, Eyal; Conkey, Donald B; Piestun, Rafael

2013-05-20

434

Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

Niezgoda-?elasko, B.; ?elasko, J.

2014-08-01

435

Bending rigidity of type I collagen homotrimer fibrils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal type I collagen is an ?1(I)2?2(I) heterotrimeric triple helix, but ?1(I)3 homotrimers are also found in fetal tissues and various pathological conditions, e.g., causing bone fragility and reducing tendon tensile strength. It remains unclear whether homotrimers alter mechanical properties of individual fibrils or affect tissues by altering their organization at a higher level. To address this question, we investigated how homotrimers affect fibril bending rigidity. Homotrimer fibrils have been shown to be more loosely packed so that we expected them to be more susceptible to bending. However, homotrimer fibrils were more rigid despite being thinner and more hydrated. To quantify fibril rigidity, we analyzed their shape by Fourier decomposition, determined the correlation function for the direction along each fibril, and calculated the distribution of local fibril curvature. The estimated persistence length of homotrimer fibrils was 3 ˜ 10 times longer than for heterotrimer fibrils, indicating much higher bending rigidity of homotrimer fibrils.

Han, Sejin; Leikin, Sergey; Losert, Wolfgang

2009-03-01

436

Simulated Single Tooth Bending of High Temperature Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future unmanned space missions will require mechanisms to operate at extreme conditions in order to be successful. In some of these mechanisms, very high gear reductions will be needed to permit very small motors to drive other components at low rotational speed with high output torque. Therefore gearing components are required that can meet the mission requirements. In mechanisms such as this, bending fatigue strength capacity of the gears is very important. The bending fatigue capacity of a high temperature, nickel-based alloy, typically used for turbine disks in gas turbine engines and two tool steel materials with high vanadium content, were compared to that of a typical aerospace alloy-AISI 9310. Test specimens were fabricated by electro-discharge machining without post machining processing. Tests were run at 24 and at 490 C. As test temperature increased from 24 to 490 C the bending fatigue strength was reduced by a factor of five.

Handschuh, Robert, F.; Burke, Christopher

2012-01-01

437

Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

2012-01-01

438

Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame. 7 figs.

Murphy, R.J. Jr.

1986-02-25

439

Tissue culture apparatus for flight experimentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an apparatus for in-flight treatment of cells, tissues, or small organisms for microscopic and chemical analyses is discussed. The hardware for the apparatus is to have: (1) automated functions, (2) the capability to interface with ground-based facilities, (3) independently controlled chambers, (4) variable chamber configurations and volumes, and (4) the capabilities for processing the materials. The components of the equipment used on Skylab 3 for the study of animal cells are described. The design of an apparatus which incorporates all the required capabilities is proposed.

Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Krikorian, A. D.

1985-01-01

440

Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses. The apparatus includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The method uses gelling agents such as silicon dioxide, clay, carbon, or organic or inorganic polymers, as well as dopants such as titanium, aluminum, and boron powders. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

2010-01-01

441

Process and apparatus for recycling organic wastes  

SciTech Connect

This defines a process and an apparatus to treat wet organic wastes, such as manures, to protect the environment and to recycle the solid content in the form of a soil conditioner or fertilizer. This process and apparatus are made to remove the bad smell and to separate the solid content in a very dry form, adapted to be readily bagged. This process and apparatus are characterized by an efficient conveying and concurrent agitation of the organic wastes in an evaporation furnace and in combination with use of the combustion gases for heat exchange heating of the fluidizing content of the wet organic wastes.

Chartrand, J.A.; Perreault, I.

1982-09-28

442

Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles to ensure adequate mixing, liquid containing the suspended contaminant sample is dispensed. The disposable components are then removed from the dispensing head, which may then be reused with a fresh set of disposable components.

Wells, Mark

2008-01-01

443

Light squeezing through arbitrarily shaped plasmonic channels and sharp bends  

SciTech Connect

We propose a mechanism for optical energy squeezing and anomalous light transmission through arbitrarily-shaped plasmonic ultranarrow channels and bends connecting two larger plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. It is shown how a proper design of subwavelength optical channels at cutoff, patterned by plasmonic implants and connecting larger plasmonic waveguides, may allow enhanced resonant transmission inspired by the anomalous properties of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. The resonant transmission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the channel length and its specific geometry, such as possible presence of abruptions and bends.

Alu, Andrea; Engheta, Nader [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2008-07-15

444

Effects of rim thickness on spur gear bending stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin rim gears find application in high-power, light-weight aircraft transmissions. Bending stresses in thin rim spur gear tooth fillets and root areas differ from the stresses in solid gears due to rim deformations. Rim thickness is a significant design parameter for these gears. To study this parameter, a finite element analysis was conducted on a segment of a thin rim gear. The rim thickness was varied and the location and magnitude of the maximum bending stresses reported. Design limits are discussed and compared with the results of other researchers.

Bibel, G. D.; Reddy, S. K.; Savage, M.; Handschuh, R. F.

1991-01-01

445

The determination of thru-thickness residual bending stresses  

E-print Network

of Thru-Thickness Residual Bending Stresses. (August 2000) Adam James Rinehart, B. A. , Grinnell College Chair of Advisory Committee; Dr. Peter Keating In order to understand the fatigue behavior of dents in pressurized pipelines it is necessary... by Bidirectional Bending for the Case y?, & y, , 110 5-1 Finite Elemenl, Mesh Used in Study 116 5-2 Comparison ol Percent Deviation of 100 and 200 Element. FE Models from Exact Solution, 800 k-in Released Moment, No Initial Stresses 123 5-3 Comparison of 200...

Rinehart, Adam James

2012-06-07

446

Empirically derived equations for predicting springback in bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (1) \\u000a \\u000a An empirical equation has been developed that predicts springback for a variety of die geometries on the basis of yield strength,\\u000a thickness, and bend radius; and for some die conditions for bend angle, hold-down, plan view curvature, and punch-to-die clearance.\\u000a Since an internally consistent rationalization of the predictive equation has also been developed, the predictive equation\\u000a would appear

B. S. Levy

1984-01-01

447

Solution structure of an A-tract DNA bend.  

PubMed

The solution structure of a DNA dodecamer d(GGCAAAAAACGG)/d(CCGTTTTTTGCC) containing an A-tract has been determined by NMR spectroscopy with residual dipolar couplings. The structure shows an overall helix axis bend of 19 degrees in a geometry consistent with solution and gel electrophoresis experiments. Fourteen degrees of the bending occurs in the GC regions flanking the A-tract. The remaining 5 degrees is spread evenly over its six AT base-pairs. The A-tract is characterized by decreasing minor groove width from the 5' to the 3' direction along the A strand. This is a result of propeller twist in the AT pairs and the increasing negative inclination of the adenine bases at the 3' side of the run of adenine bases. The four central thymine bases all have negative inclination throughout the A-tract with an average value of -6.1 degrees. Although this negative inclination makes the geometry of the A-tract different from all X-ray structures, the proton on N6 of adenine and the O4 of thymine one step down the helix are within distance to form bifurcated hydrogen bonds. The 5' bend of 4 degrees occurs at the junction between the GC flank and the A-tract through a combination of tilt and roll. The larger 3' bend, 10 degrees, occurs in two base steps: the first composed of tilt, -4.1 degrees, and the second a combination of tilt, -4.2 degrees, and roll, 6.0 degrees. This second step is a direct consequence of the change in inclination between an adjacent cytosine base, which has an inclination of -12 degrees, and the next base, a guanine, which has 3 degrees inclination. This bend is a combination of tilt and roll. The large change in inclination allows the formation of a hydrogen bond between the protons of N4 of the 3' cytosine and the O6 of the next 3' base, a guanine, stabilizing the roll component in the bend. These structural features differ from existing models for A-tract bends.For comparison, we also determined the structure of the control sequence, d(GGCAAGAAACGG)/d(CCGTTTCTTGCC), with an AT to GC transition in the center of the A-tract. This structure has no negative inclination in most of the bases within the A-tract, resulting in a bend of only 9 degrees. When ligated in phase, the control sequence has nearly normal mobility in gel electrophoresis experiments. PMID:11237619

MacDonald, D; Herbert, K; Zhang, X; Pologruto, T; Lu, P; Polgruto, T

2001-03-01

448

How protein-making machine bends without breaking  

SciTech Connect

Scientists from several institutions including the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. They derived atomic-scale resolution structures of the cell's protein-making machine, the ribosome, at key stages of its job. The ability to bend but not break comes from this hinge within transfer RNA, which allows it to bend as much as 70 degrees when it passes through the ribosome during protein synthesis. The structures, developed primarily at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source, reveal that the ribosome's ability to rotate an incredible amount without falling apart is due to the never-before-seen springiness of molecular widgets that hold it together.

None

2011-01-01

449

An Immuno-Electrophoretic Apparatus  

PubMed Central

Serum applied as a streak to a strip of filter-paper can be separated into six main bands, depending upon respective molecular weights (electrophoresis). When such bands of protein are exposed to a polyvalent anti-human serum diffusing in at right angles, at least 18 protein components can be identified as precipitation arcs (immunoelectrophoresis). Using immunoelectrophoresis, 202 sera taken at intervals from 86 patients with tuberculosis were compared with 160 sera from healthy persons and patients with non-tuberculous disease. With clinical recovery from tuberculosis, shrinkage of the beta-2 macroglobulin band was observed, and a gamma-1 globulin arc appeared or was accentuated. This finding suggests an early antibody response of large molecules, and a later defence by slowly developing small molecules, as seen in many common infections. The macroglobulins involved were found to be selectively adsorbed on attapulgite clay particles. This technique should be useful in developing serological tests for active tuberculosis. The apparatus used was designed and built by the authors at trivial cost. Its construction and operation are described. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4 PMID:14259337

Horner, George; Elliott, G. B.

1965-01-01

450

Isotope separation apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferable substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. The laser beam comprises .pi.-pulses of a selected wavelength which excite unexcited molecules, or cause stimulated emission of excited molecules of one of the isotopes. Excitation caused by first direction .pi.-pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning .pi.-pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement is accomplished by a large number of .pi.-pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam.

Cotter, Theodore P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-12-28

451

Isotope separation apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferably substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. Because the molecules in the beam occupy various degenerate energy levels, if the laser beam comprises chirped pulses comprising selected wavelengths, the laser beam will very efficiently excite substantially all unexcited molecules and will cause stimulated emission of substantially all excited molecules of a selected one of the isotopes in the beam which such pulses encounter. Excitation caused by first direction chirped pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning chirped pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement of essentially all the molecules containing the one isotope is accomplished by a large number of chirped pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam.

Feldman, Barry J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

452

IC138 is a WD-repeat dynein intermediate chain required for light chain assembly and regulation of flagellar bending.  

PubMed

Increased phosphorylation of dynein IC IC138 correlates with decreases in flagellar microtubule sliding and phototaxis defects. To test the hypothesis that regulation of IC138 phosphorylation controls flagellar bending, we cloned the IC138 gene. IC138 encodes a novel protein with a calculated mass of 111 kDa and is predicted to form seven WD-repeats at the C terminus. IC138 maps near the BOP5 locus, and bop5-1 contains a point mutation resulting in a truncated IC138 lacking the C terminus, including the seventh WD-repeat. bop5-1 cells display wild-type flagellar beat frequency but swim slower than wild-type cells, suggesting that bop5-1 is altered in its ability to control flagellar waveform. Swimming speed is rescued in bop5-1 transformants containing the wild-type IC138, confirming that BOP5 encodes IC138. With the exception of the roadblock-related light chain, LC7b, all the other known components of the I1 complex, including the truncated IC138, are assembled in bop5-1 axonemes. Thus, the bop5-1 motility phenotype reveals a role for IC138 and LC7b in the control of flagellar bending. IC138 is hyperphosphorylated in paralyzed flagellar mutants lacking radial spoke and central pair components, further indicating a role for the radial spokes and central pair apparatus in control of IC138 phosphorylation and regulation of flagellar waveform. PMID:15469982

Hendrickson, Triscia W; Perrone, Catherine A; Griffin, Paul; Wuichet, Kristin; Mueller, Joshua; Yang, Pinfen; Porter, Mary E; Sale, Winfield S

2004-12-01

453

Preliminary survey of the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Big Bend Ranch State Park and Big Bend National Park  

PubMed Central

The mayfly (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) and caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) fauna of Big Bend National Park and Big Bend Ranch State Park are reported based upon numerous records. For mayflies, sixteen species representing four families and twelve genera are reported. By comparison, thirty-five species of caddisflies were collected during this study representing seventeen genera and nine families. Although the Rio Grande supports the greatest diversity of mayflies (n=9) and caddisflies (n=14), numerous spring-fed creeks throughout the park also support a wide variety of species. A general lack of data on the distribution and abundance of invertebrates in Big Bend National and State Park is discussed, along with the importance of continuing this type of research. PMID:17119610

Baumgardner, David E.; Bowles, David E.

2005-01-01

454

Filter screen apparatus for the air outlet of a particle production apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a filter screen apparatus for use in an air outlet of a particle production apparatus. It comprises: closely spaced resiliently deformable filter elements comprising coil springs mountable across the air outlet effective to collectively releasably receive and hold fines carried in the air passing through the air outlet of the particle production apparatus; and vibrating means for resiliently deforming the filter elements effective to dislodge and release fines held on mounted filter elements.

Bakker, J.

1990-08-07

455

Crystal growth and annealing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for producing crystals that minimizes birefringence even at large crystal sizes, and is suitable for production of CaF.sub.2 crystals. The method of the present invention comprises annealing a crystal by maintaining a minimal temperature gradient in the crystal while slowly reducing the bulk temperature of the crystal. An apparatus according to the present invention includes a thermal control system added to a crystal growth and annealing apparatus, wherein the thermal control system allows a temperature gradient during crystal growth but minimizes the temperature gradient during crystal annealing. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a secondary heater incorporated into a conventional crystal growth and annealing apparatus. The secondary heater supplies heat to minimize the temperature gradients in the crystal during the annealing process. The secondary heater can mount near the bottom of the crucible to effectively maintain appropriate temperature gradients.

Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sparrow, Robert (North Brookfield, MA)

2001-01-01

456

Electrochemical Apparatus Simulates Corrosion In Crevices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of testing metal specimens for susceptibility to galvanic corrosion in crevices involves use of relatively simple electrochemical apparatus. By following method, one quantifies rates of corrosion of dissimilar-metal couples exposed to various etchants or other corrosive solutions.

Khoshbin, S. Rachel; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Lumsden, Jesse B.

1996-01-01

457

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems...Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...a locomotive with automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

2010-10-01

458

Method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography  

DOEpatents

Separation of complex mixtures and solutions can be carried out using a method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography. Solutes are diverted radially by an imposed electrical field as they move downward in a rotating chromatographic column.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01

459

Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

Been, J. F. (inventor)

1973-01-01

460

Apparatus for monitoring linear explosive performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques provide performance monitoring standard for acceptance, lot qualification, and comparison testing of devices. Exhibit high degree of simplicity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Apparatus simultaneously measures explosive pressure stimulus energy, explosive cutting, or rupturing, ability, and detonation propagation rate.

Bement, L. J.

1974-01-01

461

Illuminated Emission Tubes and Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of illuminated emission tubes with the high voltage apparatus that causes the gas to become excited. Elements represented include: hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, mercury, and neon. This image is not labeled.

Ward, Charles

2003-01-16

462

floatation apparatus for marine seismic exploration  

SciTech Connect

A floatation apparatus is disclosed wherein a buoy for maintaining the near surface position of marine equipment is mounted on a hydrodynamically advantageous V-shaped frame to reduce frictional drag associated with towing surface equipment.

Huffhines, D. F.; Roach, R. E.

1985-10-29

463

Fastening Apparatus Having Shape Memory Alloy Actuator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A releasable fastening apparatus is presented. The device includes a connecting member and a housing. The housing supports a gripping mechanism that is adapted to engage the connecting member. A triggering member is movable within the housing between a fi...

D. Mckinnis

1992-01-01

464

Laser beam alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

Gruhn, Charles R. (Martinez, CA); Hammond, Robert B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

465

Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

466

Microgravity science and applications: Apparatus and facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA support apparatus and facilities for microgravity research are summarized in fact sheets. The facilities are ground-based simulation environments for short-term experiments, and the shuttle orbiter environment for long duration experiments. The 17 items of the microgravitational experimental apparatus are described. Electronic materials, alloys, biotechnology, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, and combustion science are among the topics covered.

1989-01-01

467

Spore collection and elimination apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is for a spore collection apparatus and its method of use. The portable spore collection apparatus includes a suction source, a nebulizer, an ionization chamber and a filter canister. The suction source collects the spores from a surface. The spores are activated by heating whereby spore dormancy is broken. Moisture is then applied to the spores to begin germination. The spores are then exposed to alpha particles causing extinction.

Czajkowski, Carl (South Jamesport, NY); Warren, Barbara Panessa (Port Jefferson, NY)

2007-04-03

468

Method and apparatus for measuring stress  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining stress in a material independent of micro-structural variations and anisotropies. The method comprises comparing the velocities of two horizontally polarized and horizontally propagating ultrasonic shear waves with interchanged directions of propagation and polarization. The apparatus for carrying out the method comprises periodic permanent magnet-electromagnetic acoustic transducers for generating and detecting the shear waves and means for determining the wave velocities.

Thompson, R. Bruce (Ames, IA)

1985-06-11

469

Materials processing apparatus development for fluoride glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluoride glasses have great potential for optical fiber communications due to the high transmittance when no microcrystallites occur during drawing operations. This work has developed apparatus to test the occurrence of microcrystallites during recrystallization in reduced gravity on the KC-135. The apparatus allows fluoride glass fiber, such as ZBLAN, to be melted and recrystallized during both the low and high g portions the parabolic flight.

Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue; Workman, Gary L.

1994-01-01

470

Coordinated X-Y stage apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion.

Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Charles, S.T.; Spalding, J.A.

2000-01-25

471

Apparatus for measuring high frequency currents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for measuring high frequency currents includes a non-ferrous core current probe that is coupled to a wide-band transimpedance amplifier. The current probe has a secondary winding with a winding resistance that is substantially smaller than the reactance of the winding. The sensitivity of the current probe is substantially flat over a wide band of frequencies. The apparatus is particularly useful for measuring exposure of humans to radio frequency currents.

Hagmann, Mark J. (Inventor); Sutton, John F. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

472

Magnetic apparatus for the coke and chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and application of magnetic apparatus for use in the coke and chemical industry are described. The basic requirements for such apparatus are explosion-proof construction, high water throughput, and provisions for varying the magnetic parameters. Three basic design criteria are set forth for magnetic apparatus. Development work in apparatus for the magnetic treatment of water to suit the needs

I. M. Glushchenko; S. P. Grishaenko; Y. V. Myagkov

1983-01-01

473

Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor  

DOEpatents

A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

1999-02-02

474

Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study an evaluation of the potential for bend-twist coupling effects in wind turbine blades is addressed. A method for evaluation of the coupling magnitude based on the results of finite element modeling and full-field displacement measurements obtained by experiments is developed and tested on small-scale coupled composite beams. In the proposed method the coupling coefficient for a generic beam is introduced based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam formulation. By applying the developed method for analysis of a commercial wind turbine blade structure it is demonstrated that a bend-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling into a blade on such important blade structural properties as bending and torsional stiffness is demonstrated.

Fedorov, V.; Berggreen, C.

2014-06-01

475

Shear bands and cracking of metallic glass plates in bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thickness dependence of yielding and fracture of metallic glass plates subjected to bending is considered in terms of the shear band processes responsible for these properties. We argue that the shear band spacing ~and length! scales with the thickness of the plate because of strain relaxation in the vicinity of the shear band at the surface. This is consistent

R. D. Conner; W. L. Johnson; W. D. Nixa; W. D. Nix

2006-01-01

476

Microsecond infrared beam bending in photorefractive iron doped indium phosphide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time resolved study of the behavior of a single beam in photorefractive iron doped indium phosphide is provided down to the microsecond range, showing that infrared beam bending does occur on the microsecond time scale for moderate beam intensities. Two distinct time scales are evidenced, the behavior of which are the sign of two different photorefractive mechanisms.

Fressengeas, N.; Dan, C.; Wolfersberger, D.

2013-06-01

477

Bending the ferroelectric domain wall by a bubble  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape of the ferroelectric domain wall mainly depends on the lattice structure and the pinning effect of random defects, but can we control it intentionally? Here we present a method to bend the domain wall by a bubble. A submillimeter bubble was put underneath a lithium niobate wafer inside a deionized water electrode to resist the propagation of the

Hao Zeng; Yongfa Kong; Xin Sun; Shaolin Chen; Tongqing Sun; Jingjun Xu

2011-01-01

478

Teaching Cultural Geography with "Bend It like Beckham"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The British film "Bend It Like Beckham" (2002) is pedagogically useful in the cultural geography classroom for engaging students with core concepts, such as ethnicity, migration, acculturation, and assimilation, and with more advanced modes of analysis, such as the social construction of identity. Although the film depicts a particular ethnic…

Algeo, Katie

2007-01-01

479

Bending Waves in Flattened Stellar Systems a Department of Mathematics  

E-print Network

Bending Waves in Flattened Stellar Systems a C. Hunter Department of Mathematics Florida State 5 , and the optical evidence for the occurrence of warps in stellar disks is much less strong wind 11 or an infall of matter 12 , are likely to affect gaseous disks more strongly than stellar disks

Aluffi, Paolo

480

Band bending and electrical transport at chemically modified silicon surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and electrical transport measurements have been used to investigate how various chemical modifications give rise to band bending and alter the conductivity of Si(111) surfaces. HREELS is a sensitive probe of band bending through observations of the low frequency free carrier plasmon mode. For hydrogen terminated surfaces, prepared by the standard etch in ammonium flouride, HREELS measurements on both n and n+ substrates are consistent with nearly flat bands. Chlorination of these surfaces results in substantial upward band bending due to the strong electron withdrawing nature of the chlorine, driving the surface into inversion. The presence of this inversion layer on high resistivity n-type samples is observed through a substantial enhancement of the surface conductivity (relative to the H-terminated surface), as well as through broadening of the quasi-elastic peak in the HREELS measurements. We have also begun to examine organically modified silicon surfaces, prepared by various wet chemical reactions with the H-terminated surface. Decyl modified Si(111) surfaces are seen to exhibit a small degree of band bending, attributed to extrinsic defect states cause by a small degree of oxidation accompanying the modification reaction. The prospects of using conductivity as an in-situ monitor of the rate of these reactions will be discussed.

Lopinski, Greg; Ward, Tim; Hul'Ko, Oleksa; Boukherroub, Rabah

2002-03-01

481

The Clinch Bend Regional Industrial Site and economic development opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This effort focuses initially on the Clinch Bend site. Other sites and developable tracts of land are identified with the assistance of communities in proximity to Oak Ridge, the State of Tennessee, and others, and compared with the projected site requirements for large industrial facilities.

NONE

1995-12-31

482

Arbitrary Bending Plasmonic Light Waves Itai Epstein and Ady Arie*  

E-print Network

Arbitrary Bending Plasmonic Light Waves Itai Epstein and Ady Arie* Department of Physical plasmon beams along arbitrary caustic curvatures. These plasmonic beams are excited by free-space beams through a two-dimensional binary plasmonic phase mask, which provides the missing momentum between the two

Arie, Ady

483

Photoacoustic elastic bending in thin film—Substrate system  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical model for optically excited two-layer elastic plate, which includes plasmaelastic, thermoelastic, and thermodiffusion mechanisms, is given in order to study the dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) elastic bending signal on the optical, thermal, and elastic properties of thin film—substrate system. Thin film-semiconductor sample (in our case Silicon) is modeled by simultaneous analysis of the plasma, thermal, and elastic wave equations. Multireflection effects in thin film are included in theoretical model and analyzed. Relations for the amplitude and phase of electronic and thermal elastic bending in the optically excited two-layer mechanically-supported circular plate are derived. Theoretical analysis of the thermodiffusion, plasmaelastic, and thermoelastic effects in a sample-gas-microphone photoacoustic detection configuration is given. Two normalization procedures of the photoacoustic elastic bending signal in function of the modulation frequency of the optical excitation are established. Given theoretical model can be used for various photoacoustic detection configurations, for example, in the study of optical, thermal, and elastic properties of the dielectric-semiconductor or metal-semiconductor structure, etc., Theoretical analysis shows that it is possible to develop new noncontact and nondestructive experimental method—PA elastic bending method for thin film study, with possibility to obtain the optical, thermal, and elastic parameters of the film thinner than 1 ?m.

Todorovi?, D. M., E-mail: dmtodor@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 33, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Rabasovi?, M. D.; Markushev, D. D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade-Zemun (Serbia)

2013-12-07

484

Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides  

E-print Network

, it suffers from high bending losses due to the relatively weak surface- plasmon-based guiding mechanism [2 mechanisms in visible and near-IR surface plasmon waveguides is very important [13], and a natural connection that occurs in the air gap [14] and is similar to earlier work on surface plasmon coupling across a gap

Mittleman, Daniel

485

Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces  

E-print Network

INSULATION OF PIPE BENDS IMPROVES EFFICIENCY OF HOT OIL FURNACES Douglas M. Haseltine Royce D. Laffitte Senior Engineering Associate Director, Energy Policy and Planning Leader of Tennessee Eastman's Process Energy Efficiency Team Worldwide... Operations Support Eastman Chemical Company Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Thermodynamic analyses of processes indicated low furnace efficiencies on certain hot oil furnaces. Further investigation, which included Infrared (lR) thermography testing...

Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

486

Bending Analysis in AlN-Based Multilayered Piezoelectric Cantilevers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of piezoelectric cantilevers and on the analysis of their bending, due to residual stress, as a function of growth parameters and geometrical features. The multilayered cantilevers consist of two top and bottom Molybdenum metals and an Aluminium nitride piezoelectric layer deposited onto a Polysilicon elastic layer using DC magnetron sputtering. After having

C. Giordano; I. Ingrosso; M. Grande; A. Qualtieri; M. Pugliese; M. T. Todaro; V. Tasco; M. De Vittorio; A. Passaseo

2009-01-01

487

Bed plate for rail bending machine, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bed plate for rail bending machine, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 inches - 1 ft, Jan 30th 1893, drawing number 14929. (Photograph of drawing held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office,Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

488

Basic characteristics of a new flexible pneumatic bending joint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several typical flexible pneumatic actuators (FPA) and different mechanical models describing their behaviors have been proposed, however, it is difficult to balance compliance and load capacity in conventional designs, and these models still have limitations in predicting behavior of FPAs. A new flexible pneumatic bending joint (FPBJ) with special anisotropic rigidity structure is proposed. The FPBJ is developed as an improvement with regard to existing types of FPA, and its principal characteristic is derived from the special anisotropic rigidity structure. With this structure, the load capacity in the direction perpendicular to bending plane is strengthened. The structure of the new FPBJ is explained and a mathematical model is derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam model and Hook's law. To obtain optimum design and usage, some key structure parameters and input-output characteristics are simulated. The simulation results reveal that the relationship between the structure parameters and FPBJ's bending angle is nonlinear. At last, according to the simulation results, the FPBJ is manufactured with optional parameters and tested. The experimental results show that the joint's statics characteristics are reflected by the mathematical model accurately when the FPBJ is deflated. The maximum relative error between simulation and experimental results is less than 6%. However, the model still has limitations. When the joint is inflated, the maximum relative error reaches 20%. This paper proposes a new flexible pneumatic bending joint which has sufficient load capacity and compliance, and the mathematical model provides theoretical guidance for the FPBJ's structure design.

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