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1

Initiation and arrest of an interfacial crack in a four-point bend test  

E-print Network

Initiation and arrest of an interfacial crack in a four-point bend test Zhenyu Huang a , Z. Suo a 29 June 2005 Abstract This paper describes a framework to study the initiation and arrest. The new crack often runs rapidly on the interface for a considerable length, and then arrests. We intro

Huang, Zhenyu

2

Effect of hydrogen on four-point bend tests of U-notched AISI 1090 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U-notched, four-point bend tests of 1090 steel were performed in the, presence or absence of precharged hydrogen. Failure occurred in a mode II manner under mixed mode I II loading, with cracking preceded by plastic instability in the form of surface rumpling and shear localization. The critical strain for surface instability was less in compression than in tension and was reduced by hydrogen, markedly in the tension case and weakly in the compression case. The results are discussed in terms of models for plastic instability and for hydrogen degradation.

Rajan, V. B.; Hirth, J. P.

1987-02-01

3

Compression After Impact Testing of Sandwich Structures Using the Four Point Bend Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many composite laminated structures, the design is driven by data obtained from Compression after Impact (CAI) testing. There currently is no standard for CAI testing of sandwich structures although there is one for solid laminates of a certain thickness and lay-up configuration. Most sandwich CAI testing has followed the basic technique of this standard where the loaded ends are precision machined and placed between two platens and compressed until failure. If little or no damage is present during the compression tests, the loaded ends may need to be potted to prevent end brooming. By putting a sandwich beam in a four point bend configuration, the region between the inner supports is put under a compressive load and a sandwich laminate with damage can be tested in this manner without the need for precision machining. Also, specimens with no damage can be taken to failure so direct comparisons between damaged and undamaged strength can be made. Data is presented that demonstrates the four point bend CAI test and is compared with end loaded compression tests of the same sandwich structure.

Nettles, Alan T.; Gregory, Elizabeth; Jackson, Justin; Kenworthy, Devon

2008-01-01

4

A photoelastic investigation of asymmetric four point bend shear test for composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shear stress fringe value of orthotropic birefringent model materials is presently used in an asymmetric four-point bend test that employs a notched specimen and is a modification of the Iosipescu test (1967). While in the case of a unidirectionally reinforced glass-polyester model material, shear stress fringe values obtained from 90- and 120-deg (sharp and radiused) notches are reasonably close to the values obtained for an off-axis tensile specimen, no conclusions can be drawn on the influence of the notch parameters, due to the peculiarities of the photoelastic response of the inhomogeneous orthotropic model material. The failure modes nevertheless indicate that a notch radius, and the 120-deg notch angle, reduce the stress concentration. Comparisons are made with finite element results.

Prabhakaran, R.; Sawyer, W.

1986-01-01

5

Systematic error in mechanical measures of damage during four-point bending fatigue of cortical bone.  

PubMed

Accumulation of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone specimens is commonly measured by a modulus or stiffness degradation after normalizing tissue heterogeneity by the initial modulus or stiffness of each specimen measured during a preloading step. In the first experiment, the initial specimen modulus defined using linear elastic beam theory (LEBT) was shown to be nonlinearly dependent on the preload level, which subsequently caused systematic error in the amount and rate of damage accumulation measured by the LEBT modulus degradation. Therefore, the secant modulus is recommended for measurements of the initial specimen modulus during preloading. In the second experiment, different measures of mechanical degradation were directly compared and shown to result in widely varying estimates of damage accumulation during fatigue. After loading to 400,000 cycles, the normalized LEBT modulus decreased by 26% and the creep strain ratio decreased by 58%, but the normalized secant modulus experienced no degradation and histology revealed no significant differences in microcrack density. The LEBT modulus was shown to include the combined effect of both elastic (recovered) and creep (accumulated) strain. Therefore, at minimum, both the secant modulus and creep should be measured throughout a test to most accurately indicate damage accumulation and account for different damage mechanisms. Histology revealed indentation of tissue adjacent to roller supports, with significant sub-surface damage beneath large indentations, accounting for 22% of the creep strain on average. The indentation of roller supports resulted in inflated measures of the LEBT modulus degradation and creep. The results of this study suggest that investigations of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone should avoid the use of four-point bending unless no other option is possible. PMID:19394019

Landrigan, Matthew D; Roeder, Ryan K

2009-06-19

6

THREE-DIMENSIONAL CRACK-TIP FIELDS IN FOUR POINT-BENDING COPPER SINGLE-CRYSTAL SPECIMENS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional near-tip fields in copper single crystals loaded in four-point bending are characterized numerically. For comparison purposes, the corresponding plane-strain fields are also computed numerically and their asymptotic behavior determined semi-analytically. On the basis of these analyses, we investigate : (i) the dependence of the fields on the hardening law ; (ii) the degree of correlation between surface and

A. M. CUITIfiO; M. ORTIZ

1996-01-01

7

Modeling of delamination in carbon/epoxy composite laminates under four point bending for damage detection and sensor placement optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminated carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) possess very high specific strength and stiffness and this has accounted for their wide use in structural applications, most especially in the aerospace industry, where the trade-off between weight and strength is critical. Even though they possess much larger strength ratio as compared to metals like aluminum and lithium, damage in the metals mentioned is rather localized. However, CFRPs generate complex damage zones at stress concentration, with damage progression in the form of matrix cracking, delamination and fiber fracture or fiber/matrix de-bonding. This thesis is aimed at performing; stiffness degradation analysis on composite coupons, containing embedded delamination using the Four-Point Bend Test. The Lamb wave-based approach as a structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is used for damage detection in the composite coupons. Tests were carried-out on unidirectional composite coupons, obtained from panels manufactured with pre-existing defect in the form of embedded delamination in a laminate of stacking sequence [06/904/0 6]T. Composite coupons were obtained from panels, fabricated using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), a liquid composite molding (LCM) process. The discontinuity in the laminate structure due to the de-bonding of the middle plies caused by the insertion of a 0.3 mm thick wax, in-between the middle four (4) ninety degree (90°) plies, is detected using lamb waves generated by surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) actuators. From the surface mounted piezoelectric sensors, response for both undamaged (coupon with no defect) and damaged (delaminated coupon) is obtained. A numerical study of the embedded crack propagation in the composite coupon under four-point and three-point bending was carried out using FEM. Model validation was then carried out comparing the numerical results with the experimental. Here, surface-to-surface contact property was used to model the composite coupon under simply supported boundary conditions. Theoretically calculated bending stiffness's and maximum deflection were compared with that of the experimental case and the numerical. After the FEA model was properly benchmarked with test data and exact solution, data obtained from the FEM model were used for sensor placement optimization.

Adu, Stephen Aboagye

8

Mixed-mode fracture of ceramics in asymmetric four-point bending: Effect of crack-face grain interlocking/bridging  

SciTech Connect

The mixed-mode fracture of a large-grain-size alumina ceramic and a soda-lime glass is investigated. These ceramics are tested using straight-through precracked or notched specimens. The straight-through precrack is introduced by the single-edge-precracked beam method. Precracked or notched specimens are subjected to combined mode I/II or pure mode II fracture, under asymmetric four-point bending, and pure mode I fracture, under symmetric four-point bending. A pure mode II fracture is never achieved in the precracked polycrystalline alumina by the crack-face friction inevitably induced by grain interlocking/bridging. The crack-face friction in sliding mode reduces the local mode II stress intensity factor in the crack-tip region and produces a sizable amount of mode I deformation. Accounting for the contribution of the crack-face friction to the crack-tip local stress intensity factors, K{sub I} and K{sub II}, in mixed-mode fracture tests, the experimental results of the K{sub I}/K{sub Ic} versus K{sub II}/K{sub Ic} envelope and the initial angle of noncoplanar crack extension are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the maximum hoop-stress theory.

Li, M.; Sakai, Motosugu [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science

1996-10-01

9

The effect of contact stresses in four-point bend testing of graphite/epoxy and graphite/PMR-15 composite beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model, for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with the increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.

Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.

1992-01-01

10

Four-Point-Latching Microactuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental inchworm-type linear microactuator is depicted. This microactuator is a successor to one described in "MEMS-Based Piezoelectric/Electrostatic Inchworm Actuator" (NPO-30672), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 6 (June 2003), page 68. Both actuators are based on the principle of using a piezoelectric transducer operated in alternation with electrostatically actuated clutches to cause a slider to move in small increments. However, the design of the present actuator incorporates several improvements over that of the previous one. The most readily apparent improvement is in geometry and, consequently, in fabrication: In the previous actuator, the inchworm motion was perpendicular to the broad faces of a flat silicon wafer on which the actuator was fabricated, and fabrication involved complex processes to form complex three-dimensional shapes in and on the wafer. In the present actuator, the inchworm motion is parallel to the broad faces of a wafer on which it is fabricated. The components needed to produce the in-plane motion are nearly planar in character and, consequently, easier to fabricate. Other advantages of the present design are described, including that the previous actuator contained two clutches (denoted 'holders' in the cited prior article), the present actuator contains four clutches. The operational sequence of the previous two-clutch actuator is similar. However, the two-clutch configuration is susceptible to tilt of the slider and a consequent large increase in drag. Hence, the primary operational advantages of the present four-point-latching design over the prior two-point-latching design are less drag and greater control robustness arising from greater stability of the orientation of the slider.

Toda, Risaku; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

2008-01-01

11

Bends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vocabulary, resources, and activities to teach about scuba diving and the effects of water pressure. Includes information on why divers get the bends and air embolisms, their symptoms, and how they are prevented.

12

Methods and apparatus for twist bend coupled (TCB) wind turbine blades  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling a wind turbine having twist bend coupled rotor blades on a rotor mechanically coupled to a generator includes determining a speed of a rotor blade tip of the wind turbine, measuring a current twist distribution and current blade loading, and adjusting a torque of a generator to change the speed of the rotor blade tip to thereby increase an energy capture power coefficient of the wind turbine.

Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; LeMieux, David Lawrence; Pierce, Kirk Gee

2006-10-10

13

Reversal bending fatigue testing  

DOEpatents

Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

2014-10-21

14

Systematic error in mechanical measures of damage during four-point bending fatigue of cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone specimens is commonly measured by a modulus or stiffness degradation after normalizing tissue heterogeneity by the initial modulus or stiffness of each specimen measured during a preloading step. In the first experiment, the initial specimen modulus defined using linear elastic beam theory (LEBT) was shown to be nonlinearly dependent on the preload level,

Matthew D. Landrigan; Ryan K. Roeder

2009-01-01

15

The four-point correlation function of graviton during inflation  

E-print Network

We expand the Einstein-Hilbert action with a positive cosmological constant up to the fourth order in terms of gravity fluctuations, and then use the in-in formalism to calculate the four-point correlation function for gravitational waves, including both contact and exchange diagrams, generated during a period of exactly de Sitter expansion. In addition, we also present the general properties of the $n$-point function of graviton in terms of both circularly and linearly polarized states.

Fu, Tian-Fu

2015-01-01

16

Four-point amplitudes in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ SCQCD  

E-print Network

We compute four-point scattering amplitudes in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ SCQCD with general external matter configurations using $\\mathcal{N}=1$ superspace Feynman diagrams, at one loop in the general case and up to two loops in the fundamental sector. In the pure adjoint sector at one loop we confirm exact agreement with the corresponding amplitudes in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory, supporting the idea that a closed subsector of the SCQCD might be exactly integrable. External matter in the fundamental representation breaks dual conformal invariance already at one loop and also the maximum transcendentality principle at two loops.

Marta Leoni; Andrea Mauri; Alberto Santambrogio

2015-01-21

17

Edge Effects in Four Point Direct Current Potential Drop Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four point direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique is used to measure electrical conductivity and crack depth. It is also used, together with Hall voltage measurements, to evaluate carrier concentration and mobility in semiconductors. Here the theory of DCPD is studied for planar structures in which edge effects may have to be taken into account and correction made to ensure accuracy. The current injected at a point on the surface of an infinite plate of finite thickness gives rise to a field that can be expressed as a summation derived using image theory. Because the images are periodic in the direction perpendicular to the plate surface, the field can also be conveniently expressed in the form of a Fourier series. The two basic formulas; image summation and Fourier series, can be modified for the case where the probe points are near the edge of a plate by further applying image theory and summing image/Fourier terms in two dimensions. Both of these approaches agree with measurement results very well.

Lu, Yi; Bowler, John R.; Zhang, Chongxue; Bowler, Nicola

2009-03-01

18

Restraining Bends and Releasing Bends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use gestures to re-create the motion of fault blocks adjacent to restraining bends and releasing bends. They then answer a few questions about a map view of the San Andreas Fault and two of its bends.

Carol Ormand

19

Young's Modulus of Thermal Barrier Coating and Oxidation Resistant Coating Bonded to Stainless Substrate by Four-Point Bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young's modulus of thermal barrier coating (TBC) is one of the most essential mechanical properties on the designing of high performance TBC system. This paper describes one of the round-robin test results of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization's (NEDO's) project titled ``the survey-research of standardization on testing methods for thermo-mechanical performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings'', for the

Hiroyuki Waki; Hidenori Fujioka; Yoshio Harada; Masakazu Okazaki; Akira Kawasaki

2010-01-01

20

Ratchetting and ratchetting boundary study of pressurized straight low carbon steel pipe under reversed bending  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a quasi-three point bending apparatus, ratchetting and the ratchetting boundary were studied experimentally for a pressurized low carbon steel pipe under reversed bending. The ratchetting strain occurs mainly in the hoop direction. Multi-step bending revealed that the ratchetting rate increases with increasing loading level but reduces or even vanishes at a lower bending level imposed after a higher bending

Bingjun Gao; Xu Chen; Gang Chen

2006-01-01

21

Graviton exchange and complete four-point functions in the AdS\\/CFT correspondence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graviton exchange diagram for the correlation function of arbitrary scalar operators is evaluated in anti-de Sitter space, AdSd+1. This enables us to complete the computation of the four-point amplitudes of dilaton and axion fields in IIB supergravity on AdS5×S5. By the AdS\\/CFT correspondence, we obtain the four-point functions of the marginal operators Tr(F2+…) and Tr(FF?+…) in N=4, d=4 SU(N)

Eric D'Hoker; Daniel Z. Freedman; Samir D. Mathur; Alec Matusis; Leonardo Rastelli

1999-01-01

22

A Note on Four-Point Functions in Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory  

E-print Network

A Note on Four-Point Functions in Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory Michael Flohr,12 Marco Krohn2 invariance alone. 1 Introduction During the last few years, logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT) has been established as a well-defined variety of conformal field theories in two dimensions. The concept

Flohr, Michael

23

Four-point curve subdivision based on iterated chordal and centripetal parameterizations  

E-print Network

Four-point curve subdivision based on iterated chordal and centripetal parameterizations Nira Dyn- per we replace uniform parameter values by chordal and centripetal ones. Since we update are smooth and that the centripetal one is tighter, as suggested by the distance bounds. Similar to cubic

Hormann, Kai

24

Conductivity of individual particles measured by a microscopic four-point-probe method  

PubMed Central

We introduce a technique for measuring the conductivity of individual hybrid metal, semiconducting core-shell and full-metal conducting particles by a microscopic four-point probe (?-4PP) method. The four-point probe geometry allows for minimizing contact resistances between electrodes and particles. By using a focused ion beam we fabricate platinum nanoleads between four microelectrodes on a silicon chip and an individual particle, and determine the particle's conductivity via sensitive current and voltage measurements. Up to sixteen particles can be taken up by each chip, which allows for multiple conductivity measurements by simply multiplexing the electric contacts connected to a multimeter. Although, for demonstration, we used full Au (conducting) and Ag-coated latex particles (semiconducting) of a few micrometers in diameter, the method can be applied to other types of conducting or semiconducting particles of different diameters. PMID:23771149

Sun, Ling; Wang, Jianjun; Bonaccurso, Elmar

2013-01-01

25

On the ABJM four-point amplitude at three loops and BDS exponentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the three-loop four-point amplitude in ABJM theory. We determine the dual conformal invariant integrals with highest number of propagators and fix their coefficients by two-particle cuts. Evaluating such a combination of integrals in dimensional regularization we provide evidence for exponentiation of the amplitude, including the finite terms. In addition we show that the three-loop amplitude can be expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms of uniform degree of transcendentality.

Bianchi, Marco S.; Leoni, Matias

2014-11-01

26

Four-point curve subdivision based on iterated chordal and centripetal parameterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dubuc's interpolatory four-point scheme inserts a new point by fitting a cubic polynomial to neighbouring points over uniformly spaced parameter values. In this paper we replace uniform parameter values by chordal and centripetal ones. Since we update the parameterization at each refinement level, both schemes are non-linear. Because of this data-dependent parameterization, the schemes are only invariant under solid body

Nira Dyn; Michael S. Floater; Kai Hormann

2009-01-01

27

Equivalence of four-point and three-point rainflow cycle counting algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of the rainflow cycle counting algorithm for fatigue damage prediction are shown to be equivalent, namely the three-point algorithm as presented by Bannantine et al. [Bannantine JA, Comer JJ, Handrock JL. Fundamentals of metal fatigue analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1990], and the four-point algorithm as presented by Amzallag et al. [Amzallag C, Gerey JP, Robert JL, Bahuaud

C. H. McInnes; P. A. Meehan

2008-01-01

28

Manifest Ultraviolet Behavior in the Three-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=8 Supergravity  

SciTech Connect

Using the method of maximal cuts, we obtain a form of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude of N = 8 supergravity in which all ultraviolet cancellations are made manifest. The Feynman loop integrals that appear have a graphical representation with only cubic vertices, and numerator factors that are quadratic in the loop momenta, rather than quartic as in the previous form. This quadratic behavior reflects cancellations beyond those required for finiteness, and matches the quadratic behavior of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. By direct integration we confirm that no additional cancellations remain in the N = 8 supergravity amplitude, thus demonstrating that the critical dimension in which the first ultraviolet divergence occurs at three loops is D{sub c} = 6. We also give the values of the three-loop divergences in D = 7, 9, 11. In addition, we present the explicitly color-dressed three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Johansson, H.; /UCLA; Roiban, R.; /Penn State U.

2008-09-03

29

Thermal static bending of deployable interlocked booms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal ribbons processed with a heat-forming treatment are enabled to form tubelike structures when deployed from a roll. Deployable booms of this have been utilized for gravity-gradient stabilization on the RAE, ATS, and Nimbus D satellites. An experimental thermal-mechanics test apparatus was developed to measure the thermal static bending and twist of booms up to 3 meters long. The apparatus was calibrated by using the correlation between calculated and observed thermal bending of a seamless tube. Thermal static bending values of 16 interlocked deployable booms were observed to be within a factor of 2.5 of the values calculated from seamless-tube theory. Out-of-Sun-plane thermal bending was caused by complex heat transfer across the interlocked seam. Significant thermal static twisting was not observed.

Staugaitis, C. L.; Predmore, R. E.

1973-01-01

30

Is Abdominal Muscle Activity Different from Lumbar Muscle Activity during Four-Point Kneeling?  

PubMed Central

Background: Stabilization exercises can improve the performance of trunk and back muscles, which are effective in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The four-point kneeling exercise is one of the most common types of stabilization exercises. This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate and compare the level of activation between abdominal and lumbar muscles in the different stages of the four-point kneeling exercise. Methods: The present study was conducted on 30 healthy women between 20 and 30 years old. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and multifidus muscles with an electromyography (EMG) device during the different stages of the four-point kneeling exercise. All the collected EMG data were normalized to the percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. The repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results: A comparison between mean muscle activation in right arm extension and left leg extension showed that left internal oblique and left transverse abdominis muscles produced greater activation during left leg extension (P<0.05). The comparison of mean muscle activation between right arm extension and the bird-dog position showed that, except for the right internal oblique, all the muscles produced higher activation in the bird-dog stage (P<0.05). In comparison to the bird-dog stage, the left multifidus showed high activation during left leg extension (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the activity of all the above-mentioned muscles during quadruped exercise can provide stability, coordination, and smoothness of movements. PMID:24293787

Pirouzi, Soraya; Emami, Farahnaz; Taghizadeh, Shohreh; Ghanbari, Ali

2013-01-01

31

Conformal partial wave expansions for N=4 chiral four-point functions  

SciTech Connect

The conformal partial wave analysis of four-point functions of 12-BPS operators belonging to the SU(4) [0,p,0] representation is undertaken for p=2,3,4. Using the results of N=4 superconformal Ward identities the contributions from protected short and semi-short multiplets are identified in terms of the free-field theory. In the large N limit, contributions corresponding to long multiplets with twist up to 2p-2 are absent. The anomalous dimensions for twist two singlet multiplets are found to order g{sup 4} and agree with other perturbative calculations. Results for twist four and six are also found.

Dolan, F.A. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: fad20@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Osborn, H. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ho@damtp.cam.ac.uk

2006-03-15

32

Four-point correlator of vector currents and electric current susceptibility in holographic QCD  

E-print Network

In this work we calculate the four-point correlation function of vector quark currents of QCD via holographic QCD model. Computing the correlator we take into account the exchange of vector and axial vector bosons and dilaton in the bulk. The result is used for calculation of the two-point correlator of electromagnetic currents in external magnetic field at zero momentum, related to RHIC experiments, chiral magnetic effect and lattice study. At zero temperature we find this quantity to be loosely connected with chiral symmetry breaking and strongly dependent on the confinement properties. Some features of the AdS/QCD models are also discussed.

Alexander Krikun

2010-03-15

33

On differential equation on four-point correlation function in the Conformal Toda Field Theory  

E-print Network

The properties of completely degenerate fields in the Conformal Toda Field Theory are studied. It is shown that a generic four-point correlation function that contains only one such field does not satisfy ordinary differential equation in contrast to the Liouville Field Theory. Some additional assumptions for other fields are required. Under these assumptions we write such a differential equation and solve it explicitly. We use the fusion properties of the operator algebra to derive a special set of three-point correlation function. The result agrees with the semiclassical calculations.

V. A. Fateev; A. V. Litvinov

2005-05-13

34

Design technology of key bearings for industrial robots Part I: Thin walled four point contact ball bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through analysing working conditions, structure forms, and technical requirements of thin walled four point contact ball bearing used for industrial robot, we propose the design theories and methods of key bearings for industrial robot and summarize the design points of thin walled four point contact ball bearing from the aspects of the optimal design of main parameters, the design of

Xianzhi Zeng; Xintao Xia; Liming Sun; Yuan Chen; Suran Cai

2010-01-01

35

Conformal invariance and the four point scalar correlator in slow-roll inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the four point correlation function for scalar perturbations in the canonical model of slow-roll inflation. We work in the leading slow-roll approximation where the calculation can be done in de Sitter space. Our calculation uses techniques drawn from the AdS/CFT correspondence to find the wave function at late times and then calculate the four point function from it. The answer we get agrees with an earlier result in the literature, obtained using different methods. Our analysis reveals a subtlety with regard to the Ward identities for conformal invariance, which arises in de Sitter space and has no analogue in AdS space. This subtlety arises because in de Sitter space the metric at late times is a genuine degree of freedom, and hence to calculate correlation functions from the wave function of the Universe at late times, one must fix gauge completely. The resulting correlators are then invariant under a conformal transformation accompanied by a compensating coordinate transformation which restores the gauge.

Ghosh, Archisman; Kundu, Nilay; Raju, Suvrat; Trivedi, Sandip P.

2014-07-01

36

Nonequilibrium dynamics of four-point correlations of collective density fluctuations in a supercooled liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the four-point correlation function ?4 of collective density fluctuations in a nonequilibrium liquid. The equilibration is controlled by a modified stretched exponential behavior {exp[-(tw/?)?]} having the relaxation time ? dependent on the aging time tw. Similar aging behavior has been seen experimentally in supercooled liquids. The basic equations of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics are solved here numerically to obtain ?4 for equilibrium and non equilibrium states. We also identify a dynamic length scale ? from the equilibrated function. ? (T) grows with fall of temperature T. From a broader perspective, we demonstrate here that the characteristic signatures of dynamical heterogeneities in a supercooled liquid, observed previously in computer simulations of the dynamics of a small number of particles, are also present in the coarse grained equations of generalized hydrodynamics.

Sen Gupta, Bhaskar; Das, Shankar P.

2014-07-01

37

Dynamics of graphite fiber intercalation: In situ resistivity measurements with a four point probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of ferric chloride intercalation of single graphite fibers were studied, in situ, using a four point dc bridge. Measurements before, during and after the intercalation showed that the intercalation occurred within minutes at 200 C. Changes in fiber resistivity after exposure to air suggested hydration of the graphite intercalation compound. Deintercalation of the ferric chloride was initiated at temperatures in excess of 400 C. cycling the intercalant into and out of the graphite fiber gave no improvements in fiber resistivity. The activation energy of the ferric chloride intercalation reaction was found to be 17 + or - 4 kcal/mol 1 consistent with the concept of a preliminary nucleation step in the intercalation reaction.

Jaworske, D. A.

1984-01-01

38

Experimental method for determination of bending and torsional rigidities of advanced composite laminates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental method for the determination of the bending and torsional rigidities of advanced fiber composite laminates with the aid of laser holographic interferometry. The proposed method consists of a four-point bending test and a resonance test. The bending rigidity ratio (D{sub 12}/D{sub 22}) can be determined from the fringe patterns of the four-point bending test. The bending rigidities (D{sub 11} and D{sub 22}) and the torsional rigidity (D{sub 66}) are calculated from the natural frequencies of cantilever plates of the resonance test. The test specimens are carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates. The adequacy of the experimental method is confirmed by comparing the measured rigidities with the theoretical values obtained from classical lamination theory (CLT) by using the measured tensile properties. The results show that the present method can be used to evaluate the rigidities of orthotropic laminates with reasonably good accuracy.

Maeda, Takenori [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Institute of Engineering Mechanics

1995-11-01

39

Spatially heterogeneous dynamics investigated via a time-dependent four-point density correlation function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxation in supercooled liquids above their glass transition and below the onset temperature of "slow" dynamics involves the correlated motion of neighboring particles. This correlated motion results in the appearance of spatially heterogeneous dynamics or "dynamical heterogeneity." Traditional two-point time-dependent density correlation functions, while providing information about the transient "caging" of particles on cooling, are unable to provide sufficiently detailed information about correlated motion and dynamical heterogeneity. Here, we study a four-point, time-dependent density correlation function g4(r,t) and corresponding "structure factor" S4(q,t) which measure the spatial correlations between the local liquid density at two points in space, each at two different times, and so are sensitive to dynamical heterogeneity. We study g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) via molecular dynamics simulations of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture approaching the mode coupling temperature from above. We find that the correlations between particles measured by g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) become increasingly pronounced on cooling. The corresponding dynamical correlation length ?4(t) extracted from the small-q behavior of S4(q,t) provides an estimate of the range of correlated particle motion. We find that ?4(t) has a maximum as a function of time t, and that the value of the maximum of ?4(t) increases steadily from less than one particle diameter to a value exceeding nine particle diameters in the temperature range approaching the mode coupling temperature from above. At the maximum, ?4(t) and the ? relaxation time ?? are related by a power law. We also examine the individual contributions to g4(r,t), S4(q,t), and ?4(t), as well as the corresponding order parameter Q(t) and generalized susceptibility ?4(t), arising from the self and distinct contributions to Q(t). These contributions elucidate key differences between domains of localized and delocalized particles.

La?evi?, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, T. B.; Glotzer, S. C.

2003-10-01

40

Flexible connection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A flexible connection apparatus is disclosed for accommodating relative movement between a compliant offshore structure and the sea floor. The compliant offshore structure supports a fluid-carrying system which conveys fluids between the sea floor and the structure. The fluid-carrying system includes a riser and a helical flowline. The lower end of the riser is connected to the sea floor. The first end of the helical flowline is connected to the upper end of the riser and the second end of the helical flowline is connected to the structure. As the compliant offshore structure is displaced from its vertical equilibrium position due to loading forces induced by wind, waves, and ocean currents, the helical flowline elastically flexes through torsional deflection to accommodate such movement. In a preferred embodiment of the apparatus, a wellhead is connected between the riser and the helical flowline such that the centerline of the helical flowline is substantially vertical. In yet another embodiment of the apparatus, a bending flowline is connected between a wellhead and the structure with its centerline being substantially horizontal to accommodate movement of the structure through bending deflection rather than by torsional deflection.

Barth, J.R.; Fowler, J.R.; Hitchcock, W.A.; Miller, J.E.

1984-06-26

41

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

42

A Four Point Guidance to Analyse Ethical Issues in Serious Game Development Vivekananda-Schmidt, P1  

E-print Network

A Four Point Guidance to Analyse Ethical Issues in Serious Game Development Vivekananda-Schmidt, P1 of serious games. We demonstrate its application using an example of recording user data during play of a serious game for healthcare trainees. We recommend further testing of this guidance for wider

Romano, Daniela

43

Micromachine friction test apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

44

Electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilization exercises are intended to optimize function of the muscles that are believed to govern trunk stability. Debate\\u000a exists whether certain muscles are more important than others in optimally performing these exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers\\u000a were asked to perform three frequently prescribed stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling. The electromyographic activity\\u000a of different trunk and hip muscles was evaluated. Average amplitudes

Veerle K. Stevens; Andry Vleeming; Katie G. Bouche; Nele N. Mahieu; Guy G. Vanderstraeten; Lieven A. Danneels

2007-01-01

45

Vibration damping method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Barney, Patrick S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parker, Gordon G. (Hougton, MI); Smith, David A. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01

46

Vibration damping method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof. 38 figs.

Redmond, J.M.; Barney, P.S.; Parker, G.G.; Smith, D.A.

1999-06-22

47

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1982-01-01

48

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1976-01-01

49

Carburetion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburetion apparatus is described for a combustion engine including carburetor means for creating a fuel-air mixture, and an intake manifold for receiving the fuel-air mixture, the carburetion apparatus comprising a body having a central passage therethrough, baffles across the central passage, one end of the body receiving the carburetor means and defining an entrance for passage of the fuel-air

Greene

1986-01-01

50

Bending and Torque Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page presents activities related to Bending and Torque from the Science & Engineering in the Lives of Students project. Activities include Foam Bricks, Nut and Bolt Torsion, Skateboarding, and Tennis Serve Bending & Torsion Activity. Each activity includes a detailed description, list of the materials needed, science concepts covered, and reflection questions.

51

Discovering Gee's Bend Quilts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…

Johnson, Ann

2008-01-01

52

Microhole Tubing Bending Report  

DOE Data Explorer

A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

Oglesby, Ken

53

Analysis of Stresses in Aluminum Particles Embedded Inside Unidirectional and Woven Graphite\\/Polyimide Composites Subjected to Large Bending Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of large bending loads on strains and stresses inside aluminum particles embedded in unidirectional and woven eight harness satin (8HS) graphite\\/PMR-15 composites has been examined. The stresses and strains in the particles were determined by performing X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. It has been shown in this work that when the composites are subjected to large four-point bending loads,

B. Benedikt; M. Kumosa; D. Armentrout; L. Kumosa; J. K. SUTTER; P. K. PREDECKI

2004-01-01

54

Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe.  

PubMed

The electrical performance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to insulating surfaces may be compromised by extended defects, including for instance grain boundaries, cracks, wrinkles, and tears. In this study, we experimentally investigate and compare the nano- and microscale electrical continuity of single layer graphene grown on centimeter-sized single crystal copper with that of previously studied graphene films, grown on commercially available copper foil, after transfer to SiO2 surfaces. The electrical continuity of the graphene films is analyzed using two noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 ?m, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows for measurement of the complex conductance response in the frequency range 1-15 terahertz, covering the entire intraband conductance spectrum, and reveals that the conductance response for the graphene grown on single crystalline copper intimately follows the Drude model for a barrier-free conductor. In contrast, the graphene grown on commercial copper foil shows a distinctly non-Drude conductance spectrum that is better described by the Drude-Smith model, which incorporates the effect of preferential carrier backscattering associated with extended, electronic barriers with a typical separation on the order of 100 nm. Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in contrast with those of the graphene grown on commercial copper foil, which we explain by the absence of extended defects on the microscale in CVD graphene grown on single crystalline copper. The presented results demonstrate that the graphene grown on single crystal copper is electrically continuous on the nanoscopic, microscopic, as well as intermediate length scales. PMID:25317778

Buron, Jonas D; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke S; Booth, Timothy J; Nielsen, Peter F; Hansen, Ole; Hilke, Michael; Whiteway, Eric; Jepsen, Peter U; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H

2014-11-12

55

A sharp error probability estimate for the reconstruction of phylogenetic quartets by the four-point method.  

PubMed

Despite the continued development of advanced algorithms for phylogeny reconstruction, the assessment of topological accuracy remains a challenging problem. New tools are needed to assist researchers in the prediction and evaluation of phylogenetic performance, particularly when short alignments are considered. We present a probabilistic analysis of quartet accuracy by the four-point method (FPM) for the Jukes-Cantor model for nucleotide substitution, developing a sharp error estimate as a function of the quartet edge lengths and the number of nucleotide positions available. Our multivariate product (MVP) estimate offers significant improvements over existing bounds and performs well even for short sequence lengths. Results demonstrate that the MVP may be employed in predicting the performance of several popular phylogeny reconstruction methods, and we illustrate a potential application of the MVP to larger datasets using a seven-taxa tree derived from a mitochondrial DNA distance matrix. PMID:19254183

Lacey, Michelle R; Calmes, Jason

2009-03-01

56

Four-point measurements of n- and p-type two-dimensional systems fabricated with cleaved-edge overgrowth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a contact design that allows four-terminal magnetotransport measurements of cleaved-edge overgrown two-dimensional electron and hole systems. By lithographically patterning and etching a bulk-doped surface layer, finger-shaped leads are fabricated, which contact the two-dimensional systems on the cleave facet. Both n- and p-type two-dimensional systems are demonstrated at the cleaved edge, using Si as either donor or acceptor, dependent on the growth conditions. Four-point measurements of both gated and modulation-doped samples yield fractional quantum Hall features for both n and p types, with several higher-order fractions evident in n-type modulation-doped samples.

Grayson, M.; Roth, S. F.; Xiang, Y.; Fischer, F.; Schuh, D.; Bichler, M.

2005-11-01

57

Control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

58

Electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Stabilization exercises are intended to optimize function of the muscles that are believed to govern trunk stability. Debate exists whether certain muscles are more important than others in optimally performing these exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to perform three frequently prescribed stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling. The electromyographic activity of different trunk and hip muscles was evaluated. Average amplitudes obtained during the exercises were normalized to the amplitude in maximal voluntary contraction (% MVIC). During all three exercises, the highest relative muscle activity levels (> 20% MVIC) were consistently found in the ipsilateral lumbar multifidus and gluteus maximus. During both the single leg extension (exercise 1) and the leg and arm extension exercise (exercise 2) the contralateral internal oblique and ipsilateral external oblique reached high levels (> 20%MVIC). During exercise 2 there were also high relative activity levels of the ipsilateral lumbar part and the contralateral thoracic part of the iliocostalis lumborum and the contralateral lumbar multifidus. During the leg and arm extension exercise with contralateral hip flexion (exercise 3) there were high relative muscle activity levels of all back muscles, except for the latissimus dorsi muscle. The lowest relative muscle activity levels (< 10% MVIC) were found in the rectus abdominis and the ipsilateral internal oblique during all exercises, and in the contralateral gluteus maximus during exercises 1 and 2. The results of this study show that in exercises in four-point kneeling performed by healthy subjects, hip and trunk muscles seem to work together in a harmonious way. This shows that when relative activity of muscles is measured, both “global and local” muscles function together in order to stabilize the spine. PMID:16896840

Vleeming, Andry; Bouche, Katie G.; Mahieu, Nele N.; Vanderstraeten, Guy G.; Danneels, Lieven A.

2006-01-01

59

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

60

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

61

Sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-22

62

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

63

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

64

Four-point renormalized coupling constant and Callan-Symanzik beta-function in O(N) models  

E-print Network

We investigate some issues concerning the zero-momentum four-point renormalized coupling constant g in the symmetric phase of O(N) models, and the corresponding Callan-Symanzik beta-function. In the framework of the 1/N expansion we show that the Callan- Symanzik beta-function is non-analytic at its zero, i.e. at the fixed-point value g^* of g. This fact calls for a check of the actual accuracy of the determination of g^* from the resummation of the d=3 perturbative g-expansion, which is usually performed assuming analyticity of the beta-function. Two alternative approaches are exploited. We extend the \\epsilon-expansion of g^* to O(\\epsilon^4). Quite accurate estimates of g^* are then obtained by an analysis exploiting the analytic behavior of g^* as function of d and the known values of g^* for lower-dimensional O(N) models, i.e. for d=2,1,0. Accurate estimates of g^* are also obtained by a reanalysis of the strong-coupling expansion of lattice N-vector models allowing for the leading confluent singularity. The agreement among the g-, \\epsilon-, and strong-coupling expansion results is good for all N. However, at N=0,1, \\epsilon- and strong-coupling expansion favor values of g^* which are sligthly lower than those obtained by the resummation of the g-expansion assuming analyticity in the Callan-Symanzik beta-function.

A. Pelissetto; E. Vicari

1998-01-20

65

Communication disruption of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by using two formulations at four point source densities in vineyards.  

PubMed

Light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)] is now established as an economic and quarantine pest in California, and new technologies are being investigated to increase options for its management. Two new organic formulations for mating disruption, SPLAT LBAM HD-O and organic Hercon Biotie (biodegradable) were field tested at four point source densities (25, 72, 322, and 500/ha) and compared with the standard Isomate LBAM Plus (500/ha, as a positive control) and an untreated (negative) control. Assessment involved trapping using synthetic lures and virgin females. In total, 175,776 male light brown apple moths were caught to both the caged females and synthetic lures, from 10 February to 19 May 2011. The light brown apple moth catch dramatically decreased from baseline measurements after the treatments were applied, with the highest density treatments reducing catch to below 10% of the catch in the untreated controls within the first week (> 90% disruption). In synthetic lure traps, the SPLAT and Biotie treatment performed similarly well over all rates (P = 0.317 for posttreatment percentage communication disruption), but SPLAT performed better at disrupting virgin female traps (P = 0.045). There was a significant increase in disruption with an increasing number of points/ha (P < 0.001). Disruption of communication was similar for all three technologies (SPLAT, Biotie and Isomate) at 500 points/ha for both types of trap (P > 0.74). Disruption of this species in vineyards is thus highly feasible. PMID:23156166

Suckling, David M; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Stringer, Lloyd D; Butler, Ruth C; Campbell, Delyse M; Mosser, Lisa K; Cooperband, Miriam F

2012-10-01

66

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

67

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

1989-07-18

68

Well apparatus  

SciTech Connect

There are disclosed two embodiments of well apparatus each including a well tool adapted to be lowered into and locked within a landing nipple of a well string, together with a running tool adapted to be connected to the well tool for lowering it into locking position and then causing it to be so locked within the nipple, following which the running tool is released from the well tool for retrieval from the well string.

Akkerman, N. H.

1985-06-11

69

Incinerator apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an incinerator apparatus. It comprises: a primary incinerator chamber; a secondary incinerator chamber coupled to the primary incinerator chamber by a passageway; a primary air input into the incinerator chamber; a secondary air input into the secondary incinerator chamber; a plurality of flame detector ports opening into the secondary incinerator chamber and each flame detector port being spaced in a predetermined relationship to each other; and a plurality of ultraviolet flame detectors.

Crawford, J.P.

1992-10-06

70

Hyperthermia apparatus  

DOEpatents

A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

71

Evidence of nitric-oxide-induced surface band bending of indium tin oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of indium tin oxide (ITO) film with nitric oxide (NO) has been investigated in situ by a four-point probe and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS N 1s peak emerged at a high binding energy of 404 eV indicating that NO was molecularly adsorbed on ITO surface. The adsorption of NO on ITO surface also induced a 0.2 eV shift in its valence band maximum to the low binding energy side leading to an upward surface band bending. We have shown that the increase in the ITO sheet resistance was attributed to its surface band bending.

Hu, Jianqiao; Pan, Jisheng; Zhu, Furong; Gong, Hao

2004-06-01

72

Fresh-stem bending of silver fir and Norway spruce.  

PubMed

The bending and growth characteristics of large fresh stems from four silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were studied. Twenty logs taken from different stem heights were subjected to four-point bending tests. From the bending test records, we calculated stress-strain curves, which accounted for detailed log taper, shear deformation and self weight. From these curves we determined, among other parameters, the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the work absorbed in bending (W). No significant differences were found between species for the wood properties examined. Values of MOE, MOR and W generally decreased with stem height, with MOR in the range of 43 to 59 MPa and MOE ranging from 10.6 to 15.6 GPa. These MOE values are twice or more those reported for stems of young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees. Based on the radial growth properties measured in discs from the logs, we calculated predicted values of MOE and MOR for the stem cross section. The predictions of MOE were precise, whereas those of MOR were approximate because of a complex combination of different failure mechanisms. Methods to test and calculate MOE, MOR and W for the stems of living trees are discussed with the aim of improving analyses of tree biomechanics and assessments of forest stability protection. PMID:18171659

Lundström, Tor; Stoffel, Markus; Stöckli, Veronika

2008-03-01

73

Measuring graphene's bending stiffness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene's unusual combination of in-plane strength and out-of-plane flexibility makes it promising for mechanical applications. A key value is the bending stiffness, which microscopic theories and measurements of phonon modes in graphite put at ?0=1.2 eV.^1 However, theories of the effects of thermal fluctuations in 2D membranes predict that the bending stiffness at longer length scales could be orders of magnitude higher.^2,3 This macroscopic value has not been measured. Here we present the first direct measurement of monolayer graphene's bending stiffness, made by mechanically lifting graphene off a surface in a liquid and observing both motion induced by thermal fluctuations and the deflection caused by gravity's effect on added weights. These experiments reveal a value ?eff=12 keV at room temperature --- four orders of magnitude higher than ?0. These results closely match theoretical predictions of the effects of thermally-induced fluctuations which effectively thicken the membrane, dramatically increasing its bending stiffness at macroscopic length scales. [1] A. Fasolino et al., Nat. Mater. (2007) [2] D. R. Nelson and L. Peliti, J Physique (1987) [3] F. L. Braghin and N. Hasselmann, Phys Rev B (2010)

Blees, Melina; Barnard, Arthur; Roberts, Samantha; Kevek, Joshua W.; Ruyack, Alexander; Wardini, Jenna; Ong, Peijie; Zaretski, Aliaksandr; Wang, Siping; McEuen, Paul L.

2013-03-01

74

Fastener apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fastening apparatus is adapted to be inserted and removed from one side of a work piece having an opposite side which is substantially inaccessible to a worker. A first, externally threaded member is threadingly engaged with a receiving structure, and a second member is inserted within corresponding seats or grooves for interlocking the two members. In the preferred embodiment diverting seats are provided for forming the second member into locking engagement between the receiving structure and the first member. In one embodiment, seat structures are provided for engaging frangible panels or the like for high temperature applications.

While, Donald M. (Inventor); Matza, Edward C. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

75

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

76

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

77

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1981-01-01

78

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01

79

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

1992-09-01

80

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23

81

Big Bend National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the National Park Service's homepage for Big Bend National Park. It features links to information on the park's three major environments (mountain, desert, and river) and information on the park's wildlife, geology, and historic and cultural information. The nature and science section has information on the park's animals, plants, ecosystems, and environment. The educational page for teachers includes field trip planning materials, curriculum materials, and professional development information. A kids' page has links to activities, games, and puzzles. There are also links to a photo/multimedia gallery and to news articles.

82

Bend stiffeners for flexible risers  

SciTech Connect

As the offshore hydrocarbon industry advances into deeper waters and more hostile environments, the use of bend stiffeners with flexible riser systems becomes increasingly essential. This paper reviews the state of the art in bend stiffener materials and manufacture. Customized software for the iterative design of bend stiffeners based on an equivalent beam bending model is described and illustrated. Detailed finite element models in two and three-dimensions are used to validate the operation of this software. Excellent correlation is reported between these detailed models and the equivalent beam design approach.

Lane, M.; McNamara, J.F.; Gibson, R.; Tyrer, A.

1995-12-01

83

Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

84

Effects of weld defects at root on rotating bending fatigue strength of small diameter socket welded pipe joints  

SciTech Connect

Rotating bending fatigue tests were conducted on socket welded joints of a nominal diameter 20 mm, and effects of root defect and other various factors, including post-weld heat treatment (PWHT), pipe wall thickness, and socket wall thickness, were investigated. The socket joints exhibited, in the rotating bending fatigue mode, fatigue strengths that were markedly lower than the same 20 mm diameter joints in four-point bending fatigue. Also, where the latter specimens failed always at the toe, root-failures occurred in rotating bending fatigue. When PWHT`d, however, the fatigue strength showed a remarkable improvement, while the failure site reverted to toe. Thicker pipe walls and socket walls gave rise to higher fatigue strength. A formula relating the size of root defects to the fatigue strength reduction has been proposed.

Higuchi, Makoto; Nakagawa, Akira [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Yokohama (Japan). Production Engineering Center; Chujo, Noriyuki [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Div.; Iida, Kunihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Matsuda, Fukuhisa [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Sato, Masanobu [JAPEIC, Tokyo (Japan). Welding Engineering Dept.

1996-12-01

85

Mirror plasma apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mirror plasma apparatus is described which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is

Moir

1978-01-01

86

Mirror plasma apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with

Moir; Ralph W

1981-01-01

87

Sheet Bending using Soft Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most dominant output parameter, the product angle. The numerical analyses are used for the support of the experimental results.

Sinke, J.

2011-05-01

88

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008 Jan1;13(1):E81-4. Fatigue of dentin-composite interfaces Four-point bending evaluation of dentin-composite  

E-print Network

) Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Correspondence: Dr mechanisms (thermal cycling, immersion in 5% NaOCl, or fatigue cycling). Beams of rectangular cross

Ritchie, Robert

89

Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

Krauss, Alan R. (24461 W. Blvd. De John, Naperville, IL 60564)

1999-01-01

90

Passive, achromatic, nearly isochronous bending system  

DOEpatents

A particle beam bending system having a geometry that applies active bending only beyond the chord of the orbit for any momentum component. Using this bending configuration, all momentum components emerge dispersed in position only; all trajectories are parallel by construction. Combining a pair of such bends with reflective symmetry produces a bend cell that is, by construction, achromatic to all orders. By the particular choice of 45.degree. individual bends, a pair of such achromats can be used as the basis of a 180.degree. recirculation arc. Other rational fractions of a full 180.degree. bend serve equally well (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.90.degree./bend.times.1 cell /arc; 2 bends/cell.times.30.degree./bend.times.3 cells/arc, etc), as do combinations of multiple bending numerologies (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.22.5.degree./bend.times.2 cells+2 bends/cell.times.45.degree./bend.times.1 cell). By the choice of entry pole face rotation of the first magnet and exit pole face rotation of the second magnet (with a value to be determined from the particular beam stability requirements imposed by the choice of bending angle and beam properties to be used in any particular application), desirable focusing properties can be introduced and beam stability can be insured.

Douglas, David R.; Yunn, Byung C.

2004-05-18

91

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

92

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis.

Osterman, R.A.; Cox, R.

1991-01-22

93

An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 °C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 °C to 250 °C.

Kallaher, R. L.; Latham, C. A.; Sharifi, F.

2013-01-01

94

An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters  

SciTech Connect

We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 Degree-Sign C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 Degree-Sign C to 250 Degree-Sign C.

Kallaher, R. L.; Latham, C. A.; Sharifi, F. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6204 (United States)

2013-01-15

95

An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters.  

PubMed

We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 °C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 °C to 250 °C. PMID:23387668

Kallaher, R L; Latham, C A; Sharifi, F

2013-01-01

96

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

97

Strain concentrations in pipelines with concrete coating full scale bending tests and analytical calculations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of full scale bending tests on 16 in. and 20 in. diameter, concrete coated pipes with polyethene and asphalt corrosion coatings. Constant moment, four-point bending was applied to a pipe string consisting of one pipe joint welded between two half-length joints. The strain concentration factor (SCF) at the field joints (FJ), expressing the ratio between the strain in the FJ and the average strain for the pipe joint, was investigated and compared to predictions using an analytical model presented in an accompanying paper (Ness and Verley, 1995). Material tests on the pipe steel, the corrosion coating and the concrete were conducted. The analytical model is found to give a good prediction of the strain distribution along the pipe joint, for both the steel and the concrete, and therefore also of the SCF. The sliding of the concrete over the steel is also predicted reasonably well.

Verley, R.; Ness, O.B. [Statoil, Trondheim (Norway)

1995-12-31

98

Determination of Creep Life of Glass Fiber/Phenol Composite Filled with Carbon Nanotubes by Four-Point Flexural Creep Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the result of our existing research, there is a continuing problem that fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composites always break down because of cracks between the laminae for their particular laminated structure. To decrease the probability of cracking between laminae, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which exhibit a high potential as reinforcement for polymers, were used to enhance the interlaminar strength and to obtain an FRP product with a higher longevity. Different mass fractions of CNTs were dispersed in phenol resin and made into FRP composites, with glass cloth serving as a reinforcement material. Subsequently, bending and creep tests revealed that, in certain percentage of cases, the bending strength and lifetime of FRP products were improved by increasing the CNTs mass fraction.

Xu, Anchang; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Bao, Limin; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

2012-01-01

99

Bending rules for animal propulsion.  

PubMed

Animal propulsors such as wings and fins bend during motion and these bending patterns are believed to contribute to the high efficiency of animal movements compared with those of man-made designs. However, efforts to implement flexible designs have been met with contradictory performance results. Consequently, there is no clear understanding of the role played by propulsor flexibility or, more fundamentally, how flexible propulsors should be designed for optimal performance. Here we demonstrate that during steady-state motion by a wide range of animals, from fruit flies to humpback whales, operating in either air or water, natural propulsors bend in similar ways within a highly predictable range of characteristic motions. By providing empirical design criteria derived from natural propulsors that have convergently arrived at a limited design space, these results provide a new framework from which to understand and design flexible propulsors. PMID:24548870

Lucas, Kelsey N; Johnson, Nathan; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Cathcart, Eric; Tirrell, Gregory; Colin, Sean P; Gemmell, Brad J; Dabiri, John O; Costello, John H

2014-01-01

100

Bend effects on fibre Bragg gratings in standard and low bend loss optical fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of relatively small bend diameters on fibre Bragg gratings written in standard and low bend loss fibre have been investigated. Results including Bragg wavelength shifts with bending are reported.

Alexander C. Thompson; William G. A. Brown; Paul R. Stoddart; Scott A. Wade

2010-01-01

101

Compaction managed mirror bend achromat  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

2005-10-18

102

Pellet inspection apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is disclosed for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers

R. H. Sturges; A. Taleff; R. S. Wilks

1982-01-01

103

Pellet inspection apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with

Robert S. Wilks; Alexander Taleff; Sturges Jr. Robert H

1982-01-01

104

Herbert Spencer's Electrical Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT may be of interest to record the fact that the electrical apparatus formerly owned by Herbert Spencer, consisting of a cylinder machine, three Leyden jars, an insulated stand and plates, with other accessories, which include an electrical pistol, is still in existence. One of the smaller pieces of apparatus bears the name G. Adams, London, who was presumably the

Fredk. W. Shurlock

1927-01-01

105

Rotatory apparatus in Bdelloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

All Bdelloid Rotifers have the same body plan: elongated body, ciliated apical region (rotatory apparatus or corona), telescopically retractable foot and head with pseudosegments, paired gonads, single dorsal antenna, apical rostrum, ramate mastax. Bdelloids use the rotatory apparatus for both locomotion and collecting food and therefore the shape of the corona and arrangement of the cilia, both related to the

Giulio Melone; Claudia Ricci

1995-01-01

106

Apparatus for forming boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling apparatus is disclosed adapted for drilling upwardly a deviated hole from a carriage assembly disposed in a cased vertical hole below a target zone of a hydrocarbon bearing formation. The drilling apparatus includes a drill motor assembly having a drill bit driven by a shaft of a drill bit mud pressure driven motor. A weight on bit assembly is

1985-01-01

107

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1993-12-28

108

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1994-01-01

109

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1994-02-15

110

Well tubing handling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well tubing handling apparatus is described useful for running and pulling tubing in a well bore and drilling a well bore including a main frame assembly, a pulling and snubbing assembly, a ladder assembly, and a work platform assembly. The apparatus is quickly assembled and torn down. The main frame assembly includes a base, telescoping non-load bearing guide tubes, a

P. S. Sizer

1981-01-01

111

Apparatus for treating garbage  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for treating garbage is described. The apparatus has a conveyor, a continuous incinerator receiving garbage from the conveyor, a device for cooling ash carried out of the continuous incinerator, a device for filtering the ash, a pipe for inducing exhaust from the continuous incinerator to a water tank for removing particles and water-soluble components from the exhaust. 1 fig.

Chen, C.L.; Chen, K.; Hsien, K.

1994-01-11

112

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20

113

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

114

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specification and drawings disclose an apparatus for collecting incident solar radiation and using it to heat a fluid such as air. The disclosed apparatus comprises a housing having a generally triangular cross-section which defines an upwardly facing chamber having its open upper end closed by a sheet of solar transmissive plastic material. Positioned within the chamber, generally at the

1978-01-01

115

Least Squares Best Fit Method for the Three Parameter Weibull Distribution: Analysis of Tensile and Bend Specimens with Volume or Surface Flaw Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Material characterization parameters obtained from naturally flawed specimens are necessary for reliability evaluation of non-deterministic advanced ceramic structural components. The least squares best fit method is applied to the three parameter uniaxial Weibull model to obtain the material parameters from experimental tests on volume or surface flawed specimens subjected to pure tension, pure bending, four point or three point loading. Several illustrative example problems are provided.

Gross, Bernard

1996-01-01

116

Controlled Bending of Aluminium Extrusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a control circuit for a stretch bending process of aluminium extrusions. The control strategy is derived from an analytical model which accounts for the process parameters allows the calculation of springback. The first component of the control circuit is the definition of suitable target and control values, for the later of which tensile stresses have been qualified.

M. Geiger; A. Sprenger

1998-01-01

117

Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending

Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.

118

The correlation function for density perturbations in an expanding universe. III The three-point and predictions of the four-point and higher order correlation functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher-order correlation functions for the large-scale distribution of galaxies in space are investigated. It is demonstrated that the three-point correlation function observed by Peebles and Groth (1975) is not consistent with a distribution of perturbations that at present are randomly distributed in space. The two-point correlation function is shown to be independent of how the perturbations are distributed spatially, and a model of clustered perturbations is developed which incorporates a nonuniform perturbation distribution and which explains the three-point correlation function. A model with hierarchical perturbations incorporating the same nonuniform distribution is also constructed; it is found that this model also explains the three-point correlation function, but predicts different results for the four-point and higher-order correlation functions than does the model with clustered perturbations. It is suggested that the model of hierarchical perturbations might be explained by the single assumption of having density fluctuations or discrete objects all of the same mass randomly placed at some initial epoch.

Mcclelland, J.; Silk, J.

1978-01-01

119

Conduit grinding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

1991-01-01

120

Air modulation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (inventors)

1983-01-01

121

Pipe crawler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

Hovis, Gregory L. (North Augusta, SC); Erickson, Scott A. (Augusta, GA); Blackmon, Bruce L. (Aiken, SC)

2002-01-01

122

Mirror plasma apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

123

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A new automatable cleaning apparatus which makes use of a method of very thoroughly and quickly cleaning a gauze electrode used in chemical analyses is given. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg. plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml. of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, Darryl D. (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01

124

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

125

Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with-the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

Miller, Samuel Lee; McWhorter, Paul Jackson; Rodgers, Murray Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Barnes, Stephen M.

2004-07-06

126

Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

Miller, Samuel Lee (Albuquerque, NM); McWhorter, Paul Jackson (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, Murray Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Edgewood, NM); Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08

127

Improved Method Of Bending Concentric Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for bending two concentric pipes simultaneously while maintaining void between them replaces present tedious, messy, and labor-intensive method. Array of rubber tubes inserted in gap between concentric pipes. Tubes then inflated with relatively incompressible liquid to fill gap. Enables bending to be done faster and more cleanly, and amenable to automation of significant portion of bending process on computer numerically controlled (CNC) tube-bending machinery.

Schroeder, James E.

1995-01-01

128

Bending behavior of Functionally Gradient Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years the suitability of Functionally Gradient Materials (FGM) for monolithic bending actuators was shown. However, there is a lack of detailed models for the bending behavior of FGM. Recently we have developed a analytical model for the calculation of the bending behavior of FGM with an arbitrary gradient of piezoelectric properties. From the modeling it seems to

Tilo Hauke; Azamat Kouvatov; Ralf Steinhausen; Wolfgang Seifert; Horst Beige; Hans Theo; Langhammer; Hans-Peter Abicht

2000-01-01

129

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration to initiate discussion about electrostatic effects. Also describes and evaluates a Magnetic Bubble Apparatus, a device which exhibits several phenomena related to magnetic domain formation. Includes manufacturer's response to the evaluation. (JN)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1982-01-01

130

Apparatus for forming boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Drilling apparatus is disclosed adapted for drilling upwardly a deviated hole from a carriage assembly disposed in a cased vertical hole below a target zone of a hydrocarbon bearing formation. The drilling apparatus includes a drill motor assembly having a drill bit driven by a shaft of a drill bit mud pressure driven motor. A weight on bit assembly is provided below the drill bit motor for imparting ''weight-on-bit'' drilling force to the drilling bit against the face of the borehole. The weight on bit assembly includes an anti-rotation assembly for preventing rotation of the drill bit motor with respect to the borehole and an axial drive assembly for applying axial force to the drill bit. Apparatus is provided to reverse the direction of the axial force generated by the weight on bit assembly. Apparatus is also provided to limit the axial force applied to the drill bit to a predetermined level.

Burton, J. A.

1985-11-26

131

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Dr. Charles Ward

132

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

133

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes apparatus utilized to demonstrate physics principle. Equipment described includes a low pressure chamber, a 360 degree loop ramp, a tilted table demonstrating motion principles, and a method for casting a three dimensional display of magnetic lines of force. (SL)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1977-01-01

134

NMR logging apparatus  

DOEpatents

Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

2014-05-27

135

Riser position indication apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a Riser Position Indication Apparatus for disposition between an offshore vessel and a riser, the riser being moveable with respect to the offshore vessel. The riser position indication apparatus comprises: vessel connection means operatively engaged with the vessel to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the vessel, riser connection means operatively engaged with the riser to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the riser, flexible weight means having one end connected to one of the connection means and the other end operatively engaged with the other of the connection means, weight signal transmitter means associated with at least one end of the flexible weight means and operative to produce a continuous output signal which varies as a function of the weight of the weight means suspended from one end of the connection means.

Moore, B.B.

1986-09-23

136

Gas turbine sealing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

2013-03-05

137

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates the Tel-X-Ometer, its performance, and its accessories. The apparatus, with its low intensity x-ray beam, is specifically designed to make x-ray experiments safe, practical, and affordable for the students. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

138

An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

Andrews, I. M.

1975-01-01

139

Fiber pulling apparatus modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Four flights have been completed to date during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated zero, high, and lunar gravity environments. In addition simulated lunar soil samples were tested for their fiber producing properties using the FPA.

Smith, Guy A.; Workman, Gary L.

1992-01-01

140

Vacuum pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

141

Spin coating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

142

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

143

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

144

Downhole mobility and propulsion apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus which comprises an upper sub for connectable engagement with the wire line, a microprocessor component for directing the various functions of the overall apparatus down hole; a motor section having a plurality of thrust directional motors and ball screw assembly for movement of steering gates; a motor driven impellar means for providing thrust and flow through a portion of the apparatus and in combination with the flow gates providing steering in a certain direction; an electric transducer portion for providing ultrasonic vibrations around the circumference of the apparatus in discongealing molecular substrate adjacent the apparatus; a mechanical vibration coil assembly means on the lower end of the apparatus for discongealing larger areas of congealing in a substrate around the apparatus, and a lower sub for connectably engaging the electrical logging unit to be steered down hole. The apparatus may also comprise on either end a thrust explosive sub for explosively dislodging the apparatus in the event of lodging occuring down hole.

Traver, J. L.; Hughes, R.; Palmer, C. D.

1985-04-09

145

Polarization Imaging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

2010-01-01

146

The Nature of Magnetohydrodynamic Fluctuations in the Solar Wind as Determined from Four-Point Measurements of Magnetic Field and (Electron) Plasma Velocity on Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of the Cluster mission is to use large spacecraft separations (? 10,000 km) to examine the three-dimensional structure of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind. Pioneering work using the magnetometer data has been done in recent years. Analyses have included use of k-filtering or wave telescope, and correlation techniques (e.g., see, Glassmeier et al., 2001; Sahraoui et al., 2003; Matthaeus et al., 2005). The plasma properties of these fluctuations have not been examined due primarily to the lack of four-point measurements of the plasma velocity. We have examined the possibility of using velocity moments computed from high-resolution three-dimensional distribution functions obtained during burst mode from the PEACE experiment on all four Cluster spacecraft. Preliminary analysis suggests that for fluctuations with periods below about 10 sec, spectra of Elsässer variables have spectral indices close to the Kolmogorov value of -5/3 seen in fluid turbulence and known to be characteristic of solar wind turbulence when proton velocities are used. The spectra using PEACE data compare well with spectra for the same time intervals computed using proton velocity moments from the CIS experiment on C1. For some intervals, the PEACE spectra show the presence of highly compressible waves in the Earth's foreshock with periods of ? 30 sec. We will report on progress using multi-spacecraft techniques (e.g., the wave telescope) to identify the wave modes present at times when the spacecraft are in the solar wind at separations as large as 10,000 km. Glassmeier, K. H. et al. (2001), Cluster as a wave telescope--first results from the fluxgate magnetometer, Ann. Geophys., 19, 1439-1447. Sahraoui, F. et al. (2003), Ulf wave identification in the magnetosheath: K-filtering technique applied to Cluster II data, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1335. Matthaeus, W. H. et al. (2005), Spatial correlation of solar-wind turbulence from two-point measurements, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95.

Goldstein, M. L.; Fazakerley, A.; Narita, Y.; Parks, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Glassmeier, K.; Le, G.

2006-12-01

147

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

148

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

149

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D.

1992-12-01

150

Thermal energy test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

Audet, N. F.

1991-10-01

151

Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

Olson, Kenneth W. (Ames, IA); Haas, Jr., William J. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

1978-08-29

152

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

153

Incompleteness of measurement apparatuses  

E-print Network

A complete apparatus is defined as reacting to every state of the measured system. Standard quantum mechanics of indistinguishable particles is shown to imply that apparatuses must be incomplete or else they would be drowned out by noise. Each quantum observable is then an abstract representation of many measurement apparatuses. Moreover, the measured systems must be prepared in a state that is sufficiently different from the states of particles in the environment. This is the main purpose of preparations. A system so prepared was said to have a "separation status". A new, more satisfactory definition of separations status is given than that proposed in previous papers. Conditions are specified under which the particles in the environment may be ignored as is usually done in the theory of measurement.

Petr Hajicek

2014-11-20

154

A preliminary study of bending stiffness alteration in shape changing nitinol plates for fracture fixation.  

PubMed

Nitinol is a promising biomaterial based on its remarkable shape changing capacity, biocompatibility, and resilient mechanical properties. Until now, very limited applications have been tested for the use of Nitinol plates for fracture fixation in orthopaedics. Newly designed fracture-fixation plates are tested by four-point bending to examine a change in equivalent bending stiffness before and after shape transformation. The goal of stiffness alterable bone plates is to optimize the healing process during osteosynthesis in situ that is customized in time of onset, percent change as well as being performed non-invasively for the patient. The equivalent bending stiffness in plates of varying thicknesses changed before and after shape transformation in the range of 24-73% (p values <0.05 for all tests). Tests on a Nitinol plate of 3.0 mm increased in stiffness from 0.81 to 0.98 Nm² (corresponding standard deviation 0.08 and 0.05) and shared a good correlation to results from numerical calculation. The stiffness of the tested fracture-fixation plates can be altered in a consistent matter that would be predicted by determining the change of the cross-sectional area moment of inertia. PMID:21286815

Olender, Gavin; Pfeifer, Ronny; Müller, Christian W; Gösling, Thomas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Hurschler, Christof

2011-05-01

155

Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

1993-01-01

156

Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

157

Image-intensifier apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An image intensifier apparatus which comprises an image intensifier for converting incoming radiation into light rays on an input fluorescent screen, further converting said light rays into electron beams on a photocathode, focusing said light rays by an electron lens system and converting said focused light rays into the visible form by an output screen; and a housing which receives the image intensifier and whose inner side wall is fitted with a radiation leakage-preventing layer and first magnetism shielding layer, and wherein second magnetism-shielding layer having a high radiation permeability is formed on any of those portions of the image intensifier apparatus into which radiation is carried.

Harao, N.

1981-01-13

158

Fissile solution measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

1984-06-11

159

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "no-cost" apparatus designed to demonstrate rotational inertia. Also describes and evaluates a microprocessor-based instrument (Versatile Laboratory Aid) that performs a large variety of timing and data acquisition tasks encountered in introductory and advanced physics laboratories. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1984-01-01

160

Floating layer recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for recovery of a layer of a first underground liquid floating on a second underground liquid in a well. It comprises: first float means disposed in the well in the first liquid, the float means having an effective buoyancy such that it floats in the first liquid; second float means disposed in the well in

K. Newcomer; S. Richter

1991-01-01

161

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for processing municipal waste, the waste including ferrous materials, nonferrous noncombustible materials and combustible materials. It comprises: means for crushing most of the nonferrous noncombustible waste materials into noncombustible pieces which are smaller than a first size in which no dimension is greater than a selected length, and crushing most of the combustible materials into

Mayberry

1988-01-01

162

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks,

Mayberry

1988-01-01

163

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for processing municipal waste, the waste including ferrous materials, nonferrous noncombustible materials and combustible materials comprising: means for crushing most of the nonferrous noncombustible waste materials into noncombustible pieces which are smaller than a first size in which no dimension is greater than a selected length, and crushing most of the combustible materials into combustible

Mayberry

1988-01-01

164

Mud separator valve apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic cleaning system is provided for a mud separator apparatus. Water and mud inputs to a mud pump feeding the separator are respectively controlled by two butterfly valves ganged for cooperation, and operated by a single valve actuator motor. When the mud separator is shut off, a time delay relay is actuated which keeps the mud separator rotor motor

1981-01-01

165

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: how to measure index of refraction by the thickness method; how to teach the concept of torque using a torque wrench; how to produce a real image with a concave mirror; how to eliminate the interface effects of a Pyrex containers; and an apparatus to illustrate Bernoulli's Principle. (MLH)

Gottlieb, Herbert H.

1977-01-01

166

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes these tools for physics teaching: (1) stick with calibrations for measuring student reaction time; (2) compact high-pressure sodium lamps used to demonstrate spectra; (3) air pumps for fish tanks providing simple inexpensive motors; (4) a rotating manometer for measuring centripetal force; and (5) an apparatus for checking conservation…

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae

1985-01-01

167

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

168

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1985-06-19

169

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

170

Mobile lighting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

2013-05-14

171

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1985-01-01

172

Carburetion type burning apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburetion type burning apparatus is described which comprises a needle for opening and closing a nozzle orifice, a carburetion chamber, a fuel tank for receiving fuel, a pump for feeding the fuel to the carburetion chamber from the fuel tank, a heater element for vaporizing the fuel. The nozzle orifice receives the vaporized fuel from the carburetion chamber. The

Kasada

1987-01-01

173

Carburetion type burning apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carburetion type burning apparatus is described having a carburetion chamber for evaporating liquid fuel which comprises a timer for counting time from the initiation of burning operation. An ion current detecting device is positioned in the flames for measuring an ion current in the flames (if) at the time after a predetermined time counted by the timer in which

Kasada

1987-01-01

174

Apparatus for obstacle traversion  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for traversing obstacles having an elongated, round, flexible body that includes a plurality of drive track assemblies. The plurality of drive track assemblies cooperate to provide forward propulsion wherever a propulsion member is in contact with any feature of the environment, regardless of how many or which ones of the plurality of drive track assemblies make contact with such environmental feature.

Borenstein, Johann

2004-08-10

175

Pneumatic clutch apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pneumatic clutch apparatus is described comprising: a pneumatic clutch disposed at the rear of a transmission and including a pneumatic actuator for engaging and disengaging the clutch, a rotary passage adapted to rotate together with the clutch and connected to the actuator; a stationary passage stationary with respect to the clutch and connected to a pneumatic pressure control mechanism

Kamio

1987-01-01

176

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

177

Apparatus for directional solidification  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description of the cosntruction of an apparatus for the directional solidification of materials under controlled conditions is given. The use of a ball screw, block clamps, and computer driven stepping motor has essentially eliminated adverse frictional and alignment effects of previous designs. The computer interfacing and programming is described.

Mason, J.T.

1982-11-01

178

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

SciTech Connect

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07

179

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

180

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus for plotting electric fields using burglar alarm window tape for electrodes and carbonized electronic stencil paper as sheet resistance. Also describes a simple pentode modulator circuit which will modulate a typical helium-neon gas laser, providing an audio channel for demonstration purposes. (SK)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

181

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

182

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) the construction of a variable-volume resonator and Raleigh-disk resonance detector from simple materials; and (2) a learning aid for performing 60 experiments in basic electricity and electronics (consisting of a circuit board, components, and mask sheets). Illustrative experiments are included for both apparatus. (DH)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1985-01-01

183

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

184

Sound attenuation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is disclosed for reducing acoustic transmission from mechanical or acoustic sources by means of a double wall partition, within which an acoustic pressure field is generated by at least one secondary acoustic source. The secondary acoustic source is advantageously placed within the partition, around its edges, or it may be an integral part of a wall of the partition.

Shepherd, Kevin P. (inventor); Grosveld, Ferdinand M. W. A. (inventor)

1991-01-01

185

Holographic Animation Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

Johnston, Sean F.

1979-01-01

186

Exhaust gas recirculating apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design is given of apparatus associated with an engine on a motor vehicle for either stopping the recirculation of exhaust gas through the engine completely or allowing it at a controlled rate, depending upon the operating condition of the engine. A regulating valve provided with a pair of diaphragms is installed in the exhaust gas recirculating circuit, and a

H. Nohira; K. Kobashi

1975-01-01

187

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

188

Solar energy conversion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy conversion apparatus is disclosed including a housing portion, an energy absorbing portion, a fluid directing portion and a cover portion; the housing portion including a molded plastic pan member including a base section with upwardly extending spaced spacer sections, the pan member including outwardly inclined sidewall sections having spaced inner and outer wall sections with a top section

1983-01-01

189

Solar energy conversion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy conversion apparatus including a housing portion, an energy absorbing portion, a fluid directing portion and a cover portion; the housing portion including a molded plastic pan member including a base section with upwardly extending spaced spacer sections, insulation covering the exposed surface of the base section to a depth less than the height of the spacer sections; the

1983-01-01

190

Automatic transmission apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed

Hiketa

1987-01-01

191

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standing transverse waves in homogeneous strings have been demonstrated in lectures and used in experiments (called Melde's experiment). A variation to this experiment is discussed. Also discusses the use of the speed-of-sound resonance-tube apparatus to clean mercury. (Author/JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1983-01-01

192

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This section presents new ideas with regard to apparatus for teaching physics. The following four ideas are presented: (1) measuring speed of light (2) a poor man's barometer, (3) center of mass of a rotating object, and (4) minimizing glass breakage. (HM)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

193

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the apparatus setup, experimental method, necessary formulas, and references for three measurement experiments: (1) "Determine the Magnetic Induction of a Coil with a Hall Element"; (2) "Measuring Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field of Small Permanent Magnets"; and (3) "Measurements of Sound Velocity by Means of PZT" (piezoelectric…

Connolly, Walter, Ed.

1990-01-01

194

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30

195

The influence of external bending moments on the lifetime of bends in hot reheat pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of various factors (the initial pipe cross section ovality and external bending moments) on the lifetime of bends used in high-temperature pipelines is estimated using the techniques of continuum damage mechanics of metal. The investigation was carried out for two typical bends used in hot reheat pipelines. To this end, the bend lifetime was numerically analyzed taking into account the accumulated extent of damage based on the results of finite-element computations in geometrically nonlinear statement.

Kireev, O. B.; Saikova, M. S.; Danyushevskii, I. A.

2013-01-01

196

Multilevel light bending in nanoplasmonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoplasmonic optical interconnects is proposed to mitigate challenges facing electronics integration. It provides fast and miniaturized data channel that overcome the diffraction limit. We present a three dimensional plasmonic coupler that vertically bends the light to multilevel circuit configurations. It exploits light guiding in nanoscale plasmonic slot waveguides (PSWs). A triangularly-shaped plasmonic slot waveguide rotator is introduced to attain such coupling with good efficiency over a wide bandwidth. Using this approach, light propagating in a horizontal direction is easily converted and coupled to propagate in the vertical direction and vice versa. The proposed configuration is further extended to the design of a multilayer power divider/combiner with ultra-compact footprint that guides the light to multiple channels. A detailed study of the triangular rotator is demonstrated with the analysis of multiple configurations. This structure is suitable for efficient coupling and splitting in multilevel nano circuit environment.

El Sherif, Mohamed H.; Ahmed, Osman S.; Bakr, Mohamed H.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

2014-03-01

197

Study of concrete's behavior under 4-point bending load using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) is an ultrasonic NDT method suitable for complex material such as concrete that can precisely measure small propagation velocity variation (10-2%). By measuring variation of propagation velocity in concrete caused by acoustoelasticity phenomena, CWI analysis can be used to monitor concrete's internal stress level. For the first time, CWI is used to measure propagation velocity variations due to a stress field in a concrete beam under four-points bending test, which contains simultaneously compressive and tensile stress. Embedded optical-fiber sensors, strain gauges are used in the experiment, in order to confirm and validate the CWI analysis result. Thermocouples are also embedded into concrete beams for monitoring internal temperature fluctuations.

Zhang, Y.; Abraham, O.; Chapeleau, X.; Cottineau, L.-M.; Tournat, V.; Le Duff, A.; Lascoup, B.; Durand, O.

2013-01-01

198

Big Bend National Park Virtual Field Trip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Big Bend National Park Virtual Field Trip is a guide to the features and geological history of the Big Bend National Park area through the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras. The site explains igneous (intrusive, extrusive, and pyroclastic), sedimentary (erosional and depositional), metamorphic and structural processes. There is also a virtual hike of the Lost Mine Trail.

Cain Neal

199

Gravitational Bending of Light with Frequency Shifts  

E-print Network

Non-static gravitational fields generally introduce frequency shifts when bending light. In this paper, I discuss the frequency shifts induced in the bending of light by moving masses. As examples, I treat the recently discovered high-velocity pulsar PSR 2224+65 and a typical Einstein ring.

P. D. Morley

1993-11-15

200

46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or...result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by...method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and...screwed plug extending outside the pipe covering. The...

2010-10-01

201

Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

Colozza, Anthony

2010-01-01

202

Bending of light in conformal Weyl gravity  

SciTech Connect

We reexamine the bending of light issue associated with the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution of Weyl gravity discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas (1989). To this end we employ the procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background. In earlier studies the term {gamma}r in the metric led to the paradoxical result of a bending angle proportional to the photon impact parameter, when using the usual formalism appropriate to asymptotically flat space-times. However, employing the approach of light bending of Rindler and Ishak we show that the effects of this term are in fact insignificant, with the discrepancy between the two procedures attributed to the definition of the bending angle between the asymptotically flat and nonflat spaces.

Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States) and Department of Mathematics, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

2010-06-15

203

Flagellar Bend Dynamics in African Trypanosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flagellated protozoa are highly dependent on flagellar dynamics for environmental sensing, reproduction, cell morphology, and disease progression. Functional and structural nuances amongst the different flagellated cells create the need to quantify the flagellar dynamics in each organism. In the African trypanosomes, specialized cellular and flagellar architecture sutures the flagellum to the cell body along its length, which results in a unique auger-like cell motility. In this paper, we provide a quantitative description of flagellar bends in procyclic Trypanosoma brucei. We used digital video microscopy to describe the geometry and dynamics of trypanosome flagellar bends. We present a formula that demonstrates trypanosome flagellar bends have a conserved and predictable shape that is related to conic functions. We also investigate the local dynamics of individual flagellar bends and show that trypanosome flagellar bends can dilate, constrict, and travel bidirectionally along the flagellum. The implications of this data in modeling trypanosome cell motility are discussed.

Hutchings, Nathan R.; Ludu, Andrei

2005-03-01

204

Thermal protection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

205

Thermal protection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. A plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1988-01-26

206

Throttle valve controlling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for controlling an open degree of a throttle valve fixed to a throttle valve shaft for swing movement around an axis of the throttle valve shaft so as to control an air-fuel mixture flow to be supplied to an engine. The apparatus consists of: a motor including a rotor portion which is associated with the throttle valve shaft to swing the throttle valve; means for detecting an amount of swing movement of the throttle valve and for producing a signal corresponding to the opening degree of the throttle valve; a control unit for receiving and judging the signal from the detecting means and for outputting a command to the motor so as to swing the throttle valve in a desired opening degree; a one piece throttle valve shaft on which the throttle valve and the rotor portion of the motor are separately disposed; and wherein the rotor portion and the one piece shaft are molded together.

Ejiri, Y.; Kamifuji, H.

1986-07-22

207

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

Brandt, D.

1985-12-31

208

Microscope collision protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-10-23

209

Speed control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a speed control apparatus for an automobile having an automatic transmission and a throttle. The apparatus comprising: automatic transmission control means for controlling the operation of the automatic transmission such that the automatic transmission shifts gears depending on the vehicle speed or the engine speed and also on the engine load or the throttle opening; cruise control means for controlling the throttle opening to maintain the vehicle speed at a speed set by the driver; and determining and inhibiting means for determining the present driving force of the automatic transmission in accordance with the present engine speed, throttle opening and transmission gear, for determining a subsequent driving force of the automatic transmission when the automatic transmission control means controls the automatic transmission to upshift to a different transmission gear, and for inhibiting the upshift of the automatic transmission by the automatic transmission control means only if the determined subsequent driving force is less than the determined present driving force.

Kawata, S.; Miyake, O.; Suzumura, N.

1989-07-04

210

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

211

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

212

Ultrasonic diagnosing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An ultrasonic diagnosing apparatus displays a modified c-mode image of the target of an object to be diagnosed by mechanically moving an ultrasonic probe around the target portion while electronically driving the probe to scan the target. The ultrasonic diagnosing apparatus comprises a circuit for setting a desired cross-section to be diagnosed in the b-mode image of the target while observing said b-mode image, a memory for storing the data of the cross-section set by the cross-section setting circuit, a function generator for converting the position data into a function signal for controlling the scanning of the target and the processing of an ultrasonic echo signal reflected therefrom, a signal processing device for processing the ultrasonic echo signal under control of the function signal, and a display means for displaying a modified c-mode image of the target.

Uranishi, M.

1980-12-23

213

Fast shutter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

Zimmermann, E.L.; Kania, D.R.

1984-06-27

214

Fast shutter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

Zimmermann, Eugene L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kania, Don R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

215

Gas turbine sealing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

2013-02-19

216

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, D.

1984-06-05

217

Bending stiffness of lipid bilayers. I. Bilayer couple or single-layer bending?  

PubMed Central

To describe the resistance of a bilayer to changes in curvature two mechanisms are distinguished which are termed bilayer couple bending and single-layer bending. In bilayer couple bending, the resistance arises from the 2-D isotropic elasticity of the two layers and their fixed distance. Single-layer bending covers the intrinsic bending stiffness of each monolayer. The two mechanisms are not independent. Even so, the distinction is useful since bilayer couple bending can relax by a slip between the layers from the local to the global fashion. Therefore, the bending stiffness of a bilayer depends on the time scale and on the extent of the deformation imposed on the membrane. Based on experimental data, it is shown by order of magnitude estimates that (a) the bending stiffness determined from thermally induced shape fluctuations of almost spherical vesicles is dominated by single-layer bending; (b) in the tether experiment on lipid vesicles and on red cells, a contribution of local bilayer couple bending can not be excluded; and (c) at the sharp corners at the leading and the trailing edge of tanktreading red cells, local bilayer couple bending appears to be important. PMID:1477282

Fischer, T M

1992-01-01

218

Polarized internal target apparatus  

DOEpatents

A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

Holt, Roy J. (Downers Grove, IL)

1986-01-01

219

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

220

Pollution control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pollution control apparatus for a motor vehicle having an engine discharging exhaust gases into a muffler and out through a tail pipe. It comprises: means to spray water into the exhaust gases into produce a mist of water droplets containing dissolved and entrained pollutants in the exhaust gases and connected to the muffler, means to separate the water droplets from the exhaust gas mist and pass cleaned exhaust gases from the muffler and out through the tail pipe.

McVorvey, A.F.

1992-06-16

221

Hollow cathode apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hollow cathode apparatus is described, which can be rapidly and reliably started. An ignitor positioned upstream from the hollow cathode, generates a puff of plasma that flows with the primary gas to be ionized through the cathode. The plasma puff creates a high voltage breakdown between the downstream end of the cathode and a keeper electrode, to heat the cathode to an electron-emitting temperature.

Aston, G. (inventor)

1984-01-01

222

Liquid sheet radiator apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An external flow, liquid sheet radiator apparatus adapted for space applications has as its radiating surface a thin stable liquid sheet formed by fluid flow through a very narrow slit affixed to the sheet generator. As a result of surface tension forces, the sheet has a triangular shape and is collected into a simply designed collector positioned at the apex of the triangle. The specific power for the liquid sheet is virtually the same as the droplet sheet specific power.

Chubb, Donald L. (inventor)

1990-01-01

223

Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

1991-01-01

224

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

225

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum. 16 figs.

Dellinger, R.D.

1997-12-09

226

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

1987-12-22

227

Kinesimetric method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

1980-01-01

228

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01

229

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

230

Micro coring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-coring apparatus for lunar exploration applications, that is compatible with the other components of the Walking Mobile Platform, was designed. The primary purpose of core sampling is to gain an understanding of the geological composition and properties of the prescribed environment. This procedure has been used extensively for Earth studies and in limited applications during lunar explorations. The corer is described and analyzed for effectiveness.

Collins, David; Brooks, Marshall; Chen, Paul; Dwelle, Paul; Fischer, Ben

1989-01-01

231

Polarized internal target apparatus  

DOEpatents

A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

Holt, R.J.

1984-10-10

232

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

233

Demand illumination control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

1981-01-01

234

Radiation therapy imaging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a radiation therapy imaging apparatus for providing images in a patient being treated on a radiation therapy apparatus for verification and monitoring of patient positioning and verification of alignment and shaping of the radiation field of the radiation therapy apparatus. It comprises: a high-energy treatment head for applying a radiation dose to a patient positioned on a treatment table, and a gantry rotatable about an isocentric axis and carrying the treatment head for permitting the radiation dose to be applied to the patient from any of a range of angles about the isocentric axis; the radiation therapy imaging apparatus including a radiation therapy image detector which comprises a video camera mounted on the gantry diametrically opposite the treat head, an elongated light-excluding enclosure enveloping the camera to exclude ambient light from the camera, a fluoroscopic plate positioned on a distal end of the enclosure remote from the camera and aligned with the head to produce a fluoroscopic image in response to radiation applied from the head through the patient, mirror means in the enclosure and oriented for reflecting the image to the camera to permit monitoring on a viewing screen of the position of the radiation field in respect to the patient, and means for retracting at least the distal end of the enclosure from a position in which the fluoroscopic plate is disposed opposite the treatment head without disturbing the position of the camera on the gantry, so that the enclosure can be collapsed and kept from projecting under the treatment table when the patient is being positioned on the treatment table.

Chou, T.J.; Shoenfeld, H.; Greenway, W.C.

1991-02-19

235

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

236

Helical phasing between DNA bends and the determination of bend direction.  

PubMed

The presence and location of bends in DNA can be inferred from the anomalous mobility of DNA fragments or protein-DNA complexes during electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Direction of bending is not so easily determined. We show here that a protein-induced bend, when linked to a protein-independent DNA bend by a segment of variable length, exhibits an electrophoretic mobility that varies in a sinusoidal manner with the length of the linker. Mobility minima occur once for each addition to the linker of one helical turn of DNA. Since minima should occur when two bends reinforce one another, the direction of one bend relative to the other can be determined from the distances between the two centers of bending at which minima occur. Our results strongly support the idea that the A5-6 tracts in kinetoplast DNA bend towards the minor groove while the bend at the recombination site of the gamma delta resolvase (binding site I of the gamma delta res site) bends towards the major groove. PMID:2827112

Salvo, J J; Grindley, N D

1987-12-10

237

Tight-binding theory of graphene bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model bent graphene as a large-radius (>1 nm) single-walled carbon nanotube in order to uncover the origin of its bending rigidity. An analytic formula based on the Hückel molecular orbital theory connects the finite resistance to bending directly to the curvature-induced torsional misalignment of the ? orbitals no longer of pure p character. The analytical predictions are supported by direct density functional theory-based tight-binding objective molecular dynamics calculations. Our tight-binding theory also gives useful insight into modeling graphene bending with continuum plate mechanics and classical interatomic potentials.

Nikiforov, I.; Dontsova, E.; James, R. D.; Dumitric?, T.

2014-04-01

238

Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

2003-01-01

239

Complete liquefaction methods and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described to provide complete gas utilization in the liquefaction operation from a source of gas without return of natural gas to the source thereof from the process and apparatus. The mass flow rate of gas input into the system and apparatus may be substantially equal to the mass flow rate of liquefied product output from the system, such as for storage or use.

Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

2013-10-15

240

Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

Breeding, James D.

1993-01-01

241

Pellet inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

242

Stack sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for obtaining samples from a structure includes a support member, at least one stabilizing member, and at least one moveable member. The stabilizing member has a first portion coupled to the support member and a second portion configured to engage with the structure to restrict relative movement between the support member and the structure. The stabilizing member is radially expandable from a first configuration where the second portion does not engage with a surface of the structure to a second configuration where the second portion engages with the surface of the structure.

Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Love, Lonnie J; Noakes, Mark W; Pin, Francois G; Richardson, Bradley S; Rowe, John C

2014-09-16

243

Mixing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

Green, Norman W. (Redwood City, CA)

1982-06-15

244

Thermal protection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools is described comprising: a. a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components, b. an evacuated chamber disposed in the top end for providing a thermal seal to the top end of the Dewar, c. a top connector having first and second components, the first component sealably engaging the top wall aperture, the second component sealably engaging the bottom wall aperture, the second component being operatively connected to the first component and to the heat sensitive components; and d. means removably connecting the chamber to the Dewar.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1988-01-26

245

Intracranial surgical operative apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for operating on the brain with minimal disturbances thereto, including a bullet-shaped expandable device with an end that can be closed for insertion through a small hole in the brain. The device can be expanded after insertion to leave an air pocket through which to extend viewing and cutting devices which enable operation on tumors or the like that lie at the end of the expanded device. A set of probes of varying diameters are also provided, to progressively enlarge a passage leading to the tumor, prior to inserting the expandable device.

Sheldon, Charles H. (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor); Lutes, Harold R. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

246

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

247

Sonic levitation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sonic levitation apparatus is disclosed which includes a sonic transducer which generates acoustical energy responsive to the level of an electrical amplifier. A duct communicates with an acoustical chamber to deliver an oscillatory motion of air to a plenum section which contains a collimated hole structure having a plurality of parallel orifices. The collimated hole structure converts the motion of the air to a pulsed. Unidirectional stream providing enough force to levitate a material specimen. Particular application to the production of microballoons in low gravity environment is discussed.

Dunn, S. A.; Pomplum, A. R.; Paquette, E. G.; Ethridge, E. C.; Johnson, J. L. (inventors)

1984-01-01

248

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

249

Sterographic tomogram observing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A stereographic tomogram observing apparatus comprises a memory for storing tomographic picture data of a specific part of internal tissue of the object, a reading device for reading out the tomographic picture data, a projecting type CRT for projecting light beams at intensities corresponding to tomographic picture data read out by the reading device, a picture reproducing device made up of a plurality of tomographic picture reproducing screens arranged in parallel and for reproducing corresponding tomographic pictures, and a switching circuit for making the tomographic picture data read out correspond to the screen for reproducing the tomographic picture data.

Iwasaki, K.

1984-09-18

250

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

251

Fireplace and stove apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A fireplace or stove apparatus is disclosed for efficiently providing heat to a structure without loss of interior air to the flue draft. A blower forces outside air through a conduit located in the exhaust flue into a grate located in a fireplace or stove. The fuel loading opening of the fireplace or stove is made substantially air-tightly sealed. An air opening in the grate provides air to be consumed by the fire. A second air opening in the grate is fluidly connected by means of a conduit to the structure to be heated.

Evans, J.L.

1983-11-15

252

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

253

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

2001-01-01

254

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

2001-01-01

255

Combustion Experiment Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

256

Thermal stir welding apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

2011-01-01

257

Adaptive notch filter suppression of bending modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, microprocessor oriented algorithm is developed to identify, track and suppress bending mode signals from a control system's rate and position feedback signals using adaptive digital notch filters. The algorithm can be used to suppress bending modes having center frequencies as close as one octave above the control system gain cross-over frequency without introduction of the excessive phase loss associated with conventional lowpass filtering techniques. A third order model of the trident missile autopilot pitch attitude control loop is contaminated with two dynamic, destabilizing bending modes and used as a concept demonstration model. The algorithm is demonstrated by stabilizing the pitch attitude loop in the presence of two bending modes with unknown gains, damping, center frequencies and rates of change of center frequencies.

Marks, W. L.

1980-12-01

258

Initial Ares I Bending Filter Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares-I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for control system design. Software filtering of the inertial sensor output will be required to ensure control system stability and adequate performance. This paper presents a design methodology employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares-I bending filters. The filter design methodology was based on a numerical constrained optimization approach to maximize stability margins while meeting performance requirements. The resulting bending filter designs achieved stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency and hence phase stabilizing the first Ares-I flex mode. To minimize rigid body performance impacts, a priority was placed via constraints in the optimization algorithm to minimize bandwidth decrease with the addition of the bending filters. The bending filters provided here have been demonstrated to provide a stable first stage control system in both the frequency domain and the MSFC MAVERIC time domain simulation.

Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Robert; Norris, H. Lee; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

2007-01-01

259

Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra  

E-print Network

Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra.

Christoph A. Haselwandter; Rob Phillips

2011-06-10

260

Improved Bend Waveguide Design for Terahertz Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bending waveguides with 90$^{\\\\circ}$ corners based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal with metallic cylinders arranged in a square lattice are studied for THz wave guiding. Considering single- and double-line defects, five different designs are investigated and assessed in terms of their transmission performance. A better structure is proposed by increasing the number of rods in the bending arc, thus achieving

E. Degirmenci; F. Surre; S. Philippe; R. Maldonado-Basilio; P. Landais

2012-01-01

261

Regional Service Planning for the Coastal Bend  

E-print Network

;g #0;D#0;e#0;c#0;e#0;m#0;b#0;e#0;r#0; #0;1#0;,#0; #0;2#0;0#0;0#0;6 Regional Service Planning for the Coastal Bend Regional Public Transportation Coordination Study This study was funded... by financial grant from the Texas Department of Transportation Corpus Christi MPO Coastal Bend Council of Governments Texas Department of Transportation Table of Contents PURPOSE AND NEED...

Coastal Bend Council of Governments

2006-12-01

262

On the bending response of Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings  

SciTech Connect

Kevlar 49/epoxy laminates often exhibit substantial material nonlinearity when subjected to bending. This is a consequence of the yeild-like behavior of a Kevlar 49/epoxy lamina in fiber-directed compression. In this paper, analyses that utilize a simple idealization of compressive yielding are described and calculated results for Kevlar 49 reinforced beams and rings are compared with available data. First, results of a finite element analysis of a thin, unidirectionally reinforced ring subjected to diametral compression are presented. This analysis uses beam elements that incorporate linear tensile and elastic-perfectly plastic compressive behavior. Then a method used to analyze quasi-isotropic beams tested in four-point bending is discussed. This finite element analysis uses a layered shell element with a lamina constitutive model that permits elastic-perfectly plastic response to fiber-directed compression, but otherwise assumes linear elastic behavior. Comparison of calculated and experimental results corroborate the ability of analyses using a simple compressive yield model to account for much of the observed flexural nonlinearity in Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings. 6 figs.

Reedy, E.D. Jr.

1988-05-01

263

Percussive arc welding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

Hollar, Jr., Donald L. (Overland Park, KS)

2002-01-01

264

Agitation apparatus. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

1982-03-12

265

Polarization imaging apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

2010-01-01

266

Trap apparatus with bypass  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing exhaust gases from an engine is described , said apparatus comprising: a housing with inlet means, outlet means, and first and second fluid flow paths with respect to said inlet means upstream and said outlet means downstream, said housing including a plurality of chambers with each of said chambers being separated from others by a gas impervious barrier; an acoustic element within said housing for attenuating the sound of said exhaust gases along said first and second fluid flow paths; means, within said housing, for filtering the particulates from said exhaust gases along said first fluid flow path, said filtering means including a ceramic filter element divided into a plurality of segments; means forming a section of said second fluid flow path for bypassing a portion of said filtering means to direct said exhaust gases from said second fluid flow path to said first fluid flow path; means for regenerating said filtering means, said regenerating means including a plurality of means for heating said segments and a plurality of means for directing combustion air through said segments, each of said chambers including one of said segments of said ceramic filter element, one of said plurality of heating means, and one of said plurality of air directing means; and means for controlling said regenerating means and said bypassing means.

Gillingham, G.R.; Barris, M.A.; Reinhart, C.O.; Imes, J.A. Jr.; Anderson, E.D.

1993-05-25

267

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01

268

Heat pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01

269

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

1995-03-21

270

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

271

Apparatus for positioning a sensor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for positioning a sensor relative to a rotatable timing ring included on an internal combustion engine, the apparatus comprising a sensor, means for adjustably positioning the sensor on the internal combustion engine and relative to the timing ring.

Rawlings, D.E.; Whiteside, M.D.

1992-07-21

272

An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

1974-01-01

273

An Apparatus for Photochemical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus developed for photochemical studies, particularly those involving the fluorescence of halogenated acetones. The apparatus is constructed from equipment normally found in a moderately sized physical chemical laboratory. Also provides background information on some aspects of the photophysics of halogenated propanones. (JN)

Winter, M. J.; Winter, P. V.

1984-01-01

274

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

1998-01-01

275

Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

2005-06-14

276

Apparatus for assembling space structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for producing a structure in outer space from rolls of prepunched ribbon or sheet material that are transported from the earth to the apparatus located in outer space is described. The apparatus spins the space structure similar to a spider spinning a web utilizing the prepunched ribbon material. The prepunched ribbon material is fed through the apparatus and is shaped into a predetermined channel-shaped configuration. Trusses are punched out of the ribbon and are bent downwardly and attached to a track which normally is a previously laid sheet of material. The size of the overall space structure may be increased by merely attaching an additional roll of sheet material to the apparatus.

Johnston, J. D.; Tuggle, R. H., Jr.; Burch, J. L.; Clark, K. H. (inventors)

1978-01-01

277

Apparatus for dispensing material  

DOEpatents

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

2011-07-05

278

Drilling mud cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed for cleaning cutting-laden drilling mud utilizes an upwardly inclined traveling belt screen. Successive portions of the screen are established as a planar screen surface supported by an underlying grille. A vibration unit attached to the grille imparts vibrating movement to the screen to more effectively separate cuttings from drilling mud deposited thereon. A vibratory plate is immersed in the puddle of mud which forms over an aft section of the inclined planar screen surface and acts to compact the mud and enhance its penetration therethrough. An auxiliary gas break-up screen disposed in the path of mud being directed toward the belt screen causes the release of gases contained in the cutting-laden drilling mud, and a blower driven vented enclosure hood placed over the gas break-up screen captures and exhausts released gases.

Lee, J.E.

1982-09-21

279

Image forming apparatus  

DOEpatents

In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

1996-01-01

280

Carburetion type burning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A carburetion type burning apparatus is described having a carburetion chamber for evaporating liquid fuel which comprises a timer for counting time from the initiation of burning operation. An ion current detecting device is positioned in the flames for measuring an ion current in the flames (if) at the time after a predetermined time counted by the timer in which the ion current in flames is stabilized, a judging device for judging existence or non-existence of an abnormal burning state by comparing the measured ion current (if) and a predetermined open threshold value of ion current which causes an abnormal burning condition. A burning quantity device controls the quantity of fuel to be burned in response to the output from the judging device and an alarming device for generating an alarm when the judging device provides judgment of abnormal condition.

Kasada, T.

1987-07-28

281

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

282

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

DOEpatents

Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

1983-10-25

283

Fluid pumping apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2006-01-17

284

Thermal synthesis apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-08-18

285

Induction melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-06-17

286

Ion source apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A gas is introduced into a discharge chamber of an ion source apparatus, and a gas discharge is performed between a thermionic cathode and an anode. Ions are extracted from the plasma formed in this gas discharge by a grid electrode. The thermionic cathode has a hollow cylindrical shape. A cathode chamber is defined by the thermionic cathode and a cylindrical partition wall supporting it. A columnar auxiliary electrode is coaxially inserted in the thermionic cathode. An A.C. voltage from a power source unit is supplied between the thermionic cathode and the auxiliary electrode such that effective power for keeping the thermionic cathode at a positive potential with respect to the auxiliary electrode is higher than that for keeping the auxiliary electrode at a positive potential with respect to the thermionic cathode.

Sugawara, T.; Ito, Y.

1985-03-19

287

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOEpatents

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01

288

Spine immobilization apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

1981-01-01

289

Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

2000-01-01

290

Isotope separation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

1980-01-01

291

Geodetic distance measuring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geodetic distance measuring apparatus which compensates for the refractive index of the atmosphere is discussed. A mode locked laser system with a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized to derive two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. The optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal issued to provide wet or water vapor density of the air. The distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry air and water vapor densities in the measurement path is computed from these measurements. A time interval unit is included for measuring transit time of individual optical pulses for resolving the phase ambiguity needed with the phase measurements to give the true target distance.

Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

1980-01-01

292

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

293

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

1983-01-04

294

Computer simulation of pipe-bending processes with small bending radius using local induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through analyzing the stress state and deformation of pipe bending using local induction heating with small bending radius, a computer simulation system has been developed based on the FEM software ANSYS and finite strain elasto–plastic theory. The results, such as the thinning and thickening ratio of the pipe wall thickness, the pushing force with or without a reverse moment acting

Z Hu; J. Q Li

1999-01-01

295

Membrane bending by protein-protein crowding.  

PubMed

Curved membranes are an essential feature of dynamic cellular structures, including endocytic pits, filopodia protrusions and most organelles. It has been proposed that specialized proteins induce curvature by binding to membranes through two primary mechanisms: membrane scaffolding by curved proteins or complexes; and insertion of wedge-like amphipathic helices into the membrane. Recent computational studies have raised questions about the efficiency of the helix-insertion mechanism, predicting that proteins must cover nearly 100% of the membrane surface to generate high curvature, an improbable physiological situation. Thus, at present, we lack a sufficient physical explanation of how protein attachment bends membranes efficiently. On the basis of studies of epsin1 and AP180, proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, we propose a third general mechanism for bending fluid cellular membranes: protein-protein crowding. By correlating membrane tubulation with measurements of protein densities on membrane surfaces, we demonstrate that lateral pressure generated by collisions between bound proteins drives bending. Whether proteins attach by inserting a helix or by binding lipid heads with an engineered tag, protein coverage above ~20% is sufficient to bend membranes. Consistent with this crowding mechanism, we find that even proteins unrelated to membrane curvature, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), can bend membranes when sufficiently concentrated. These findings demonstrate a highly efficient mechanism by which the crowded protein environment on the surface of cellular membranes can contribute to membrane shape change. PMID:22902598

Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Schmid, Eva M; Ryan, Christopher J; Ann, Hyoung Sook; Sasaki, Darryl Y; Sherman, Michael B; Geissler, Phillip L; Fletcher, Daniel A; Hayden, Carl C

2012-09-01

296

Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit stiffening or softening under tension and bending as size decreases. Bending simulations typically result in a greater variation of Young's modulus values with nanowire size compared with tensile deformation, which indicates a loading-method-dependent size effect on elastic properties at sub-5 nm wire diameters. Since the axial stress is maximized at the lateral surfaces in bending, the loading-method-dependent size effect is postulated to be primarily a result of differences in nanowire surface and core elastic modulus. The divergence of Young's modulus from the bulk modulus in these simulations occurs at sizes below the range in which experiments have demonstrated a size scale effect on elastic properties of metallic nanowires. This difference indicates that other factors beyond native metallic surface properties play a role in experimentally observed nanowire elastic modulus size effects.

McDowell, Matthew T.; Leach, Austin M.; Gall, Ken

2008-06-01

297

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

298

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1991-06-18

299

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-06-18

300

Apparatus for measuring particle properties  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle's size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle's velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered.

Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Castaneda, Jaime N. (Albuquerque, NM); Grasser, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

301

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface  

DOEpatents

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

1985-11-21

302

Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to accommodate all eight tendons at the same diameter along the arm. The threaded links have central bores through which power and video wires can be strung (1) from a charge-coupled-device camera mounted on the tip of the arms (2) back along the interior of the arm into the housing and then (3) from within the housing to an external video monitor.

Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

2010-01-01

303

Automated Desalting Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a chelating reagent to bring out metal ions, such as calcium and iron, which would otherwise interfere with amino acid analysis. After oxalic acid, 1 mL 0.01 N HCl and 1 mL deionized water is used to sequentially rinse the resin. Finally, the amino acids attached to the resin, and the analytes are eluted using 2.5 M NH4OH (1 mL), and the NH4OH eluent is collected in a vial for analysis.

Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

2010-01-01

304

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

2009-11-17

305

Bi-stem gripping apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

Sanders, Fred G. (inventor)

1988-01-01

306

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01

307

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

1990-04-24

308

Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

1996-01-01

309

Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

Mills, Robert D.

1990-01-01

310

Apparatus for photon excited catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

1977-01-01

311

Electroding preparation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is provided for forming a large area photovoltaic cell into a plurality of photovoltaic cells on a common substrate and preparing the individual cells for an overlying layer of conductive material. A tool bit is urged against the polycrystalline materials forming the heterojunction to remove a preselected pattern and expose a layer of conductive material, tin oxide, on a supporting glass substrate. Tool bit pressure causes fracturing of the crystals to produce defined edges along the tool bit furrow. An electrical arc is produced to vaporize a portion of the exposed tin oxide to electrically isolate the individual photovoltaic cells. Applicator pens coat the edges of the polycrystalline material with preselected insulating films. Finally, a buffer wheel abrades a preselected metal onto the remaining exposed surface of the tin oxide to obtain an improved metallurgical and/or electrical contact between the tin oxide and the subsequent conductor layer. Indexing mechanisms are provided for positioning the large area cell relative to the various tools for providing a plurality of preparatory passes along the large area cell.

Bigham, H.L.; Chamberlin, R.R.

1980-10-21

312

Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.

1997-04-01

313

Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

Okandan, Murat (NE Albuquerque, NM)

2009-06-02

314

Fluid driven recipricating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

1997-01-01

315

Apparatus for coating powders  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

316

Energy conversion apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for converting fluid energy into mechanical energy may include a sail and a mast carried by a pivotally mounted support. The sail is mounted both directly to the mast and indirectly to the mast through a boom, which is pivotally mounted at its center or along its length about the mast, and which is also mounted for tilting movement about a fastening extending perpendicularly to the mast. Positioning means periodically causes the boom to yaw about the mast and to tilt. Opposite edges of the sail thus alternately become taut leading edges with respect to incident wind or water and the sail adopts an oscillating motion which powers mechanical drive means such as pumps. The positioning means may be an over-center spring return or, in an alternative embodiment, be a hydraulic control mechanism. Advantages are that, because the sail remains full, it does not flap during repositioning even when formed of a light flexible material, which reduces inertial problems. Useful mechanical energy can be derived with a low level of technology from a large volume of incident fluid moving at a relatively low speed. The pressure from the pumps can be maintained at a constant value even if the speed of the incident fluid should alter.

Lawson, D. A.

1984-10-09

317

Floating layer recovery apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for recovery of a layer of a first underground liquid floating on a second underground liquid in a well. It comprises: first float means disposed in the well in the first liquid, the float means having an effective buoyancy such that it floats in the first liquid; second float means disposed in the well in the first liquid, the float means having an effective buoyancy such that it floats near the bottom of the first liquid, the second float means having top, side and bottom surfaces; an inlet means disposed on the second float surface for permitting entry of the first liquid; conduit means coupled to the inlet means and extending below the second float means; third float means disposed in the second liquid and having an effective buoyancy such that the third float means will remain submerged in the second liquid, the conduit means being coupled to the third float; the guide means for slidably connecting the second float between the first and third float means.

Newcomer, K.; Richter, S.

1991-03-12

318

Apparatus for measuring RRR  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of purity and thermal conductivity at liquid Helium temperatures of the Niobium to be used in the fabrication of superconducting RF cavities is normally done by measuring the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of a sample of the material. The relationship between the thermal and the electrical conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz Law) simplifies the task by leading to the measurement of electrical instead of thermal resistance. The RRR is the ratio between the resistances of the sample at room temperature and at the operating temperature of the cavity. A more precise definition is discussed later. The conductivity at low temperatures depends on lattice defects and impurities. Impurities are also important for cavities in a direct way as affecting the RF properties of its surface when exposed by chemical etching. The following describes the experimental apparatus for RRR measurements developed at Fermilab's Beams Division. Part 2 contains a description of the sample-holder and measurement hardware. Part 3 contains a discussion on definition, measurements and errors. Part 4 gives a step-by-step description of the measurement procedure. Finally, Part 5 gives an example of results obtained recently on a Niobium sample for CKM cavities.

Kuchnir Moyses and Pierre Bauer

2003-02-21

319

Integrated-magnetic apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosure is made of an integrated-magnetic apparatus, comprising: winding structure for insulatingly carrying at least two generally flat, laterally offset and spaced apart electrical windings of a power converter around an aperture; a core having a flat exterior face, an interior cavity and an un-gapped core-column that is located within the cavity and that passes through the aperture of the winding structure; flat-sided surface carried by the core and forming an interior chamber that is located adjacent to the flat face of the core and forming a core-column that has a gap and that is located within the chamber; and structure, located around the gapped core-column, for carrying a third electrical winding of the power converter. The first two electrical windings are substantially located within the cavity and are adapted to be transformingly coupled together through the core. The third electrical winding is adapted to be inductively coupled through the gapped core-column to the other electrical windings, and is phased to have the magnetic flux passing through the gapped core-column substantially in the same direction as the magnetic flux passing through the un-gapped core-column and to have substantially the same AC components of flux in the gapped core-column and in the un-gapped core-column.

Bloom, Gordon E. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

320

Auxiliary incinerator apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An auxiliary incinerator apparatus is described for an incinerator comprising: a main incinerator having primary and secondary chambers formed with a plurality of refractory walls, the main incinerator having a main door into the primary chamber, and the main incinerator having an outer framework and walls spaced from the refractory walls, and one refractory wall having an opening therethrough; a refractory passageway extending from the opening in the main incinerator wall to the outer wall and having an opening through the outer wall; an auxiliary incinerator attached to one side of the main incinerator adjacent to the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall, the auxiliary incinerator having an incineration chamber formed therein with an opening thereinto; and auxiliary door means for opening and closing over the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall and for opening and closing over the opening into the auxiliary incinerator, whereby partially incinerated materials can be moved from the main incinerator to the auxiliary incinerator for further combustion.

Crawford, J.P.

1987-08-11

321

Pneumatic clutch apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A pneumatic clutch apparatus is described comprising: a pneumatic clutch disposed at the rear of a transmission and including a pneumatic actuator for engaging and disengaging the clutch, a rotary passage adapted to rotate together with the clutch and connected to the actuator; a stationary passage stationary with respect to the clutch and connected to a pneumatic pressure control mechanism disposed outside the clutch; and a rotary joint including a connecting passage for connecting the rotary passage and the stationary passage together; the rotary joint having a rotary portion to which the rotary passage is fixed and a stationary portion to which the stationary passage is fixed, and the stationary portion being fixed to a housing of the transmission and rotatably supporting the rotary portion. A cylindrical intermediate member is disposed between the rotary portion and the stationary portion of the rotary joint. Air passages in the stationary portion and the rotary portion are connected together through an air passage in the intermediate member. The intermediate member is rotatably fitted to the rotary portion and the stationary portion through seals which seal the air passage. A connecting mechanism is operable to connect the intermediate member to the rotary portion when the intermediate member and the rotary portion occupy a predetermined relative angular position.

Kamio, T.

1987-03-03

322

Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to license its Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses. Designed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, these patented technologies (U.S. Patent Numbers: Cryostat 1 - 6,742,926, Cryostat 2 - 6,487,866, and Cryostat 4 - 6,824,306) allow manufacturers to fabricate and test cryogenic insulation at their production and/or laboratory facilities. These new inventions allow for the thermal performance characterization of cylindrical and flat specimens (e.g., bulk-fill, flat-panel, multilayer, or continuously rolled) over the full range of pressures, from high vacuum to no vacuum, and over the full range of temperatures from 77K to 300K. In today's world, efficient, low-maintenance, low-temperature refrigeration is taking a more significant role, from the food industry, transportation, energy, and medical applications to the Space Shuttle. Most countries (including the United States) have laws requiring commercially available insulation materials to be tested and rated by an accepted methodology. The new Cryostat methods go beyond the formal capabilities of the ASTM methods to provide testing for real systems, including full-temperature differences plus full-range vacuum conditions.

Berman, Brion

2005-01-01

323

Oil recovery apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged

Lowe

1981-01-01

324

Twisting and Bending Stress in DNA Minicircles  

E-print Network

The interplay between bending of the molecule axis and appearance of disruptions in circular DNA molecules, with $\\sim 100$ base pairs, is addressed. Three minicircles with different radii and almost equal content of AT and GC pairs are investigated. The DNA sequences are modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian which describes the essential interactions in the helix at the level of the base pair and incorporates twisting and bending degrees of freedom. Helix unwinding and bubble formation patterns are consistently computed by a path integral method that sums over a large number of molecule configurations compatible with the model potential. The path ensembles are determined, as a function of temperature, by minimizing the free energy of the system. Fluctuational openings appear along the helix to release the stress due to the bending of the molecule backbone. In agreement with the experimental findings, base pair disruptions are found with larger probability in the smallest minicircle of \\textit{66-bps} whose bending angle is $\\sim 6^{o} $. For this minicircle, a sizeable untwisting is obtained with the helical repeat showing a step-like increase at $\\tau =\\,315K$. The method can be generalized to determine the bubble probability profiles of open ends linear sequences.

Marco Zoli

2014-03-25

325

Monitoring the Bending Stiffness of DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In eukaryotic cells, the accessibility of genomic sequences provides an inherent regulation mechanism for gene expression through variations in bending stiffness encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Cyclization of dsDNA is the prevailing method for determining DNA bending stiffness. Recent cyclization data for short dsDNA raises several fundamental questions about the soundness of the cyclization method, particularly in cases where the probability of highly bent DNA conformations is low. We herein evaluate the role of T4 DNA ligase in the cyclization reaction by inserting an environmental sensitive base analogue, 2-amino purine, to the DNA molecule. By monitoring the 2-AP fluorescence under standard cyclization conditions, it is found that in addition to trapping highly-bent cyclic DNA conformations, T4 DNA ligase enhances the apparent base pair flip out rate, thus exaggerating the measured flexibility. This result is further confirmed using fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on suitably labeled dsDNA provides an alternative approach for quantifying the bending stiffness of short fragments. DNA bending stiffness results obtained using FRET are compared with literature values.

Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiongwen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden

2007-03-01

326

Linear and bending actuation of bucky gel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003 Takuzo Aida and coworkers reported that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SW-CNTs), when ground with imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs), create a physical gel, named "bucky gel"1. This gel was used to prepare bimorph electrochemical actuators using a polymer-supported internal IL electrolyte layer2. These actuators can operate in air at low voltage showing improved frequency response and strain. Usual bucky gel actuators rely on a bimorph configuration where the electrodes are used alternatively as cathode and anode thus producing a bending motion. This kind of motion is limiting the possible applications, especially when, like in artificial muscles, linear strain and motion are required. We present a new design for bucky gel actuators capable of both linear and bending motion that uses a three electrode configuration with two active electrodes and a third passive one, made from a metal spring (serpentine shaped), acting as counter plate. We have built such a device and report here its linear and bending actuation performance. In these preliminary experiments we have obtained a linear strain of 0.6% and a bending strain difference between two bucky gel electrodes of 0.25%.

Biso, Maurizio; Ansaldo, Alberto; Vintera, Veronica; Ricci, Davide

2011-04-01

327

UV - BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK TX  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 130 is located in Big Bend NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. of...

328

THE STABILIZED MITC PLATE BENDING ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new families of nite element methods for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending model are described. The methods are based on a combination of the stabilized formulation presented in (25) and the MITC reduction technique (6). The families use identical basis functions for the deflection and the rotation. Optimal order of convergence, independent of the plate thickness, is proved. The theoretical

Mikko Lyly; Rolf Stenberg

329

MAKING IT `ROUND THE BEND TEACHER NOTES  

E-print Network

: DIPOLES AND QUADRUPOLES Students use permanent magnets and compasses to explore two common magnets used adjusting the field of the bending magnets. Electromagnets can do this--sending more current through one will study how magnetic and electric fields accelerate, turn and focus the particles in the Large Hadron

Quigg, Chris

330

Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending  

PubMed Central

Sharp bending of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) plays an essential role in genome structure and function. However, the elastic limit of dsDNA bending remains controversial. Here, we measured the opening rates of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths ranging between 40 and 200 bp using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. The relationship of loop lifetime to loop size revealed a critical transition in bending stress. Above the critical loop size, the loop lifetime changed with loop size in a manner consistent with elastic bending stress, but below it, became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softened dsDNA. The critical loop size increased from ?60 bp to ?100 bp with the addition of 5 mM magnesium. We show that our result is in quantitative agreement with the kinkable worm-like chain model, and furthermore, can reproduce previously reported looping probabilities of dsDNA over the range between 50 and 200 bp. Our findings shed new light on the energetics of sharply bent dsDNA. PMID:25122748

Le, Tung T.; Kim, Harold D.

2014-01-01

331

Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.

1976-01-01

332

The Qweak experimental apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity- violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ~ep asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 muA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. M#28;ller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The electron beam was incident on a 34.4 cm liquid hydrogen target. After passing through a triple collimator system, scattered electrons between 5.8deg.and 11.6deg. were bent in the toroidal magnetic field of a resistive copper-coil magnet. The electrons inside this acceptance were focused onto eight fused silica Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. A total scattered electron rate of about 7 GHz was incident on the detector array. The detectors were read out in integrating mode by custom-built low-noise pre-amplifiers and 18-bit sampling ADC modules. The momentum transfer Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 was determined using dedicated low-current (~100 pA) measurements with a set of drift chambers before (and a set of drift chambers and trigger scintillation counters after) the toroidal magnet.

Allison, T.; Anderson, M.; Androic, D.; Armstrong, D.S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.D.; Averill, R.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R.S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bessuille, J.; Birchall, J.; Bonnell, E.; Bowman, J.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D.B.; Carlini, R.D.; Cates, G.D.; Cavness, B.; Clark, G.; Cornejo, J.C.; Dusa, S. Covrig; Dalton, M.M.; Davis, C.A.; Dean, D.C.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dow, K.; Dowd, J.F.; Dunne, J.A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W.S.; Echols, J.R.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W.R.; Finelli, K.D.; Finn, J.M.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M.T.W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V.M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrison, D.J.; Henderson, E.; Hoskins, J.R.; Ihloff, E.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; Kelsey, J.; Khan, N.; King, P.M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Kubera, A.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.P.; Lee, A.R.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, L.; Liang, Y.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J.A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.W.; McCreary, A.; McDonald, M.H.; McHugh, M.J.; Medeiros, P.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Musson, J.; Mesick, K.E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L.Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman, N.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Opper, A.K.; Page, S.A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.D.; Phillips, S.K.; Pitt, M.L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramsay, W.D.; Roberts, W.R.; Roche, J.; Rose, P.W.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M.H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G.R.; Sobczynski, S.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D.T.; Stokes, B.; Storey, D.W.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W.A.; Tvaskis, V.; Urban, E.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S.P.; Wood, S.A.; Yang, S.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zielinski, R.B.

2015-01-01

333

Solar pond apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An improved solar pond apparatus is described which comprises a solar pond means having a substantially flat, extended surface with upwardly directed sides thereof to retain the liquid while the liquid is exposed to the sun absorbing solar radiation and a flooding valve means connected to the solar pond means and moveable between an open position and a closed position to provide the liquid from the source and flood the liquid upon the substantially flat, extended surface of the solar pond means. Means are provided to control the depth of the solar absorbtive liquid and flooding valve control means are connected to the flooding valve means and to the means to control the depth of the solar absorbtive liquid which activates the flooding valve means to the open position when the means to control the depth of the solar absorbtive liquid determines the liquid in the solar pond means and which activates the flooding valve means to the closed position when the means to control the depth of the solar absorbtive liquid determines the second level of liquid in the solar pond means. First liquid conduit means are connected to the source of the flooding valve means and drainage valve means are connected to the solar pond means and are moveable between an open position and a closed position to drain the liquid from the solar pond means. A first sensor means is attached to the solar pond means and arranged to sense a predetermined temperature and drainage valve control means are connected to the drainage valve and to the first sensor means which actives the drainage valve means to the open position when the first sensor means senses the predetermined temperature. Storage means are connected on one end to the drainage valve means to receive the liquid at the predetermined temperature therefrom, and on the other end to an outlet means. Second liquid conduit means connect the drainage valve means to the storage means.

Nickerson, J.A.

1982-05-04

334

Automatic transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

Hiketa, M.

1987-10-06

335

Tube bending with axial pull and internal pressure  

E-print Network

Tube bending is a widely used manufacturing process in the aerospace, automotive, and other industries. During tube bending, considerable in-plane distortion and thickness variation occurs. The thickness increases at the intrados (surface of tube...

Agarwal, Rohit

2004-09-30

336

When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

337

Photonic bandgap Bragg fiber sensors for bending/displacement detection  

E-print Network

2013 We demonstrate an amplitude-based bending/displacement sensor that uses a plastic photonic bandgap groups have demon- strated using optical-fiber bending sensors for bio- and medical sensing applications

Skorobogatiy, Maksim

338

Thru-thickness bending stress distribution at elevated temperatures  

E-print Network

During the bending of flange plate used for dapped girders some highway bridge fabricators are experiencing cracking of the flange plate particularly when heat is used in assisting the bending process. Due to the extreme strains experienced during...

Christian, Lee Conner

2005-08-29

339

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

340

Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same  

SciTech Connect

A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

Goldsmith, Robert L. (Wayland, MA)

2012-04-03

341

Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens having dogbone- or T-shaped end sections without introducing bending stresses in the specimens during the application of a dynamic tensile loading on the specimens is described. A pair of elongated pull rods disposed in a side-by-side relationship are used to grip the shoulders on each T-shaped end section. The pull rods are pivotally attached to a piston-displaceable, disk-shaped member so as to be longitudinally movable with respect to one another effecting the self-alignment thereof with the shoulders on the T-shaped end sections of the specimen to compensate for shoulders being located in different longitudinal positions.

Liu, Kenneth C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

342

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1998-06-23

343

Arbitrary waveguide bends using isotropic and homogeneous metamaterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method for arbitrary waveguide bends using impedance matched metamaterial with negative index of refraction. We analyze the operation principles and verify the performances using the finite difference in time domain method. Results show that nearly perfect transmission without mode distortion can be obtained when the bending angle changes within (0,180) degrees. The bending structure is very efficient

Weiqiang Ding; Donghua Tang; Yan Liu; Lixue Chen; Xiudong Sun

2010-01-01

344

Stretch bending of aluminium extrusions for car bumpers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stretch bending of two generic aluminium bumper sections are investigated experimentally and numerically. Six different stretch bending procedures, herein denoted tensile sequences, are studied. Laboratory tests are performed for one of these sequences, finding that the numerical model represents the observed behaviour satisfactorily. A sequence with constant tensile force during bending seems to be favourable with respect of cross-section deformations.

Arild H Clausen; Odd S Hopperstad; Magnus Langseth

2000-01-01

345

Efficient bending compensation of large mode area fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While much research has been developed to achieve very large mode areas (LMA) fibers, many difficulties arise, such as bending losses, mode deformation, and high order modes suppression. The main obstacle which remains difficult to confront in LMA fibers is bending distortion. When a conventional LMA fiber is coiled, it will generally suffer large bending distortion, and the mode area will contract accordingly, which would significantly affect laser or amplifier performances for some LMA fibers. In this report, we proposed a simple and efficient way for bending compensation in LMA fiber. A periodically etching structure is proposed to compensate the deformation, bending loss, and mode-coupling effects in large mode area fibers. The numerical simulation results showed that the design not only efficiently improves the effective area, but also the fundamental mode bending loss is resistant. Without the structure, the bending losses are very low at large bending radius. When the bending radius reduces, there is a rapid increase of losses. In particular, for smaller bending radius (less than 20 cm), the fundamental mode deforms severely, and cannot normally transmit in the core. The numerical simulation results showed that the design not only efficiently improves the effective mode area, but also the fundamental mode bending loss is resistant. Even at bending radius as small as 5cm, the fundamental mode can transmit normally in the fiber with an increased mode area scaling. Furthermore, the LMA fiber with the structure can be flexibly manufactured by conventional fiber manufacturing approaches and recent etching technologies.

Farida, Souaci; Fan, Ya-Xian; Yuan, Li-Bo

2014-11-01

346

49 CFR 195.212 - Bending of pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Bending of pipe. (a) Pipe must not have a wrinkle bend...impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have...and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal...

2010-10-01

347

Update: pipes of different half bend angles Feb. 21, 2013  

E-print Network

Update: pipes of different half bend angles Feb. 21, 2013 Yan Zhan 1 #12;Outline · Mercury Supply Pipe · Re-mesh for Pipes without weld of different half bend angles · Turbulence Intensity At Pipe Exits · Discussion on Bend Effects and Nozzle Effects 2 #12;Mercury Supply Pipe 3 Item 2 Item 3 Whole

McDonald, Kirk

348

Modeling of bend discontinuity in plasmonic and spoof plasmonic waveguides  

E-print Network

The paper proposes a method to characterize the bend discontinuity for plasmonic and spoof plasmonic waveguides in terms of scattering parameters. By means of this method, the waveguide is modelled by a two-port network and its scattering parameters are extracted. The parameters for the L-shaped sharp curved bends at different frequencies and under different bending angles are determined.

Rahbarihagh, Yaghoob; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

2015-01-01

349

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192.315 Transportation...and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that...

2012-10-01

350

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192.315 Transportation...and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that...

2011-10-01

351

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192.315 Transportation...and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that...

2013-10-01

352

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192.315 Transportation...and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that...

2010-10-01

353

49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192.315 Transportation...and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that...

2014-10-01

354

Bendability Analysis for Bending of C-Mn Steel Plates on Heavy Duty 3Roller Bending Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bendability is constrained by maximum top roller load imparting capacity of the machine. Maximum load is encountered during the edge pre-bending stage of roller bending. Capacity of 3-roller plate bending machine is specified by maximum thickness and minimum shell diameter combinations that can be pre-bend for given plate material of maximum width. Commercially available plate width or width of the

Himanshu V. Gajjar; Anish H. Gandhi; Tanvir A Jafri; Harit K. Raval

2007-01-01

355

Rotating Apparatus for Isoelectric Focusing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remixing of separated fractions prevented. Improved isoelectric focusing apparatus helps to prevent electro-osmosis and convection, both of which cause remixing of separated fractions. Fractionating column segmented and rotated about horizontal axis: Only combined effects of both features fully effective in making good separations. Improved apparatus slowly rotated continuously or rocked (at rotational amplitude of at least 180 degrees) about its horizontal axis so average gravitational vector experienced by fluid is zero and convection is therefore suppressed. Electro-osmosis suppressed and convection further suppressed by separating column into disklike compartments along its length with filters. Experiments have shown dimensions of apparatus not critical. Typical compartment and column volumes are 2 and 40 ml, respectively. Rotation speeds lie between 3 and 30 rpm.

Bier, M.

1986-01-01

356

Oil recovery apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

Lowe, J.G.

1981-05-19

357

Ultrasonic inspection and deployment apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic inspection apparatus for the inspection of metal structures, especially installed pipes. The apparatus combines a specimen inspection element, an acoustical velocity sensing element, and a surface profiling element, all in one scanning head. A scanning head bellows contains a volume of oil above the pipe surface, serving as acoustical couplant between the scanning head and the pipe. The scanning head is mounted on a scanning truck which is mobile around a circular track surrounding the pipe. The scanning truck has sufficient motors, gears, and position encoders to allow the scanning head six degrees of motion freedom. A computer system continually monitors acoustical velocity, and uses that parameter to process surface profiling and inspection data. The profiling data is used to automatically control scanning head position and alignment and to define a coordinate system used to identify and interpret inspection data. The apparatus is suitable for highly automated, remote application in hostile environments, particularly high temperature and radiation areas.

Michaels, Jennifer E. (Ithaca, NY); Michaels, Thomas E. (Ithaca, NY); Mech, Jr., Stephen J. (Pasco, WA)

1984-01-01

358

Locking apparatus for gate valves  

DOEpatents

A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing futher movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

Fabyan, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Williams, Carl W. (Manteca, CA)

1988-01-01

359

Monoclinal bending of strata over laccolithic intrusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary strata on top of some laccolithic intrusions are nearly horizontal and little deformed, but are bent into steeply dipping monoclinal flexures over the peripheries of these intrusions. This form of bending is not explained by previous theories of laccolithic intrusion, which predict either horizontal undeformed strata over the center and faulted strata around the periphery, or strata bent continuously into a dome. However, a slight generalization of these theories accomodates the observed form and contains the previous forms as special cases. A critical assumption is that the strength of contacts within a multilayered overburden is overcome locally by layer-parallel shear. If this strength is less than the strength of the layers themselves, then layers over the center remain bonded together and display negligible bending, whereas layers over the periphery slip over one another and are readily bent into a monoclinal flexure. ?? 1981.

Koch, F.G.; Johnson, A.M.; Pollard, D.D.

1981-01-01

360

Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of the bending modulus {kappa} of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C{sub i}E{sub j} surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of {kappa} decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of {kappa} decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to {kappa}.

Kurtisovski, Erol [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris, CNRS UMR8550, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire d'Imagerie Parametrique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, CNRS UMR7623, 15 Rue de l'ecole de medecine, 75006 Paris (France); Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel [Laboratoire d'Imagerie Parametrique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, CNRS UMR7623, 15 Rue de l'ecole de medecine, 75006 Paris (France); Ober, Raymond [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, College de France, CNRS URA792, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Urbach, Wladimir [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris, CNRS UMR8550, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire d'Imagerie Parametrique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, CNRS UMR7623, 15 Rue de l'ecole de medecine, 75006 Paris (France); UFR Biomedicale, Universite Rene Descartes-Paris5, 45 rue des Saints-Peres, 75006 Paris (France)

2007-06-22

361

Elasticity of Twist-Bend Nematic Phases  

E-print Network

The ground state of twist-bend nematic liquid crystals is a heliconical molecular arrangement in which the nematic director precesses uniformly about an axis, making a fixed angle with it. Both precession senses are allowed in the ground state of these phases. When one of the two \\emph{helicities} is prescribed, a single helical nematic phase emerges. A quadratic elastic theory is proposed here for each of these phases which features the same elastic constants as the classical theory of the nematic phase, requiring all of them to be positive. To describe the helix axis, it introduces an extra director field which becomes redundant for ordinary nematics. Putting together helical nematics with opposite helicities, we reconstruct a twist-bend nematic, for which the quadratic elastic energies of the two helical variants are combined in a non-convex energy.

Epifanio G. Virga

2014-04-12

362

Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

363

DNA Bending Stiffness on Small Length Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bending properties of short (15 90 bp), double-stranded DNA fragments are quantified using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and small angle x-ray scattering. Results from both types of measurements indicate that short double-stranded DNA fragments exhibit surprisingly high flexibility. These observations are discussed in terms of base-pair-level length fluctuations originating from dynamic features of Watson-Crick base pairs.

Yuan, Chongli; Chen, Huimin; Lou, Xiong Wen; Archer, Lynden A.

2008-01-01

364

Numerical simulation of planar Bragg waveguide bends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical form was found and transparency boundary conditions were numerically approximated for the parabolic wave equation\\u000a in curvilinear coordinates. It was shown that the solutions obtained by the parabolic equation method are in agreement with\\u000a the solutions to the spectral problem defining the Bragg waveguide modes. The field amplitude and bending loss were numerically\\u000a simulated depending on the curvature

D. V. Prokopovich; A. V. Popov; A. V. Vinogradov

2008-01-01

365

Geology Fieldnotes: Big Bend National Park, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

That portion of the earth's surface known as "the Big Bend" has often been described as a "geologist's paradise". In part this is due to the sparse vegetation of the region, which allows the various strata to be easily observed and studied. In addition to a geologic history of the region, this site includes photographs, maps, recent earthquakes, volcanoes, petrology and paleontology relating to the park area, and visitor information.

366

Sharp waveguide bends induced by spatial solitons  

SciTech Connect

We experimentally demonstrate the ability of a self-guided laser beam to induce waveguides with sharp bends. The beam is a two-dimensional photorefractive screening-photovoltaic bright spatial soliton generated inside a biased lithium-niobate crystal shaped as a prism. The soliton robustness against total internal reflections is shown to leave place to a low-loss unimodal waveguide undergoing multiple zero-radius 90 deg. turns.

Jaeger, Robert; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Cambournac, Cyril; Haelterman, Marc; Chauvet, Mathieu [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Service d'optique et acoustique, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Institut Femto-ST, Departement d'optique P-M. Duffieux, UMRS CNRS 6174/Universite de Franche-Comte 6174, F-25030 Besancon cedex (France)

2006-02-06

367

Effects of Bending and Bending Angular Momentum on Reaction of NO2 with C2H2: A  

E-print Network

Effects of Bending and Bending Angular Momentum on Reaction of NO2 + with C2H2: A QuasiVersity of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E. Rm 2020, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, mode-specific enhancement of the O-transfer reaction by NO2 + bending vibration and the surprisingly

Anderson, Scott L.

368

More on the bending of light !  

E-print Network

Recently, Rindler and Ishak have argued that the bending of light is, in principle, changed by the presence of a cosmological constant since one must consider not only the null geodesic equation, but also the process of measurement. I agree with the fact that both must be considered. Here, on the basis of the mathematically exact solution to the classical bending problem, and independent of the cosmological constant, I clarify the approximate argument found in the vast majority of texts (new and old) for the measured value of the bending of light for a single source and show that the result is in part due to the almost perfect cancelation of two terms, one of which is seldom considered. When one considers two sources, this cancelation is of no consequence, and, for example, if the sources are opposite with the same associated apsidal distance, the approximate argument gives the rigorously correct answer (up to numerical evaluation), an answer which is unaffected by the presence of a cosmological constant.

Kayll Lake

2007-11-27

369

First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration  

PubMed Central

By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the ‘diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)’, which featured sub-nm?rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 1022 and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3?GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ?x = 0.5?nm?rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400?m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6?m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce >?5?h beam lifetime at 100?mA stored beam current. PMID:25177977

Einfeld, Dieter; Plesko, Mark; Schaper, Joachim

2014-01-01

370

Sodium purification apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter.

Gould, Marc I. [Van Nuys, CA

1980-03-04

371

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1987-05-12

372

Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus  

DOEpatents

The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

1983-06-16

373

Sodium purification apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal are disclosed. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter. 1 fig.

Gould, M.I.

1980-03-04

374

Rotary high power transfer apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for reducing terminal-to-terminal circuit resistance and enhancing heat transfer in a rotary power transfer apparatus of the roll ring type comprising a connecting thimble for attaching an external power cable to a cone shaped terminal which is attached to a tab integral to an outer ring. An inner ring having a spherical recess mates with the spherical end of a tie connector. A cone shaped terminal is fitted to a second connecting thimble for attaching a second external power cable.

Jacobson, Peter E. (Inventor); Porter, Ryan S. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

375

Apparatus for control of mercury  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

2001-01-01

376

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

1987-05-12

377

Compact Apparatus Grows Protein Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory apparatus provides delicately balanced combination of materials and chemical conditions for growth of protein crystals. Apparatus and technique for growth based on hanging-drop method for crystallization of macromolecules. Includes pair of syringes with ganged plungers. One syringe contains protein solution; other contains precipitating-agent solution. Syringes intrude into cavity lined with porous reservoir material saturated with 1 mL or more of similar precipitating-agent solution. Prior to activation, ends of syringes plugged to prevent transport of water vapor among three solutions.

Bugg, Charles E.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Suddath, Fred L.; Snyder, Robert S.; Herren, Blair J.; Carter, Daniel C.; Yost, Vaughn H.

1989-01-01

378

Apparatus Splits Glass Tubes Longitudinally  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tubes split into half cylinders by hot-wire/thermal-shock method. Tube to be cut placed on notched jig in apparatus. Nichrome wire stretched between arms of pivoted carriage and oriented parallel to notch. Wire heated by electrical current while resting on tube. After heating for about 1 minute for each millimeter of thickness of glass, tube quenched in water and split by resulting thermal shock. Apparatus used to split tubes in sizes ranging from 3/8 in. in diameter by 1 in. long to 1 1/2 in. in diameter by 4 in. long.

Shaw, Ernest; Manahan, Robert O'neil

1993-01-01

379

Pole pulling apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for removal of embedded utility-type poles which removes the poles quickly and efficiently from their embedded position without damage to the pole or surrounding structures. The apparatus includes at least 2 piston/cylinder members equally spaced about the pole, and a head member affixed to the top of each piston. Elongation of the piston induces rotation of the head into the pole to increase the gripping action and reduce slippage. Repeated actuation and retraction of the piston and head member will "jack" the pole from its embedded position.

McIntire, Gary L. (12 Honeybee La., Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1989-01-01

380

Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.  

PubMed

Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures. PMID:21427469

Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

2011-05-01

381

Comparative study between LPFG- and FBG-based bending sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study on behavior of grating-based bending sensors, which include long-period fiber grating (LPFG) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG), has been performed in this article. In order to simulate these grating-based bending sensors, a comprehensive simulation model has been presented. According to our simulation results, LPFG-based bending sensor on the standard SMF-28 optical fiber has bending sensitivity of 8.78 nm/m-1. The linear operation range for this bending sensor is between K=0 m-1 and K=5 m-1 (K is the amount of bending curvature). On the other hand, a FBG-based bending sensor on a single-mode 4-core fiber (4CF) has been studied. Our simulation results show that this bending sensor has bending sensitivity of 85.57 pm/m-1 and it has linear response over the entire considered range of bending, K=0-6 m-1. For full-rotation bend sensing, two adjacent cores of this optical fiber should be utilized.

Taghipour, A.; Rostami, A.; Bahrami, M.; Baghban, H.; Dolatyari, M.

2014-02-01

382

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2013-04-01

383

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2012-04-01

384

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2011-04-01

385

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2010-04-01

386

Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

387

Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher.

Zollinger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Lewis, Gregory W. (North Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01

388

Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher. 8 figs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Lewis, G.W.

1995-07-18

389

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2014-10-01

390

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2011-10-01

391

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2010-10-01

392

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2013-10-01

393

42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers...carrying or storing self-contained breathing apparatus will be inspected, examined...c) Containers for self-contained breathing apparatus shall be designed and...

2012-10-01

394

Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.).  

PubMed

Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head. PMID:25018734

Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W

2014-01-01

395

Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.)  

PubMed Central

Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to “unfold” and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head. PMID:25018734

Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W.

2014-01-01

396

An experimental and theoretical study of the bending behavior of Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings  

SciTech Connect

The basic lamina properties were determined by testing unidirectionally reinforced specimens in tension and compression. Results indicate that unidirectional Kevlar 49/epoxy composites manifest nearly linear elastic response in tension and yield-like behavior in fiber-directed compression. The measured compressive yield strength is roughly 20% of the tensile ultimate strength. We also tested 3.2 and 12.7 mm thick, quasi-isotropic beams in tension, compression, short beam shear, and four-point bending, and 457 mm diameter, 12.7 mm thick, quasi-isotropic rings in diametral compression. All specimens were fully instrumented with strain gages to provide a detailed record of their deformation. As anticipated, the flexural response of laminated Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings exhibit nonlinearity. For this reason, a material model which includes compressive yield behavior was examined. In this model, a Kevlar 49 lamina is assumed to respond in a linear elastic manner to all loads except compression in the fiber direction. In fiber-directed compression, it is assumed to behave in an elastic-perfectly plastic manner. Laminate response is determined from the postulated lamina behavior in a manner analogous to that used in classical laminated plate theory. This constitutive model was used in conjunction with the ABAQUS finite element code to analyze the tested specimens. Comparison of predicted results with experimental data corroborates the model's ability to reproduce much of the observed nonlinear behavior.

Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.

1987-01-01

397

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

398

Resonant-fatigue cracking apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus produces controlled surface cracks in test specimens. It has been developed and is useful in production of surface cracks of controlled size and shape in fracture specimens. It consists of specially-designed stand-mounted clamping fixture, commercially available pneumatic actuator, and suitable sound-control mufflers.

Dorner, J. P.; Pierce, W. S.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

1980-01-01

399

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a portable apparatus for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing a sample. It comprises: a portable storage member for storing and transporting the sample, and adjustable top door located on the top side of the storage member, an adjustable bottom door located on the bottom side of the storage member.

Osterman, R.A.; Cox, R.

1992-01-28

400

Material transport method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

401

Material transport method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

402

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01

403

Plasma deposition method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plasma deposition apparatus comprising a plasma formation chamber into which a gas is introduced to produce plasma, a specimen chamber in which a specimen table is disposed for placing thereon a speciment substrate on which a thin film is to be formed, a plasma extraction window interposed between the plasma formation chamber and the specimen chamber, a target which

S. Matsuo; T. Ono

1985-01-01

404

Fractional screen video enhancement apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for displaying two portions of an image at two resolutions. For example, the invention can display an entire image at a first resolution, and a subset of the image at a second, higher resolution. Two inexpensive, low resolution displays can be used to produce a large image with high resolution only where needed.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zimmerer, Daniel J. (Tijeras, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-07-19

405

Duplex sampling apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus is provided for sampling a gaseous mixture and for measuring mixture components. The apparatus includes two sampling containers connected in series serving as a duplex sampling apparatus. The apparatus is adapted to independently determine the amounts of condensable and noncondensable gases in admixture from a single sample. More specifically, a first container includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a sample source and a second port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a second container. A second container also includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from the second port of the first container and a second port capable of either selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a differential pressure source. By cooling a mixture sample in the first container, the condensable vapors form a liquid, leaving noncondensable gases either as free gases or dissolved in the liquid. The condensed liquid is heated to drive out dissolved noncondensable gases, and all the noncondensable gases are transferred to the second container. Then the first and second containers are separated from one another in order to separately determine the amount of noncondensable gases and the amount of condensable gases in the sample.

Brown, Paul E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lloyd, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

406

Apparatus for washing drill cuttings  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

Lott, W. G.

1985-10-15

407

Apparatus for particulate matter analysis  

DOEpatents

The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

2007-01-30

408

Waste heat recovery boiler apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a waste heat recovery boiler apparatus for generating steam by utilizing the heat of exhaust gases of a gas turbine machine, comprising a passage connected at one end thereof to the gas turbine machine, said exhaust gases passing through said passage, a fuel economizer arranged in the passage for preheating feed water, an evaporator arranged in said

A. Sakai; T. Inui; Y. Yokoi

1978-01-01

409

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste hot water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and thence into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and thence to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste

Arbabian

1982-01-01

410

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste hot water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and then into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and then to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste

Arbabian

1984-01-01

411

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

412

Two dimensional radiation detecting apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional X-ray detecting apparatus is comprised of an amorphous silicon layer for trapping electrons in a pattern corresponding to an intensity distribution when it is receiving X-rays, and a scanning device for scanning the surface of the amorphous silicon layer with a laser beam to take out electrons trapped in the silicon layer.

Sugimoto, H.; Naruse, Y.

1985-10-15

413

Waveguide type gas laser apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A digital signal having three logic levels is repeatedly applied to opposite facing electrodes of a waveguide type gas laser apparatus in order to excite laser gas positioned between said electrodes. The three logic level pulse form includes pulses having alternate positive, zero, negative, and zero voltage levels in order to permit D class amplification.

Suzuki, M.

1984-09-18

414

Gearshift apparatus for an automobile  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gearshift apparatus for an automobile with an electromagnetic clutch and a transmission operatively connected to the clutch and having four forward gear trains and an output shaft. This apparatus consists of a first synchronizing means for selectively engaging a second speed gear train and a fourth speed gear train respectively with transmission output shaft. The second speed gear train has a gear ratio such that sufficient torque is produced to start the automobile on an ordinary road. Another feature of the apparatus is a second synchronizing means for selectively engaging a first speed gear train and a third speed gear train respectively with the output shaft. The first gear has a gear ratio producing sufficient torque to start the automobile on an uphill and heavy road. A shift lever means for operating the first and second synchronization means is characterized in the patent. This shaft lever is described as being rotated to a first or second plane for the operation of the respective synchronizing means and as being responsive a means elucidated in the patent for holding it in the respective plane for proper operation. The last component of the apparatus described is a gear select means including a select lever specifically operationally engageable with one of the synchronizing means by rotation of the shift lever to the respective plane and an actuating rod connecting it to the proper shift lever for respective synchronization device operation.

Makita, F.

1986-01-21

415

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for retorting oil shale particles of variable size, including fines, comprising: a substantially vertical cascading burner having a pair of opposing walls; vertically spaced baffles extending from the opposing walls of the burner inwardly and downwardly into the burner in an overlapping relationship, successive baffles extending alternately from opposing walls of the burner the baffles.

A. E. Lewis; R. L. Braun; R. G. Mallon; O. R. Walton

1986-01-01

416

Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors — II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In my previous article on apparatus named after physicists and physics teachers, I discussed five relatively common pieces of apparatus from the 1875-1910 era. Now I will go back to the 18th and early-19th centuries to discuss eponymous2 apparatus that we are still using in lecture demonstrations.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

417

Method and apparatus for separating material  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for sorting particles composed of a mixture of particles with differing physical and chemical characteristics. The apparatus includes a comminutor or a pulverizer for reducing the size of the particles. The apparatus includes a mechanism for separating undesired material from desired material.

Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

2004-11-23

418

Nonlinear aeroelastic stability analysis of wind turbine blade with bending-bending-twist coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the nonlinear aeroelastic stability of wind turbine blade with bending-bending-twist coupling has been investigated for composite thin-walled structure with pretwist angle. The aerodynamic model used here is the differential dynamic stall nonlinear ONERA model. The nonlinear aeroelastic equations are reduced to ordinary equations by Galerkin method, with the aerodynamic force decomposition by strip theory. The nonlinear resulting equations are solved by a time-marching approach, and are linearized by small perturbation about the equilibrium point. The nonlinear aeroelastic stability characteristics are investigated through eigenvalue analysis, nonlinear time domain response, and linearized time domain response.

Liu, Tingrui; Ren, Yongsheng; Yang, Xinghua

2013-10-01

419

Multifiber optical bend sensor to aid colonoscope navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colonoscopy's near-blind navigation process frequently causes disorientation for the scope operator, leading to harm for the patient. Navigation can be improved if real-time colonoscope shape, location, and orientation information is provided by a shape-tracking aid, such as a fiber optic bend sensor. Fiber optic bend sensors provide advantages over conventional electromechanical shape-trackers, including low cost and ease of integration. However, current fiber optic bend sensors lack either the ability to detect both bending direction and curvature, or the ability to detect multiple localized bends. An inexpensive multifiber bend sensor was developed to aid users in navigation during colonoscopy. The bend sensor employs active-cladding optical fibers modified with fluorescent quantum dots, bandpass filters, and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imager as key components. Results from three-fiber sensors demonstrate the bend sensor's ability to measure curvature (error of 0.01 mm), direction (100% accuracy), and location (predetermined distance) of a bend in the fiber bundle. Comparison with spectroscopy data further confirmed the accuracy of the bending direction measurement for a three-fiber sensor. Future work includes improvements in fiber manufacturing to increase sensor sensitivity and consistency. An expanded 31 fiber bundle would be needed to track the full length of a colonoscope.

Kesner, Jessica E.; Gavalis, Robb M.; Wong, Peter Y.; Cao, Caroline G. L.

2011-12-01

420

Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.

Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.

1977-01-01

421

Circuit Bending with Play-Doh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Break open that used musical toy and squish some Play-Doh over the circuit boards, and you will hear some weird and distorted sounds the manufacturer never intended! In this activity learners experiment with the strange conductive properties of Play-Doh in order to safely short-circuit a musical toy. This is an entertaining activity about basic circuitry, sounds, and short circuiting or "circuit bending" battery powered musical toys. Note: often it is difficult to unscrew the musical toys open, and the insides are delicate. So consider this when turning this into a group activity.

Science Museum of Minnesota

2012-06-26

422

Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette  

DOEpatents

Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

2013-09-10

423

Process for removing PCB's from electrical apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from an electrical apparatus comprising: (a) filling the electrical apparatus with a dielectric fluid in liquid state in which polychlorinated biphenyls are soluble, thereby providing adequate insulation during the operation of the electrical apparatus; (b) dissolving polychlorinated biphenyls contained within the electrical apparatus into the dielectric fluid to form a solution; (c) conducting the solution from the electrical apparatus to a cleansing means; (d) cleansing the solution to thereby separate polychlorinated biphenyls from the dielectric fluid so that the dielectric fluid is re-usable; and (e) recirculating the dielectric fluid back to the electrical apparatus for reuse, the steps effectively and substantially removing the polychlorinated biphenyls from the electrical apparatus so that the leaching of residual polychlorinated biphenyls into the dielectric fluid will not exceed 50 ppm.

Fowler, D.E.

1987-08-11

424

Nonlinear Bending Stiffness of Plates Clamped by Bolted Joints under Bending Moment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equivalent stiffness of plates clamped by bolted joints for designing should be evaluated according to not only the strength of bolted joints but also the deformation and vibration characteristics of the structures. When the applied external axial load or the bending moment is sufficiently small, the contact surfaces of the bolted joint are stuck together, and thus both the bolt and the clamped plates deform linearly. Although the sophisticated VDI 2230 code gives the appropriate stiffness of clamped plates for the infinitesimal deformation, the stiffness may vary nonlinearly with increasing the loading because of changing the contact state. Therefore, the present paper focuses on the nonlinear behaviour of the bending stiffness of clamped plates by using Finite Element (FE) analyses, taking the contact condition on bearing surfaces and between the plates into account. The FE models of the plates with thicknesses of 3.2, 4.5, 6.0 and 9.0 mm tightened with M8, 10, 12 and 16 bolts were constructed. The relation between bending moment and bending compliance of clamped plates is found to be categorized into three regions, namely, (i) constant compliance with fully stuck contact surfaces, (ii) transition showing the nonlinear compliance, and (iii) constant compliance with one-side contact surfaces. The mechanical models for these three regions are proposed and compared with FEM solutions. The prediction on the bounds of three regions is in a fairly good agreement except the case with smaller bolts and thicker plates.

Naruse, Tomohiro; Shibutani, Yoji

425

Dielectric elastomer bending actuator: experiment and theoretical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric elastomer is a kind of smart soft material that has many advantages such as large deformation, fast response, light weight and easy synthesis. Subject to a high voltage, dielectric elastomer film will deform sustainably. These features make dielectric elastomer a suitable material for actuators. This paper discussed a spring-roll bending actuator of dielectric elastomer. An actuator based on dielectric elastomer that could bend when applied a high voltage was fabricated. Based on thermodynamics theories, a theoretical model of dielectric elastomer bending actuator was established and the initial deformation and bending deformation of bending actuator was formulated. Most parameters used in formulas could be obtained from fabrication process or test data and theoretical prediction with these parameters explained the experimental phenomena well. Also, the allowable area of bending actuator is determined considering several failure models including electromechanical instability, electrical breakdown and tensile rupture.

Li, Jinrong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2014-03-01

426

Micro-arcsecond light bending by Jupiter  

E-print Network

The detectors designed for Gaia, the next ESA space astrometry mission to be launched in 2011, will allow to observe repeatedly stars very close to Jupiter's limb. This will open a unique opportunity to test General Relativity by performing many Eddington-like experiments through the comparison between the pattern of a starfield observed with or without Jupiter. We have derived the main formulas relevant for the monopole and quadrupole light deflection by an oblate planet and developed a simulator to investigate the processing of the Gaia astrometric observation in the vicinity of the planet. The results show that such an experiment carried out with the Gaia data will provide a new fully independent determination of the PPN parameter gamma by means of differential astrometric measurements and, more importantly, for the first time will evidence the bending effect due to the quadrupole moment with a 3-sigma confidence level. Given the accuracy of the experiment for the monopole deflection, this will permit to test alternative modelling of the light bending by moving masses.

MT Crosta; F Mignard

2005-12-14

427

Apparatus for H2 photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus is described for housing artificial photosynthesis processes. The apparatus is solar powered and employs two separate compartments for the respective oxidation and reduction reactions. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) partitions the two compartments and enables proton conduction therebetween. Faradic losses due to proton currents are minimized by use of a novel geometry. A zigzag design for the solar cell/electrode/PEM partition between the two compartments introduces large fringe fields which help drive proton current from one compartment to the other and reduce faradic losses by shortening the average proton conduction path. Facilitating proton current also improves the pH gradient and enhances water splitting reaction rates. The zigzag design also improves capture of solar flux by shading the PEM under the solar cells.

Lewis, Donald G.; Otto, Michael R.

2009-08-01

428

Critical heat flux test apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

Welsh, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA); Doman, Marvin J. (McKeesport, PA); Wilson, Edward C. (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

429

Drum tie-down apparatus  

DOEpatents

A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

Morse, Harvey E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01

430

Oil sweeper method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Oil sweeper method and apparatus including an elongated structural framework adapted to be towed transversely across the surface of water bearing an oil film contaminant, the framework supporting a pair of longitudinally extending, parallel vertical screens, wherein the forwardmost screen relative to the direction of sweeping motion is constituted of multiple panels pivotally attached to the framework for swinging movement about vertical swinging axes, and the rearward screen is water impervious. When the panels of the forwardmost screen are pivoted they define channels therebetween for diverting surface water and floating contamination such as oil in a lateral direction towards a skimmer disposed at one end of the sweeper apparatus. The rearward screen assists in further deflecting the water and oil towards the skimmer after they have traversed the channels between the pivotable panels.

De V. A.; Van W. P.

1982-04-20

431

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

1998-01-13

432

Freeze chromatography method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.

1987-04-16

433

Micromachined patch-clamp apparatus  

DOEpatents

A micromachined patch-clamp apparatus is disclosed for holding one or more cells and providing electrical, chemical, or mechanical stimulation to the cells during analysis with the patch-clamp technique for studying ion channels in cell membranes. The apparatus formed on a silicon substrate utilizes a lower chamber formed from silicon nitride using surface micromachining and an upper chamber formed from a molded polymer material. An opening in a common wall between the chambers is used to trap and hold a cell for analysis using the patch-clamp technique with sensing electrodes on each side of the cell. Some embodiments of the present invention utilize one or more electrostatic actuators formed on the substrate to provide mechanical stimulation to the cell being analyzed, or to provide information about mechanical movement of the cell in response to electrical or chemical stimulation.

Okandan, Murat

2012-12-04

434

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

Schneider, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

435

Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

1999-01-01

436

Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

437

Synthesis gas method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

2013-01-08

438

X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

1996-01-01

439

Particle analyzing method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid chemical analysis of particles in aerosols can be accomplished using an apparatus which produces a controlled stream of individual particles from an environment, and another apparatus which vaporizes and ionizes the particles moving in free flight, for analysis by a mass spectrometer. The device for producing the stream of particles includes a capillary tube through which the air with suspended particles moves, a skimmer with a small opening spaced from an end of the capillary tube to receive particles passing through the tube, and a vacuum pump which removes air from between the tube and skimmer and creates an inflow of air and particles through the tube. The particles passing through the skimmer opening can be simultaneously vaporized and ionized while in free flight, by a laser beam of sufficient intensity that is directed across the path of the free flying particles.

Sinha, M. P.; Griffin, C. E.; Norris, D. D.; Friedlander, S. K. (inventors)

1980-01-01

440

Desalination apparatus with power generation  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for desalinating ocean waters by distillation and furnishing electrical power, utilizes an evaporator, barometric leg conduits, a closed condenser, ocean water circulating circuits for circulating warm surface water to the evaporator and cool ocean water to the condenser and using the mass flow of vapors evolved from the evaporator to drive a prime mover which in turn drives an electrical generator. A portion of the electrical power so-generated is used to control the operation of respective pumps and valves in the apparatus. The liquid level of the condensate water is controlled in a barometric leg condensate outlet conduit. The system is also provided with a vacuum pump at least for initiating a reduced pressure and particle separator channel means is provided to prevent liquid entrainment in the condenser.

Humiston, G.F.

1981-11-24

441

Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

442

Influence from bends on a pressure-time measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the criteria for using the pressure-time method is that there is a straight pipe between the measurement cross sections. If the physical influences from a bend were known the method could be expanded for use over bends and hence on more power plants. At the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) a test rig suited for experiments on the pressure-time method has been built. In addition to earlier experiments performed on straight pipe and double 90 degree bend, experiments on double 45 degree bend has been performed. This is done in order to try to find out if there is a clear relationship between bend geometry and its influence on the pressure time curve. To further develop the knowledge a full scale test in the field has been conducted on a 5 MW 58 meter head machine with a vertical penstock and a 90 degree bend. In the laboratory a double 90 degree bend caused an underestimation of the flow of about 1 % compared to a straight pipe, while for a double 45 degree bend a conclusion can not be found as the spread around the mean and uncertainty bands is within the range for the straight pipe. The field measurements with a 90 degree bend showed that the underestimation became 8.5%. When measuring pressure difference over bends the resulting calculation will give an underestimation of the flow. This should imply that the measured transient pressure is damped. (Regardless if this is the correct term it is here chosen to call this damping.) The question is if the damping is caused by friction or kinetic effects. The rapid deceleration of the water masses will give transient friction. How transient friction behaves is a topic of interest in hydraulic research. Bends will also cause skewed velocity and pressure profile on inlet and outlet of the bend as well as secondary flows. How this affects the transient pressure is also an interesting parameter.

Ramdal, J.; Jonsson, P.; Nielsen, T.

2010-08-01

443

The mechanics of gravitropic bending in leafy dicot stems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism of the gravitropic bending in stems of the cocklebur and castor bean are investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrate the quick stopping of growth and the increased tensions on the upper layer of a horizontal stem. It is suggested that bending apparently occurs as the resistance of the upper surface layers is extended to the inner cells below. A model of stem bending is developed which can explain the asymmetry of the stem-cell response.

Salisbury, F. B.; Mueller, W. J.; Blotter, P. T.; Harris, C. S.; White, R. G.; Gillespie, L. S.; Sliwinski, J. E.

1982-01-01

444

Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

1994-09-06

445

Statistical Mechanics of Amplifying Apparatus  

E-print Network

We implement Feynman's suggestion that the only missing notion needed for the puzzle of Quantum Measurement is the statistical mechanics of amplifying apparatus. We define a thermodynamic limit of quantum amplifiers which is a classically describable system in the sense of Bohr, and define macroscopic pointer variables for the limit system. Then we derive the probabilities of Quantum Measurement from the deterministic Schroedinger equation by the usual techniques of Classical Statistical Mechanics.

Joseph Johnson

2005-02-08

446

Microwave thawing apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

2004-06-01

447

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19

448

Closed loop spray cooling apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed loop apparatus for jet spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant is circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material is disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which is below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second arrangement no inert gas is used, the bubble consists of vapor produced when the coolant is sprayed against the target.

Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (inventors)

1979-01-01

449

Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

1982-11-16

450

Tide operated power generating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An improved tide operated power generating apparatus is disclosed in which a hollow float, rising and falling with the ocean tide, transmits energy to a power generator. The improvement comprises means for filling the float with water during the incoming tide to provide a substantial increase in the float dead weight during the outgoing tide. Means are further provided to then empty the float before the outgoing tide whereby the float becomes free to rise again on the next incoming tide.

Kertzman, H. Z.

1981-02-03

451

Microwave heating apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

Johnson, Andrew J. (Boulder, CO); Petersen, Robert D. (Thornton, CO); Swanson, Stephen D. (Brighton, CO)

1990-01-01

452

Arbitrary waveguide bends using isotropic and homogeneous metamaterial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for arbitrary waveguide bends using impedance matched metamaterial with negative index of refraction. We analyze the operation principles and verify the performances using the finite difference in time domain method. Results show that nearly perfect transmission without mode distortion can be obtained when the bending angle changes within (0,180) degrees. The bending structure is very efficient and compact in size, and no anisotropic or inhomogeneous materials are required, which make the bend very easy in fabrication and application.

Ding, Weiqiang; Tang, Donghua; Liu, Yan; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Xiudong

2010-01-01

453

SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points and clad configurations. The 2-ply sleeve samples show a higher bend momentum compared to those of the 1-ply sleeve samples. This is applicable to both the hybrid mock-up and bare SiC-CMC sleeve samples. Comparatively both the 1- and 2-ply hybrid mock-up samples showed a higher bend stiffness and strength compared with the standard Zr-4 mock-up sample. The characterization of the hybrid mock-up samples showed signs of distress and preliminary signs of fraying at the protective Zr-4 sleeve areas for the 1-ply SiC-CMC sleeve. In addition, the microstructure of the SiC matrix near the cracks at the region of highest compressive bending strain shows significant cracking and flaking. The 2-ply SiC-CMC sleeve samples showed a more bonded, cohesive SiC matrix structure. This cracking and fraying causes concern for increased fretting during the actual use of the design. Tomography was proven as a successful tool to identify open porosity during pre-test characterization. Although there is currently insufficient data to make conclusive statements regarding the overall merit of the hybrid cladding design, preliminary characterization of this novel design has been demonstrated.

IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

2013-09-01

454

PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE MEASUREMENT BY BEAM BENDING  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and, quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. A performance property for Saltstone mixes that is important but not routinely measured is the liquid permeability or saturated hydraulic conductivity of the cured Saltstone mix. The value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity is an input into the Performance Assessment for the SRS Z-Area vaults. Therefore, it is important to have a method available that allows for an accurate and reproducible measurement of permeability quickly and inexpensively. One such method that could potentially meet these requirements for the measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the technique of beam bending, developed by Professor George Scherer at Princeton University. In order to determine the feasibility of this technique for Saltstone mixes, a summer student, David Feliciano, was hired to work at Princeton under the direction of George Scherer. This report details the results of this study which demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the beam bending method to measurement of permeability of Saltstone samples. This research effort used samples made at Princeton from a Modular Caustic side solvent extraction Unit based simulant (MCU) and premix at a water to premix ratio of 0.60. The saturated hydraulic conductivities for these mixes were measured by the beam bending technique and the values determined were of the order of 1.4 to 3.4 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with independently measured values of this property on similar MCU based mixes by Dixon and Phifer. These values are also consistent with the hydraulic conductivity of a generic Saltstone mix measured by Langton in 1985. The high water to premix ratio used for Saltstone along with the relatively low degree of hydration for MCU based mixes leads to high total and capillary porosities. These two conditions generally lead to higher permeabilities as has been well documented in the literature for typical cementitious pastes in water. Therefore, it is not unexpected that the hydraulic conductivities of these Saltstone mixes are relatively high.

Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Vickie Williams, V

2008-01-30

455

Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals  

E-print Network

We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters.

Shaikh M. Shamid; Subas Dhakal; Jonathan V. Selinger

2013-05-21

456

Bimodular rubber buckles early in bending  

E-print Network

A block of rubber eventually buckles under severe flexure, and several axial wrinkles appear on the inner curved face of the bent block. Experimental measurements reveal that the buckling occurs earlier ---at lower compressive strains--- than expected from theoretical predictions. This paper shows that if rubber is modeled as being bimodular, and specifically, as being stiffer in compression than in tension, then flexure bifurcation happens indeed at lower levels of compressive strain than predicted by previous investigations (these included taking into account finite size effects, compressibility effects, and strain-stiffening effects.) Here the effect of bimodularity is investigated within the theory of incremental buckling, and bifurcation equations, numerical methods, dispersion curves, and field variations are presented and discussed. It is also seen that Finite Element Analysis software seems to be unable to encompass in a realistic manner the phenomenon of bending instability for rubber blocks.

Michel Destrade; Michael D. Gilchrist; Julie A. Motherway; Jerry G. Murphy

2013-01-23

457

Separation of blood in microchannel bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (?TBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.

Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang

2003-12-01

458

Separation of blood in microchannel bends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (?TBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.

Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang

2004-01-01

459

A simplified approach for evaluating bendability and springback in plastic bending of anisotropic sheet metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise predictions of springback after bending and bendability (the minimum bending radius) are the key to the design of the bending tool, to control of the bending process and to the assessing of the accuracy of part geometry. The effects of the normal anisotropic value R and the strain hardening exponent n on the pure bending of sheet metal have

Daw-Kwei Leu

1997-01-01

460

Hydrocarbonaceous material processing methods and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus are disclosed for possibly producing pipeline-ready heavy oil from substantially non-pumpable oil feeds. The methods and apparatus may be designed to produce such pipeline-ready heavy oils in the production field. Such methods and apparatus may involve thermal soaking of liquid hydrocarbonaceous inputs in thermal environments (2) to generate, though chemical reaction, an increased distillate amount as compared with conventional boiling technologies.

Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

2011-07-12

461

Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser  

DOEpatents

Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA)

1993-01-01

462

Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser  

DOEpatents

Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

1993-02-23

463

COASTAL BEND BAYS & ESTUARIES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program, Inc. (CBBEP) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)organization. The CBBEP project area encompasses 12 counties coincident with the Coastal Bend Council of Governments and extends from the Land-Cut in the Laguna Madre, through the Corpus Christi Bay s...

464

View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

465

Extrusion of alumina ceramic tubes with controlled bends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extrusion die was introduced in which the internal geometry of the die could be controlled through a simple computer interface to produce alumina tubes with varyingly controlled bends. The relationship between the paste rheology and the bending behaviour is addressed through a detailed analysis of the rheological flow behaviour, such as paste composition and viscosity as well as the

C. Kaya; S. Blackburn

2005-01-01

466

36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend...

2014-07-01

467

36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend...

2013-07-01

468

36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend...

2012-07-01

469

Reaction Mechanisms Effects of Bending Excitation on the Reaction of  

E-print Network

internuclear axis efficiently couples to the reaction coordinate, that is, the set of motions that transforms enhances the reaction by a factor of approximately 30.[2] The effects of reagent bending vibrations-frequency vibrations are more easily populated at thermal temperatures. To date, the influence of bending vibrations

Zare, Richard N.

470

Structure-borne sound Flexural wave (bending wave)  

E-print Network

1 Structure-borne sound · Flexural wave (bending wave) »One dimensional (beam) +(/x)dx +(/x)dx = (/x) (/x)dx=(2/x2)dx Mz +(Mz/x)dx Mz vy Fy Fy +(Fy/x)dx Structure-borne sound · Bending wave ­ flexural wave #12;2 Structure-borne sound · Two obliquely propagating waves + - + + - + - Structure

Berlin,Technische Universität

471

MINIMIZING DEFLECTION AND BENDING MOMENT IN A BEAM  

E-print Network

the blocks so that the maximum deflection is no more than 16/9 3 1.027 times the theoretical minimum.054 times the theoretical minimum but restricts the maximum bending moment to within 2 times the minimum and the maximum bending moment is within 4 times the minimum. Another heuristic allows maximum deflection up to 2

Bartholdi III, John J.

472

Characterization of bending loss in hollow flexible terahertz waveguides  

E-print Network

infrared (FIR) laser at 215 µm. The bending loss of silver coated polycarbonate waveguides were measured radius, and up to 150° bending angle. The investigation shows the preservation of single laser mode for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266­S280 (2005). 2

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

473

General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General plan, bending machinge, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. Scale 3 inches - 1 ft, March 13th 1893, drawing number 15384 (photograph of drawing of rail bending machine held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

474

Draw Bending of Dissymmetric Channel Section with Variable Axial Tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, aluminum alloy sections have been used in various areas such as general structures and automotive components. Aluminum channel sections with appropriate shapes for structural rails have the advantages of having a light weight and a high bending rigidity. In these areas, components with a part of a curved configuration are utilized. Therefore, bending process is required to manufacture these components. However, undesirable deformation such as flattening and wrinkling occurs easily when bending thin-walled sections. As a method of preventing undesirable deformation, the use of axial tension and constraining dies is suggested. In a previous study, the effect of constraining dies on undesirable deformation was confirmed in the draw bending of dissymmetric channel sections. However, the approach using the axial tension is necessary to determine the effect of axial tension on the working property of dissymmetric channel sections. Axial tension is effective for flattening and wrinkling on a compression flange by compression stress. The appropriate axial tension was accurately varied with bending angle to prevent undesirable deformation. In this work, the stress analyses of draw bending with axial tension were performed by finite element analysis (FEA). From these analyses, the appropriate axial tensions at bending angles are demonstrated. An experiment on draw bending with variable axial tensions, which was performed by FEA, was carried out. From the results, the effect of appropriate axial tension on the working property of dissymmetric channel sections was confirmed by FEA and experiment.

Okude, Yusuke; Sakaki, Shuji; Yoshihara, Shoichiro

2011-01-01

475

Tension bending ratcheting tests of 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses results of an experimental program conducted to investigate the strain ratcheting behavior of 304 stainless steel under various combinations of applied membrane load and displacement controlled cyclic bending strain. Tests were performed on uniaxial specimens at temperatures of 70 F (21 C) and 550 F (288 C). Bending strain, ratchet strain and axial displacement of the specimens

L. D. Larson; D. P. Jones; D. G. Rapp

1996-01-01

476

Effects of Large Bending Deflections on Blade Flutter Limits  

E-print Network

bending under the aerodynamic loading leads to a coupling of blade torsion to the edgewise bending no significant change of the flutter limit on the rotor speed due to the blade deflection, whereas the first and loading. The blade tor- sion, and therefore the angle of attack along the blade, are increased near

477

Graviton Propagators, Brane Bending and Bending of Light in Theories with Quasi-Localized Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the graviton propagator on the brane for theories with quasi-localized gravity. In these models the ordinary 4D graviton is replaced by a resonance in the spectrum of massive Kaluza-Klein modes, which can decay into the extra dimension. We find that the effects of the extra polarization in the massive graviton propagator is exactly cancelled by the bending of

Csaba Csaki; Joshua Erlich; Timothy J. Hollowood

478

Failure behavior of plasma-sprayed HAp coating on commercially pure titanium substrate in simulated body fluid (SBF) under bending load.  

PubMed

Four point bending tests with acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were conducted for evaluating failure behavior of the plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coat on commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) plate with and without mixed HAp/Ti bond coat. Effect of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on failure behavior of the coated specimen was also investigated by immersing the specimen in SBF. The AE patterns obtained from the bending test of the HAp coating specimens after a week immersion in SBF clearly showed the earlier stage of delamination and spallation of the coating layer compared to those without immersion in SBF. It was also found that the bond coating improved failure resistance of the HAp coating specimen compared to that without the bond coat. Four point bend fatigue tests under ambient and SBF environments were also conducted with AE monitoring during the entire fatigue test for investigating the influence of SBF environment on fatigue failure behavior of the HAp coating specimen with the mixed HAp/Ti bond coat. The specimens tested at a stress amplitude of 120 MPa under both ambient and SBF environments could survive up to 10? cycles without spallation of HAp coating layer. The specimens tested under SBF environment and those tested under ambient environment after immersion in SBF showed shorter fatigue life compared to those tested under ambient environment without SBF immersion. Micro-cracks nucleated in the coating layer in the early stage of fatigue life and then propagated into the cp-Ti substrate in the intermediate stage, which unstably propagated to failure in the final stage. It was found from the XRD analysis that the dissolution of the co-existing phases and the precipitation of the HAp phase were taken place during immersion in SBF. During this process, the co-existing phases disappeared from the coating layer and the HAp phase fully occupied the coating layer. The degradation of bending strength and fatigue life of the HAp coating specimens tested under SBF environment would be induced by dissolution of the co-existing phases from the coating layer during immersion in SBF. PMID:23032435

Laonapakul, Teerawat; Rakngarm Nimkerdphol, Achariya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

2012-11-01

479

Hot cell shield plug extraction apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for moving shielding plugs into and out of holes in concrete shielding walls in hot cells for handling radioactive materials without the use of external moving equipment. The apparatus provides a means whereby a shield plug is extracted from its hole and then swung approximately 90 degrees out of the way so that the hole may be accessed. The apparatus uses hinges to slide the plug in and out and to rotate it out of the way, the hinge apparatus also supporting the weight of the plug in all positions, with the load of the plug being transferred to a vertical wall by means of a bolting arrangement.

Knapp, Philip A. (Moore, ID); Manhart, Larry K. (Pingree, ID)

1995-01-01

480

Apparatus for Studying the Principles of Electron Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus designed for demonstrating electron and ion-optical principles. The apparatus consists of (1) a high-vacuum system and (2) electron-optical components. The teaching techniques used and the experiments conducted are reported. The apparatus won second prize in Demonstration Lecture Apparatus in the A.A.P.T. Apparatus

Kendall, B. R. F.; and others

1969-01-01

481

Multispectral imaging method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

Sandison, David R. (Moriarty, NM); Platzbecker, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Vargo, Timothy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Lockhart, Randal R. (Lorain, OH); Descour, Michael R. (Tucson, AZ); Richards-Kortum, Rebecca (Austin, TX)

1999-01-01

482

Multispectral imaging method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

1999-07-06

483

Rotating apparatus for isoelectric focusing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This disclosure is directed to an isoelectric focusing apparatus, wherein stabilization of the fluid containing the isolated proteins is achieved by carrying out the separation in a rotating cylinder with the separation cavity of the cylinder being segmented by means of filter elements. The filter elements are constituted of a material offering some degree of resistance to fluid convection, but allowing relatively free and unhindered passage of current and transport of proteins. The combined effect of segmentation and rotation has been found to be superior to either segmentation or rotation alone in maintaining the stability of the migrated fractions.

Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1986-01-01

484

Vibration sensing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure is disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration. 4 figs.

Barna, B.A.

1987-07-07

485

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

Chen, H.L.

1983-08-16

486

Apparatus for storing radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for storing radioactive materials, in which a metal halide or a metal carbonyl compound is introduced from a cylinder to the vicinity of a solid material while a gaseous radioactive material provided from a reservoir, ionized and accelerated is being implanted into the solid material, so as to allow the elemental metal to be deposited on the surface of the solid material, thereby detaining the radioactive material in the solid material and newly providing the surface of the solid material with a metal layer for multi-layer implantation.

Ozaki, S.

1981-02-17

487

Emission type computed tomography apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An emission type computed tomography apparatus comprises a mechanism for rotating a detector along a circle centered at a human body to whom radioisotope is previously given, and a circuit for reconstructing a tomogram in accordance with an output signal from said detector. The rotating mechanism further has a member for slanting the detector with respect to a tangential line of the circle, a member for slanting said detector with respect to the body axis, and a member for changing the radius of the rotating circle of the detector.

Ueyama, A.; Kumano, N.; Takase, H.

1984-10-09

488

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

DOEpatents

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01

489

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

Williams, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Baker, Donald F. (Hempfield, PA)

1988-01-01

490

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

1988-09-20

491

Vibration sensing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure is disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration.

Barna, Basil A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-04-25

492

Vibration sensing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure are disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration. 4 figs.

Barna, B.A.

1989-04-25

493

77 FR 36012 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant Combined License Application; Notice of Intent...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bend Nuclear Power Plant Combined License Application...its Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP) site, located...site layout that was developed in order to avoid wetland...impacts by relocating the power block footprint and other plant components. For...

2012-06-15

494

Tank gauging apparatus and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under low or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of the fluid in the container is measured before and after removal of the gas; the pressure and temperature of the gas in the accumulator is measured before and after compression of the gas into the accumulator from the container. These pressure and temperature measurements are used to determine the volume of gas in the container, whereby the volume of the liquid in the container can be determined from the difference between the known volume of the container and the volume of gas in the container. Gas from the accumulator may be communicated into the container in a similar process as a verification of the gauging of the liquid volume, or as an independent process for determining the volume of liquid in the container.

Morris, Brian G. (inventor)

1990-01-01

495

Conveyor with rotary airlock apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for transferring objects from a first region to a second region, the first and second regions having differing atmospheric environments. The apparatus includes a shell having an entrance and an exit, a conveyer belt running through the shell from the entrance to the exit, and a horizontally mounted `revolving door` with at least four vanes revolving about its axis. The inner surface of the shell and the top surface of the conveyer belt act as opposing walls of the `revolving door`. The conveyer belt dips as it passes under but against the revolving vanes so as not to interfere with them but to engage at least two of the vanes and define thereby a moving chamber. Preferably, the conveyer belt has ridges or grooves on its surface that engage the edges of the vanes and act to rotate the vane assembly. Conduits are provided that communicate with the interior of the shell and allow the adjustment of the atmosphere of the moving chamber or recovery of constituents of the atmosphere of the first region from the moving chamber before they escape to the second region.

Kronbert, J.W.

1993-01-01

496

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

497

Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

1994-12-13

498

Vehicle security apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security apparatus for use in a motor vehicle is disclosed, the apparatus comprising an optical key, a receptacle, a receiver and at least one optical fiber. The optical key has a transmitter having at least one first preprogrammed coded signal stored in a first electric circuit. The receptacle receives the optical key and at least one transmittable coded optical signal from the transmitter corresponding to the at least one preprogrammed coded signal stored in the first electric circuit. The receiver compares the at least one transmittable coded optical signal to at least one second preprogrammed coded signal stored in a second electric circuit and the receiver is adapted to trigger switching effects for at least one of enabling starting the motor vehicle and starting the motor vehicle upon determination that the at least one transmittable coded optical signal corresponds to the at least one second preprogrammed signal in the second electric circuit. The at least one optical fiber is operatively connected between the receptacle and the receiver for carrying the optical signal from the receptacle to the receiver. Also disclosed is a method for permitting only authorized use of a motor vehicle. 7 figs.

Veligdan, J.T.

1996-02-13

499

Vehicle security apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security apparatus for use in a motor vehicle, the apparatus comprising an optical key, a receptacle, a receiver and at least one optical fiber. The optical key has a transmitter having at least one first preprogrammed coded signal stored in a first electric circuit. The receptacle receives the optical key and at least one transmittable coded optical signal from the transmitter corresponding to the at least one preprogrammed coded signal stored in the first electric circuit. The receiver compares the at least one transmittable coded optical signal to at least one second preprogrammed coded signal stored in a second electric circuit and the receiver is adapted to trigger switching effects for at least one of enabling starting the motor vehicle and starting the motor vehicle upon determination that the at least one transmittable coded optical signal corresponds to the at least one second preprogrammed signal in the second electric circuit. The at least one optical fiber is operatively connected between the receptacle and the receiver for carrying the optical signal from the receptacle to the receiver. Also disclosed is a method for permitting only authorized use of a motor vehicle.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

1996-02-13

500

Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it. 12 figs.

Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Charles, S.T.; Spalding, J.A.

1999-08-31