Sample records for four-point bending apparatus

  1. Apparatus for thin-film stress measurement with integrated four-point bending equipment: Performance and results on Cu films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Weihnacht; W. Brückner; C. M. Schneider

    2000-01-01

    New insight into the mechanical behavior of thin metallic films on substrates can be obtained by a novel experimental technique. It comprises stress measurements by the wafer curvature technique in combination with a four-point bending of beam-shaped samples. A dedicated apparatus was constructed which allows such experiments in high vacuum between room temperature and 500 °C to be carried out.

  2. A novel four-point bend test for strength measurement of optical fibers and thin beams. I. Bending analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Nelson; M. John Matthewson; Bochien Lin

    1996-01-01

    A novel four-point bend apparatus is described for strength measurement of thin compliant beams that avoids the loading and gripping problems associated with other techniques. The apparatus has proved particularly useful for strength measurement of relatively weak optical fibers. In this four-point bend system, loading pin displacement rather than applied load is the measured quantity from which failure stress is

  3. Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony; Bubsey, Raymond; Ghosn, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.

  4. Four-point-bending-fatigue behavior of the Zr-based Vitreloy 105 bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Buchanan, R. A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Green, B. A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Wang, G Y [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Horton Jr, Joe A [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make a direct comparison between four-point-bending and uniaxial fatigue tests with the Zr{sub 52.5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10.0}Ti{sub 5.0} (at.%) BMG alloy (Vitreloy 105). The fatigue lifetimes in four-point bending were found to be greater than those reported in uniaxial testing. However, the fatigue-endurance limit found in four-point bending was slightly less than that reported for uniaxial fatigue. Thus, the significant differences between fatigue studies in the literature are not likely due to this difference in testing geometry. On the contrary, the fatigue lifetimes were found to be highly dependent upon surface defects and material quality. The four-point-bending-fatigue performance of the Vit 105 alloy was found to be greater than most BMGs and similar to the 300 M high-strength steel and other crystalline alloys in spite of not being 'perfectly amorphous.' Due to the detrimental effects of these inhomogeneities and wear at the supporting pins, this fatigue behavior can be assumed to be a conservative estimate of the potential fatigue performance of a perfectly amorphous and homogeneous BMG.

  5. A novel four-point bend test for strength measurement of optical fibers and thin beams. II. Statistical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. John Matthewson; Gregory J. Nelson

    1996-01-01

    In the first part of this work, a novel implementation of the well-known four-point bend test is described that determines the strength of thin beams and optical fibers by measuring the loading pin displacement, rather than the applied load. This paper extends the analysis of the nonlinear bending behavior to account for the stochastic nature of strength. A statistical analysis

  6. Four-Point Bending Strength Testing of Pultruded Fiberglass Composite Wind Turbine Blade Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Bourne, B; Hughes, S; Zuteck, M. D. (MDZ Consulting)

    2001-07-10

    The ultimate strength of the PS Enterprises pultruded blade section was experimentally determined under four-point bending at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Thirteen 8-foot long full-scale blade segments were individually tested to determine their maximum moment carrying capability. Three airfoil-bending configurations were tested: high- and low-pressure skin buckling, and low pressure skin buckling with foam interior reinforcement. Maximum strain was recorded for each sample on the compressive and tensile surfaces of each test blade. Test data are compared to the results of three analytical buckling prediction methods. Based on deviations from the linear strain versus load curve, data indicate a post-buckling region. High-pressure side buckling occurred sooner than low-pressure side buckling. The buckling analyses were conservative for both configurations, but high-pressure side buckling in particular was substantially under-predicted. Both high- and low-pressure buckling configurations had very similar failure loads. These results suggests that a redundant load path may be providing strength to the section in the post-buckling region, making the onset of panel buckling a poor predictor of ultimate strength for the PS Enterprises pultrusion.

  7. Characterization of acoustic emission signals from particulate filled thermoset and thermoplastic polymeric coatings in four point bend tests

    E-print Network

    Quartly, Graham

    . The coating matrix contained 2% by volume of fluorite particles and the primer layer held 12% silicon carbide polymeric coatings in four point bend tests Y. Xu + and B. G. Mellor Materials Research Group, Engineering coatings, the acoustic emission (AE) method being utilized to monitor the damage progress during the tests

  8. The Role of Crack Formation in Chevron-Notched Four-Point Bend Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    The failure sequence following crack formation in a chevron-notched four-point bend 1 specimen is examined in a parametric study using the Bluhm slice synthesis model. Premature failure resulting from crack formation forces which exceed those required to propagate a crack beyond alpha (min) is examined together with the critical crack length and critical crack front length. An energy based approach is used to establish factors which forecast the tendency of such premature failure due to crack formation for any selected chevron-notched geometry. A comparative study reveals that, for constant values of alpha (1) and alpha (0), the dimensionless beam compliance and stress intensity factor are essentially independent of specimen width and thickness. The chevron tip position, alpha (0) has its primary effect on the force required to initiate a sharp crack. Small values for alpha (0) maximize the stable region length, however, the premature failure tendency is also high for smaller alpha (0) values. Improvements in premature failure resistance can be realized for larger values of alpha (0) with only a minor reduction in the stable region length. The stable region length is also maximized for larger chevron based positions, alpha (1) but the chance for premature failure is also raised. Smaller base positions improve the premature failure resistance with only minor decreases in the stable region length. Chevron geometries having a good balance of premature failure resistance, stable region length, and crack front length are 0.20 less than or equal to alpha (0) is less than or equal to 0.30 and 0.70 is less than or equal to alpha (1) is less than or equal to 0.80.

  9. Mixed-Mode-Bending Delamination Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, John H., Jr.; Reeder, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Mixed-mode-bending delamination apparatus generates two types of delamination stress simultaneously in specimen from single externally applied point load. In technique, indivial mode I and mode II contributions to delamination in specimen analyzed by use of simple beam-theory equations, eliminating need for time-consuming, difficult numerical analysis. Allows wider range of mode I/mode II ratios than possible with many other methods. Mixed-mode delamination testing of interest in all fields utilizing composite materials, used mostly in aerospace field, but also used in automobiles, lightweight armored military vehicles, boats, and sporting equipment. Useful in general lumber, plywood, and adhesive industries, as well.

  10. Artifactual nonlinearity due to wear grooves and friction in four-point bending experiments of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Griffin, L V; Gibeling, J C; Gibson, V A; Martin, R B; Stover, S M

    1997-02-01

    Experiments and analyses were performed to determine the cause of a nonlinear force-deflection response observed in four-point flexural fatigue of beams of cortical bone machined from the mid-diaphysis of the equine third metacarpus. Observable grooves which formed on the beam surface at supports and load noses were found to be the primary cause of the nonlinearity. An additional geometric nonlinearity at large deflections revealed by finite element modeling may be minimized by using the smallest diameter supports and load noses recommended in ASTM 790. However, frictional constraint of the beams at the load noses and supports can occur at low load levels and should be avoided by using roller-bearing supports and load noses, or some equivalent method. PMID:9001939

  11. Just Four Points and "The Prepared Mind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John

    2003-01-01

    Solving problems often means trying out ideas one knows about which might lead down blind alleys. In this article, the author provides a solution to the following simple mathematical problem: Suppose you have four points which are on the four sides of a square, how do you construct the square? He says that the obvious place to tackle it is to use…

  12. Four-point amplitudes in SCQCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, Marta; Mauri, Andrea; Santambrogio, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    We compute four-point scattering amplitudes in SCQCD with general external matter configurations using superspace Feynman diagrams, at one loop in the general case and up to two loops in the fundamental sector. In the pure adjoint sector at one loop we confirm exact agreement with the corresponding amplitudes in SYM theory, supporting the idea that a closed subsector of the SCQCD might be exactly integrable. External matter in the fundamental representation breaks dual conformal invariance already at one-loop order while the principle of maximal transcendentality is respected up to two loops.

  13. From micro- to nanoscale scanning four-point probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bøggild; Torben M. Hansen; Oliver Kuhn; Francois Grey

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a scanning four-point measurement technique which enables us to locally probe the conductivity with sub-micron spatial resolution. Inherently, the technique is particularly sensitive to conduction channels close to the surface. Our scanning four-point probes with inter-electrode spacing of 60 mum to 1.5 mum are currently used to investigate the electronic properties of atomically flat Si-terraces in ultra-high

  14. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  15. Four-point functions in N=4 SYM

    E-print Network

    P. J. Heslop; P. S. Howe

    2002-12-10

    A new derivation is given of four-point functions of charge $Q$ chiral primary multiplets in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. A compact formula, valid for arbitrary $Q$, is given which is manifestly superconformal and analytic in the internal bosonic coordinates of analytic superspace. This formula allows one to determine the spacetime four-point function of any four component fields in the multiplets in terms of the four-point function of the leading chiral primary fields. The leading term is expressed in terms of $1/2 Q(Q-1)$ functions of two conformal invariants and a number of single variable functions. Crossing symmetry reduces the number of independent functions, while the OPE implies that the single-variable functions arise from protected operators and should therefore take their free form. This is the partial non-renormalisation property of such four-point functions which can be viewed as a consequence of the OPE and the non-renormalisation of three-point functions of protected operators.

  16. CLEAVAGE FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF CLADDED BEAMS WITH AN EMBEDDED FLAW UNDER FOUR-POINT BENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Semi-large scale embedded flaw beams were tested at Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez in the Czech Republic for the 6th Network for Evaluating Structural Components (NESC_VI) project. The experiments included, among others, a series of semi-large scale tests on cladded beam specimens containing simulated sub-clad flaws. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted numerical studies to analyze the constraint issues associated with embedded flaws using various fracture mechanics methods, including T-Stress, hydrostatic stress based QH stress, and the Weibull stress model. The recently developed local approach using the modified Weibull stress model combined with the Master Curve methodology was also utilized to predict the failure probability (Pf) of semi-large scale beams. For this study, the Weibull statistical model associated with the Master Curve methodology was employed to stochastically simulate the fracture toughness data using the available Master Curve reference temperature T0 for the tested base material from the "aged?WWER-440 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The study was also conducted to investigate the sensitivity of predicated probability of failure of semi-large scale beams with embedded flaw with different Weibull shape parameters, m.

  17. Four-point amplitudes in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ SCQCD

    E-print Network

    Marta Leoni; Andrea Mauri; Alberto Santambrogio

    2015-01-21

    We compute four-point scattering amplitudes in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ SCQCD with general external matter configurations using $\\mathcal{N}=1$ superspace Feynman diagrams, at one loop in the general case and up to two loops in the fundamental sector. In the pure adjoint sector at one loop we confirm exact agreement with the corresponding amplitudes in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory, supporting the idea that a closed subsector of the SCQCD might be exactly integrable. External matter in the fundamental representation breaks dual conformal invariance already at one loop and also the maximum transcendentality principle at two loops.

  18. Four-point functions and the permutation group S4

    E-print Network

    Eichmann, Gernot; Heupel, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Four-point functions are at the heart of many interesting physical processes. A prime example is the light-by-light scattering amplitude, which plays an important role in the calculation of hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. In the calculation of such quantities one faces the challenge of finding a suitable and well-behaved basis of tensor structures in coordinate and/or momentum space. Provided all (or many) of the external legs represent similar particle content, a powerful tool to construct and organize such bases is the permutation group S4. We introduce an efficient notation for dealing with the irreducible multiplets of S4, and we highlight the merits of this treatment by exemplifying four-point functions with gauge-boson legs such as the four-gluon vertex and the light-by-light scattering amplitude. The multiplet analysis is also useful for isolating the important kinematic regions and the dynamical singularity content of such amplitudes. Our analysis serves as a basis...

  19. Four-point functions and the permutation group S4

    E-print Network

    Gernot Eichmann; Christian S. Fischer; Walter Heupel

    2015-05-23

    Four-point functions are at the heart of many interesting physical processes. A prime example is the light-by-light scattering amplitude, which plays an important role in the calculation of hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. In the calculation of such quantities one faces the challenge of finding a suitable and well-behaved basis of tensor structures in coordinate and/or momentum space. Provided all (or many) of the external legs represent similar particle content, a powerful tool to construct and organize such bases is the permutation group S4. We introduce an efficient notation for dealing with the irreducible multiplets of S4, and we highlight the merits of this treatment by exemplifying four-point functions with gauge-boson legs such as the four-gluon vertex and the light-by-light scattering amplitude. The multiplet analysis is also useful for isolating the important kinematic regions and the dynamical singularity content of such amplitudes. Our analysis serves as a basis for future efficient calculations of these and similar objects.

  20. Four-point potential drop measurements for materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The technique of measuring the voltage difference (potential drop) between two of the four electrodes of a four-point probe, in order to determine conductivity or surface resistivity of a test piece, is well established in the direct-current (dc) or quasi-dc regime. The technique finds wide usage in the semiconductor industry for the purpose of measuring surface resistivity of semiconductors, and also in the measurement of conductivity of metals, particularly of ferromagnetic metals for which conductivity cannot be easily measured using eddy-current nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In these applications, the conductivity of the test piece is deduced from an analytic formula that depends on the geometry of the probe and test piece. Such a formula requires, as an input, the measured value of the potential drop. Several analytical expressions exist for a variety of test-piece geometries and probe arrangements. Recently, it has been shown that broadband measurements of the potential drop, known as 'alternating current potential drop' (ac PD) measurements, can be used not only to obtain the conductivity of a test piece, but also its linear permeability ?. The beauty of this measurement is that the two parameters are completely decoupled in the quasi-static regime. In fact, ? does not appear in the quasi-static expression for ?. Hence, ? may be obtained from low-frequency ac PD measurements and then ? may be deduced as the frequency increases beyond the quasi-static regime, once ? is known. In this review, both dc and ac solutions that are useful in determining the conductivity of metals and semiconductors, and the permeability of ferromagnetic conductors, are summarized. In particular, flat test pieces with arbitrary thickness are considered. At the next level of complexity, a solution for a half-space coated with a surface layer is given, along with a discussion of the use of the four-point potential drop method for determining thickness of a surface layer, such as exists as the result of a surface-hardening process. Recent literature on the topic of surface crack sizing using dc and ac PD is briefly summarized and simple formulas for determining the depth of a long surface crack from ac PD measurements are given. The review also includes four-point potential drop data measured on surface-hardened steel rods and points toward how those data may be used to determine the depth of surface hardening.

  1. Bend fatigue reliability test and analysis for Pb-free solder joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fa-Xing Che; H. L. J. Pang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, VQFN (very thin quad flat no lead) assembly with Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder and Ni\\/Au board finish was tested under three-point and four-point cyclic bend at room temperature (25degC) and high temperature (125degC). Correlation between three-point and four-point bend was performed. It was found that the cycle to failure increases significantly with displacement ranges decreasing for both bend

  2. Apparatus Measures Seebeck Coefficient And Resistivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoltan, Leslie D.; Wood, Charles; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Yixin

    1993-01-01

    Electrical measurements made by four point probes, two of which double as temperature probes. Laboratory apparatus measures both Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of candidate thermoelectric materials at temperatures from ambient to 1,300 K. Apparatus makes possible to take both measurements alternately and in rapid succession during same heating cycle, thereby reducing distortion.

  3. Restraining Bends and Releasing Bends

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carol Ormand

    In this exercise, students use gestures to re-create the motion of fault blocks adjacent to restraining bends and releasing bends. They then answer a few questions about a map view of the San Andreas Fault and two of its bends.

  4. Modelling the fatigue behaviour of composites honeycomb materials (aluminium\\/aramide fibre core) using four-point bending tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abbadi; Z. Azari; S. Belouettar; J. Gilgert; P. Freres

    2010-01-01

    Composite Sandwich Materials are being increasingly used in high-performance structural applications because of their high stiffness and low weight characteristics. Presently, the long-term performance of such structures, especially under fatigue loading, is not enough studied. The aim of this paper is to address such fatigue behaviour by using a fatigue model verified by experimentation. The fatigue model is based on

  5. An evaluation of the sandwich beam in four-point bending as a compressive test method for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental phase of the study included compressive tests on HTS/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, and 5052 aluminum honeycomb at room temperature, and tensile tests on graphite/polyimide at room temperature, -157 C, and 316 C. Elastic properties and strength data are presented for three laminates. The room temperature elastic properties were generally found to differ in tension and compression with Young's modulus values differing by as much as twenty-six percent. The effect of temperature on modulus and strength was shown to be laminate dependent. A three-dimensional finite element analysis predicted an essentially uniform, uniaxial compressive stress state in the top flange test section of the sandwich beam. In conclusion, the sandwich beam can be used to obtain accurate, reliable Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio data for advanced composites; however, the ultimate compressive stress for some laminates may be influenced by the specimen geometry.

  6. A Circle-Preserving Variant of the Four-Point Subdivision Scheme

    E-print Network

    Dodgson, Neil

    there increase at each subdivision step by a fixed amount proportional to the original fourth dif- ferences + D - 2C] 2 This fact was known to Floater, who observed in [5] that taking the harmonic mean instead Artifacts of the magnitude generated by the four-point scheme are unac- ceptable when dealing with curves

  7. Electronic transport at semiconductor surfacesfrom point-contact transistor to micro-four-point probes

    E-print Network

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    -four-point probes Shuji Hasegawa a,b,*, Francßois Grey c a Department of Physics, School of Sciences, University along with the invention of the solid-state transistor in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. Prior to this date, work by Shockley and others to Surface Science 500 (2002) 84­104 www

  8. Four-Point Subdivision Scheme with Fourth Order Accuracy and its Extensions

    E-print Network

    Floater, Michael S.

    , a cubic polynomial that interpolates the four points closest to the interval, and then evaluating this polynomial at 1/4 and 3/4 of the interval. The collection of the pairs of points, corresponding to each edge - 1, each based on the 2n points that are closest to the corresponding interval. Our analysis of few

  9. Four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in N=4 superconformal theories

    E-print Network

    G. P. Korchemsky; E. Sokatchev

    2015-04-29

    We derive the explicit expression for the four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in four-dimensional N=4 superconformal theory. We show that it has a remarkably simple and suggestive form allowing us to predict a large class of four-point correlation functions involving the stress-energy tensor and other conserved currents. We then apply the obtained results on the correlation functions to computing the energy-energy correlations, which measure the flow of energy in the final states created from the vacuum by a source. We demonstrate that they are given by a universal function independent of the choice of the source. Our analysis relies only on N=4 superconformal symmetry and does not use the dynamics of the theory.

  10. Four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in N=4 superconformal theories

    E-print Network

    Korchemsky, G P

    2015-01-01

    We derive the explicit expression for the four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in four-dimensional N=4 superconformal theory. We show that it has a remarkably simple and suggestive form allowing us to predict a large class of four-point correlation functions involving the stress-energy tensor and other conserved currents. We then apply the obtained results on the correlation functions to computing the energy-energy correlations, which measure the flow of energy in the final states created from the vacuum by a source. We demonstrate that they are given by a universal function independent of the choice of the source. Our analysis relies only on N=4 superconformal symmetry and does not use the dynamics of the theory.

  11. Four-point correlation functions in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, G.; Schalm, K.

    1999-02-09

    We examine correlation functions within the correspondence between gauged supergravity on anti-de Sitter space and N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in Minkowski space. The imaginary parts of four-point functions in momentum space are computed, in addition to particular examples of three-point functions. Exchange diagrams for gravitons are included. The results indicate additional structure in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong 't Hooft coupling and in the large N limit.

  12. Four-point functions and kaon decays in a minimal AdS\\/QCD model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hambye; Babiker Hassanain; John March-Russell; Martin Schvellinger

    2007-01-01

    We study the predictions of holographic QCD for various observable four-point quark-flavor current-current correlators. The dual 5-dimensional bulk theory we consider is a SU(3){sub L}xSU(3){sub R} Yang-Mills theory in a slice of AdS spacetime with boundaries. Particular UV and IR boundary conditions encode the spontaneous breaking of the dual 4D global chiral symmetry down to the SU(3){sub V} subgroup. We

  13. Four-point functions and kaon decays in a minimal AdS\\/QCD model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hambye; Babiker Hassanain; John March-Russell; Martin Schvellinger

    2007-01-01

    We study the predictions of holographic QCD for various observable four-point quark-flavor current-current correlators. The dual 5-dimensional bulk theory we consider is a SU(3)L×SU(3)R Yang-Mills theory in a slice of AdS5 spacetime with boundaries. Particular UV and IR boundary conditions encode the spontaneous breaking of the dual 4D global chiral symmetry down to the SU(3)V subgroup. We explain in detail

  14. AdS\\/CFT for four-point amplitudes involving gravitino exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda I. Uruchurtu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we compute the tree-level four-point scattering amplitude of two dilatini and two axion-dilaton fields in type IIB supergravity in AdS5 × S5. A special feature of this process is that there is an ``exotic'' channel in which there are no single-particle poles. Another novelty is that this process involves the exchange of a bulk gravitino. The amplitude

  15. Theory of Four-Point Direct-Current Potential Drop Measurements on a Metal Plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Bowler

    2006-01-01

    Four-point direct-current potential drop techniques are well-suited for accurate, nondes- tructive measurement of material conductivity (or resistivity). From measurements of poten- tial drop on a large metal plate, the electrical conductivity of the plate can be inferred if the thickness of the plate and the dimensions of the probe are known. In this work, an expression for the voltage measured

  16. Four-point correlators with higher weight superconformal primaries in the AdS\\/CFT correspondence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda I. Uruchurtu

    2009-01-01

    The four-point correlation function of two 1\\/2 BPS primaries of conformal weight Delta = 2 and two 1\\/2-BPS primaries of conformal weight Delta = n is calculated in the large lambda, large N limit. These operators are dual to Kaluza-Klein supergravity fields sk with masses m2 = -4 and m2 = n(n-4). Given that the existing formalism for evaluating sums

  17. Manifest Ultraviolet Behavior in the Three-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=8 Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Johansson, H.; /UCLA; Roiban, R.; /Penn State U.

    2008-09-03

    Using the method of maximal cuts, we obtain a form of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude of N = 8 supergravity in which all ultraviolet cancellations are made manifest. The Feynman loop integrals that appear have a graphical representation with only cubic vertices, and numerator factors that are quadratic in the loop momenta, rather than quartic as in the previous form. This quadratic behavior reflects cancellations beyond those required for finiteness, and matches the quadratic behavior of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. By direct integration we confirm that no additional cancellations remain in the N = 8 supergravity amplitude, thus demonstrating that the critical dimension in which the first ultraviolet divergence occurs at three loops is D{sub c} = 6. We also give the values of the three-loop divergences in D = 7, 9, 11. In addition, we present the explicitly color-dressed three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  18. Pion and $\\\\rho$-meson form factors using four-point functions in N$_F$=2 QCD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantia Alexandrou; Giannis Koutsou

    2007-01-01

    Hadron wave functions and form factors can be extracted using four-point correlators. Stochastic techniques are used to estimate the all to all propagators, which are required for the exact calculation of four-point functions. We apply the so called one-end trick to evaluate meson four-point functions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique in the case of the pion and the

  19. Thermal static bending of deployable interlocked booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staugaitis, C. L.; Predmore, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Metal ribbons processed with a heat-forming treatment are enabled to form tubelike structures when deployed from a roll. Deployable booms of this have been utilized for gravity-gradient stabilization on the RAE, ATS, and Nimbus D satellites. An experimental thermal-mechanics test apparatus was developed to measure the thermal static bending and twist of booms up to 3 meters long. The apparatus was calibrated by using the correlation between calculated and observed thermal bending of a seamless tube. Thermal static bending values of 16 interlocked deployable booms were observed to be within a factor of 2.5 of the values calculated from seamless-tube theory. Out-of-Sun-plane thermal bending was caused by complex heat transfer across the interlocked seam. Significant thermal static twisting was not observed.

  20. An all order identity between ABJM and N=4 SYM four-point amplitudes

    E-print Network

    Marco S. Bianchi; Matias Leoni; Silvia Penati

    2011-12-15

    We derive an exact algebraic identity between the two-loop four-point amplitude in ABJM theory and the corresponding one-loop amplitude in N=4 SYM theory. This identity generalizes previous partial results to an exact relation valid at all orders in the IR regulator. Moreover, it allows to conjecture an exact iterative expression for the complete three dimensional amplitude in terms of the BDS ansatz for the four dimensional one, indicating that the strict relation between the two amplitudes experimented at two loops might propagate to all orders. In particular, an almost complete expression for the ABJM amplitude at four loops is derived.

  1. Four-point functions in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at two loops

    E-print Network

    B. Eden; P. S. Howe; C. Schubert; E. Sokatchev; P. C. West

    1999-06-25

    Four-point functions of gauge-invariant operators in D=4, N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are studied using N=2 harmonic superspace perturbation theory. The results are expressed in terms of differential operators acting on a scalar two loop integral. The leading singular behaviour is obtained in the limit that two of the points approach one another. We find logarithmic singularities which do not cancel out in the sum of all diagrams. It is confirmed that Green's functions of analytic operators are indeed analytic at this order in perturbation theory.

  2. Four-point vertices from the 2PI and 4PI effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, M. E.; Fu, Wei-Jie; Mikula, P.; Pickering, D.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a symmetric scalar theory with quartic coupling in two and three dimensions and compare the self-consistent four-point vertex obtained from the four-particle-irreducible effective action with the Bethe-Salpeter 4-vertex from the two-particle-irreducible effective action. At zero external momenta the two vertices agree well with each other when the coupling strength is small, but differences between them become more and more pronounced as the coupling strength is increased. We also study the momentum dependence of the two vertices and show that for certain momentum configurations they are almost identical but differ for general momentum arguments.

  3. Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Hillard, R. J.; Borland, J. O.

    2005-08-01

    An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance ( RS) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source-Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations.

  4. The conductivity of Bi(111) investigated with nanoscale four point probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, J. W.; Handrup, K.; Kallehauge, J. F.; Gammelgaard, L.; Bøggild, P.; Balslev, M. B.; Hansen, J. E.; Petersen, P. R. E.; Hofmann, Ph.

    2008-09-01

    The room temperature conductance of Bi(111) was measured using microscopic four point probes with a contact spacing down to 500 nm. The conductance is remarkably similar to that of the bulk, indicating that surface scattering is not a major mechanism for restricting the mobility at this length scale. Also, the high density of electronic surface states on Bi(111) does not appear to have a major influence on the measured conductance. The lower limit for the resistivity due to electronic surface states is found to be around 5 ?. With such a value for the surface resistivity, surface conduction should not be a significant factor to inhibit the observation of the predicted semiconductor to semimetal transition for thin films of Bi.

  5. Finite element analysis of resistivity measurement with four point probe in a diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaowei; Gao, Chunxiao; Li, Ming; He, Chunyuan; Hao, Aimin; Zhang, Dongmei; Yu, Cuiling; Wang, Yue; Sang, Chong; Cui, Xiaoyan; Zou, Guangtian [State Key Laboratory for Superhard Materials, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2007-03-15

    Using finite element analysis, we studied the steady current field distribution under the configuration of four point probe method for resistivity measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Based on the theoretical analysis, we made a correction to the formula by Valdes [L. B. Valdes, Proc IRE, 42, 420 (1958)]. The results show that our formula provides more accurate determination of sample resistivity, especially when the sample thickness is less than the probe spacing. We found that finite size of the electrode could lead to significant errors in resistivity measurement for semiconducting samples. We also found that the probe spacing is a key factor in the resistivity measurement accuracy for samples in DAC. When the sample thickness t is close to the probe spacing s, the error becomes larger and reaches a maximum.

  6. Dynamics of graphite fiber intercalation: In situ resistivity measurements with a four point probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamics of ferric chloride intercalation of single graphite fibers were studied, in situ, using a four point dc bridge. Measurements before, during and after the intercalation showed that the intercalation occurred within minutes at 200 C. Changes in fiber resistivity after exposure to air suggested hydration of the graphite intercalation compound. Deintercalation of the ferric chloride was initiated at temperatures in excess of 400 C. cycling the intercalant into and out of the graphite fiber gave no improvements in fiber resistivity. The activation energy of the ferric chloride intercalation reaction was found to be 17 + or - 4 kcal/mol 1 consistent with the concept of a preliminary nucleation step in the intercalation reaction.

  7. Analytical calculation of four-point correlations for a simple model of cages involving numerous particles.

    PubMed

    Takeshi, Ooshida; Goto, Susumu; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Nakahara, Akio; Otsuki, Michio

    2013-12-01

    Dynamics of a one-dimensional system of Brownian particles with short-range repulsive interaction (diameter ?) is studied with a liquid-theoretical approach. The mean square displacement, the two-particle displacement correlation, and the overlap-density-based generalized susceptibility are calculated analytically by way of the Lagrangian correlation of the interparticulate space, instead of the Eulerian correlation of density that is commonly used in the standard mode-coupling theory. In regard to the mean square displacement, the linear analysis reproduces the established result on the asymptotic subdiffusive behavior of the system. A finite-time correction is given by incorporating the effect of entropic nonlinearity with a Lagrangian version of mode-coupling theory. The notorious difficulty in derivation of the mode-coupling theory concerning violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is found to disappear by virtue of the Lagrangian description. The Lagrangian description also facilitates analytical calculation of four-point correlations in the space-time, such as the two-particle displacement correlation. The two-particle displacement correlation, which is asymptotically self-similar in the space-time, illustrates how the cage effect confines each particle within a short radius on one hand and creates collective motion of numerous particles on the other hand. As the time elapses, the correlation length grows unlimitedly, and the generalized susceptibility based on the overlap density converges to a finite value which is an increasing function of the density. The distribution function behind these dynamical four-point correlations and its extension to three-dimensional cases, respecting the tensorial character of the two-particle displacement correlation, are also discussed. PMID:24483387

  8. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

  9. Surface-adaptable all-metal micro-four-point probe with unique configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, D. W.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a surface-adaptable all-metal micro-four-point probe (?4PP) with a unique configuration. The ?4PP consists of four independent metallic sub-cantilevers with sharp Cu tips, and an SU-8 body structure to support the sub-cantilevers. The tip height is approximately 15??m, and the tips are fabricated by anisotropic wet-etching of silicon followed by Cu electroplating. Each metallic cantilever connected to the SU-8 body structure acts as a flexible spring, so that the conducting tip can make gentle, non-destructive contact with fragile surfaces. To enhance the adhesion between the metallic sub-cantilevers and the SU-8 body, mushroom-shaped Cu structures were fabricated using an under-baked and under-exposed photolithography process. Various ?4PPs were designed and fabricated to verify their diverse range of applications, and preliminary experiments were performed using these fabricated ?4PPs. The resultant flexibility and reliability were experimentally confirmed on several samples, such as a polymer cantilever, a graphene flake, and curved metallic surfaces. We also expect that the proposed ?4PP will be suitable for measuring the anisotropic characteristics of crystal materials or the Hall effect in semiconductors.

  10. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  11. Analysis of Pregnant Occupant Crash Exposure and the Potential Effectiveness of Four-Point Seatbelts in Far Side Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Duma, Stefan M.; Moorcroft, David M.; Gabler, Hampton C.; Manoogian, Sarah M.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Duma, Greg G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the crash exposure patterns of pregnant occupants and to evaluate the effectiveness of restraint systems, including four-point seatbelts, in far side crashes. The NASS CDS database revealed that 53.0 % of pregnant occupants are exposed to frontal crashes while 13.5 % are exposed to far side impacts. Given that far side crashes were the second leading crash mode after frontal impacts, a previously validated MADYMO computer model of a 30 week pregnant occupant was utilized to investigate pregnant occupant biomechanics in far side crashes. Three impact speeds (5, 15, and 25 mph) were simulated with four restraint conditions: unbelted, lap-belt only, three-point belt, and a four-point belt. Direct abdominal contact from the shoulder strap of the three-point or four-point belt caused uterine-placental strain in contrast to the inertial loading induced strain in the lap-belt and unbelted cases. Overall, the three-point and four-point belt systems provide superior restraint effectiveness for the pregnant occupant compared to the lap-belt and no restraint cases. The four-point resulted in slightly better performance than the three-point belt by reducing the fetal injury risk and occupant excursion. PMID:16968637

  12. A wide class of four point functions of BPS operators in N=4 SYM at order g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Marco; Genovese, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The calculation of a large family of four point functions of general BPS operators in N=4 SYM is reduced to the evaluation of colour contractions. For 1/2 > BPS operators O the explicit results at order g for the function are given up to n=6. The OPE of the general result is performed up to the second order in the short distance expansion parameter. Two examples are given, in which the mixing of the operators in the intermediate channel can be resolved using four point functions computed by this method.

  13. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, J.M.; Barney, P.S.; Parker, G.G.; Smith, D.A.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof. 38 figs.

  14. Simplifications of four-point functions in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at two loops

    E-print Network

    B. Eden; P. S. Howe; C. Schubert; E. Sokatchev; P. C. West

    1999-06-06

    The superconformal Ward identities combined with N=2 harmonic analyticity are used to evaluate two-loop four-point correlation functions of gauge-invariant operators in D=4, N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of the well-known one-loop box integral. The result is confirmed by a direct numerical computation.

  15. Influence of four-point bending fatigue on the residual stress state of a pressure-rolled, particulate-reinforced metal matrix composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hanus; Torsten Ericsson

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the influence of fatigue on the residual stress state of a pressure-rolled metal matrix composite has been investigated. The three-dimensional stress state measured in both matrix and reinforcement has been determined by X-ray diffraction. To estimate the efficiency of the pressure rolling treatment, Wöhler curves were derived for both the heat-treated (to maximum hardness) (T6) and further

  16. Life of AG4s glass-fiber-reinforced plastic in bending in sulfuric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Shevchenko; A. S. Krasovitskii; V. P. Starikov

    1978-01-01

    We have investigated the life of AG-4s unidirectional glass-fiber-rein forced plastic in bending and at increased temperatures in sulfuric acid of different concentrations. The tests were made using a four-point loading method with a ratio of the distance between the supports to the height of the sample of more than 20. The zone of pure bending was 1\\/3 of the

  17. Packard's Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Packard's Falling Body Apparatus, invented by John C. Packard, which is essentially an inclined plane combined with a simple and elegant method of measuring the relative time of descent of a steel ball. (JRH)

  18. Apparatus Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

  19. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

  20. Use-condition-based cyclic bend test development for handheld components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei L. Mercado; Betty Phillips; Shubhada Sahasrabudhe; Joe Paul Sedillo; David Bray; Eric Monroe; Kang Joon Lee; George Lo

    2004-01-01

    For handheld electronic applications such as cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), repeated key strokes could result in considerable flexure of the printed circuit board (PCB) mounted inside the housing. In this study, a standardized four-point bend test, including test board design, test setup, and test input level, has been developed. The S-N curve has been obtained by plotting

  1. Failure of sandwich beams consisting of alumina face sheet and aluminum foam core in bending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kapil Mohan; Yip Tick Hon; Sridhar Idapalapati; Hong Pheow Seow

    2005-01-01

    Applications of sandwich structures, comprising alumina face sheets and aluminum foam core, depend critically on their mechanical performance. Four point bend tests are performed on sandwich beams with varying geometries to identify competing failure modes, such as core indentation, face sheet cracking and core shear. Analytical formulae for the identified failure modes are obtained. A failure mode map was constructed

  2. High precision micro-scale Hall effect characterization method using in-line micro four-point probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Petersena; O. Hansen; R. Lin; P. F. Nielsen; T. Clarysse; J. Goossens; E. Rosseel; W. Vandervorst

    2008-01-01

    Accurate characterization of ultra shallow junctions (USJ) is important in order to understand the principles of junction formation and to develop the appropriate implant and annealing technologies. We investigate the capabilities of a new micro-scale Hall effect measurement method where Hall effect is measured with collinear micro four-point probes (M4PP). We derive the sensitivity to electrode position errors and describe

  3. Conformal partial wave analysis of AdS amplitudes for dilaton-axion four-point functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hoffmann; L. Mesref; W. Rühl

    2001-01-01

    Operator product expansions are applied to dilaton-axion four-point functions. In the expansions of the bilocal fields ????, C?C? and ??C?, the conformal fields which are symmetric traceless tensors of rank l and have dimensions ?=2+l or 8+l+?(l) and ?(l)=O(N?2) are identified. The unidentified fields have dimension ?=?+l+?(l) with ??10. The anomalous dimensions ?(l) are calculated at order O(N?2) for both

  4. Control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

  5. Thermoforming apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Perryman, L.M.

    1984-07-31

    Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

  6. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  7. Collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus is disclosed for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical

  8. Collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net

  9. Laser bending of steel sheets: corrosion testing of bended sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bekir Sami Yilbas; Mazen Khaled; Sohail Akhtar; Cihan Karatas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Laser bending is a good candidate to replace the flame bending process. The electrochemical response of laser bending region changes due to the microstructural modifications and high level of residual stress developed in the laser-irradiated region after the bending process. Consequently, investigation into laser bending and microstructural changes in the irradiated region as well as the electrochemical response

  10. Solar apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    A solar steam generating apparatus for generating process steam in the temperature range of 100°C to 200°C is described comprising: (a) a solar collector comprised of tubular collectors (b) heat storage means, and first duct means communicating with the solar collector and with the heat storage means to permit the transfer of heat from the air heated by the solar

  11. Mitochondrial Four-Point Crosses in ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS : Mapping of a Suppressor of a Mitochondrially Inherited Cold-Sensitive Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Richard B.; Scazzocchio, Claudio

    1983-01-01

    Four-point mitochondrial crosses were conducted in heterokaryons of Aspergillus nidulans. The mutations used were (oliA1), conferring resistance to oligomycin, (camA112), conferring resistance to chloramphenicol; (cs-67), conferring cold-sensitivity, and ( sumD16), a suppressor of (cs-67). Initially, the crosses were conducted by observing the segregation of extranuclear markers in heterokaryotic sectors emerging from the original point of heterokaryosis. This showed that (camA112), (cs-67) and (sumD16) were linked but were probably all unlinked to (oliA1). Second, four-point crosses were conducted using a double marker selection technique, in which (camA112 ) and (oliA1) were always set in repulsion and the frequency of the phenotypes produced by the segregation of the mutant and wild-type alleles of (cs-67) and (sumD) were observed in (camA112 oliA1) recombinants. From these results we concluded that (camA112 ), (cs-67) and (sumD16) were linked and probably mapped in the order given. It was observed that the two nuclear types of conidia from a heterokaryon often had a dissimilar frequency distribution of the segregants of a mitochondrial cross. PMID:17246113

  12. Discovering Gee's Bend Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…

  13. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  14. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  15. Turbocharger apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Leavesley, M.G.

    1993-08-03

    Variable turbocharger apparatus is described comprising a compressor housing, a compressor mounted for rotation in the compressor housing, a turbine housing, a turbine mounted for rotation in the turbine housing, a first inlet for enabling air to be conducted to the compressor, an outlet for air from the compressor, a second inlet for enabling exhaust gases from an engine to be conducted to the turbine, a chamber which surrounds the turbine and which receives the exhaust gases from the second inlet before the exhaust gases are conducted to the turbine, a piston which is positioned between the turbine and the turbine housing and which is slidable backwards and forwards to form a movable wall separating the turbine from the chamber which surrounds the turbine, a bearing assembly for allowing the rotation of the compressor and the turbine, and a heat shield for shielding the bearing assembly from the exhaust gases, the piston having a plurality of vanes, the piston being such that in its closed position it terminates short of an adjacent part of the turbine housing so that there is always a gap between the end of the piston and the adjacent part of the turbine housing whereby exhaust gases from the chamber can always pass through the gap to act on the turbine, the piston being such that in its open position the gap is increased, and the piston being biased to its closed position against pressure from exhaust gases in the chamber during use of the variable turbocharger apparatus whereby the piston slides backwards and forwards to vary the gap in dependence upon engine operating conditions, and the variable turbocharger apparatus being such that the vanes on the piston enter into slots in the heat shield.

  16. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  17. Flexible SiO2 cantilevers for torsional self-aligning micro scale four-point probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, D.; Gammelgaard, L.; Bøggild, P.; Hansen, O.; Petersen, P. R. E.; Hansen, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    In order to successfully measure the conductivity of a sample with a four-point probe, good alignment of the electrodes to the sample is important to establish even contact pressure and contact areas of the electrodes. By incorporating a hinge in a microfabricated SiO2 mono-cantilever the ability to compensate for misalignment is improved at a cost of reduced spring constant. Analytical calculations, numerical simulations on cantilever deflection and comparison with experimental results indicate that a reasonable compromise between torsional flexibility and overall spring constant can be achieved by proper dimensioning and placement of the hinge. Furthermore, it is shown that polymeric macro scale cantilever models can provide a fast and reliable understanding of the mechanical deflection properties of microfabricated SiO2 cantilevers.

  18. Development of micro-four-point probe in a scanning tunneling microscope for in situ electrical transport measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Liu, Canhua; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe (4PP) transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface. Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO3 surface.

  19. Development of micro-four-point probe in a scanning tunneling microscope for in situ electrical transport measurement.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jian-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Liu, Canhua; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe (4PP) transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface. Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO3 surface. PMID:26026532

  20. Fusion rules and four-point functions in the AdS{sub 3} Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, Walter H. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de Correo 67-Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nunez, Carmen A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de Correo 67-Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-15

    We study the operator product expansion in the AdS{sub 3} Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) model. The operator-product expansion of primary fields and their spectral flow images is computed from the analytic continuation of the expressions in the H{sub 3}{sup +} WZNW model, adding spectral flow. We argue that the symmetries of the affine algebra require a truncation which establishes the closure of the fusion rules on the Hilbert space of the theory. Although the physical mechanism determining the decoupling is not completely understood, we present several consistency checks on the results. A preliminary analysis of factorization allows to obtain some properties of four-point functions involving fields in generic sectors of the theory, to verify that they agree with the spectral flow selection rules and to show that the truncation must be realized in physical amplitudes for consistency.

  1. Dynamics of DNA bending/unbending in complex with DNA-bending protein IHF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Anjum; Vivas, Paula; Kuznetsov, Serguei

    2007-03-01

    Kinetics of conformational changes in proteins and DNA that lead to precise recognition of specific DNA binding sites are difficult to observe with the limited time-resolution of stop-flow and single-molecule techniques. Here we use a ˜10 ns laser T-jump apparatus to probe the kinetics of a ˜35-bp DNA substrate bound to E. coli Integration Host Factor (IHF) and end-labeled with a FRET pair. These T-jump measurements, in combination with stop-flow, provide the first direct observation of the DNA bending/unbending kinetics in a protein-DNA complex (Sugimura and Crothers, PNAS, in press; Kuznetsov et al., PNAS, in press). The rates and activation energy of DNA bending are similar to that of a single A:T base pair opening inside uncomplexed DNA, suggesting that spontaneous thermal disruption in base-pairing nucleated at an A:T site may be sufficient to overcome the free energy barrier needed to partially bend/kink DNA. An unusual salt dependence of the binding affinity observed previously for IHF/DNA complex, and explained in terms of DNA binding coupled with disruption of a network of salt bridges within the protein (Holbrook et al., 2001, JMB, 310, 379), is reflected in the salt dependence of the observed bending rates. These results suggest that salt-dependent protein conformational changes may be playing a role in the DNA bending process.

  2. Transport apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, B.R.; Lowe, D.B.; Lowe, D.W.

    1983-07-12

    Transport apparatus is disclosed comprising a drive unit and a slave unit movable in unison along a predetermined path. The slave unit is disposed beneath the drive unit to move along a tunnel with work stations located at intervals along the tunnel. The drive unit carries electromagnets which when energized levitate the slave unit within the tunnel, controls being provided to maintain the slave unit at a desired position relative to the drive unit. The roof of the tunnel is formed from a magnetically transparent material, such as glass. The slave unit is thereby physically isolated from the drive unit. As a result the drive unit is shielded from any hostile environment within the tunnel and resulting, for example, from the transport of radioactive or toxic materials by the slave units. This simplifies repair and maintenance operations on the drive unit.

  3. Critical Apparatus Talk 9: Critical Apparatus

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, TomaÂ?

    2; So, she is drownde: Q1. #12;Critical Apparatus Critical Apparatus: , , and lem> . (reading) contains a single reading within a textual variation. lem> (lemma) contains the lemma, or base text, of a textual variation. #12;Critical Apparatus Example of , and lem>

  4. Communication disruption of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by using two formulations at four point source densities in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David M; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Stringer, Lloyd D; Butler, Ruth C; Campbell, Delyse M; Mosser, Lisa K; Cooperband, Miriam F

    2012-10-01

    Light brown apple moth [Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)] is now established as an economic and quarantine pest in California, and new technologies are being investigated to increase options for its management. Two new organic formulations for mating disruption, SPLAT LBAM HD-O and organic Hercon Biotie (biodegradable) were field tested at four point source densities (25, 72, 322, and 500/ha) and compared with the standard Isomate LBAM Plus (500/ha, as a positive control) and an untreated (negative) control. Assessment involved trapping using synthetic lures and virgin females. In total, 175,776 male light brown apple moths were caught to both the caged females and synthetic lures, from 10 February to 19 May 2011. The light brown apple moth catch dramatically decreased from baseline measurements after the treatments were applied, with the highest density treatments reducing catch to below 10% of the catch in the untreated controls within the first week (> 90% disruption). In synthetic lure traps, the SPLAT and Biotie treatment performed similarly well over all rates (P = 0.317 for posttreatment percentage communication disruption), but SPLAT performed better at disrupting virgin female traps (P = 0.045). There was a significant increase in disruption with an increasing number of points/ha (P < 0.001). Disruption of communication was similar for all three technologies (SPLAT, Biotie and Isomate) at 500 points/ha for both types of trap (P > 0.74). Disruption of this species in vineyards is thus highly feasible. PMID:23156166

  5. Eikonal approximation in AdS/CFT: Conformal partial waves and finite N four-point functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2007-04-01

    We introduce the impact parameter representation for conformal field theory correlators of the form A˜. This representation is appropriate in the eikonal kinematical regime, and approximates the conformal partial wave decomposition in the limit of large spin and dimension of the exchanged primary. Using recent results on the two-point function shock in the presence of a shock wave in anti-de Sitter, and its relation to the discontinuity of the four-point amplitude A across a kinematical branch cut, we find the high spin and dimension conformal partial wave decomposition of all tree-level anti-de Sitter Witten diagrams. We show that, as in flat space, the eikonal kinematical regime is dominated by the T-channel exchange of the massless particle with highest spin ( graviton dominance). We also compute the anomalous dimensions of the high spin OO composites. Finally, we conjecture a formula re-summing crossed-ladder Witten diagrams to all orders in the gravitational coupling.

  6. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  7. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  8. Right-angle slot waveguide bends with high bending efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changbao; Zhang, Qun; Van Keuren, Edward

    2008-09-15

    Two right-angle bends for nanoscale slot waveguides with high bending efficiency based on a corner mirror and different resonant cavities are presented, one with a triangular cavity and the other with a square cavity. Through two-dimensional parametric scanning of the position of the mirror and the dimension of the cavity, a maximum bending efficiency calculated using mode overlap integral (MOI) of 94.3% is achieved for the bend with the triangular cavity and 93.1% is achieved for the bend with the square cavity. Although they both have similar bending performance, the position of the mirror is different between the two cases. PMID:18794968

  9. The lateral bending sign.

    PubMed

    Weitz, E M

    1981-01-01

    In lumbar disc herniations, musculoskeletal findings usually predominate at the outset. There is often an acute list or impaired lateral mobility to one side or the other. This finding represents a protective mechanism to splint the affected disc space in the position where the disc prolapse exerts the least possible pressure on the affected nerve root. An attempt was therefore made to determine whether the relationship of the disc herniation to the nerve root could be delineated by having the patient bend maximally to each side. Three hundred patients who would normally be candidates for routine (static) x-ray study of the lumbar spine had lateral bending (dynamic) films instead. These were then correlated with myelograms and/or surgery, when performed. Lateral bending roentgenograms can often pinpoint the level of lumbar disc herniation. PMID:7280828

  10. Attachment Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Edward F.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention includes an attachment apparatus comprising a rotation limiting member adapted to be threaded onto a threaded member; and a preload nut adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. The rotation limiting member comprises a plurality of pins; and the preload nut comprises plurality of slots, preferably wherein the plurality of pins and the plurality of slots are the same in number, which is preferably three. The plurality of pins of the rotation limiting member are filled into a corresponding plurality of slots of the preload nut to form a rotatable unit adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. In use, the rotatable unit is threaded onto the threaded member. The present invention thus provides a unitized removable device for holes, including holes other than circular in shape, which have an established depth before an end of, or before an enlargement of the hole. The configuration of some exposed part of the device, or the head, is shaped and formed for its intended purpose, such as clamping, anchor points, eye bolts, stud anchor, and the like. The device allows for the installation, preloading and removal of all components of the device, as a unit, without damage to the member for which attachment is required by simple rotations of some exposed part of the device.

  11. Fresh-stem bending of silver fir and Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Tor; Stoffel, Markus; Stöckli, Veronika

    2008-03-01

    The bending and growth characteristics of large fresh stems from four silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were studied. Twenty logs taken from different stem heights were subjected to four-point bending tests. From the bending test records, we calculated stress-strain curves, which accounted for detailed log taper, shear deformation and self weight. From these curves we determined, among other parameters, the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the work absorbed in bending (W). No significant differences were found between species for the wood properties examined. Values of MOE, MOR and W generally decreased with stem height, with MOR in the range of 43 to 59 MPa and MOE ranging from 10.6 to 15.6 GPa. These MOE values are twice or more those reported for stems of young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees. Based on the radial growth properties measured in discs from the logs, we calculated predicted values of MOE and MOR for the stem cross section. The predictions of MOE were precise, whereas those of MOR were approximate because of a complex combination of different failure mechanisms. Methods to test and calculate MOE, MOR and W for the stems of living trees are discussed with the aim of improving analyses of tree biomechanics and assessments of forest stability protection. PMID:18171659

  12. Christian Bend Community Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keysa

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of design, construction, performance, and educational opportunity are described for a small, simple passive solar community center in Christian Bend, Tennessee. This 2500-square-foot structure was designed in cooperation with this community of 75 families by TVA architects and was built entirely by volunteer labor. An educational process paralleled all phases of this building, begining with programming sessions, continuing through

  13. Metallurgical Photomicrographic Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conrad Beck

    1927-01-01

    THE article on Metallurgical Photomicrographic Apparatus which appeared in NATURE of Oct. 8 can scarcely be considered satisfactory to those who desire to know the essential requisites of such an apparatus.

  14. Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

  15. A theoretical and experimental investigation into cold-formed channel sections in bending with the unstiffened flanges in compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Beale; M. H. R. Godley; V. Enjily

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-six cold-formed channel sections were tested in four-point bending with the unstiffened flanges in compression. The width\\/thickness ratio for the web varied from 18.8 to 188 and the width\\/thickness ratio for the flange varied from 3 to 91.75. Post-buckling theories were derived using yield line theory considering both simply supported and partially fixed boundaries to predict the ultimate moment capacity

  16. The experimental study for the solder joint reliability of high I\\/O FCBGAs with thermal loaded bend test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeongshu Chen; Chingshun Wang; A. C. Shiah

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the reliability of flip-chip ball-grid array package (FCBGA) is explored by a cyclic four-point bend test executed at different controlled temperature. The test vehicle is put in a heated chamber and the resulting daisy chain resistance and strains variations are monitored to check its failure. The strain gauges are mounted near the component corners to get the

  17. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R. (24461 W. Blvd. De John, Naperville, IL 60564)

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  18. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  19. An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Kallaher, R. L.; Latham, C. A.; Sharifi, F. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6204 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 Degree-Sign C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 Degree-Sign C to 250 Degree-Sign C.

  20. An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters.

    PubMed

    Kallaher, R L; Latham, C A; Sharifi, F

    2013-01-01

    We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 °C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 °C to 250 °C. PMID:23387668

  1. Speckle-Suppression Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, Israel

    1989-01-01

    Technique and apparatus developed to reduce speckle in unmodulated laser pulses, using reduced number of optical fibers. Expected to decrease costs of bundles of optical fibers used to transmit unmodulated laser pulses. New apparatus reduces speckle in optically transmitted, unmodulated laser input pulse by introducing number of independent delays into pulse.

  2. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  3. Dust removal apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eisenbarth

    1981-01-01

    Compact pollution control and\\/or dust removal apparatus is provided for removing entrained dust particles and\\/or other dry pollutants from an air or gas flow. The apparatus provides for a single pollutant particle discharge in a first or initial removal housing with a plurality of secondary removal housings mounted in spaced fashion circumferentially around the initial removal housing. The construction is

  4. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  5. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  6. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  7. Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.

  8. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most dominant output parameter, the product angle. The numerical analyses are used for the support of the experimental results.

  9. Christian Bend Community Center

    SciTech Connect

    Keysa, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of design, construction, performance, and educational opportunity are described for a small, simple passive solar community center in Christian Bend, Tennessee. This 2500-square-foot structure was designed in cooperation with this community of 75 families by TVA architects and was built entirely by volunteer labor. An educational process paralleled all phases of this building, begining with programming sessions, continuing through design, construction, occupation, and operation of the space. The direct gain building utilizes energy planning in both the interior and exterior. Earth berming and utilization of natural topography aid in the building's compatibility with both summer and winter climatic events. In addition to microclimatic design, interior space planning aids in naturally tempering spaces from extremes in climate. Extensive use of buffer spaces, an airlock entry, and placement of glazing areas (for direct gain and natural and induced ventilation) aid in the natural energy utilization and distribution in the interior spaces. Unique aspects include a double roof, which aids both in prevention of heat loss and in induced ventilation, and other operable garage door type roll down insulated shutters over the south facing aperture areas utilized both as night insulation and as a radiation barrier. This is the other major unique factor in this building. It has been designed both as an energy efficient community center for business as usual, and as an evacuation point and temporary shelter in th event of natural (flood) or man-induced (nuclear) disaster.

  10. Bending behavior of HVOF produced WC-17Co coating: Investigated by acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaricha, S.; Legoux, J.-G.; Marcoux, P.

    2004-09-01

    A four-point bend test using acoustic emission (AE) was used to compare coating properties under mechanical solicitation, mainly the toughness and spalling behavior. Coatings are made from the same material; Sulzer-Metco (Westbury, NY) 2005NS (WC-17Co) sprayed with an HVOF gun with different spray parameters. Coatings deposited on thin rectangular substrates were first bent in tension then in compression. AE features like the event number, energy per event, and cumulative energy were used to assess the damages in the coatings. The results are analyzed in relation to the coating microstructure.

  11. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008 Jan1;13(1):E81-4. Fatigue of dentin-composite interfaces Four-point bending evaluation of dentin-composite

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    ) Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, thermal expansion and contraction, or occlusal forces. Unders- tanding the mechanism of bond degradation

  12. Passive, achromatic, nearly isochronous bending system

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Yunn, Byung C.

    2004-05-18

    A particle beam bending system having a geometry that applies active bending only beyond the chord of the orbit for any momentum component. Using this bending configuration, all momentum components emerge dispersed in position only; all trajectories are parallel by construction. Combining a pair of such bends with reflective symmetry produces a bend cell that is, by construction, achromatic to all orders. By the particular choice of 45.degree. individual bends, a pair of such achromats can be used as the basis of a 180.degree. recirculation arc. Other rational fractions of a full 180.degree. bend serve equally well (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.90.degree./bend.times.1 cell /arc; 2 bends/cell.times.30.degree./bend.times.3 cells/arc, etc), as do combinations of multiple bending numerologies (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.22.5.degree./bend.times.2 cells+2 bends/cell.times.45.degree./bend.times.1 cell). By the choice of entry pole face rotation of the first magnet and exit pole face rotation of the second magnet (with a value to be determined from the particular beam stability requirements imposed by the choice of bending angle and beam properties to be used in any particular application), desirable focusing properties can be introduced and beam stability can be insured.

  13. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L. (North Augusta, SC); Erickson, Scott A. (Augusta, GA); Blackmon, Bruce L. (Aiken, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  14. Conduit grinding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

  15. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  16. Friction role in bending behaviors of thin-walled tube in rotary-draw-bending under small bending radii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yang; H. Li; M. Zhan

    2010-01-01

    For contact dominated rotary-draw-bending (RDB) of thin-walled tube, friction role should be focused to achieve precision bending under small bending radii ratio (Rd\\/D<2.0, Rd-bending radius, D-tube diameter). By using explicit FE simulation combined with physical experiment, underlying effects of the friction on bending behaviors are explored from multiple aspects such as wrinkling, wall thickness variation and cross-section deformation. The results

  17. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  18. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  19. Emission Tube Apparatus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Charles Ward

    This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

  20. Apparatus for Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes apparatus utilized to demonstrate physics principle. Equipment described includes a low pressure chamber, a 360 degree loop ramp, a tilted table demonstrating motion principles, and a method for casting a three dimensional display of magnetic lines of force. (SL)

  1. Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Samuel Lee; McWhorter, Paul Jackson; Rodgers, Murray Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2004-07-06

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with-the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

  2. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  3. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  4. Spin coating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  5. The 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique: the role of probe geometries in isotropic and anisotropic systems.

    PubMed

    Miccoli, I; Edler, F; Pfnür, H; Tegenkamp, C

    2015-06-10

    The electrical conductivity of solid-state matter is a fundamental physical property and can be precisely derived from the resistance measured via the four-point probe technique excluding contributions from parasitic contact resistances. Over time, this method has become an interdisciplinary characterization tool in materials science, semiconductor industries, geology, physics, etc, and is employed for both fundamental and application-driven research. However, the correct derivation of the conductivity is a demanding task which faces several difficulties, e.g. the homogeneity of the sample or the isotropy of the phases. In addition, these sample-specific characteristics are intimately related to technical constraints such as the probe geometry and size of the sample. In particular, the latter is of importance for nanostructures which can now be probed technically on very small length scales. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique, introduced by Frank Wenner, in this review we revisit and discuss various correction factors which are mandatory for an accurate derivation of the resistivity from the measured resistance. Among others, sample thickness, dimensionality, anisotropy, and the relative size and geometry of the sample with respect to the contact assembly are considered. We are also able to derive the correction factors for 2D anisotropic systems on circular finite areas with variable probe spacings. All these aspects are illustrated by state-of-the-art experiments carried out using a four-tip STM/SEM system. We are aware that this review article can only cover some of the most important topics. Regarding further aspects, e.g. technical realizations, the influence of inhomogeneities or different transport regimes, etc, we refer to other review articles in this field. PMID:25985184

  6. The 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique: the role of probe geometries in isotropic and anisotropic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccoli, I.; Edler, F.; Pfnür, H.; Tegenkamp, C.

    2015-06-01

    The electrical conductivity of solid-state matter is a fundamental physical property and can be precisely derived from the resistance measured via the four-point probe technique excluding contributions from parasitic contact resistances. Over time, this method has become an interdisciplinary characterization tool in materials science, semiconductor industries, geology, physics, etc, and is employed for both fundamental and application-driven research. However, the correct derivation of the conductivity is a demanding task which faces several difficulties, e.g. the homogeneity of the sample or the isotropy of the phases. In addition, these sample-specific characteristics are intimately related to technical constraints such as the probe geometry and size of the sample. In particular, the latter is of importance for nanostructures which can now be probed technically on very small length scales. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique, introduced by Frank Wenner, in this review we revisit and discuss various correction factors which are mandatory for an accurate derivation of the resistivity from the measured resistance. Among others, sample thickness, dimensionality, anisotropy, and the relative size and geometry of the sample with respect to the contact assembly are considered. We are also able to derive the correction factors for 2D anisotropic systems on circular finite areas with variable probe spacings. All these aspects are illustrated by state-of-the-art experiments carried out using a four-tip STM/SEM system. We are aware that this review article can only cover some of the most important topics. Regarding further aspects, e.g. technical realizations, the influence of inhomogeneities or different transport regimes, etc, we refer to other review articles in this field.

  7. Least Squares Best Fit Method for the Three Parameter Weibull Distribution: Analysis of Tensile and Bend Specimens with Volume or Surface Flaw Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    Material characterization parameters obtained from naturally flawed specimens are necessary for reliability evaluation of non-deterministic advanced ceramic structural components. The least squares best fit method is applied to the three parameter uniaxial Weibull model to obtain the material parameters from experimental tests on volume or surface flawed specimens subjected to pure tension, pure bending, four point or three point loading. Several illustrative example problems are provided.

  8. Determination of Creep Life of Glass Fiber/Phenol Composite Filled with Carbon Nanotubes by Four-Point Flexural Creep Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Anchang; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Bao, Limin; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    From the result of our existing research, there is a continuing problem that fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composites always break down because of cracks between the laminae for their particular laminated structure. To decrease the probability of cracking between laminae, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which exhibit a high potential as reinforcement for polymers, were used to enhance the interlaminar strength and to obtain an FRP product with a higher longevity. Different mass fractions of CNTs were dispersed in phenol resin and made into FRP composites, with glass cloth serving as a reinforcement material. Subsequently, bending and creep tests revealed that, in certain percentage of cases, the bending strength and lifetime of FRP products were improved by increasing the CNTs mass fraction.

  9. Method for uniformly bending conduits

    DOEpatents

    Dekanich, S.J.

    1984-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.

  10. Bending of floating flexible legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kun Joong; Kim, Ho-Young

    When long thin flexible solid objects, such as the legs of water striders, disposable spoons and human hairs, are pressed against a liquid surface, they bend due to interfacial and hydrostatic forces. To understand the phenomenon, we study the bending of a sheet touching the liquid surface at an angle while clamped at the other end, to find its deflection and the load that the sheet can support before sinking. The theoretically predicted shapes of the sheet and the meniscus match well with experiments. Our theory shows that flexible sheets can support more load than rigid ones before sinking when the sheets are highly hydrophobic.

  11. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

    2005-10-18

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  12. Polarization Imaging Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

  13. Biological particle identification apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

  14. The Percentage Bend Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1994-01-01

    The percentage bend correlation coefficient is introduced as one way to address the problem that the usual correlation coefficient is highly nonrobust. While this method is not a replacement for the usual test, it can offer advantages in terms of power and Type I errors. (SLD)

  15. Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

    1993-01-01

    An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

  16. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  17. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  18. Fuel injection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Kuroda, Y.; Ogata, K.

    1988-07-12

    A fuel injection apparatus is described for injecting fuel responsive to a rotary speed of an engine by utilizing the pressure of compressed air, the apparatus comprising means for regulating the supplying time of the compressed air responsive to at least one of the rotary speed of the engine and the load of the engine, and the regulating means including means for supplying the compressed air for a longer time at least one of low rotary speed and low load of the engine than at least one of high rotary speed and high load of the engine.

  19. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  20. Membrane Bending by Protein Crowding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne

    2014-03-01

    From endosomes and synaptic vesicles to the cristae of the mitochondria and the annulus of the nuclear pore, highly curved membranes are fundamental to the structure and physiology of living cells. The established view is that specific families of proteins are able to bend membranes by binding to them. For example, inherently curved proteins are thought to impose their structure on the membrane surface, while membrane-binding proteins with hydrophobic motifs are thought to insert into the membrane like wedges, driving curvature. However, computational models have recently revealed that these mechanisms would require specialized membrane-bending proteins to occupy nearly 100% of a curved membrane surface, an improbable physiological situation given the immense density and diversity of membrane-bound proteins, and the low expression levels of these specialized proteins within curved regions of the membrane. How then does curvature arise within the complex and crowded environment of cellular membranes? Our recent work using proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as engineered protein-lipid interactions, has suggested a new hypothesis - that lateral pressure generated by collisions between membrane-bound proteins can drive membrane bending. Specifically, by correlating membrane bending with quantitative optical measurements of protein density on synthetic membrane surfaces and simple physical models of collisions among membrane-bound proteins, we have demonstrated that protein-protein steric interactions can drive membrane curvature. These findings suggest that a simple imbalance in the concentration of membrane-bound proteins across a membrane surface can drive a membrane to bend, providing an efficient mechanism by which essentially any protein can contribute to shaping membranes.

  1. Bend ductility of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gurwell, W.E.; Garnich, M.R.; Dudder, G.B.; Lavender, C.A.

    1992-11-01

    A bend ductility test is used to indicate the formability of tungsten heavy alloys sheet. The primary test bends a notchless Charpy impact specimen to a bend angle of approximately 100C. This can be augmented by a bend-completion test. Finite element modeling as well as strain-gaged bend specimens elucidate the strain distribution in the specimen as a function of material thickness and bend angle. The bend ductilities of 70%W, 807.W and 90%W alloys are characterized. As expected, decreasing thickness or tungsten content enhances bend ductility. Oxidation is not detrimental; therefore, controlled atmosphere is not required for cooling. The potentially detrimental effects of mechanical working (e.g., rolling, roller-leveling, grit blasting, and peening) and machining (e.g., cutting and sanding) are illustrated.

  2. Improved Method Of Bending Concentric Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed method for bending two concentric pipes simultaneously while maintaining void between them replaces present tedious, messy, and labor-intensive method. Array of rubber tubes inserted in gap between concentric pipes. Tubes then inflated with relatively incompressible liquid to fill gap. Enables bending to be done faster and more cleanly, and amenable to automation of significant portion of bending process on computer numerically controlled (CNC) tube-bending machinery.

  3. Internal combustion engine apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, T.; Inaga, H.

    1986-12-23

    An internal combustion engine apparatus is described comprising, in combination, an internal combustion engine having an ignition system capable of step advance when a predetermined engine speed is reached between low and high ranges of engine speed; and a centrifugal clutch connected to an output shaft of the internal combustion engine, the centrifugal clutch being engaged and disengaged at substantially the predetermined engine speed.

  4. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Hounsfield; P. G. Langstone

    1978-01-01

    A scanning radiographic apparatus is described in which the object of the scanning is to project the radiation through a substantially planar region of a body along many linear paths. The progress of the scanning is monitored by timing signals. The timing signals are used to determine, at least in part, the widths of the beams and a characteristic, for

  5. Solar heating apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trihey

    1976-01-01

    Solar heating apparatus is presented for heating a heat transfer medium comprising a support structure, a light absorbing surface arranged to transmit heat to a heat transfer medium, focusing means mounted on said support structure for focusing solar energy upon the light absorbing surface, and tracking means for tracking movement of the sun and moving the focusing means relative to

  6. Hydrogen-Detection Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard; Bourgeois, Chris M.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus continuously monitors concentration of hydrogen, at level ranging from few parts per million to several percent, in mixture of gases. Simple and fast, providing high sensitivity and linear response. Used to alert technicians to potentially explosive concentrations of residual hydrogen.

  7. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

  8. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  9. Plastic molding apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mozer, L.P.; Morgan, B.T.

    1985-01-29

    A die ring for use in a blow molding apparatus is provided with depressions at the downstream end of the land to provide the parison with a longitudinally thickened rib and depressions at the upstream end of the land to counteract parison deformation caused by the downstream depressions.

  10. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Standing transverse waves in homogeneous strings have been demonstrated in lectures and used in experiments (called Melde's experiment). A variation to this experiment is discussed. Also discusses the use of the speed-of-sound resonance-tube apparatus to clean mercury. (Author/JN)

  11. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) the construction of a variable-volume resonator and Raleigh-disk resonance detector from simple materials; and (2) a learning aid for performing 60 experiments in basic electricity and electronics (consisting of a circuit board, components, and mask sheets). Illustrative experiments are included for both apparatus. (DH)

  12. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  13. Improved collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net

  14. Submicron particle sampler apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don D. Gay; William G. McMillan

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus and method steps for collecting sub-micron sized particles include a collection chamber and cryogenic cooling. The cooling is accomplished by coil tubing carrying nitrogen in liquid form, with the liquid nitrogen changing to the gas phase before exiting from the collection chamber in the tubing. Standard filters are used to filter out particles of diameter greater than or equal

  15. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)

  16. Well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.D.

    1981-12-15

    A pumping apparatus that may be used with a well in which a sucker rod is connected with the well so as to remain in axial alignment with the same during shifting of the well and the sucker rod is supported clear of the well and the structure for operating the same.

  17. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus and demonstrations; describes an electronic device to illustrate an octave synthesizer; shows how to get negative changes from an electrophorous; explains a body levers device to clarify the principles of moments and levers; and finally shows how to demonstrate acceleration in simple harmonic motion. (GA)

  18. Ice making apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    An ice-making apparatus is described including a housing defining a substantially cylindrical freezing chamber, refrigeration means adjacent the freezing chamber, means for supplying ice make-up water to the freezing chamber, an axially extending auger rotatably mounted in the freezing chamber. The improvement includes a central body portion, at least one flight portion extending in a generally spiral path along at

  19. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  20. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  1. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  2. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle R. D. Campanizzi; Brenda Mason; Christine K. F. Hermann

    1999-01-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container.

  3. A Turrent for Glass-Bending Furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. N. Vavilov; V. I. Lashin; V. A. Malygin; I. Yu. Skobeleva

    2003-01-01

    A new design for a manipulator turrent intended for the fixation of large-size windshield glasses in bending is considered. The device allows for gripping a flat glass packet (glass + film + glass) before bending, as well as molded glass after bending, and placing it on a carrier car. The kinematic scheme and the layout of the device are presented.

  4. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  5. Redesign of the mixed-mode bending test for delamination toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. R.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The mixed-mode bending (MMB) test uses a lever to simultaneously apply mode I and mode II loading to a split-beam specimen. A nonlinear, iterative analysis that accurately predicts the measured load-displacement response and the strain energy release rate, G, of an MMB test, has shown that the errors in G calculated using linear theory can be quite large. The nonlinear analysis was used as a guide in redesigning the MMB apparatus. With the redesigned apparatus, loads are applied through a roller attached to the lever and loaded just above the midplane of the test specimen. The redesigned MMB apparatus has geometric nonlinearity errors of less than 3 percent, even for materials substantially tougher than APC2 (AS4/PEEK). This apparatus was demonstrated by measuring the mixed-mode delamination fracture toughness of APC2. The data from the redesigned MMB apparatus were analyzed with a linear analysis which yielded results similar to those found with the original apparatus and the nonlinear analysis.

  6. Relocation of the bending axis during flexion-extension of lumbar intervertebral discs and its implications for prolapse.

    PubMed

    Klein, J A; Hukins, D W

    1983-09-01

    All the lumbar discs were dissected from three freshly killed, adult rabbits. Ligaments and facet joints were removed but each disc remained attached to bone. The discs were securely mounted in specially constructed bending apparatus. Ventral disc height and bending angle were measured simultaneously allowing the bending axis position to be calculated. Except for lumbosacral discs, the axis shifted ventrally during the transition from flexion to extension. The existence of separate flexion and extension axes has been reported for human lumbar discs; it is argued that similarity of disc structure leads to similar mechanical behaviour in rabbit and human discs. The positions of the two bending axes are such that flexion, but not extension, could damage the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc. PMID:6648708

  7. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  8. Portable shower apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenier, Francis E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multipurpose, collapsible, shower apparatus for use almost anywhere but especially adapted for use in places somewhat remote from civilization such as recreational vehicles, campers, the outdoors, space vehicles and the like where there may be a limited amount of water or other liquid. The collapsible shower apparatus includes a curtain assembly having an inner wall, an outer wall and a porous element for separating the inner and outer walls; a series of spaced hollow hoops connected by one or more sets of hollow tubes (manifolds); one or more nozzles connected to and in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; a source of fluid under pressure in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; and a suction pump for withdrawing fluid from the interior of the curtain assembly.

  9. Gas laser apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Hishii, M.; Nagai, H.; Sato, Y.

    1984-12-11

    A gas laser apparatus having an anode and a cathode for imparting a glow discharge to a stream of laser gas in response to a high d.c. voltage, also includes a dielectric electrode positioned within said stream of laser gas between the anode and cathode for exciting a pulsed silent discharge of the laser gas in response to an a.c. high voltage power source that supplies a pulsed high a.c. voltage to said dielectric electrode. A pulsed large-current glow discharge is produced between the anode and cathode to thereby emit a large, pulsed laser output. The apparatus may also include controls for controlling the power of the silent discharge excited by the dielectric electrode to thereby control the laser output.

  10. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  11. Throttle valve controlling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, Y.; Kamifuji, H.

    1986-07-22

    An apparatus is described for controlling an open degree of a throttle valve fixed to a throttle valve shaft for swing movement around an axis of the throttle valve shaft so as to control an air-fuel mixture flow to be supplied to an engine. The apparatus consists of: a motor including a rotor portion which is associated with the throttle valve shaft to swing the throttle valve; means for detecting an amount of swing movement of the throttle valve and for producing a signal corresponding to the opening degree of the throttle valve; a control unit for receiving and judging the signal from the detecting means and for outputting a command to the motor so as to swing the throttle valve in a desired opening degree; a one piece throttle valve shaft on which the throttle valve and the rotor portion of the motor are separately disposed; and wherein the rotor portion and the one piece shaft are molded together.

  12. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  13. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  14. Submergible pumping apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Bookout; J. W. Jacobs; B. A. Pearson

    1985-01-01

    Submergible pumping apparatus for use in an oil or other well comprises, in a self-contained downhole unit, a double-acting reciprocating positive displacement pump for pumping well fluid, a reservoir containing power fluid for operating the double-acting pump, a rotary motor-driven positive displacement pump for supplying power fluid under pressure from the reservoir to operate the reciprocating pump, and a control

  15. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  16. Hollow cathode apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hollow cathode apparatus is described, which can be rapidly and reliably started. An ignitor positioned upstream from the hollow cathode, generates a puff of plasma that flows with the primary gas to be ionized through the cathode. The plasma puff creates a high voltage breakdown between the downstream end of the cathode and a keeper electrode, to heat the cathode to an electron-emitting temperature.

  17. Pruning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Dellinger, R.D.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum. 16 figs.

  18. A filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1997-12-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus are described for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  19. Bending waves and orbital inclinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    1991-01-01

    Disk tides may play an important role in the formation of a planetary system. Modification of protoplanet semi-major axes and eccentricities through density waves was suggested and calculations of linear and non-linear protoplanet-nebula interactions were carried out by a number of researchers. The possible significance of radial drift to the accretion process was discussed, while the evolution of orbital eccentricities was studied for a perturber orbiting external to a ring and for a perturber embedded in the ring. The possible importance of bending waves to the early evolution of protoplanet inclinations is described.

  20. WHERE THE GRANULAR FLOWS BEND

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, E.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 C/VIa Lactea, s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Solanki, S. K.; Gandorfer, A.; Barthol, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Del Toro Iniesta, J. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Domingo, V. [Grupo de AstronomIa y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Knoelker, M., E-mail: khomenko@iac.e [High Altitude Observatory (NCAR), Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2010-11-10

    Based on IMaX/SUNRISE data, we report on a previously undetected phenomenon in solar granulation. We show that in a very narrow region separating granules and intergranular lanes, the spectral line width of the Fe I 5250.2 A line becomes extremely small. We offer an explanation of this observation with the help of magneto-convection simulations. These regions with extremely small line widths correspond to the places where the granular flows bend from upflow in granules to downflow in intergranular lanes. We show that the resolution and image stability achieved by IMaX/SUNRISE are important requisites to detect this interesting phenomenon.

  1. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  2. Complete liquefaction methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2013-10-15

    A method and apparatus are described to provide complete gas utilization in the liquefaction operation from a source of gas without return of natural gas to the source thereof from the process and apparatus. The mass flow rate of gas input into the system and apparatus may be substantially equal to the mass flow rate of liquefied product output from the system, such as for storage or use.

  3. Cyclic Bending and Stationary Drawing Deformation of Metal Sheets : Experiments and Associated Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, L.P.; Romao, E.C.; Vieira, L.C.A. [Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420, CEP 27 255 125, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Ferron, G. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Sampaio, A.P. [Gerencia de Desenvolvimento de Produtos, Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Rua 4, 33, CEP 27265-610, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-08-05

    A simple bend-draw experimental device is employed to analyze the behavior of narrow strips submitted to a nearly cyclic bending deformation mode followed by a steady state drawing. In this bending-drawing experiment, the strip is firstly bent over a central bead and two lateral beads by applying a controlled holding load and then is pulled out of device throughout the bead radii by a drawing load. The apparatus is mounted in a standard tensile test machine where the holding and drawing loads are recorded with an acquisition data system. The specimen is a rectangular strip cut with 320 mm long and 7 mm wide. The longitudinal (1) and width (w) strip plastic strains are determined from two hardness marks 120 mm spaced whereas the corresponding thickness (t) strain is obtained by volume conservation. Previous experiments showed a correlation between the plastic strain ({epsilon}w/{epsilon}t)BD resulting from the bending-drawing and the Lankford R-values obtained from the uniaxial tensile test. However, previous 3D numerical simulations based upon Hill's quadratic and Ferron's yield criteria revealed a better correlation between the ({epsilon}w/{epsilon}t)BD and the stress ratio {sigma}PS/{sigma}({alpha}), where {sigma}PS stands for the plane-strain tension yield stress and {sigma}({alpha}) for the uniaxial yield stress in uniaxial tension along the drawing direction making an angle {alpha} with the rolling direction. In the present work, the behavior of an IF steel sheet is firstly evaluated by means of uniaxial tensile and drawing-bending experiments conducted at every 15 degrees with respect to the rolling direction. Afterwards, the bending-drawing experiment is investigated with the commercial finite element (FE) code ABAQUS/Standard in an attempt to assess the influence of cyclic loadings upon the bending-drawing strain-ratios.

  4. Pellet inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

  5. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  6. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  7. Perforation apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Brieger, E.F.

    1988-07-12

    A perforating apparatus is described for perforating earth formations traversed by a casing which is cemented in a well bore comprising: (a) an elongated tubular housing having a closed interior bore which is open at one end and adapted for coupling and for fluid communication with a string of tubing when disposed in a casing adjacent to earth formations, (b) a set of first and second shaped charge perforating devices disposed in the closed interior bore and aligned relative to one another so as to produce, when detonated, first and second perforation openings in the tubular housing.

  8. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  9. Planar oscillatory stirring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Martin F. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus (11) for applying planar oscillations to a container (13). Pressurized air (99) is supplied to a moveable slide plate (27) which employs arms (19) having an air bearing vent structure (29, 31) which allows the slide plate to float and to translate. The container (13) to be oscillated is secured to the upper surface of the slide plate (27). A motor (39) driven rotating eccentric shaft (59) loosely extends into a center hole bearing (37) of the slide plate (27) to cause the oscillations.

  10. Foil changing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

  11. Toroidal coupled telemetry apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. C.

    1985-06-25

    A logging telemetering system comprising a toroidal coupled telemetry apparatus including a primary winding carrying bore hole data, wrapped around at least one torroid core mounted within a drill collar. The toroid core is further wrapped with at least one secondary turn which is connected to the drill collar for enhancing the efficiency of inducing a current carrying the borehole data in the drill string for transmission to the surface. One half turn of the secondary winding is provided by an insulated portion of the drill collar, and the balance of the secondary winding is composed of an electrically conductive strap wound around the toroid core.

  12. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  13. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  14. Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ricles, T.D.; Barton, J.A.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies.

  15. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L. (Overland Park, KS)

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  16. Hydraulic well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.P.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

  17. Oil spill recovery apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.A.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes an apparatus for removing oleaginous substances such as an crude oil or refined petroleum products from entrapment in coarse bottom sediments such as submerged sand beds covered by bodies of water or forming the bottom of a holding pond. The apparatus consists of tractor means for traversing the sand bed in a pattern which will substantially cover the area in which the substances are entrapped, the tractor means including a movable boom for supporting pump means for withdrawing water from the body of water; motor driven pump means supported by the boom spaced from the tractor means for intake of water from the body of water; means mounted on the tractor means for mechanically plowing the sand bed to a depth sufficient to overturn the sand bed which has been saturated with the substances; and hydraulic jet nozzle means in communication with the pump means for discharging a high velocity flow stream of water adjacent to the means for plowing to agitate the overturned to free the substances from the grains of sediment for flotation of the substances to the surface of the body of water.

  18. An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

  19. Well perforating apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for perforating a well casing and surrounding formation are disclosed. The perforating apparatus includes a laser source for projecting a high intensity laser beam transversely through the well bore and surrounding formation and a nozzle assembly for injecting exothermically reactive gas along the path of the laser beam. The gas stream shields the output lens of

  20. An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

    1974-01-01

    An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

  1. Low energy ice making apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandrow

    1982-01-01

    A low energy ice making apparatus employing a low volume Carnot cycle refrigeration system is disclosed. Ice is progressively formed on a plurality of improved evaporator plates and harvested by a secondary condenser grid heated by the warm liquid refrigerant discharged by a primary water cooled condenser. The apparatus incorporates an improved water manifold and secondary condenser grid construction.

  2. Tank gauging apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Morris

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under flow or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of the

  3. Tank gauging apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Morris

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under low or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of

  4. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  5. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  6. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  7. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  8. Hydraulic oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, T.F.

    1983-09-27

    The preferred embodiment is directed to an oil well pumping apparatus incorporating a walking beam having a horsehead at one end which connects to the sucker rods in the oil well. The opposite end of the walking beam is supported on a fixed pivot. A hydraulic and pneumatic combination unit connects from a supporting platform to a central point on the beam to raise and lower the beam. The improved apparatus utilizes air pressure to balance the static load on the apparatus and dynamically strokes the sucker rod string by imparting a reciprocating motion through hydraulic power applied at a specified rate to raise and lower the walking beam. A pump and motor system for a closed hydraulic loop is included. Alternate preferred embodiments are disclosed. In one form, a lubricating system is incorporated. First and second alternate forms of pickoff apparatus which powers the pneumatically balanced pumping apparatus is also included.

  9. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  10. Weibull statistical analysis of granite bending strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Amaral; J. Cruz Fernandes; L. Guerra Rosa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the adequacy of Weibull statistical analysis to analyse the bending strength of granite. The experimental results show that strength variability is related with a specific origin of failure. This conclusion is based on analysing the influence of the surface condition (extrinsic defects) on the bending strength results treated by the Weibull statistics. The conclusions drawn

  11. Bending deformation of rotating metallic tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ya. Brovman; METALLIC TUBES

    2010-01-01

    The bending deformation of rotating metallic tubes is considered. This deformation is often used for the straightening of\\u000a tubes produced by rolling or drawing to increase their quality. The elastoplastic bending deformation of rotating metallic\\u000a tubes is shown to differ substantially from the conventional deformation of fixed tubes.

  12. Bending deformation of rotating metallic tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ya. Brovman

    2010-01-01

    The bending deformation of rotating metallic tubes is considered. This deformation is often used for the straightening of tubes produced by rolling or drawing to increase their quality. The elastoplastic bending deformation of rotating metallic tubes is shown to differ substantially from the conventional deformation of fixed tubes.

  13. Big Bend National Park Virtual Field Trip

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cain Neal

    Big Bend National Park Virtual Field Trip is a guide to the features and geological history of the Big Bend National Park area through the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras. The site explains igneous (intrusive, extrusive, and pyroclastic), sedimentary (erosional and depositional), metamorphic and structural processes. There is also a virtual hike of the Lost Mine Trail.

  14. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  15. Vehicle suspension apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suzumura, M.; Tatemoto, M.; Kumagai, N.; Abe, H.; Tanaka, T.; Chikamori, S.; Harara, M.; Takeuchi, S.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a suspension apparatus comprising: suspension units mounted on respective wheels and having fluid spring chambers; fluid supply means for supplying a fluid to the fluid spring chambers of the suspension units through control valves; fluid exhaust means for exhausting the fluid from the fluid spring chambers through exhaust valves; acceleration detecting means for detecting acceleration acting on a vehicle body in a longitudinal direction thereof; and nose dive preventing means, for preventing a nose dive, in which front wheel fluid supply solenoid valves are opened for a control time T to supply the fluid to corresponding fluid spring chambers. Also, rear wheel fluid exhaust solenoid valves are opened for the control time T to exhaust the fluid from corresponding fluid spring chambers when a negative acceleration detected by the acceleration detecting means exceeds a reference negative acceleration.

  16. Apparatus for dispensing material

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

  17. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  18. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  19. Spine immobilization apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  20. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  1. Power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovic, M.

    1981-02-10

    Power generating apparatus comprising a float mounted on a support which is pivotally mounted to a base the support being secured to a beam extending rearwardly of the base to a vertically extending elongated structure carrying a pair of vertically moveable gear racks in guideways. Each rack is engaged by a gear wheel driven by movement of the racks and one-way drive means connects each gear wheel to an output shaft. Driving weights are secured to each rack to drive the racks in opposite directions under the action of gravity forces acting on the weights, the driving motion causing the output shaft to rotate in a given direction. The free end of the beam is connected to a cross-arm vertically moveable on a guide on the elongate structure, the cross-arm having motion transmitting means to raise each of the weights during vertical movement of the crossarm resulting from movement of the float.

  2. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  3. Image forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  4. Improved collecting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.

    1981-03-05

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air following therethrough.

  5. The basic study about the effect of single point grinding on the bending strength of brittle material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoomin Ahn; Sang-Shin Park

    1998-01-01

    Single point grinding was investigated by using a sliding indentation apparatus. Sharp indenter sliding against brittle solid\\u000a produces a scratch with a median crack. The size of the crack depends on the applied indenter load and the sliding speed.\\u000a The effect of the crack size and its orientation on bending strength of glass is investigated experimentally. It is shown\\u000a that

  6. Measurement of the fracture toughness of CVD-grown ZnS using a miniaturized disk-bend test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimin Zhang; Alan J. Ardell

    1991-01-01

    Novel apparatus and methodology have been developed for measuring the fracture toughness of ceramics using small disk-shaped samples 3 mm in diameter. The method involves the Vickers indentation of specimens ranging in thickness from 300 to 700 μm, and testing them in a ring-on-ring bending mode. Experiments on ZnS grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been used to evaluate

  7. A two-mode fiber optic-bending sensor

    E-print Network

    Covington, Charles Eric

    1993-01-01

    relating the bending sensitivity to the shape of the profile's asymmetry are discussed. A temperature and strain compensated bending sensor for bending over arbitrary paths is demonstrated as an application of this technology. Some alternate two...

  8. Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

  9. Fluid flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend III three phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E.; Crawford, N.M. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Ashby Building, Belfast BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    Three phase water/oil/air flow was studied around a vertical upward to horizontal 90 elbow bend of R/d = 0.654. The results were more complex than corresponding two phase data. The pressure drop recorded for the two tangent legs sometimes showed significant variations to the straight pipe data. In most cases this variation was caused by differences in the flow regimes between the two systems. The elbow bend tended to constrict the flow presented by the vertical inlet tangent leg while sometimes acting as a wave and droplet generator for the horizontal outlet tangent leg. It could be argued that the inclusion of the elbow bend altered the flow regime map transitional boundaries but it also is possible that insufficient settling length was provided in the apparatus design. The elbow bend pressure drop was best presented as l{sub e}/d the equivalent length to diameter ratio using the actual total pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent leg. Generally l{sub e}/d values rose with gas rate, but exhibited an increasingly complex relation with f{sub o} the oil to liquid volumetric ratio as liquid rate was increased. A significant maximum in l{sub e}/d was in evidence around the inversion from water dominated to oil dominated flows. Several models are presented to predict the data. (author)

  10. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  11. Beam connector apparatus and assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and assembly for connecting beams and like structural members is disclosed which is particularly advantageous for connecting two members which are moved laterally into place. The connector apparatus requires no relative longitudinal movement between the ends of the beams or members being connected to make a connection joint. The apparatus includes a receptacle member and a connector housing carried by opposed ends of the structural member being connected. A spring-loaded connector member is carried by the connector housing which may be released for extension and engagement into the receptacle member.

  12. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

  13. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

  14. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a chelating reagent to bring out metal ions, such as calcium and iron, which would otherwise interfere with amino acid analysis. After oxalic acid, 1 mL 0.01 N HCl and 1 mL deionized water is used to sequentially rinse the resin. Finally, the amino acids attached to the resin, and the analytes are eluted using 2.5 M NH4OH (1 mL), and the NH4OH eluent is collected in a vial for analysis.

  15. Magnetoelastic bending of Galfenol for sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, P.R.; Flatau, A.B. [Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2005-05-15

    This project investigates the behavior of iron-gallium (Galfenol) alloys in elastic bending to facilitate the design concepts for using Galfenol in novel sensor applications at the macro to nanoscale. A series of experiments are conducted on the magnetic response of cantilevered beams to dynamic bending loads. The samples studied include polycrystalline and single crystal rods of varied dimension with compositions ranging from 16 to 21 at % Ga. Results of initial testing show that sinusoidal bending produces measurable induction that increases with applied magnetic bias. Other results examine the effect of material composition and sensor location, as well as the broadband response.

  16. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  17. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  18. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  19. Bi-stem gripping apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Fred G. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

  20. Membrane Apparatus for Analogic Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Schneider; Ali B. Cambel

    1953-01-01

    This paper describes a membrane apparatus which has been used successfully in obtaining analogic soap-film solutions to boundary-value field problems in which either the Poisson or the Laplace partial-differential equation must be satisfied.

  1. The apparatus URAT-I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abramiam

    1970-01-01

    Crushing of bladder stones by electrohydraulic impulses has many advantages over the conventional mechanical methods. The results of tests made with URAT-I, an apparatus working on the electrohydralic principle, are described.

  2. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  3. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  4. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  5. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  6. Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Smith, Trent; Breakfield, Robert; Baughner, Kevin; Heckle, Kenneth; Meneghelli, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus (CMA) is designed for quantifying the amount of moisture from the surrounding air that is taken up by cryogenic-tank-insulating material specimens while under typical conditions of use. More specifically, the CMA holds one face of the specimen at a desired low temperature (e.g., the typical liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77 K) while the opposite face remains exposed to humid air at ambient or near-ambient temperature. The specimen is weighed before and after exposure in the CMA. The difference between the "after" and "before" weights is determined to be the weight of moisture absorbed by the specimen. Notwithstanding the term "cryogenic," the CMA is not limited to cryogenic applications: the low test temperature can be any temperature below ambient, and the specimen can be made of any material affected by moisture in air. The CMA is especially well suited for testing a variety of foam insulating materials, including those on the space-shuttle external cryogenic tanks, on other cryogenic vessels, and in refrigerators used for transporting foods, medicines, and other perishables. Testing is important because absorbed moisture not only adds weight but also, in combination with thermal cycling, can contribute to damage that degrades insulating performance. Materials are changed internally when subjected to large sub-ambient temperature gradients.

  7. Apparatus for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  8. Wind powered apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, D.L.

    1986-06-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for extracting energy from a moving fluid of the class that includes an elongated member mounted for rocking movement between limiting positions about a pivotal axis and a wing pivotally mounted on the member about a wing axis spaced from and substantially parallel to the pivotal axis for movement between positive and negative angles of attack with respect to ambient fluid flow for respective urging pivotal movement of the member in the first and second direction. The improvement described here consists of the wing being free for oscillatory movement about the wing axis and a control panel pivotally mounted on the wing for movement between first and second positions relative thereto that are respectively operative to subject the wing to oppositely directed moments about its free oscillatory wing axis whereby the wing is urged respectively towards its positive and negative angles of attack in response to the control panel being disposed at its first and second positions, the wing. The control panel and the wing axis are so constructed and arranged to obtain a torsion-free mode of operation, and control means actuated by oscillation of the member for reversing the position of the control panel in response to the member approaching either of its limiting positions while otherwise opposing change of control panel position. The direction of rocking movement of the member is reversed solely when the member approaches its limiting positions.

  9. Clutch pressure control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Koori, Y.; Mitsui, T.

    1989-01-24

    A clutch pressure control apparatus is described which comprises: (a) a first function generator for generating a clutch pressure control signal in accordance with a first function such that a clutch pressure control signal P/sub c1/ is definitely determined as a function of an engine rotational speed signal and an accelerator pedal stroke signal; (b) a controller including a second function generator for providing a second clutch pressure control signal P/sub c2/ in accordance with a second function such that when actual engine speed at an initial clutch engagement phase at which a clutch is entering a half-clutch state exceeds a predetermined engine speed limit, which does not provide shock when the clutch is engaged, the second clutch pressure control signal is first set to a temporary low value corresponding to an engine speed not exceeding the predetermined engine speed limit and then in accordance with the second function is allowed to approach a value determined by the first function according to the actual engine speed signal; and (c) a start switch for detecting accelerator pedal stroke and transmission shift position and outputting a start signal to start to operate the controller when transmission is shifted to a running position and the accelerator stroke meets a condition for start.

  10. Pneumatic clutch apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kamio, T.

    1987-03-03

    A pneumatic clutch apparatus is described comprising: a pneumatic clutch disposed at the rear of a transmission and including a pneumatic actuator for engaging and disengaging the clutch, a rotary passage adapted to rotate together with the clutch and connected to the actuator; a stationary passage stationary with respect to the clutch and connected to a pneumatic pressure control mechanism disposed outside the clutch; and a rotary joint including a connecting passage for connecting the rotary passage and the stationary passage together; the rotary joint having a rotary portion to which the rotary passage is fixed and a stationary portion to which the stationary passage is fixed, and the stationary portion being fixed to a housing of the transmission and rotatably supporting the rotary portion. A cylindrical intermediate member is disposed between the rotary portion and the stationary portion of the rotary joint. Air passages in the stationary portion and the rotary portion are connected together through an air passage in the intermediate member. The intermediate member is rotatably fitted to the rotary portion and the stationary portion through seals which seal the air passage. A connecting mechanism is operable to connect the intermediate member to the rotary portion when the intermediate member and the rotary portion occupy a predetermined relative angular position.

  11. Apparatus for coating powders

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  12. On the bending response of Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy laminates often exhibit substantial material nonlinearity when subjected to bending. This is a consequence of the yeild-like behavior of a Kevlar 49/epoxy lamina in fiber-directed compression. In this paper, analyses that utilize a simple idealization of compressive yielding are described and calculated results for Kevlar 49 reinforced beams and rings are compared with available data. First, results of a finite element analysis of a thin, unidirectionally reinforced ring subjected to diametral compression are presented. This analysis uses beam elements that incorporate linear tensile and elastic-perfectly plastic compressive behavior. Then a method used to analyze quasi-isotropic beams tested in four-point bending is discussed. This finite element analysis uses a layered shell element with a lamina constitutive model that permits elastic-perfectly plastic response to fiber-directed compression, but otherwise assumes linear elastic behavior. Comparison of calculated and experimental results corroborate the ability of analyses using a simple compressive yield model to account for much of the observed flexural nonlinearity in Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings. 6 figs.

  13. Standard test methods for bend testing of metallic flat materials for spring applications involving static loading

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This standard describes three test methods for determining the modulus of elasticity in bending and the bending strength of metallic strips or sheets intended for the use in flat springs: 1.1.1 Test Method A—a cantilever beam, 1.1.2 Test Method B—a three-point loaded beam (that is, a beam resting on two supports and centrally loaded), and 1.1.3 Test Method C—a four-point loaded beam (that is, a beam resting on two supports and loaded at two points equally spaced from each support). 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 6.1 This test me...

  14. Light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Sweatt, William (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  15. A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  16. Weibull statistical analysis of granite bending strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Amaral; J. Cruz Fernandes; L. Guerra Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Summary  This paper describes and discusses the adequacy of Weibull statistical analysis to analyse the bending strength of granite.\\u000a The experimental results show that strength variability is related with a specific origin of failure. This conclusion is based\\u000a on analysing the influence of the surface condition (extrinsic defects) on the bending strength results treated by the Weibull\\u000a statistics. The conclusions drawn

  17. Avoiding hologram bending in photorefractive crystals.

    PubMed

    Freschi, A A; Garcia, P M; Rasnik, I; Frejlich, J; Buse, K

    1996-01-15

    Dynamic coupled-wave theory predicts the bending of recorded hologram phase planes in most photorefractive crystals. Bent holograms occur in LiNbO(3) and other photovoltaic crystals that are particularly interesting as holographic storage media and result in a reduced overall diffraction eff iciency. We show that hologram bending in LiNbO(3) can be avoided or at least sensibly reduced by use of an actively stabilized recording technique. PMID:19865335

  18. Parallel interacting edge cracks under pure bending 

    E-print Network

    Moran, Ivan

    1991-01-01

    PARALLEL INTERACTING EDGE CRACKS UNDER PURE BENDING A Thesis by IVAN MORAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991.... Bradley (Head of the Department) December 1991 11' ABSTBACT Parallel Interactive Edge Cracks Under Pure Bending. (December 1991) Ivan Moran, B. S. , U. T. P. (Colombia) Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Christian P. Burger The applicability...

  19. Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra

    E-print Network

    Christoph A. Haselwandter; Rob Phillips

    2011-06-10

    Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra.

  20. On Bending Invariant Signatures for Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Kimmel

    2003-01-01

    Abstract—Isometric surfaces share the same geometric structure, also known as the “first fundamental form.” For example, all possible bendings,of a given surface that includes all length preserving,deformations,without tearing or stretching the surface are considered,to be isometric. We present a method,to construct a bending,invariant signature for such surfaces. This invariant representation,is an embedding,of the geometric,structure of the surface in a small

  1. Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending

    E-print Network

    Tung T. Le; Harold D. Kim

    2014-05-02

    Many structures inside the cell such as nucleosomes and protein-mediated DNA loops contain sharply bent double-stranded (ds) DNA. Therefore, the energetics of strong dsDNA bending constitutes an essential part of cellular thermodynamics. Although the thermomechanical behavior of long dsDNA is well described by the worm-like chain (WLC) model, the length limit of such elastic behavior remains controversial. To investigate the energetics of strong dsDNA bending, we measured the opening rate of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths of 40-200 bp using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). From the measured relationship of loop stability to loop size, we observed a transition between two separate bending regimes at a critical loop size below 100 bp. Above this loop size, the loop lifetime decreased with decreasing loop size in a manner consistent with an elastic bending stress. Below the critical loop size, however, the loop lifetime became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softening of the double helix. The critical loop size was measured to be ~60 bp with sodium only and ~100 bp with 5 mM magnesium, which suggests that magnesium facilitates the softening transition. We show that our results are in quantitative agreement with the kinkable worm-like chain model. Furthermore, the model parameters constrained by our data can reproduce previously measured J factors between 50 and 200 bp. Our work provides powerful means to study dsDNA bending in the strong bending regime.

  2. Oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whatley, D. L.; Chaviers, W. M.

    1985-07-23

    The present system and apparatus for pumping an oil well damps out the stretch and over travel in sucker rod over travel particularly when the rod string approaches its point of reversal of direction either up or down. This is accomplished by decelerating the rate of travel of the rod string and at its end of travel pausing for a time period sufficient to allow rod string oscillations to damp out prior to reversal of rod string direction which due to the long length of the rod string, its weight and the weight of the trapped oil avoids breaking the rod string and the time loss occasioned thereby in both loss of well production and costly replacement of equipment and the time loss resulting therefrom. The present invention also achieves substantial recovery of hi-viscosity oil not recoverable at present by standard recovery procedures. This is accomplished with a sensor positioned to be actuated by the ram of the hydraulic drive. When the sensor is actuated, it energizes a time delay relay which holds the sucker rod string in the upper most raised position allowing the suction to be maintained on the bottom hole pump with the standing valve open. This allows the hi-viscus oil to enter the bottom hole pump barrel. When the time delay relay is released, the sucker rod string starts its downward movement closing the bottom hole standing valve. This traps the hi-viscus oil in the pump barrel which is then displaced by the downward-movement of the plunger in the bottom hole pump.

  3. Effects of Large Bending Deflections on Blade Flutter Limits

    E-print Network

    edgewise bending mode becomes negatively damped due to the coupling with blade torsion which causes, whereas the first edgewise bending mode becomes negatively damped due to the coupling with torsion bending under the aerodynamic loading leads to a coupling of blade torsion to the edgewise bending

  4. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Robert L. (Wayland, MA)

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  5. Forces, moments, and acceleration acting on a restrained dummy during simulation of three possible accidents involving a wheelchair negotiating a curb: comparison between lap belt and four-point belt.

    PubMed

    Fast, A; Sosner, J; Begeman, P; Thomas, M; Drukman, D

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two types of restraining belts (lap belt and a four-point belt) on an instrumented dummy during three situations: wheelchair hitting straight into curb (SIC); wheelchair falling straight off a curb (SOC); wheelchair falling diagonally off a curb (DOC). A fully instrumented (50th percentile Hybrid III) dummy was seated in a standard wheelchair and restrained with one of the belts. The wheelchair rolled down a ramp reaching a platform at 2.4 miles per hour (comfortable walking speed). Three types of experiments were performed: SIC, SOC, DOC. Each experiment was repeated at least three times. Forces, moments, and acceleration were monitored and recorded via 48 sensors placed at the head, spine, and limbs. All experiments were videotaped and photographed. The data were averaged and compared with standards that have been previously established in car crash testing and with data recently obtained in a similar study using a nonrestrained dummy. Our results showed that in the SIC experiments, low magnitude forces, moments, and acceleration of no clinical significance were recorded with both types of belts. The wheelchair remained upright and the dummy safely seated. In the SOC experiments, the two belts prevented the dummy's ejection from the chair and, thus, have been effective in lowering the forces, moments, and acceleration and preventing significant injuries to the head and neck regions. In the DOC experiments, the lap belt proved to be somewhat more effective than the four-point belt in lowering the extension forces at the upper neck and the moments at the lower neck below injury levels. It also kept the head injury criteria well below injury level. We postulate that the four-point belt was less effective because of its more extensive body fixation, which leads to concentration of moments and forces at the head and lower neck regions. The results of this study show that restraining systems can enhance the safety of wheelchair occupants in certain incidents. It has been demonstrated that the lap belt is as effective as the four-point belt system in SIC and SOC incidents. In DOC falls, neither belt could prevent falls and trauma to the head and neck region. The lap belt, however, was somewhat superior. We recommend that wheelchairs be equipped with a lap belt and patients be encouraged to buckle-up while using the wheelchair outdoors. PMID:9354490

  6. Bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness of single-layered graphene.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yujie; Wang, Baoling; Wu, Jiangtao; Yang, Ronggui; Dunn, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    Bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness are the two key parameters that govern the rippling of suspended graphene-an unavoidable phenomenon of two-dimensional materials when subject to a thermal or mechanical field. A reliable determination about these two parameters is of significance for both the design and the manipulation of graphene morphology for engineering applications. By combining the density functional theory calculations of energies of fullerenes and single wall carbon nanotubes with the configurational energy of membranes determined by Helfrich Hamiltonian, we have designed a theoretical approach to accurately determine the bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness of single-layered graphene. The bending rigidity and Gaussian bending stiffness of single-layered graphene are 1.44 eV (2.31 × 10(-19) N m) and -1.52 eV (2.43 × 10(-19) N m), respectively. The bending rigidity is close to the experimental result. Interestingly, the bending stiffness of graphene is close to that of lipid bilayers of cells about 1-2 eV, which might mechanically justify biological applications of graphene. PMID:23214980

  7. Guided wave travel time tomography for bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography has been developed to map the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. The method has been demonstrated to work well for straight pipes. The extension of this method to bends is not straightforward because natural focusing that occurs due to geometrical path differences. This yields a phase jump, which complicates travel time picking. Because ray-tracing is no longer sufficient to predict the travel times a recursive wave field extrapolation has been developed. The method uses a short spatial convolution operator to propagate a wave field through a bend. The method allows to calculate the wave field at the detector ring, including the phase jump as a consequence of the natural focusing. The recursive wave field extrapolation is done in the space-frequency domain. Therefore dispersion effects can be included easily in the forward modeling. Comparison with measurements shows the accuracy of the method. An improved tomographic inversion scheme has been implemented using the extrapolation method as forward modeling kernel. The results show that is it possible to reconstruct defects independent of their location on the bend. The method is not limited to 90° bends but works on any bend angle, including straight pipes.

  8. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W. (Las Vegas, NV); Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  9. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  10. Rotating Apparatus for Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1986-01-01

    Remixing of separated fractions prevented. Improved isoelectric focusing apparatus helps to prevent electro-osmosis and convection, both of which cause remixing of separated fractions. Fractionating column segmented and rotated about horizontal axis: Only combined effects of both features fully effective in making good separations. Improved apparatus slowly rotated continuously or rocked (at rotational amplitude of at least 180 degrees) about its horizontal axis so average gravitational vector experienced by fluid is zero and convection is therefore suppressed. Electro-osmosis suppressed and convection further suppressed by separating column into disklike compartments along its length with filters. Experiments have shown dimensions of apparatus not critical. Typical compartment and column volumes are 2 and 40 ml, respectively. Rotation speeds lie between 3 and 30 rpm.

  11. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  12. Sodium purification apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gould, Marc I. [Van Nuys, CA

    1980-03-04

    An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter.

  13. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  14. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  15. Bend detector for a pipeline pig

    SciTech Connect

    Laymon, D.; Berry, J.M.

    1986-12-16

    A bend detector is described for use on a pipeline pig assembly; the pipeline pig assembly comprising a front pig element and a rear pig element pivotally connected to each other by the bend detector, the front pig element having a longitudinally disposed housing with means for driving the pipeline assembly by the flow of a fluid through a pipeline system. The rear pig element has a longitudinally disposed housing with means for axially supporting the housing in the pipeline system. The detector includes a means for determining the distance traversed by the pipeline pig assembly through the pipeline system. The bend detector comprises a universal joint having a pair of yoke members being pivotally interconnected to a central member so as to oscillate about a pair of mutually perpendicular axes lying in a plane generally perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline, each of the yoke members having a yoke and a collar. The detector also includes a means for mounting each collar to the front pig element and the rear pig element, respectively, the central member being provided with a substantially longitudinal bore for receiving a hollow sleeve, a central opening in each collar thereby forming an axially aligned passageway with the hollow sleeve. A cable is received in the passageway and has its rear end anchored to the mounting means of the rear pig element, the forward end of the cable connected to an actuator shaft for a stylus for recording a bend along the pipeline system, whereby when the pig assembly traverses a bend. The front pig element pivots with respect to the rear pig element thereby pivoting the sleeve relative to the passageway and thereby exerting a pull on the cable causing the actuator shaft to move longitudinally rearward; thereby indicating the location and degree of the bend.

  16. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  17. 21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

  18. Apparatus for washing drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, W. G.

    1985-10-15

    An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

  19. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  20. Environmental heating and cooling apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lahti

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed which is in one embodiment structurally integrated with a building and has a solar collector plate with a front side and back side. The collector is mounted a spaced distance from an insulated building interior wall to form a preheating channel with one of its sides. Roof mounted solar admitting panels are mounted spaced from the

  1. Underwater oil leakage collecting apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair

    1972-01-01

    An apparatus for collecting oil leaking from an underwater break in an oil source is described. A number of perforate cones is secured at longitudinally spaced intervals to an elongated cable. The lowermost cone is arranged over an underwater source of oil leakage and the upper end of the cable terminates at an oil-collecting chamber adjacent to the surface of

  2. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  3. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  4. Duplex sampling apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Paul E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lloyd, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved apparatus is provided for sampling a gaseous mixture and for measuring mixture components. The apparatus includes two sampling containers connected in series serving as a duplex sampling apparatus. The apparatus is adapted to independently determine the amounts of condensable and noncondensable gases in admixture from a single sample. More specifically, a first container includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a sample source and a second port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a second container. A second container also includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from the second port of the first container and a second port capable of either selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a differential pressure source. By cooling a mixture sample in the first container, the condensable vapors form a liquid, leaving noncondensable gases either as free gases or dissolved in the liquid. The condensed liquid is heated to drive out dissolved noncondensable gases, and all the noncondensable gases are transferred to the second container. Then the first and second containers are separated from one another in order to separately determine the amount of noncondensable gases and the amount of condensable gases in the sample.

  5. Material transport method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  6. Material transport method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  7. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  8. Heat reclaiming method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

  9. Gearshift apparatus for an automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, F.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a gearshift apparatus for an automobile with an electromagnetic clutch and a transmission operatively connected to the clutch and having four forward gear trains and an output shaft. This apparatus consists of a first synchronizing means for selectively engaging a second speed gear train and a fourth speed gear train respectively with transmission output shaft. The second speed gear train has a gear ratio such that sufficient torque is produced to start the automobile on an ordinary road. Another feature of the apparatus is a second synchronizing means for selectively engaging a first speed gear train and a third speed gear train respectively with the output shaft. The first gear has a gear ratio producing sufficient torque to start the automobile on an uphill and heavy road. A shift lever means for operating the first and second synchronization means is characterized in the patent. This shaft lever is described as being rotated to a first or second plane for the operation of the respective synchronizing means and as being responsive a means elucidated in the patent for holding it in the respective plane for proper operation. The last component of the apparatus described is a gear select means including a select lever specifically operationally engageable with one of the synchronizing means by rotation of the shift lever to the respective plane and an actuating rod connecting it to the proper shift lever for respective synchronization device operation.

  10. Bending effects on lasing action of semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weisong; Ma, Yaoguang; Wang, Yipei; Meng, Chao; Wu, Xiaoqin; Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun; Tong, Limin; Liu, Xu; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-28

    High flexibility has been one of advantages for one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in wide application of nanoscale integrated circuits. We investigate the bending effects on lasing action of CdSe NWs. Threshold increases and differential efficiency decreases gradually when we decrease the bending radius step by step. Red shift and mode reduction in the output spectra are also observed. The bending loss of laser oscillation is considerably larger than that of photoluminescence (PL), and both show the exponential relationship with the bending radius. Diameter and mode dependent bending losses are investigated. Furthermore, the polarizations of output can be modulated linearly by bending the NWs into different angles continuously. PMID:23389184

  11. Method and apparatus for separating material

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for sorting particles composed of a mixture of particles with differing physical and chemical characteristics. The apparatus includes a comminutor or a pulverizer for reducing the size of the particles. The apparatus includes a mechanism for separating undesired material from desired material.

  12. Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors — II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    In my previous article on apparatus named after physicists and physics teachers, I discussed five relatively common pieces of apparatus from the 1875-1910 era. Now I will go back to the 18th and early-19th centuries to discuss eponymous2 apparatus that we are still using in lecture demonstrations.

  13. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Lewis, G.W.

    1995-07-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher. 8 figs.

  14. Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David

    2012-01-01

    Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…

  15. Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tung T.; Kim, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Sharp bending of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) plays an essential role in genome structure and function. However, the elastic limit of dsDNA bending remains controversial. Here, we measured the opening rates of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths ranging between 40 and 200 bp using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. The relationship of loop lifetime to loop size revealed a critical transition in bending stress. Above the critical loop size, the loop lifetime changed with loop size in a manner consistent with elastic bending stress, but below it, became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softened dsDNA. The critical loop size increased from ?60 bp to ?100 bp with the addition of 5 mM magnesium. We show that our result is in quantitative agreement with the kinkable worm-like chain model, and furthermore, can reproduce previously reported looping probabilities of dsDNA over the range between 50 and 200 bp. Our findings shed new light on the energetics of sharply bent dsDNA. PMID:25122748

  16. Relativistic light bending near neutron stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-P. Nollert; U. Kraus; A. Rebetzky; H. Herold; T. Maile; H. Ruder

    1989-01-01

    The deflection of light ray emitted on or near the surface of a neutron star is investigated. A picture of the star as it would appear on a screen far away from the star is computed, giving an impression of the effects of light bending. This geometrical data is combined with emission models in order to obtain frequency dependent pulse

  17. UV - BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK TX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 130 is located in Big Bend NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. of...

  18. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Fracture in Bending, Torsion and Radial Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gurney

    1968-01-01

    I HAVE shown1 that glass rods with normally damaged surfaces, and subjected to sustained loading, fracture in equal times when subjected to numerically equal prior principal stresses, in bending, torsion and radial fluid pressure. The term prior stress refers to the stress distribution which exists before any cracking has occurred. I interpreted these results in terms of quasistatic crack growth

  20. Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

  1. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOEpatents

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  2. Process for removing PCB's from electrical apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, D.E.

    1987-08-11

    A process is described for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from an electrical apparatus comprising: (a) filling the electrical apparatus with a dielectric fluid in liquid state in which polychlorinated biphenyls are soluble, thereby providing adequate insulation during the operation of the electrical apparatus; (b) dissolving polychlorinated biphenyls contained within the electrical apparatus into the dielectric fluid to form a solution; (c) conducting the solution from the electrical apparatus to a cleansing means; (d) cleansing the solution to thereby separate polychlorinated biphenyls from the dielectric fluid so that the dielectric fluid is re-usable; and (e) recirculating the dielectric fluid back to the electrical apparatus for reuse, the steps effectively and substantially removing the polychlorinated biphenyls from the electrical apparatus so that the leaching of residual polychlorinated biphenyls into the dielectric fluid will not exceed 50 ppm.

  3. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  4. Apparatus for H2 photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Donald G.; Otto, Michael R.

    2009-08-01

    An apparatus is described for housing artificial photosynthesis processes. The apparatus is solar powered and employs two separate compartments for the respective oxidation and reduction reactions. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) partitions the two compartments and enables proton conduction therebetween. Faradic losses due to proton currents are minimized by use of a novel geometry. A zigzag design for the solar cell/electrode/PEM partition between the two compartments introduces large fringe fields which help drive proton current from one compartment to the other and reduce faradic losses by shortening the average proton conduction path. Facilitating proton current also improves the pH gradient and enhances water splitting reaction rates. The zigzag design also improves capture of solar flux by shading the PEM under the solar cells.

  5. Micromachined patch-clamp apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat

    2012-12-04

    A micromachined patch-clamp apparatus is disclosed for holding one or more cells and providing electrical, chemical, or mechanical stimulation to the cells during analysis with the patch-clamp technique for studying ion channels in cell membranes. The apparatus formed on a silicon substrate utilizes a lower chamber formed from silicon nitride using surface micromachining and an upper chamber formed from a molded polymer material. An opening in a common wall between the chambers is used to trap and hold a cell for analysis using the patch-clamp technique with sensing electrodes on each side of the cell. Some embodiments of the present invention utilize one or more electrostatic actuators formed on the substrate to provide mechanical stimulation to the cell being analyzed, or to provide information about mechanical movement of the cell in response to electrical or chemical stimulation.

  6. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2013-01-08

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  7. Particle analyzing method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Griffin, C. E.; Norris, D. D.; Friedlander, S. K. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The rapid chemical analysis of particles in aerosols can be accomplished using an apparatus which produces a controlled stream of individual particles from an environment, and another apparatus which vaporizes and ionizes the particles moving in free flight, for analysis by a mass spectrometer. The device for producing the stream of particles includes a capillary tube through which the air with suspended particles moves, a skimmer with a small opening spaced from an end of the capillary tube to receive particles passing through the tube, and a vacuum pump which removes air from between the tube and skimmer and creates an inflow of air and particles through the tube. The particles passing through the skimmer opening can be simultaneously vaporized and ionized while in free flight, by a laser beam of sufficient intensity that is directed across the path of the free flying particles.

  8. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  9. Optical pressure sealing coupling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, Timothy B. (inventor); French, Richard E. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for optically coupling and pressure sealing sections of an instrument probe, one of the section being at a high pressure cryogenic environment and the other section being at ambient pressure. The apparatus includes a housing having a passageway within which elements are mounted for precisely locating a rigid optical fiber coupler and the probe sections so as to optically connect and maintain the ends of the probe sections together to permit signals to pass in both directions through the joint in two or more discrete channels. An adjustable positioning member acts to connect the external section of the probe to the housing in axial and rotation alignment with the interior section.

  10. Quantum Behavior of Measurement Apparatus

    E-print Network

    Taoufik Amri

    2010-05-31

    We precise for the first time the quantum behavior of a measurement apparatus in the framework of the usual interpretation of quantum physics. We show how such a behavior can also be studied by the retrodiction of pre-measurement states corresponding to its responses. We translate in terms of these states some interesting properties of the behavior of an apparatus, such as the projectivity, the fidelity, the non-Gaussian character, or the non-classicality of measurements performed by this one. We also propose an experimental procedure allowing the tomography of these pre-measurement states for optical detectors. We illustrate the relevance of these new notions for measurements, by evaluating them for two detectors widely used in quantum optics: the avalanche photodiode and the homodyne detection.

  11. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  12. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  13. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  14. Medical radiographic apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Hounsfield; E. A. Olson; D. J. Pisano; R. M. Waltham

    1981-01-01

    Computerized tomographic x-ray apparatuses direct x-rays, usually in a fan-shaped distribution, through the body of a patient. In some examples the fan distribution may subtend angles of 50* or more at the source. It has been found that such tubes, particularly of the rotating anode type, tend to have x-ray emission from regions surrounding the focal spot and it is

  15. Thermal regenerative cracking (trc) apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bhojwani, A.H.; Gartside, R.J.; Johnson, A.R.; Woebcke, H.N.

    1983-01-25

    An improved thermal regenerative cracking (trc) apparatus and process includes: an improved low residence time solid-gas separation device and system; and an improved solids feeding device and system; as well as an improved sequential thermal cracking process; an improved solids quench boiler and process; an improved preheat vaporization system; and an improved fuel gas generation system for solids heated. One or more of the improvements may be incorporated in a conventional trc system.

  16. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  17. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  18. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  19. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.J.; Peterson, R.D.; Swanson, S.D.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a microwave apparatus for heating materials. It comprises: a microwave energy input for delivering microwave energy, a resonant cavity for receiving microwave energy through the input, a microwave energy choke encompassing the floor opening of the resonant cavity, a microwave energy reflective container for holding the materials to be heated, turning the container during exposure of the materials in the container to microwave energy, located outside of the cavity, and means for lifting the container, located outside of the cavity.

  20. Tide operated power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kertzman, H. Z.

    1981-02-03

    An improved tide operated power generating apparatus is disclosed in which a hollow float, rising and falling with the ocean tide, transmits energy to a power generator. The improvement comprises means for filling the float with water during the incoming tide to provide a substantial increase in the float dead weight during the outgoing tide. Means are further provided to then empty the float before the outgoing tide whereby the float becomes free to rise again on the next incoming tide.

  1. Controlled bending of high-resistance glass microelectrodes

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    Controlled bending of high-resistance glass microelectrodes A. J. HUDSPETH AND D. P. COREY Division. Controlled bending of high-resistance glass microelectrodes. Am. J. Physiol. 234(l): C56-C57, 1978 or Am. J elec- trodes very near their tips removes this constraint, A method is described for bending glass

  2. Metal-bending brake facilitates lightweight, close-tolerance fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercoline, A. L.; Wilton, K. B.

    1964-01-01

    A lightweight, metal bending brake ensures very accurate bends. Features of the brake that adapt it for making complex reverse bends to close tolerances are a pronounced relief or cutaway of the underside of the bodyplate combined with modification in the leaf design and its suspension.

  3. Update: pipes of different half bend angles Feb. 21, 2013

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Update: pipes of different half bend angles Feb. 21, 2013 Yan Zhan 1 #12;Outline · Mercury Supply Pipe · Re-mesh for Pipes without weld of different half bend angles · Turbulence Intensity At Pipe Exits · Discussion on Bend Effects and Nozzle Effects 2 #12;Mercury Supply Pipe 3 Item 2 Item 3 Whole

  4. Fatigue of structures and secondary bending in structural elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schijve; G. Campoli; A. Monaco

    2009-01-01

    Secondary bending occurs in structural elements with geometric eccentricities when the element is loaded in tension. Eccentricities are present in lap joints, but also in plates with a locally increased thickness. Due to the eccentricities out-of-plane displacements occur with local bending as a result. This secondary bending phenomenon is unfavourable for the fatigue properties of a structure. In the paper

  5. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313 Transportation...Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe...process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and transverse segments of these...

  6. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313 Transportation...Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe...process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and transverse segments of these...

  7. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313 Transportation...Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe...process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and transverse segments of these...

  8. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313 Transportation...Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe...process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and transverse segments of these...

  9. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313 Transportation...Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe...process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and transverse segments of these...

  10. Efficient bending compensation of large mode area fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farida, Souaci; Fan, Ya-Xian; Yuan, Li-Bo

    2014-11-01

    While much research has been developed to achieve very large mode areas (LMA) fibers, many difficulties arise, such as bending losses, mode deformation, and high order modes suppression. The main obstacle which remains difficult to confront in LMA fibers is bending distortion. When a conventional LMA fiber is coiled, it will generally suffer large bending distortion, and the mode area will contract accordingly, which would significantly affect laser or amplifier performances for some LMA fibers. In this report, we proposed a simple and efficient way for bending compensation in LMA fiber. A periodically etching structure is proposed to compensate the deformation, bending loss, and mode-coupling effects in large mode area fibers. The numerical simulation results showed that the design not only efficiently improves the effective area, but also the fundamental mode bending loss is resistant. Without the structure, the bending losses are very low at large bending radius. When the bending radius reduces, there is a rapid increase of losses. In particular, for smaller bending radius (less than 20 cm), the fundamental mode deforms severely, and cannot normally transmit in the core. The numerical simulation results showed that the design not only efficiently improves the effective mode area, but also the fundamental mode bending loss is resistant. Even at bending radius as small as 5cm, the fundamental mode can transmit normally in the fiber with an increased mode area scaling. Furthermore, the LMA fiber with the structure can be flexibly manufactured by conventional fiber manufacturing approaches and recent etching technologies.

  11. Coupled BENDING-BENDING-TORSION Vibration Analysis of Rotating Pretwisted Blades: AN Integral Formulation and Numerical Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surace, G.; Anghel, V.; Mares, C.

    1997-10-01

    A new approximate method is presented for the analysis of the modal characteristics of straight, pretwisted non-uniform blades corresponding to the coupled flapwise bending, chordwise bending and torsion of both rotating and non-rotating blades. An integral approach is described based on the use of Green functions (structural influence functions), which are used to develop the equations of motion. A clamped-free blade is analyzed and comparisons are made with numerical results for the literature. Several examples regarding specific aspects of the flapwise bending, coupled bending-bending, coupled bending-torsion and coupled bending-bending-torsion vibration analysis are presented. The method presented gives good results and can be used for modelling of turbomachine blades, aircraft propellers or helicopter rotor blades which may be considered as straight non-uniform beams with built-in pretwist.

  12. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  13. Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

  14. Alternating bending-steady torque fatigue reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Dodge, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results generated by three unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply alternating-bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. Six-inch long, AISI steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and Rockwell C 35/40 hardness were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and staircase-testing data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one best represents the data. The effect of the groove and of the various combined bending-torsion loads on the finite and endurance life strength of such components, as well as on the Goodman diagram, are determined. Design applications are presented.

  15. Combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Nolf, C. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results generated by three, unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply reversed bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. AISI 4340 steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and 2.34, and Rockwell C hardness of 35/40 were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and stress-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one represents the data best. The effects of the groove, and of the various combined bending-torsion loads, on the S-N and Goodman diagrams are determined. Two design applications are presented which illustrate the direct useability and value of the distributional failure governing strength and cycles-to-failure data in designing for specified levels of reliability and in predicting the reliability of given designs.

  16. Monoclinal bending of strata over laccolithic intrusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, F.G.; Johnson, A.M.; Pollard, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    Sedimentary strata on top of some laccolithic intrusions are nearly horizontal and little deformed, but are bent into steeply dipping monoclinal flexures over the peripheries of these intrusions. This form of bending is not explained by previous theories of laccolithic intrusion, which predict either horizontal undeformed strata over the center and faulted strata around the periphery, or strata bent continuously into a dome. However, a slight generalization of these theories accomodates the observed form and contains the previous forms as special cases. A critical assumption is that the strength of contacts within a multilayered overburden is overcome locally by layer-parallel shear. If this strength is less than the strength of the layers themselves, then layers over the center remain bonded together and display negligible bending, whereas layers over the periphery slip over one another and are readily bent into a monoclinal flexure. ?? 1981.

  17. Environmental Analysis of the Air Bending Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a data collection effort, allowing to assess the overall environmental impact of the air bending process using the CO2PE!-Methodology. First the different modes of the air bending process are investigated, including both productive and non-productive modes. In particular consumption of electric power is recorded for the different modes. Subsequently, time studies allow determining the importance of productive and nonproductive modes of the involved process. The study demonstrates that the influence of standby losses can be substantial. In addition to life cycle analysis, in depth process analysis also provides insight in achievable environmental impact reducing measures towards machine tool builders and eco-design recommendations for product developers. The energy consumption of three different machine tool architectures are analysed and compared within this paper.

  18. Torsion and transverse bending of cantilever plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reissner, Eric; Stein, Manuel

    1951-01-01

    The problem of combined bending and torsion of cantilever plates of variable thickness, such as might be considered for solid thin high-speed airplane or missile wings, is considered in this paper. The deflections of the plate are assumed to vary linearly across the chord; minimization of the potential energy by means of the calculus of variations then leads to two ordinary linear differential equations for the bending deflections and the twist of the plate. Because the cantilever is analyzed as a plate rather than as a beam, the effect of constraint against axial warping in torsion is inherently included. The application of this method to specific problems involving static deflection, vibration, and buckling of cantilever plates is presented. In the static-deflection problems, taper and sweep are considered.

  19. Bending Instabilities in Magnetized Accretion Discs

    E-print Network

    Vasso Agapitou; John C. B. Papaloizou; Caroline Terquem

    1997-07-29

    We study the global bending modes of a thin annular disc subject to both an internally generated magnetic field and a magnetic field due to a dipole embedded in the central star with axis aligned with the disc rotation axis. When there is a significant inner region of the disc corotating with the star, we find spectra of unstable bending modes. These may lead to elevation of the disc above the original symmetry plane facilitating accretion along the magnetospheric field lines. The resulting non-axisymmetric disc configuration may result in the creation of hot spots on the stellar surface and the periodic photometric variations observed in many classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). Time-dependent behaviour may occur including the shadowing of the central source in magnetic accretors even when the dipole and rotation axes are aligned.

  20. Effects of Bending and Bending Angular Momentum on Reaction of NO2 with C2H2: A

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Scott L.

    large suppressing effect of bending angular momentum. The trajectories reproduce the magnitudeEffects of Bending and Bending Angular Momentum on Reaction of NO2 + with C2H2: A Quasi-Classical Trajectory Study Jason M. Boyle, Jianbo Liu,§ and Scott L. Anderson*, Department of Chemistry, Uni

  1. Mechanical Bending Fatigue Life Prediction Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdogan Madenci; Ibrahim Guven; Bahattin Kilic

    \\u000a The fatigue life prediction of solder joints under cyclic bending requires a three-stage analysis: (1) a three-dimensional\\u000a finite element analysis with linear material properties for computing the assembly stiffness and imposed strain values, (2)\\u000a a one-dimensional combined creep and time-independent plastic deformation analysis under cyclic loading for computing the\\u000a inelastic strain energy, and (3) a life prediction analysis.

  2. Geology Fieldnotes: Big Bend National Park, Texas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    That portion of the earth's surface known as "the Big Bend" has often been described as a "geologist's paradise". In part this is due to the sparse vegetation of the region, which allows the various strata to be easily observed and studied. In addition to a geologic history of the region, this site includes photographs, maps, recent earthquakes, volcanoes, petrology and paleontology relating to the park area, and visitor information.

  3. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  4. First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration.

    PubMed

    Einfeld, Dieter; Plesko, Mark; Schaper, Joachim

    2014-09-01

    By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the `diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)', which featured sub-nm?rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 10(22) and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3?GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ?x = 0.5?nm?rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400?m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6?m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce >?5?h beam lifetime at 100?mA stored beam current. PMID:25177977

  5. An experimental and theoretical study of the bending behavior of Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The basic lamina properties were determined by testing unidirectionally reinforced specimens in tension and compression. Results indicate that unidirectional Kevlar 49/epoxy composites manifest nearly linear elastic response in tension and yield-like behavior in fiber-directed compression. The measured compressive yield strength is roughly 20% of the tensile ultimate strength. We also tested 3.2 and 12.7 mm thick, quasi-isotropic beams in tension, compression, short beam shear, and four-point bending, and 457 mm diameter, 12.7 mm thick, quasi-isotropic rings in diametral compression. All specimens were fully instrumented with strain gages to provide a detailed record of their deformation. As anticipated, the flexural response of laminated Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings exhibit nonlinearity. For this reason, a material model which includes compressive yield behavior was examined. In this model, a Kevlar 49 lamina is assumed to respond in a linear elastic manner to all loads except compression in the fiber direction. In fiber-directed compression, it is assumed to behave in an elastic-perfectly plastic manner. Laminate response is determined from the postulated lamina behavior in a manner analogous to that used in classical laminated plate theory. This constitutive model was used in conjunction with the ABAQUS finite element code to analyze the tested specimens. Comparison of predicted results with experimental data corroborates the model's ability to reproduce much of the observed nonlinear behavior.

  6. Simulative Optimization Of The Rubber Pad Bending Technology For Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, M.

    2004-06-01

    Tube bending using an elastomere pad is a flexible bending technique, which belongs to the group of kinematic bending technologies. This new process allows the spatial forming of tubes with variable bending radii and an increased residual formability. The tubes are formed between a rigid roller and a hyperelastic polyurethane pad. In complex bending operations with variable curvatures along the profile axis kinematic shaping shows important advantages regarding set-up times and tooling costs. The complex co-action of the process factors necessitates new concepts in process planning. This attempt is solved by a FE modeling. For the optimization of the bending technology regarding tube ovalization and curvature generation different materials have been investigated and evaluated using FE simulation. Simulative parameter studies are shown to describe the influence of mass scaling and frictional behavior. The paper describes the technical set-up as well as the results of the FE simulation of this new bending technology.

  7. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOEpatents

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  8. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 3: Spark test apparatus for intrinsically-safe circuits 

    E-print Network

    IEC Technical Committee

    1972-01-01

    This Recommendation has been prepared by Sub-Committee 31G, Intrinsically-safe Apparatus. of IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres, and supersedes the first edition of Publication ...

  9. Through-tubing perforating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for perforating a wall of a cylindrical wellbore of a given diameter after having passed through a tubing of a smaller diameter. The apparatus comprising: a plurality of shaped charges including an uppermost shaped charge and a lowermost shaped charge, the shaped charge having a pair of diametrically opposed connecting means extending laterally therefrom, a line interconnecting the diametrically opposed connecting means defining a first length of the shaped charge which comprises the shortest distance between the line and a first outermost longitudinal point on the shaped charge and a second length of the shaped charge which is defined as the shortest distance from the line to a second innermost longitudinal point on the shaped charge; suspension wire means extending from a point above the uppermost shaped charge to a point beneath the lowermost shaped charge; separate individual linkage means extending between and pivotally attached to one of the connecting means of each of a pair of adjacent shaped charges. Termination connector means connecting the uppermost and the lowermost shaped charges to the suspension wire means at first and second termination connection points; whereby, when the apparatus has passed through the smaller diametered tubing, the uppermost termination connector means can be allowed to slip down the suspension wire means to define a second lesser vertically extending length of the shaped charges and allowing the shaped charges to slump outwardly into contact with the wall of the wellbore by virtue of their own weight. The individual linkage means holding the shaped charges in direct contact with the wall of the wellbore.

  10. Vibration sensing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barna, B.A.

    1987-07-07

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure is disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration. 4 figs.

  11. Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1986-08-12

    An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

  12. Vibration sensing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barna, Basil A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-04-25

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure is disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration.

  13. Rotating apparatus for isoelectric focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an isoelectric focusing apparatus, wherein stabilization of the fluid containing the isolated proteins is achieved by carrying out the separation in a rotating cylinder with the separation cavity of the cylinder being segmented by means of filter elements. The filter elements are constituted of a material offering some degree of resistance to fluid convection, but allowing relatively free and unhindered passage of current and transport of proteins. The combined effect of segmentation and rotation has been found to be superior to either segmentation or rotation alone in maintaining the stability of the migrated fractions.

  14. Thruster sealing system and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svejkovsky, Paul A. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A thruster nozzle sealing system and apparatus is provided for protection of spacecraft thruster motors. The system includes a sealing plug, a sealing plug insertion tool, an outer cover, an outer cover attachment, and a ferry flight attachment. The sealing plug prevents moisture from entering the thruster engine so as to prevent valve failure. The attachments are interchangeably connectable with the sealing plug. The ferry flight attachment is used during air transportation of the spacecraft, and the outer cover attachment is used during storage and service of the spacecraft. The outer cover provides protection to the thruster nozzle from mechanical damage.

  15. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-06

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

  16. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R. (Moriarty, NM); Platzbecker, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Vargo, Timothy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Lockhart, Randal R. (Lorain, OH); Descour, Michael R. (Tucson, AZ); Richards-Kortum, Rebecca (Austin, TX)

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

  17. Vibration sensing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barna, B.A.

    1989-04-25

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure are disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration. 4 figs.

  18. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  19. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Baker, Donald F. (Hempfield, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  20. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, H.L.

    1983-08-16

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

  1. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  2. Apparatus for Studying the Principles of Electron Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, B. R. F.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed for demonstrating electron and ion-optical principles. The apparatus consists of (1) a high-vacuum system and (2) electron-optical components. The teaching techniques used and the experiments conducted are reported. The apparatus won second prize in Demonstration Lecture Apparatus in the A.A.P.T. Apparatus

  3. COMPARISON OF DOUBLE BEND AND TRIPLE BEND ACHROMATIC LATTICE STRUCTURES AND NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    KRAMER, S.L.; KRINSKY, S.; BENGTSSON, J.

    2006-06-26

    The Double Bend Achromatic (DBA) and the Triple Bend Achromatic (TBA) lattice have been studied rather extensively for use for the NSLS-II storage ring. The advantage of the TBA compared to the DBA in terms of emittance per period is well known. However, the DBA has the advantage of greater number of ID straight sections for the users and maybe easier to tune the dispersive section for reduced chromatic sextupole strength. We present a comparison of these lattices based on optimization of the non-linear driving terms using high order achromatic cancellation of driving terms of the nonlinear lattice.

  4. Nonlinear aeroelastic stability analysis of wind turbine blade with bending-bending-twist coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingrui; Ren, Yongsheng; Yang, Xinghua

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the nonlinear aeroelastic stability of wind turbine blade with bending-bending-twist coupling has been investigated for composite thin-walled structure with pretwist angle. The aerodynamic model used here is the differential dynamic stall nonlinear ONERA model. The nonlinear aeroelastic equations are reduced to ordinary equations by Galerkin method, with the aerodynamic force decomposition by strip theory. The nonlinear resulting equations are solved by a time-marching approach, and are linearized by small perturbation about the equilibrium point. The nonlinear aeroelastic stability characteristics are investigated through eigenvalue analysis, nonlinear time domain response, and linearized time domain response.

  5. Electrical charging and discharging control apparatus and method, and solar to electrical energy conversion apparatus incorporating such apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staler

    1983-01-01

    Electrical charging control apparatus regulates the charging of a rechargeable battery by a solar panel. Selector apparatus can select a direct connection, through a relay, of the output and charging terminal of the solar panel to the output and charging terminal of the battery to permit charging through such a direct connection. It, alternatively, by opening the relay, can select

  6. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  7. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Charles, S.T.; Spalding, J.A.

    1999-08-31

    An apparatus is disclosed based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it. 12 figs.

  8. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, Alan K. (Albuquerque, NM); Kozlowski, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Charles, Steven T. (Germantown, TN); Spalding, James A. (Springfield, KY)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  9. Tank gauging apparatus and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1990-09-01

    An apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under low or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of the fluid in the container is measured before and after removal of the gas; the pressure and temperature of the gas in the accumulator is measured before and after compression of the gas into the accumulator from the container. These pressure and temperature measurements are used to determine the volume of gas in the container, whereby the volume of the liquid in the container can be determined from the difference between the known volume of the container and the volume of gas in the container. Gas from the accumulator may be communicated into the container in a similar process as a verification of the gauging of the liquid volume, or as an independent process for determining the volume of liquid in the container.

  10. Conveyor with rotary airlock apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for transferring objects from a first region to a second reg, the first and second regions having differing atmospheric environments. The apparatus includes a shell having an entrance and an exit, a conveyor belt running through the shell from the entrance to the exit, and a horizontally mounted "revolving door" with at least four vanes revolving about its axis. The inner surface of the shell and the top surface of the conveyor belt act as opposing walls of the "revolving door." The conveyor belt dips as it passes under but against the revolving vanes so as not to interfere with them but to engage at least two of the vanes and define thereby a moving chamber. Preferably, the conveyor belt has ridges or grooves on its surface that engage the edges of the vanes and act to rotate the vane assembly. Conduits are provided that communicate with the interior of the shell and allow the adjustment of the atmosphere of the moving chamber or recovery of constituents of the atmosphere of the first region from the moving chamber before they escape to the second region.

  11. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  12. Vehicle security apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1996-02-13

    A vehicle security apparatus for use in a motor vehicle, the apparatus comprising an optical key, a receptacle, a receiver and at least one optical fiber. The optical key has a transmitter having at least one first preprogrammed coded signal stored in a first electric circuit. The receptacle receives the optical key and at least one transmittable coded optical signal from the transmitter corresponding to the at least one preprogrammed coded signal stored in the first electric circuit. The receiver compares the at least one transmittable coded optical signal to at least one second preprogrammed coded signal stored in a second electric circuit and the receiver is adapted to trigger switching effects for at least one of enabling starting the motor vehicle and starting the motor vehicle upon determination that the at least one transmittable coded optical signal corresponds to the at least one second preprogrammed signal in the second electric circuit. The at least one optical fiber is operatively connected between the receptacle and the receiver for carrying the optical signal from the receptacle to the receiver. Also disclosed is a method for permitting only authorized use of a motor vehicle.

  13. Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  14. Tank gauging apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging the amount of liquid in a container of liquid and gas under flow or zero gravity net conditions includes an accumulator and appropriate connector apparatus for communicating gas between the accumulator and the container. In one form of the invention, gas is removed from the container and compressed into the accumulator. The pressure and temperature of the fluid in the container is measured before and after removal of the gas; the pressure and temperature of gas in the accumulator is measured before and after compression of the gas into the accumulator from the container. These pressure and temperature measurements are used in determining the volume of gas in the container, whereby the volume of liquid in the container can be determined from the difference between the known volume of the container and the volume of gas in the container. Gas from the accumulator may be communicated into the container in a similar process as a verification of the gauging of the liquid volume, or as an independent process for determining the volume of liquid in the container.

  15. Static Fatigue of Optical Fibers in Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D.; Cuellar, E.; Middleman, L.; Zucker, J.

    1987-02-01

    While delayed fracture, or static fatigue, of optical fibers is well known, it is not well understood, and the prediction of the time to failure under a given set of conditions can be problematic. Unlike short term fracture, which is quite well understood and quantified in terms of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, the long term strength remains empirical. The goal of this study is to determine the design criteria for optical fibers subjected to long term applied mechanical loads. One difficulty in making lifetime predictions, as pointed out by Matthewson (Reference 1) and others, is that predictions made from data taken in tension and in bending do not agree. Another difficulty is the statistical nature of the fracture of glass. In making lifetime predictions it becomes important therefore that one (a) have ample data for statistical analysis and (b) have data for the loading configuration of interest. This is the purpose of our work. Since there is less data available in bending, and since several applications (such as wiring in aircraft and missiles) require bending, the data are taken in that configuration. The most significant finding in our work so far is the very large difference in static fatigue behavior between buffer coatings. Chandan and Kalish (Reference 2) and others have reported static fatigue curves, log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress), which are not linear, but rather bimodal. Our study confirms this result, but so far only for acrylate coated fibers. Silicone coated fibers show unimodal behavior. That is, the log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress) curve is linear, at least on the time scale studied so far. Data for acrylate coated fibers at 80°C in water are linear only for time scales of about one day, where a pronounced "knee" is observed. Data for silicone coated fibers under the same conditions are linear up to at least 6 months. Longer time scale tests and tests on fibers with other buffer materials are in progress.

  16. Nonlinear bending theories for non Euclidean plates

    E-print Network

    Peter Hornung

    2014-11-03

    Thin growing tissues (such as plant leaves) can be modelled by a bounded domain $S\\subset R^2$ endowed with a Riemannian metric $g$, which models the internal strains caused by the differential growth of the tissue. The elastic energy is given by a nonlinear isometry-constrained bending energy functional which is a natural generalization of Kirchhoff's plate functional. We introduce and discuss a natural notion of (possibly non-minimising) stationarity points. We show that rotationally symmetric immersions of the unit disk are stationary, and we give examples of metrics $g$ leading to functionals with infinitely many stationary points.

  17. Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.

    1977-01-01

    Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.

  18. Circuit Bending with Play-Doh

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Museum of Minnesota

    2012-06-26

    Break open that used musical toy and squish some Play-Doh over the circuit boards, and you will hear some weird and distorted sounds the manufacturer never intended! In this activity learners experiment with the strange conductive properties of Play-Doh in order to safely short-circuit a musical toy. This is an entertaining activity about basic circuitry, sounds, and short circuiting or "circuit bending" battery powered musical toys. Note: often it is difficult to unscrew the musical toys open, and the insides are delicate. So consider this when turning this into a group activity.

  19. Bending of light in quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-02-13

    We consider the scattering of lightlike matter in the presence of a heavy scalar object (such as the Sun or a Schwarzschild black hole). By treating general relativity as an effective field theory we directly compute the nonanalytic components of the one-loop gravitational amplitude for the scattering of massless scalars or photons from an external massive scalar field. These results allow a semiclassical computation of the bending angle for light rays grazing the Sun, including long-range ? contributions. We discuss implications of this computation, in particular, the violation of some classical formulations of the equivalence principle. PMID:25723201

  20. Losses at corner bends in dielectric waveguides.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H F

    1977-03-01

    An approximate technique based on a sum rule is used to treat mode conversion at corner bends in dielectric waveguides. Matrix elements which describe the mode coupling are expressed as spatial integrals over electromagnetic field distributions for the guided modes. These matrix elements provide information on the magnitude, average propagation constant, and coherence of power propagating in radiation modes. Numerical results are obtained for single mode and multimode slab waveguides, and implications for the design of low-loss interconnections and mode converters for integrated optics are discussed. PMID:20168567

  1. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a...

  11. Investigation of the elastic modulus of sol-gel derived titania using three-point bending tests

    SciTech Connect

    Jaemting, A.K. [Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Bell, J.M. [Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical, Manufacturing and Medical Engineering; Swain, M.V. [CSIRO, Lindfield, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1997-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of sol-gel derived films in tribological applications, and this necessitates an understanding of the mechanical properties of these films. Few investigations into the mechanical properties of sol-gel films have been undertaken, and in this study the authors have concentrated on measurement of the elastic modulus of sol-gel derived titania films as a preliminary stage in a full investigation of stress in sol-gel deposited thin films. Sol-gel films are often very thin and in order to understand the influence of the substrate on the measured elastic modulus, they have used a multiple coating technique to deposit titania films of increasing thickness on various substrates. A three point bending apparatus is used to measure the elastic modulus. The three-point bending apparatus have very low load and displacement measuring capabilities as is required for the very thin sol-gel films. Measurements of the compositional uniformity of the films have been performed using RBS, and this has been combined with film thickness measurements to determine the film porosity. This information ensures that the measured properties relate to intrinsic film properties. The results of all these measurements will be presented.

  12. Performance of engine-driven rotary endodontic instruments with a superimposed bending deflection: V. Gates Glidden and Peeso drills.

    PubMed

    Brantley, W A; Luebke, N H; Luebke, F L; Mitchell, J C

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory study was performed on Gates Glidden and Peeso drills to determine the incidence of shaft fracture when a bending deflection was superimposed on the rotating drills. Samples of sizes #1 to #6 stainless steel Gates Glidden drills, sizes #1 to #6 stainless steel and carbon steel-type P Peeso drills, and sizes #009 to #023 carbon steel-type B-1 Peeso drills from each of two manufacturers were evaluated with a unique apparatus that applied a 2-mm bending deflection while rotating the instruments. The apparatus did not restrict movement of the bur head during rotation. The test drills were rotated at 2500, 4000, and 7000 revolutions per minute, and the number of revolutions at failure was recorded. Scanning electron microscopic observations established that the stainless steel Gates Glidden and Peeso drills failed by ductile fracture, whereas the carbon steel Peeso drills failed by brittle fracture. Instrument fracture was always near the handpiece shank with this test, and the length of the fractured drills was measured from the working tip. It is recommended that this additional test be adopted to determine fatigue properties of engine-driven rotary endodontic instruments in establishing international performance standards. PMID:7931016

  13. Apparatus and method for handheld sampling

    DOEpatents

    Staab, Torsten A. (Whiterock, NM)

    2005-09-20

    The present invention includes an apparatus, and corresponding method, for taking a sample. The apparatus is built around a frame designed to be held in at least one hand. A sample media is used to secure the sample. A sample media adapter for securing the sample media is operated by a trigger mechanism connectively attached within the frame to the sample media adapter.

  14. Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Surma, J.E.; Bryan, G.H.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Butner, R.S.

    1998-01-13

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

  15. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  16. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  17. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  18. Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA); Bryan, Garry H. (Kennewick, WA); Geeting, John G. H. (West Richland, WA); Butner, R. Scott (Port Orchard, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell.

  19. New Apparatus Tests Pressure-Suit Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Webbon, B.

    1982-01-01

    New apparatus measures applied torque and angle-of-flexure in pressurized flexible joints, such as those found in diving suits and flight suits. Torque and flexure are permanently recorded on x-y plotter. Family of curves can be taken as function of suit pressure or other variables. Apparatus could also measure torque-versus-angle in mechanical linkages.

  20. Apparatus enables automatic microanalysis of body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.; Stuart, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Apparatus will automatically and quantitatively determine body fluid constituents which are amenable to analysis by fluorometry or colorimetry. The results of the tests are displayed as percentages of full scale deflection on a strip-chart recorder. The apparatus can also be adapted for microanalysis of various other fluids.

  1. Apparatus for automated testing of biological specimens

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P. (Los Angeles, CA); Beugelsdijk, Tony J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for performing automated testing of infections biological specimens is disclosed. The apparatus comprise a process controller for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands, and a test instrument suite comprising a means to treat the specimen to manifest an observable result, and a detector for measuring the observable result to generate specimen test results.

  2. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  3. Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Patrick L. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus suitable for stabilizing hydrocarbon cores are given. Such stabilized cores have not previously been obtainable for laboratory study, and such study is believed to be required before the hydrate reserves can become a utilizable resource. The apparatus can be built using commercially available parts and is very simple and safe to operate.

  4. Report on the 2006 AAPT Apparatus Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flarend, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Each year at the AAPT summer meeting there is an apparatus competition in which members of the physics community can share ideas for new or improved apparatus to aid in the teaching of physics. The 2006 competition at the summer meeting in Syracuse, NY, was the largest competition in quite a while and continued an upward trend in the number of…

  5. Method and apparatus for PM filter regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Opris, Cornelius N. (Peoria, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL)

    2006-01-03

    A method and apparatus for initiating regeneration of a particulate matter (PM) filter in an exhaust system in an internal combustion engine. The method and apparatus includes determining a change in pressure of exhaust gases passing through the PM filter, and responsively varying an opening of an intake valve in fluid communication with a combustion chamber.

  6. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  7. Matrix Acidizing Parallel Core Flooding Apparatus 

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Vivek

    2013-07-23

    , assemble, and test a matrix acidizing parallel core flooding apparatus. The apparatus was rated for 5,000 psi and 250 ?F. The design uses 36 valves to configure small, medium, and large core holders. The key feature is the ability to run parallel core... ................................................................................. 27 2.10 Nitrogen Source ............................................................................................ 29 2.11 Fraction Collector ......................................................................................... 30 2.12 Valve...

  8. Mechanics Experiments using Modified PSSC Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. H. Shuter

    1965-01-01

    Low-cost modifications we have made to standard PSSC apparatus which greatly facilitates its use by large laboratory classes are described, and an outline is given of mechanics experiments we have designed for first-year physics-major students using this modified apparatus.

  9. Running head: On chip bending tests for polysilicon ON-CHIP ELECTROSTATICALLY ACTUATED BENDING TESTS

    E-print Network

    Corigliano, Alberto

    on a large plate with holes. It constitutes with the substrate a parallel plate capacitor moving, in order to measure the Young's modulus, cantilever beams in bending are often used; deflection is measured in the direction orthogonal to the substrate itself. A couple of tapered beams placed at the center of the plate

  10. Characterization of the bending stiffness of large space structure joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey

    1989-01-01

    A technique for estimating the bending stiffness of large space structure joints is developed and demonstrated for an erectable joint concept. Experimental load-deflection data from a three-point bending test was used as input to solve a closed-form expression for the joint bending stiffness which was derived from linear beam theory. Potential error sources in both the experimental and analytical procedures are identified and discussed. The bending stiffness of a mechanically preloaded erectable joint is studied at three applied moments and seven joint orientations. Using this technique, the joint bending stiffness was bounded between 6 and 17 percent of the bending stiffness of the graphite/epoxy strut member.

  11. Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography for Bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Arno; Bloom, Joost

    2011-06-01

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography has been developed to map the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. The method has been demonstrated for straight pipes. The extension of this method to bends is not straightforward because natural focusing occurs due to geometrical path differences. This yields a phase jump, which complicates travel time picking. Because ray-tracing is no longer sufficient to predict the travel times a recursive wave field extrapolation has been developed. The method uses a short spatial convolution operator to propagate a wave field through a bend. The method allows to calculate the wave field at the detector ring, including the phase jump as a consequence of the natural focusing. The recursive wave field extrapolation is done in the space-frequency domain. Therefore dispersion effects can be included easily in the forward modeling. Comparison with measurements shows the accuracy of the method.

  12. Nonlinear bending waves in Keplerian accretion discs

    E-print Network

    G. I. Ogilvie

    2005-10-24

    The nonlinear dynamics of a warped accretion disc is investigated in the important case of a thin Keplerian disc with negligible viscosity and self-gravity. A one-dimensional evolutionary equation is formally derived that describes the primary nonlinear and dispersive effects on propagating bending waves other than parametric instabilities. It has the form of a derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation with coefficients that are obtained explicitly for a particular model of a disc. The properties of this equation are analysed in some detail and illustrative numerical solutions are presented. The nonlinear and dispersive effects both depend on the compressibility of the gas through its adiabatic index Gamma. In the physically realistic case Gammanonlinearity does not lead to the steepening of bending waves but instead enhances their linear dispersion. In the opposite case Gamma>3, nonlinearity leads to wave steepening and solitary waves are supported. The effects of a small effective viscosity, which may suppress parametric instabilities, are also considered. This analysis may provide a useful point of comparison between theory and numerical simulations of warped accretion discs.

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of multilayered steel sheets upon bending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Oya; Nicolas Tiesler; Seiichiro Kawanishi; Jun Yanagimoto; Toshihiko Koseki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the bending formability of multilayered steel sheets is evaluated by tensile tests, V-bending tests, and hemming tests. Enhanced formability was observed in these experiments, namely, the constituent high-strength materials were elongated beyond the original fracture strain limit. As a result of this effect, multilayered steel sheets were successfully formed in V-bending tests and even in hemming tests.

  14. Shock wave and detonation propagation through U-bend tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Frolov; V. S. Aksenov; I. O. Shamshin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research outlined in this paper is to provide experimental and computational data on initiation, propagation, and stability of gaseous fuel–air detonations in tubes with U-bends implying their use for design optimization of pulse detonation engines (PDEs). The experimental results with the U-bends of two curvatures indicate that, on the one hand, the U-bend of the tube

  15. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    SciTech Connect

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points and clad configurations. The 2-ply sleeve samples show a higher bend momentum compared to those of the 1-ply sleeve samples. This is applicable to both the hybrid mock-up and bare SiC-CMC sleeve samples. Comparatively both the 1- and 2-ply hybrid mock-up samples showed a higher bend stiffness and strength compared with the standard Zr-4 mock-up sample. The characterization of the hybrid mock-up samples showed signs of distress and preliminary signs of fraying at the protective Zr-4 sleeve areas for the 1-ply SiC-CMC sleeve. In addition, the microstructure of the SiC matrix near the cracks at the region of highest compressive bending strain shows significant cracking and flaking. The 2-ply SiC-CMC sleeve samples showed a more bonded, cohesive SiC matrix structure. This cracking and fraying causes concern for increased fretting during the actual use of the design. Tomography was proven as a successful tool to identify open porosity during pre-test characterization. Although there is currently insufficient data to make conclusive statements regarding the overall merit of the hybrid cladding design, preliminary characterization of this novel design has been demonstrated.

  16. Fatigue life prediction in bending from axial fatigue information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.; Muralidharan, U.

    1982-01-01

    Bending fatigue in the low cyclic life range differs from axial fatigue due to the plastic flow which alters the linear stress-strain relation normally used to determine the nominal stresses. An approach is presented to take into account the plastic flow in calculating nominal bending stress (S sub bending) based on true surface stress. These functions are derived in closed form for rectangular and circular cross sections. The nominal bending stress and the axial fatigue stress are plotted as a function of life (N sub S) and these curves are shown for several materials of engineering interest.

  17. Bend-size reduction on the SOI rib waveguide platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Timo; Cherchi, Matteo; Harjanne, Mikko; Ylinen, Sami; Kapulainen, Markku

    2013-02-01

    The minimum bending radius of optical waveguides is typically the most important parameter that defines the footprint and cost of a photonic integrated circuit. In optical fibers and in planar waveguides with equally large mode fields (~10 ?m) the bending radii are typically in the cm-scale. The main advantage of using a high index waveguide core with a thickness below 1 ?m is the ability to realise single-mode bends with bending radii of just a few micrometers. In this paper we review the dependence of the minimum bending radius on the size and shape of waveguides with the main emphasis on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. Then we present simulation and measurement results from advanced waveguide bends and mirrors that have been integrated with 4-10 ?m thick single-mode SOI waveguides. We show that multi-step patterning and novel designs allow the reduction of the bending radius by up to three orders of magnitude while also reducing the bending losses by approximately one order of magnitude when compared to traditional rib waveguide bends on 4 ?m SOI. This allows to use the ?m-scale SOI waveguides for making almost as compact photonic integrated circuits as those based on sub-?m SOI waveguides.

  18. SRI CAT Section 1 bending magnet beamline description

    SciTech Connect

    Srajer, G.; Rodricks, B.; Assoufid, L.; Mills, D.M.

    1994-03-10

    This report discusses: APS bending magnet source; beamline layout; beamline optical components; beamline operation; time-resolved studies station; polarization studies station; and commissioning and operational schedule.

  19. Self-contained breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Giorgini, E. A.; Simmonds, M. R. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A self-contained breathing apparatus with automatic redundant fluid pressure controls and a facemask mounted low pressure whistle alarm is described. The first stage of the system includes pair of pressure regulators connected in parallel with different outlet pressures, both of which reduce the pressure of the stored supply gas to pressures compatible with the second stage breathing demand regulator. A primary regulator in the first stage delivers a low output pressure to the demand regulator. In the event of a failure closed condition of the primary regulator an automatic transfer valve switches on the backup regulator. A warning that the supply pressure has been depleted is also provided by a supply pressure actuated transfer valve which transfers the output of the first stage pressure regulators from the primary to the backup regulator. The alarm is activated in either the failure closed condition or if the supply pressure is reduced to a dangerously low level.

  20. Ultrasonic flow nozzle cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fridsma, D.E.; Silvestri, G.J. Jr.; Twerdochlib, M.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for a venturi flow measuring nozzle mounted in a pipe of a steam power plant and having an inlet, venturi throat, and an outlet, the pipe and nozzle having fluid flowing therethrough, the cleaning occurring while the fluid is flowing. It comprises first ultrasonic transducer means mounted to connect to the inside of the pipe, disposed adjacent the inlet of the venturi flow nozzle and the means being in direct contact with the fluid flowing through the pipe for transmitting ultrasonic waves directly into and thereby exciting the fluid flowing through the venturi flow nozzle; and control means coupled to the first ultrasonic transducer means for activating the first ultrasonic transducer means.

  1. Voltammetric analysis apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Almon, A.C.

    1993-06-08

    An apparatus and method is described for electrochemical analysis of elements in solution. An auxiliary electrode, a reference electrode, and five working electrodes are positioned in a container containing a sample solution. The working electrodes are spaced apart evenly from each other and the auxiliary electrode to minimize any inter-electrode interference that may occur during analysis. An electric potential is applied between the auxiliary electrode and each of the working electrodes. Simultaneous measurements taken of the current flow through each of the working electrodes for each given potential in a potential range are used for identifying chemical elements present in the sample solution and their respective concentrations. Multiple working electrodes enable a more positive identification to be made by providing unique data characteristic of chemical elements present in the sample solution.

  2. Voltametric analysis apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Almon, Amy C. (410 Waverly Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electrochemical analysis of elements in solution. An auxiliary electrode 14, a reference electrode 18, and five working electrodes 20, 22, 26, 28, and 30 are positioned in a container 12 containing a sample solution 34. The working electrodes are spaced apart evenly from each other and auxiliary electrode 14 to minimize any inter-electrode interference that may occur during analysis. An electric potential is applied between auxiliary electrode 14 and each of the working electrodes 20, 22, 26, 28, and 30. Simultaneous measurements taken of the current flow through each of the working electrodes for each given potential in a potential range are used for identifying chemical elements present in sample solution 34 and their respective concentrations. Multiple working electrodes enable a more positive identification to be made by providing unique data characteristic of chemical elements present in the sample solution.

  3. Thermal synthesis apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  4. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOEpatents

    Rehberger, Kevin M. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device.

  5. Apparatus for producing thin flakes

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Sr., Lee R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1991-01-01

    Compositions in accordance with the invention comprise a polymer and flake reinforcing material distributed throughout the polymer in an effective amount to structurally reinforce the polymer. Individual flakes of the flake material a) are less than or equal to 1,000 Angstroms in thickness, b) have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 100, and c) are preferably significantly randomly oriented throughout the polymer. A novel apparatus for shear grinding a platy solid material into such individual flakes comprises a cylindrical shearing drum and a shear grinder received therein. The shearing drum has a longitudinal axis and an internal surface formed about a first predetermined radius of curvature. The cylindrical drum is supported for rotation about its longitudinal axis. The shear grinder has an external surface formed about a second predetermined radius of curvature. The second radius of curvature is slightly less than the first radius of curvature.

  6. Dual-Materials Dispersion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. This drawing depicts a cross-section of a set of Dual-Materials Dispersion Apparatus (DMDA) specimen wells, one of which can include a reverse osmosis membrane to dewater a protein solution and thus cause crystallization. Depending on individual needs, two or three wells may be used, the membrane may be absent, or other proprietary enhancements may be present. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  7. Ampoule sealing apparatus and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnam, Jr., William J. (Inventor); Clark, Ivan O. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus 10 for effecting sealing of a fused quartz ampoule 24 while maintaining a vacuum on the ampoule via system 12 is disclosed. A plug 28 of fused quartz is lowered into the vertically disposed ampoule 24 (while maintaining the vacuum thereon) and heat sealed therein to prevent any vapor escape from, or contamination of, the contained semiconductor growth charge 29 during subsequent semiconductor crystal growth processes. A rotary vacuum feed-through mechanism 16 selectively rotates axle 34 and spool 32 to unwind wire 30 for lowering of plug 28 into the reduced diameter portion 24b of ampoule 24. Ampoule 24 is hermatically connected to vacuum housing 18 by quick release flange 20 wherein O-ring 22 retains ampoule 24.

  8. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Slagle, Frank D. (Kingwood, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  9. Model transport directional solidification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.T.; Eshelman, M.A.

    1986-07-01

    A model transport directional solidification apparatus is described. It has three functional components, each of which are described: the temperature gradient stage, the motor and drive mechanism, and the measuring systems. A small amount of sample is held between two glass slides on the temperature gradient stage so that the portion of sample in the hot chamber is molten and the portion in the cold chamber is solidified. Conditions are set so that the solid-liquid interface occurs in the gap between the chambers and can be observed through the microscope system. In-situ directional solidification is observed by driving the sample from the hot chamber to the cold chamber and observing the solidification process as it occurs. (LEW)

  10. Remote control apparatus for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, A.

    1989-01-10

    A remote control apparatus for a transmission is described, comprising: means for sending a signal representing an operation state of a change lever; auxiliary power means, remote-controlled by the change lever, for changing a gear position of the transmission and sending a signal representing the gear position; and control means for controlling an operation of the auxiliary power means in accordance with the change lever operation state signal and gear position signal, the control means being provided with neutral position holding means comprises signal transmission delay means. This comprises means for detecting that the shift path on which the striker presently exists is different from the shift path instructed according to the change lever operating signal, then detecting that the striker has reached the first neutral position according to the neutral position signal and generating a neutral position detection signal.

  11. Apparatus in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Alpine, UT); Hall, Jr., Tracy H. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Lehi, UT); Pixton, David S. (Provo, UT)

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

  12. Strength tests of thin-walled elliptic duralumin cylinders in pure bending and in combined pure bending and torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z

    1942-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the results of tests made by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on an investigation of the strength of thin-walled circular and elliptic cylinders in pure bending and in combined torsion and bending. In each of the loading conditions, the bending moments were applied in the plane of the major axis of the ellipse.

  13. Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Shaikh M. Shamid; Subas Dhakal; Jonathan V. Selinger

    2013-05-21

    We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters.

  14. Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Shamid, Shaikh M; Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan V

    2013-05-01

    We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second-order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters. PMID:23767556

  15. Failure behavior of plasma-sprayed HAp coating on commercially pure titanium substrate in simulated body fluid (SBF) under bending load.

    PubMed

    Laonapakul, Teerawat; Rakngarm Nimkerdphol, Achariya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2012-11-01

    Four point bending tests with acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were conducted for evaluating failure behavior of the plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coat on commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) plate with and without mixed HAp/Ti bond coat. Effect of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on failure behavior of the coated specimen was also investigated by immersing the specimen in SBF. The AE patterns obtained from the bending test of the HAp coating specimens after a week immersion in SBF clearly showed the earlier stage of delamination and spallation of the coating layer compared to those without immersion in SBF. It was also found that the bond coating improved failure resistance of the HAp coating specimen compared to that without the bond coat. Four point bend fatigue tests under ambient and SBF environments were also conducted with AE monitoring during the entire fatigue test for investigating the influence of SBF environment on fatigue failure behavior of the HAp coating specimen with the mixed HAp/Ti bond coat. The specimens tested at a stress amplitude of 120 MPa under both ambient and SBF environments could survive up to 10? cycles without spallation of HAp coating layer. The specimens tested under SBF environment and those tested under ambient environment after immersion in SBF showed shorter fatigue life compared to those tested under ambient environment without SBF immersion. Micro-cracks nucleated in the coating layer in the early stage of fatigue life and then propagated into the cp-Ti substrate in the intermediate stage, which unstably propagated to failure in the final stage. It was found from the XRD analysis that the dissolution of the co-existing phases and the precipitation of the HAp phase were taken place during immersion in SBF. During this process, the co-existing phases disappeared from the coating layer and the HAp phase fully occupied the coating layer. The degradation of bending strength and fatigue life of the HAp coating specimens tested under SBF environment would be induced by dissolution of the co-existing phases from the coating layer during immersion in SBF. PMID:23032435

  16. Profile inversion in presence of ray bending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallio, H. A.; Grossi, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Inversion of radio occultation data for planetary atmospheres and ionospheres has been performed using the seismological Herglotz-Wiechert method, as adapted by Phinney and Anderson to the radio-occultation case. Profile reconstruction performed in computer simulated experiments with this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with the straight-ray Abel transform. For a thin atmosphere and ionosphere, like the ones encountered on Mars, microwave occultation data can be inverted accurately with both methods. For a dense ionosphere like the sun's corona, ray bending of microwaves is severe, and recovered refractivity by the Herglotz-Wiechert method provides significant improvement over the straight-ray Abel transform: the error reduces from more than 60% to less than 20% at a height of 60,000 km above the base of the corona.

  17. Separation of blood in microchannel bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (?TBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.

  18. Separation of blood in microchannel bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang

    2003-12-01

    Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (?TBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.

  19. Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype

    E-print Network

    Schoerling, D

    2013-01-01

    The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).

  20. Bending strain tolerance of BPSCCO-2223 tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malachevsky, Maria Teresa; Esparza, Daniel Antonio; D'Ovidio, Claudio Alberto

    1996-03-01

    The degradation of critical current density (Jc) at 77 K in superconducting tapes was evaluated for combined tension-compression strain. Tapes were prepared by pressing or rolling BPSCCO-2223 Ag-sheathed wires. Lengths of approximately 8 cm were bent by winding on cylinders of different diameters (between 15 to 0.8 cm) at room temperature. The Jc at 77 K was measured either after letting the tape to relax or with the applied strain. The bending strain was calculated as the ratio between the total thickness of the tape (silver sheath plus ceramic core) and the curvature diameter. The strain tolerance for each case was obtained from the deformation Vs Jc characteristics. We present the analysis of the results along with the microstructure, thickness, preparation procedure of the tapes and the degradation of Jc with thermal cycling.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining fluid mass flowrates

    DOEpatents

    Hamel, W.R.

    1982-10-07

    This invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining fluid mass flowrate and density. In one aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through a straight cantilevered tube in which transient oscillation has been induced, thus generating Coriolis damping forces on the tube. The decay rate and frequency of the resulting damped oscillation are measured, and the fluid mass flowrate and density are determined therefrom. In another aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through the cantilevered tube while an electrically powered device imparts steady-state harmonic excitation to the tube. This generates Coriolis tube-damping forces which are dependent on the mass flowrate of the fluid. Means are provided to respond to incipient flow-induced changes in the amplitude of vibration by changing the power input to the excitation device as required to sustain the original amplitude of vibration. The fluid mass flowrate and density are determined from the required bending of the fluid flow.

  2. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, R.J. Jr.

    1986-02-25

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame. 7 figs.

  3. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J. (Bellaire, TX)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

  4. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84...Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. ...will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus...

  5. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84...Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. ...will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus...

  6. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84...Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. ...will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus...

  7. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84...Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. ...will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus...

  8. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84...Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. ...will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus...

  9. Experimental research on the tube push-bending process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuansong Zeng; Zhiqiang Li

    2002-01-01

    A tube push-bending process combining axial forces and internal pressure is introduced in this paper. The outside forces applied to the tube and the effects of the internal pressure, friction condition and push distance on the tube deformation are analyzed with mechanical analysis and experiments. Aluminum alloy tube components with a bend radius that is equal to the tube diameter

  10. Development of Positioning Jig for Glass Capillary Bending Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Xia; Hung-Yao Hsu; Lingxue Kong

    2006-01-01

    In a bending mechanism for glass capillary, the positioning jig to hold the capillary in place is one of the most important components to ensure the bending quality. The tapered shoulder of the capillary is used as the positioning reference. Since the dimension of the shoulder of individual capillaries varies slightly, the geometry of the capillaries is studied to identify

  11. Analysis of shear banding in metallic glasses under bending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guruswami Ravichandran; Alain Molinari

    2005-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed for studying the formation of shear bands in metallic glasses over a wide range of size scales when subjected to plane strain bending. The model is based on elasto-plastic beam bending and the evolution of shear offset in shear bands. The spacing of shear bands is assumed to be governed by a scaling law depending

  12. Fracture of glass in tensile and bending tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orestes E. Alarcón; Ricardo E. Medrano; Pcter P. Gillis

    1994-01-01

    To fully characterize the mechanical behavior of ceramics, it is useful to study their response to both tensile and bending tests. In this investigation, a quantitative comparison is made between tensile and bending results from (circularly) cylindrical glass rods of borosilicate glass and of fused silica. These experimental results show that in each material, the Weibull exponent m is approximately

  13. Photonic bandgap Bragg fiber sensors for bending/displacement detection

    E-print Network

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    diameter and length, we find that the Bragg fiber sensor is more sensitive to bending due to the presencePhotonic bandgap Bragg fiber sensors for bending/displacement detection Hang Qu,1 Tiberius Bragg fiber with one end coated with a silver layer. The reflection intensity of the Bragg fiber

  14. Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces 

    E-print Network

    Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    of the convective sections. Consultation with the furnace manufacturer then revealed that furnaces made in the 1960's tended to not insulate the pipe bends in the convective section. When insulation was added within the covers of the pipe bends on one furnace...

  15. View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang

    2013-07-20

    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone. PMID:23872750

  17. Structure-borne sound Flexural wave (bending wave)

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Structure-borne sound · Flexural wave (bending wave) »One dimensional (beam) +(/x)dx +(/x)dx = (/x) (/x)dx=(2/x2)dx Mz +(Mz/x)dx Mz vy Fy Fy +(Fy/x)dx Structure-borne sound · Bending wave ­ flexural wave #12;2 Structure-borne sound · Two obliquely propagating waves + - + + - + - Structure

  18. The equivalence principle and the bending of light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Ferraro; F ´ õsica del Espacio; Casilla de Correo

    2003-01-01

    The apparent discrepancy between the bending of light predicted by the equivalence principle and its corresponding value in general relativity is resolved by evaluating the deflection of light with respect to a direction that is parallel transported along the ray trajectory in 3-space. In this way the bending predicted by the equivalence principle is fulfilled in general relativity and other

  19. COASTAL BEND BAYS & ESTUARIES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program, Inc. (CBBEP) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)organization. The CBBEP project area encompasses 12 counties coincident with the Coastal Bend Council of Governments and extends from the Land-Cut in the Laguna Madre, through the Corpus Christi Bay s...

  20. Design of closed thin-walled composite shapes for bending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Elpat'evskii; N. N. Kurdyumov

    1997-01-01

    A study is made of the possibility of dividing the complex bending of a structure into elementary components, and an examination is made of closed wing-type monocoque structures with a rigid contour. The structures studied are asymmetric with respect to their geometric and stiffness characteristics. They are subjected to bending without torsion and are referred to a cylindrical coordinate system

  1. Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles to ensure adequate mixing, liquid containing the suspended contaminant sample is dispensed. The disposable components are then removed from the dispensing head, which may then be reused with a fresh set of disposable components.

  2. Single mode fiber bending loss and its environmental dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H. P.

    1986-08-01

    The objective of this study contract is to develop a practical single mode bending loss model for special optical fibers critical to several future Army Weapon Systems. The model will facilitate the selection of fiber and aid the design of high speed missile payout canisters used in major Army fiber optics systems such as FOG-M and AAWS-M. The initial effort will be directed to study various bending induced loss mechanisms in fiber. A theoretical bending loss model, expressed in appropriate computer algorithms is being formulated. Practical fiber characterization schemes will be devised to yield relevant input data to the loss model. The model will then be modified to improve its adequacy for bending loss analysis. Environmental effects on fiber bending loss will be investigated. Reduction of temperature induced fiber loss of missile payout bobbins and field deployable fiber cables is the ultimate goal.

  3. Revisit the anomalous bending elasticity of sharply bent DNA

    E-print Network

    Peiwen Cong; Liang Dai; Hu Chen; Johan R. C. van der Maarel; Patrick S. Doyle; Jie Yan

    2015-07-22

    Several recent experiments have suggested that sharply bent DNA has a surprisingly high bending flexibility, but the cause is poorly understood. It has been demonstrated that excitation of flexible defects can explain the results; while whether such defects can be excited under the level of DNA bending in those experiments has remained unclear and been debated. Interestingly, due to experimental design DNA contained pre-existing nicks in nearly all those experiments, while the potential effect of nicks have never been considered. Here, using full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that nicks promote DNA basepair disruption at the nicked sites which drastically reduced DNA bending energy. In the absence of nicks, basepair disruption can also occur, but it requires a higher level of DNA bending. Overall, our results challenge the interpretations of previous sharp DNA bending experiments and highlight that the micromechanics of sharply bent DNA still remains an open question.

  4. Stress-Strain-Time Apparatus for Fiber Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Reichardt; H. Schaevitz; J. H. Dillon

    1949-01-01

    A stress-strain apparatus for testing individual fibers is described. The apparatus employs a ring dynamometer in conjunction with a linear variable differential transformer. A constant rate of elongation apparatus is fully described and a schematic diagram of a constant rate of loading apparatus is discussed. The use of linear variable differential transformers allows simple a.c. amplifiers to be employed and

  5. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  6. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Phillip W. (Rochester, MN); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Bradley, Orvil D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  7. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R. (Martinez, CA); Hammond, Robert B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  8. Modeling of column apparatuses: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Doichinova, M., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com; Popova-Krumova, P., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. St.Angelov str., Bl. 103, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper presents a review of the modeling method on the base of the physical approximations of the mechanics of continua, which have been developed for processes in column apparatuses. This method includes diffusion type of model for modeling of mass transfer with chemical reaction in column apparatuses with and without circulation zones. The diffusion type of model is used for modeling of scale effect in column apparatuses too. The study concluded that the proposal method is possibility for investigation the influence of radial non uniformity of the velocity distribution on the process efficiency, influence of zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column. The method of the column apparatuses modeling can be used for modeling of physical and chemical absorption, chemical adsorption, homogeneous and heterogeneous (catalytic) chemical reactions, airlift reactors for chemical and photochemical reactions.

  9. [Magnoliya apparatus for magnetic infrared physical therapy].

    PubMed

    Bushin, G G; Sapachev, N A

    2007-01-01

    The Magnoliya apparatus for magnetic infrared therapy is described. It is shown that synergetic combination of magnetic therapy and exposure to infrared radiation increases the efficacy of physical therapy. PMID:17879623

  10. Illuminated Emission Tubes and Emission Tube Apparatus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Charles Ward

    This is an image of illuminated emission tubes with the high voltage apparatus that causes the gas to become excited. Elements represented include: hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, mercury, and neon. This image is not labeled.

  11. Electrochemical Apparatus Simulates Corrosion In Crevices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khoshbin, S. Rachel; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Lumsden, Jesse B.

    1996-01-01

    Method of testing metal specimens for susceptibility to galvanic corrosion in crevices involves use of relatively simple electrochemical apparatus. By following method, one quantifies rates of corrosion of dissimilar-metal couples exposed to various etchants or other corrosive solutions.

  12. Optically accessible high-pressure combustion apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Stephen D.; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.

    2004-01-01

    The design and operation of a novel optically accessible high-pressure combustion apparatus is presented. The apparatus provides optical access for the direct observation of the morphology and development of premixed reaction fronts at elevated pressures. A chamber-in-chamber design with an innovative connecting system allows for safe, constant-pressure measurements, alleviating the extreme overpressures encountered in high-pressure combustion processes within closed bombs. Auxiliary design features include gap-adjustable electrodes for spark ignition and ports for jet stirring. As a result, the apparatus is well suited for the study of laminar premixed flames, flame instabilities, turbulent flames, and detonations. Results from the study of centrally ignited hydrogen and methane fuels in oxygen-inert mixtures up to 60 atm initial pressure demonstrate the suitability of the apparatus for high-pressure combustion experiments.

  13. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA); Moore, Jeffery A. (Ames, IA)

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

  14. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  15. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Marciante, John R. (Webster, NY); Donaldson, William R. (Pittsford, NY); Roides, Richard G. (Scottsville, NY)

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  16. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOEpatents

    Rehberger, K.M.

    1994-01-04

    An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

  17. Apparatus for preventing engine stall

    SciTech Connect

    Rowen, H.E.

    1987-08-25

    An apparatus is described for preventing the stall of an engine drivingly associated with a power train including a fluid pressure source and a fluid pressure engaged, spring disengaged clutch disc assembly having an input member driven by the engine and an output member arranged along a central axis, comprising: control valve means for controllably directing fluid pressure to an actuator of the clutch disc assembly from the source and including a body having a bore arranged along the axis, a valve member reciprocally disposed in the bore, and means for continually urging the valve member in a first axial direction; and speed sensing means for sensing the rotational speed of the input member, urging the valve member in a direction opposite the first axial direction controllably throttling the fluid pressure to the actuator of the clutch disc assembly in response to a decrease in the rotational speed of the input member to a preselected angular velocity, slipping the clutch disc assembly, and limiting the torque load on the engine to a preselected maximum value.

  18. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Cotter, Theodore P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-12-28

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferable substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. The laser beam comprises .pi.-pulses of a selected wavelength which excite unexcited molecules, or cause stimulated emission of excited molecules of one of the isotopes. Excitation caused by first direction .pi.-pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning .pi.-pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement is accomplished by a large number of .pi.-pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam.

  19. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (inventor); Witherow, William K. (inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

  20. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  1. Hydraulically actuated downhole valve apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, D.M.; Edwards, A.G.; Kinney, C.W.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes well control apparatus including a valve device with an upper and lower marginal end connected to an elongated tubing means and positioned downhole in a borehole for conducting fluid flow from a lower part of the borehole to the surface of the ground, a packer device associated with the valve device which divides the borehole into an upper and a lower annulus, means placing the upper marginal end of the valve device in communication with the upper borehole annulus and the lower marginal end of the valve device is in communication with the lower borehole annulus. It comprises: an outer annular housing, an annular mandrel slidably received within the housing; a power chamber formed between the mandrel and the housing, a power piston attached to the mandrel and slidably received with the power chamber; means for effecting annulus pressure within the upper variable chamber; latch means by which the mandrel is latched into a plurality of different vertically spaced latch positions as the mandrel is moved respective to the housing, pressure responsive means by which the latch means is released when the upper annulus pressure is increased to a first magnitude of pressure.

  2. Manual or hydraulic gearshifting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Kojima, Y.

    1986-04-08

    A vehicle transmission control apparatus is described which consists of: a plurality of shift members for operating a vehicle transmission; a lever adapted for linear movement into a plurality of positions, one each of the lever being operatively coupled to a different one of the shift members in each of the positions; the lever being further adapted for pivotal movement in response to which the one end of the lever actuates the operatively coupled shift member; a select actuator means comprising a select hydraulic cylinder and a select piston retained thereby, the select piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the linear movement thereof; a shift actuator means comprising a shift hydraulic cylinder and a shift piston retained thereby, the shift piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the pivotal movement thereof; a casing means retaining the lever, the select actuator means, and the shift actuator means; and a control member comprising a portion within the casing means and coupled to the lever and a manually accessible portion always disposed outside the casing means and having means adapted for manual actuation to produce either the linear or the pivotal movement of the lever.

  3. Refuse burning process and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lientz, L.C.

    1982-07-13

    A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200* F., especially 700* F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere; a burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

  4. Continuously rotating cat scanning apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bax, R.F.

    1980-04-29

    A tomographic scanner with a continuously rotating source of radiation is energized by converting inertial mechanical energy to electrical energy. The mechanical-to-electrical conversion apparatus is mounted with the x-ray source to be energized on a rotating flywheel. The inertial mechanical energy stored in the rotating conversion apparatus, flywheel and x-ray source is utilized for generating electrical energy used, in turn, to energize the x-ray source.

  5. Apparatus for measuring high frequency currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagmann, Mark J. (Inventor); Sutton, John F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring high frequency currents includes a non-ferrous core current probe that is coupled to a wide-band transimpedance amplifier. The current probe has a secondary winding with a winding resistance that is substantially smaller than the reactance of the winding. The sensitivity of the current probe is substantially flat over a wide band of frequencies. The apparatus is particularly useful for measuring exposure of humans to radio frequency currents.

  6. Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

  7. Microgravity science and applications: Apparatus and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA support apparatus and facilities for microgravity research are summarized in fact sheets. The facilities are ground-based simulation environments for short-term experiments, and the shuttle orbiter environment for long duration experiments. The 17 items of the microgravitational experimental apparatus are described. Electronic materials, alloys, biotechnology, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, and combustion science are among the topics covered.

  8. Spore collection and elimination apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Czajkowski, Carl (South Jamesport, NY); Warren, Barbara Panessa (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2007-04-03

    The present invention is for a spore collection apparatus and its method of use. The portable spore collection apparatus includes a suction source, a nebulizer, an ionization chamber and a filter canister. The suction source collects the spores from a surface. The spores are activated by heating whereby spore dormancy is broken. Moisture is then applied to the spores to begin germination. The spores are then exposed to alpha particles causing extinction.

  9. Method and apparatus for measuring stress

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R.B.

    1983-07-28

    A method and apparatus for determining stress in a material independent of micro-structural variations and anisotropies. The method comprises comparing the velocities of two horizontally polarized and horizontally propagating ultrasonic shear waves with interchanged directions of propagation and polarization. The apparatus for carrying out the method comprises periodic permanent magnet-electromagnetic acoustic transducers for generating and detecting the shear waves and means for determining the wave velocities.

  10. Apparatus for millimeter-wave signal generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Vawter; V. M. Hietala; J. C. Zolper; A. Mar; J. P. Hohimer

    1999-01-01

    An opto-electronic integrated circuit (OEIC) apparatus is disclosed for generating an electrical signal at a frequency â¥10 GHz. The apparatus, formed on a single substrate, includes a semiconductor ring laser for generating a continuous train of mode-locked lasing pulses and a high-speed photodetector for detecting the train of lasing pulses and generating the electrical signal therefrom. Embodiments of the invention

  11. Apparatus for millimeter-wave signal generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Allen Vawter; Vincent M. Hietala; John C. Zolper; Alan Mar; John P. Hohimer

    1999-01-01

    An opto-electronic integrated circuit (OEIC) apparatus is disclosed for generating an electrical signal at a frequency .gtoreq.10 GHz. The apparatus, formed on a single substrate, includes a semiconductor ring laser for generating a continuous train of mode-locked lasing pulses and a high-speed photodetector for detecting the train of lasing pulses and generating the electrical signal therefrom. Embodiments of the invention

  12. Optically accessible high-pressure combustion apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Tse; Delin Zhu; Chung K. Law

    2004-01-01

    The design and operation of a novel optically accessible high-pressure combustion apparatus is presented. The apparatus provides optical access for the direct observation of the morphology and development of premixed reaction fronts at elevated pressures. A chamber-in-chamber design with an innovative connecting system allows for safe, constant-pressure measurements, alleviating the extreme overpressures encountered in high-pressure combustion processes within closed bombs.

  13. Materials processing apparatus development for fluoride glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue; Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride glasses have great potential for optical fiber communications due to the high transmittance when no microcrystallites occur during drawing operations. This work has developed apparatus to test the occurrence of microcrystallites during recrystallization in reduced gravity on the KC-135. The apparatus allows fluoride glass fiber, such as ZBLAN, to be melted and recrystallized during both the low and high g portions the parabolic flight.

  14. Effect of ibandronate on bending strength and toughness of rodent cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Savaridas, T.; Wallace, R. J.; Dawson, S.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There remains conflicting evidence regarding cortical bone strength following bisphosphonate therapy. As part of a study to assess the effects of bisphosphonate treatment on the healing of rat tibial fractures, the mechanical properties and radiological density of the uninjured contralateral tibia was assessed. Methods Skeletally mature aged rats were used. A total of 14 rats received 1µg/kg ibandronate (iban) daily and 17 rats received 1 ml 0.9% sodium chloride (control) daily. Stress at failure and toughness of the tibial diaphysis were calculated following four-point bending tests. Results Uninjured cortical bone in the iban group had a significantly greater mean (standard deviation (sd)), p < 0.001, stress at failure of 219.2 MPa (sd 45.99) compared with the control group (169.46 MPa (sd 43.32)) following only nine weeks of therapy. Despite this, the cortical bone toughness and work to failure was similar. There was no significant difference in radiological density or physical dimensions of the cortical bone. Conclusions Iban therapy increases the stress at failure of uninjured cortical bone. This has relevance when normalising the strength of repair in a limb when comparing it with the unfractured limb. However, the 20% increase in stress at failure with iban therapy needs to be interpreted with caution as there was no corresponding increase in toughness or work to failure. Further research is required in this area, especially with the increasing clinical burden of low-energy diaphyseal femoral fractures following prolonged use of bisphosphonates. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:99–104 PMID:26062566

  15. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lohnes, Brent C. (Soda Springs, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Michael L. (Menan, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: a) a module retaining filter elements; b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to sealing engage a filter element therebetween; c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member.

  16. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lohnes, B.C.; Turner, T.D.; Klingler, K.M.; Clark, M.L.

    1996-01-09

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: (a) a module retaining filter elements; (b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to engage a filter element there between; (c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and (f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: (a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and (b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member. 8 figs.

  17. Fixed bending current for Elekta SL25 linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Kok, J G

    2001-01-01

    In a medical linear accelerator a bending magnet is used to bend the electron beam produced by the accelerator tube, in the treatment direction. For each electron energy the strength of the magnetic field has to be set to a specific level. Changing the magnetic field strength is done by changing the electric current through the bending magnet. When electron energy and magnetic field strength are not matched, performance of the linac can be affected. As electron energy, magneticfield strength and electrical current through the bending magnet are related to each other, it is reasonable to assume that for each electron energy the correct bending current can be predetermined. This calculated bending current reduces the number of variable parameters used to set up a treatment beam. Predetermining a variable simplifies the tuning procedures. It also prevents a deviation of the electron beam energy being compensated by variation of the bending current. Preventing false machine settings can contribute to increase linac performance and reduce down time and cost of ownership. PMID:11601444

  18. Atmospheric Refractive Electromagnetic Wave Bending and Propagation Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Wallace, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this tutorial we summarize the physics and mathematics behind refractive electromagnetic wave bending and delay. Refractive bending and delay through the Earth's atmosphere at both radio/millimetric and optical/IR wavelengths are discussed, but with most emphasis on the former, and with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) applications in mind. As modern astronomical measurements often require subarcsecond position accuracy, care is required when selecting refractive bending and delay algorithms. For the spherically-uniform model atmospheres generally used for all refractive bending and delay algorithms, positional accuracies ?1? are achievable when observing at zenith angles ?75°. A number of computationally economical approximate methods for atmospheric refractive bending and delay calculation are presented, appropriate for astronomical observations under these conditions. For observations under more realistic atmospheric conditions, for zenith angles ?75°, or when higher positional accuracy is required, more rigorous refractive bending and delay algorithms must be employed. For accurate calculation of the refractive bending, we recommend the Auer and Standish method, using numerical integration to ray-trace through a two-layer model atmosphere, with an atmospheric model determination of the atmospheric refractivity. For the delay calculation we recommend numerical integration through a model atmosphere.

  19. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes through a bearing plate; a load cell is slid onto that end, and then the nut to be tested is threaded onto that end and tightened until the nut and load cell press gently against the bearing plate.

  20. ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.